cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.PhosphoproteinsSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.ras-GRF1: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed primarily in neuronal tissue and may be specific for the Ha-ras homolog of the RAS PROTEINS.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)ChromonesCyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesGene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 2.7.2.3.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Phosphorylase Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.MorpholinesArginine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.MAP Kinase Kinase 3: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Lim Kinases: Serine protein kinases involved in the regulation of ACTIN polymerization and MICROTUBULE disassembly. Their activity is regulated by phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the activation loop by intracellular signaling kinases such as P21-ACTIVATED KINASES and by RHO KINASE.Checkpoint Kinase 2: Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Focal Adhesion Kinase 2: A non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase that is expressed primarily in the BRAIN; OSTEOBLASTS; and LYMPHOID CELLS. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM focal adhesion kinase 2 modulates ION CHANNEL function and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES activity.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase: A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol into 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Adenosine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP plus AMP from adenosine plus ATP. It can serve as a salvage mechanism for returning adenosine to nucleic acids. EC 2.7.1.20.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Maturation-Promoting Factor: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.Elongation Factor 2 Kinase: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that specifically phosphorylates PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2. The enzyme lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE, however it is regulated by phosphorylation by PROTEIN KINASE A and through intramolecular autophosphorylation.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.MAP Kinase Kinase 7: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to CYTOKINES.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Choline Kinase: An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.32.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.raf Kinases: A family of closely-related serine-threonine kinases that were originally identified as the cellular homologs of the retrovirus-derived V-RAF KINASES. They are MAP kinase kinase kinases that play important roles in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.

Induced expression of p16(INK4a) inhibits both CDK4- and CDK2-associated kinase activity by reassortment of cyclin-CDK-inhibitor complexes. (1/1134)

To investigate the mode of action of the p16(INK4a) tumor suppressor protein, we have established U2-OS cells in which the expression of p16(INK4a) can be regulated by addition or removal of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. As expected, induction of p16(INK4a) results in a G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. However, induction of p16(INK4a) also causes marked inhibition of CDK2 activity. In the case of cyclin E-CDK2, this is brought about by reassortment of cyclin, CDK, and CDK-inhibitor complexes, particularly those involving p27(KIP1). Size fractionation of the cellular lysates reveals that a substantial proportion of CDK4 participates in active kinase complexes of around 200 kDa. Upon induction of p16(INK4a), this complex is partly dissociated, and the majority of CDK4 is found in lower-molecular-weight fractions consistent with the formation of a binary complex with p16(INK4a). Sequestration of CDK4 by p16(INK4a) allows cyclin D1 to associate increasingly with CDK2, without affecting its interactions with the CIP/KIP inhibitors. Thus, upon the induction of p16(INK4a), p27(KIP1) appears to switch its allegiance from CDK4 to CDK2, and the accompanying reassortment of components leads to the inhibition of cyclin E-CDK2 by p27(KIP1) and p21(CIP1). Significantly, p16(INK4a) itself does not appear to form higher-order complexes, and the overwhelming majority remains either free or forms binary associations with CDK4 and CDK6.  (+info)

Differential roles for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 in the mechanisms of senescence and differentiation in human fibroblasts. (2/1134)

The irreversible G1 arrest in senescent human diploid fibroblasts is probably caused by inactivation of the G1 cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes responsible for phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). We show that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Sdi1,Cip1,Waf1), which accumulates progressively in aging cells, binds to and inactivates all cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes in senescent cells, whereas in young cells only p21-free Cdk2 complexes are active. Furthermore, the senescent-cell-cycle arrest occurs prior to the accumulation of the Cdk4-Cdk6 inhibitor p16(Ink4a), suggesting that p21 may be sufficient for this event. Accordingly, cyclin D1-associated phosphorylation of pRb at Ser-780 is lacking even in newly senescent fibroblasts that have a low amount of p16. Instead, the cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 complexes in these cells are associated with an increased amount of p21, suggesting that p21 may be responsible for inactivation of both cyclin E- and cyclin D1-associated kinase activity at the early stage of senescence. Moreover, even in the late stage of senescence when p16 is high, cyclin D1-Cdk4 complexes are persistent, albeit reduced by +info)

Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activation, and cell proliferation in uterine epithelial cells in mice. (3/1134)

The response of the uterine epithelium to female sex steroid hormones provides an excellent model to study cell proliferation in vivo since both stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation can be studied. Thus, when administered to ovariectomized adult mice 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulates a synchronized wave of DNA synthesis and cell division in the epithelial cells, while pretreatment with progesterone (P4) completely inhibits this E2-induced cell proliferation. Using a simple method to isolate the uterine epithelium with high purity, we have shown that E2 treatment induces a relocalization of cyclin D1 and, to a lesser extent, cdk4 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and results in the orderly activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinases and hyperphosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 pretreatment did not alter overall levels of cyclin D1, cdk4, or cdk6 nor their associated kinase activities but instead inhibited the E2-induced nuclear localization of cyclin D1 to below the control level and, to a lesser extent, nuclear cdk4 levels, with a consequent inhibition of pRb and p107 phosphorylation. In addition, it abrogated E2-induced cyclin E-cdk2 activation by dephosphorylation of cdk2, followed by inhibition of cyclin A expression and consequently of cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activity and further inhibition of phosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 is used therapeutically to oppose the effect of E2 during hormone replacement therapy and in the treatment of uterine adenocarcinoma. This study showing a novel mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by P4 may provide the basis for the development of new antiestrogens.  (+info)

Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. (4/1134)

Human cyclin A1, a newly discovered cyclin, is expressed in testis and is thought to function in the meiotic cell cycle. Here, we show that the expression of human cyclin A1 and cyclin A1-associated kinase activities was regulated during the mitotic cell cycle. In the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, cyclin A1 mRNA and protein were present at very low levels in cells at the G0 phase. They increased during the progression of the cell cycle and reached the highest levels in the S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, the cyclin A1-associated histone H1 kinase activity peaked at the G2/M phase. We report that cyclin A1 could bind to important cell cycle regulators: the Rb family of proteins, the transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family of proteins. The in vitro interaction of cyclin A1 with E2F-1 was greatly enhanced when cyclin A1 was complexed with CDK2. Associations of cyclin A1 with Rb and E2F-1 were observed in vivo in several cell lines. When cyclin A1 was coexpressed with CDK2 in sf9 insect cells, the CDK2-cyclin A1 complex had kinase activities for histone H1, E2F-1, and the Rb family of proteins. Our results suggest that the Rb family of proteins and E2F-1 may be important targets for phosphorylation by the cyclin A1-associated kinase. Cyclin A1 may function in the mitotic cell cycle in certain cells.  (+info)

Heparin inhibits proliferation of myometrial and leiomyomal smooth muscle cells through the induction of alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin h1 and p27. (5/1134)

Mast cells are widely distributed in human tissues, including the human uterus. However, the function of mast cells in uterine smooth muscle has not been clearly established. Mast cells possess secretory granules containing such substances as heparin, serotonin, histamine and many cytokines. To help establish the role of mast cells in the human myometrium, the action of heparin was investigated using smooth muscle cells (SMC) from normal myometrium and from leiomyoma. The proliferation of cultured myometrial and leiomyomal SMC was inhibited by heparin treatment. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the population in the G1 phase of the cell cycle increased under heparin treatment. Western blotting analysis showed that markers of SMC differentiation such as alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), calponin h1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 were induced by heparin, whereas cell-cycle-related gene products from the G1 phase of the cell cycle, such as cyclin E and cdk2, were not changed. Taken together, these results indicate that heparin inhibits the proliferation of myometrial and leiomyomal SMC through the induction of alpha-SMA, calponin h1 and p27. We suggest that heparin from mast cells may induce differentiation in uterine SMC and may influence tissue remodelling and reconstruction during physiological and pathophysiological events.  (+info)

Impact of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in tumor cells. (6/1134)

Following exposure to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (an inhibitor of the cellular DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon), human erythroleukemia K562, human T-lymphoid CEM and murine leukemia L1210 cells markedly accumulated in the S phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to DNA replication, RNA synthesis (transcription) and protein synthesis (mRNA translation) were not affected by 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-adenine. The ribonucleoside triphosphate pools were slightly elevated, while the intracellular levels of all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates were 1.5-4-fold increased in 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562, CEM and L1210 cells. The effect of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on de novo (thymidylate synthase-mediated) and salvage (thymidine kinase-mediated) dTTP synthesis was investigated using radio-labelled nucleoside precursors. The amount of thymidylate synthase-derived dTTP in the acid soluble pool was 2-4-fold higher in PMEA-treated than in untreated K562 cells, which is in accord with the 3-4-fold expansion of the global dTTP level in the presence of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Strikingly, 2-derived dTTP accumulated to a much higher extent (i.e. 16-40-fold) in the soluble dTTP pool upon 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine treatment. In keeping with this finding, a markedly increased thymidine kinase activity could be demonstrated in extracts of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562 cell cultures. Also, in the presence of 200 microM 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, 14-fold less thymidylate synthase-derived but only 3-fold less thymidine kinase-derived dTTP was incorporated into the DNA of the K562 cells. These data show that thymidine incorporation may be inappropriate as a cell proliferation marker in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors such as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Our findings indicate that 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine causes a peculiar pattern of (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism deregulation in drug-treated tumor cells, as a result of the metabolic block imposed by the drug on the S phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

A new pathway for mitogen-dependent cdk2 regulation uncovered in p27(Kip1)-deficient cells. (7/1134)

BACKGROUND: The ability of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to promote cell proliferation is opposed by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs), proteins that bind tightly to cyclin-CDK complexes and block the phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. Mice with targeted CKI gene deletions have only subtle proliferative abnormalities, however, and cells prepared from these mice seem remarkably normal when grown in vitro. One explanation may be the operation of compensatory pathways that control CDK activity and cell proliferation when normal pathways are inactivated. We have used mice lacking the CKIs p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to investigate this issue, specifically with respect to CDK regulation by mitogens. RESULTS: We show that p27 is the major inhibitor of Cdk2 activity in mitogen-starved wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Nevertheless, inactivation of the cyclin E-Cdk2 complex in response to mitogen starvation occurs normally in MEFs that have a homozygous deletion of the p27 gene. Moreover, CDK regulation by mitogens is also not affected by the absence of both p27 and p21. A titratable Cdk2 inhibitor compensates for the absence of both CKIs, and we identify this inhibitor as p130, a protein related to the retinoblastoma gene product Rb. Thus, cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase activity cannot be inhibited by mitogen starvation of MEFs that lack both p27 and p130. In addition, cell types that naturally express low amounts of p130, such as T lymphocytes, are completely dependent on p27 for regulation of the cyclin E-Cdk2 complex by mitogens. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of Cdk2 activity in mitogen-starved fibroblasts is usually performed by the CKI p27, and to a minor extent by p21. Remarkably p130, a protein in the Rb family that is not related to either p21 or p27, will directly substitute for the CKIs and restore normal CDK regulation by mitogens in cells lacking both p27 and p21. This compensatory pathway may be important in settings in which CKIs are not expressed at standard levels, as is the case in many human tumors.  (+info)

Modulation of apoptosis by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). (8/1134)

Proliferation and apoptosis are increased in many types of inflammatory diseases. A role for the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) (p27) in limiting proliferation has been shown. In this study, we show that p27(-/-) mesangial cells and fibroblasts have strikingly elevated rates of apoptosis, not proliferation, when deprived of growth factors. Apoptosis was rescued by restoration of p27 expression. Cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, but not cyclin E-CDK2 activity, was increased in serum-starved p27(-/-) cells, and decreasing CDK2 activity, either pharmacologically (Roscovitine) or by a dominant-negative mutant, inhibited apoptosis. Our results show that a new biological function for the CDK inhibitor p27 is protection of cells from apoptosis by constraining CDK2 activity. These results suggest that CDK inhibitors are necessary for coordinating the cell cycle and cell-death programs so that cell viability is maintained during exit from the cell cycle.  (+info)

Recombinant human CDKN1B protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography. MW: 24.2 kDa.
Lenti ORF clone of Human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) (CDKN2A), transcript variant 1, mGFP tagged
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p27/Kip1 antibody to detect human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Buy our Recombinant Human Cdk4 protein. Ab126909 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in WB, SDS-PAGE…
Mouse anti Human Cdk6 antibody, clone DCS-83 recognizes the human cyclin dependent kinase 6, also known as Cdk6 or Serine/threonine-protei
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The human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) gene generates several transcript variants that differ in their first exons. At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported. One of these, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) or p16INK4a, interacts with, and sequesters, the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. Thus, p16-INK4a functions as a tumor suppressor in a variety of cells. Mutations in the CDKN2A gene are often found in many tumors. p16INK4a is also suggested to play a role in controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis during mammary gland development. p16-INK4a is also known as cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A, CDK4 inhibitor p16-INK4, cell cycle negative regulator beta, multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS-1), ARF, MLM, p14, p16, p19, CMM2, INK4, INK4A, TP16, CDK4I, CDKN2, p14-ARF, p19-ARF, and p16-INK4.. ...
... cellular proliferation via inhibition of CDK activities. routine and g27Kip1 (hereafter g27) can regulate CDK actions.1-3 The p27 protein was originally known as an inhibitor of CDK activities for things containing CDK2 and shown to inhibit cyclin E and cyclin A activities which regulate G1 and S phase traverse.4-6 In addition to CDK inhibition, g27 provides other multifarious connections with cyclin N/cdk4 processes putatively.7 Since cellular amounts of g27 are elevated in response to high cell thickness, serum deprival, and TGF, it was hypothesized g27 brought cells into quiescence and held them in G0 through the inhibition of CDK actions.8 Numerous reviews have got characterized the control of p27 including the control of its transcription,9,10 translation,11,12 post-translational adjustments.7,13,14 cellular localization15-19 and balance.20-23 The regulations of its stability has a main role in adjusting mobile ...
NU2058 (O6-(Cyclohexylmethyl)guanine) is a potent, competitive and guanine-based CDK inhibitor with IC50s of 17 μM and 26 μM for CDK2 and CDK1. NU2058 has anti-cancer activity. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Progestin antagonists inhibit the proliferation of progesterone receptor-positive cells, including breast cancer cells, by G1 phase-specific actions, but the molecular targets involved are not defined. Reduced phosphorylation of pRB, a substrate for G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in vivo, was apparent after 9 h treatment of T-47D breast cancer cells with the antiprogestins RU 486 or ORG 31710, accompanying changes in S phase fraction. Although the abundance of cyclin D1, Cdk4, and Cdk6 did not decrease cyclin D1-associated kinase activity was reduced by approximately 50% at 9-18 h. Similarly, cyclin E-associated kinase activity decreased by approximately 60% at 12-24 h in the absence of significant changes in the abundance of cyclin E and Cdk2. The CDK inhibitor p21 increased in mRNA and protein abundance and was present at increased levels in cyclin D1 and cyclin E complexes at times when their kinase activity was decreased. Increased p21 protein abundance was observed in another antiprogestin
A8326 AZD-5438 AZD5438 is a potent small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1, 2 and 9 with half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 16 nmol/L, 6 nmol/L and 20 nmol/L respectively. AZD5438 has also been found to potently inhibit the human cyclin E/CDK2 complex, the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex and the cyclin A/CDK2 complex with IC50 of 0.006 μM, 0.016 μM and 0.045 μM respectively. In previous studies, AZD5438 has exhibited significant anti-proliferative activity in a few human tumor cell lines with IC50 ranging from 0.2 μmol/L to 1.7 μmol/L, in which the phosphorylation of a few proteins, including CDK substrates pRb, nucleolin, protein phosphatase 1a and RNA polymerase II COOH-terminal domain, and cell cycling at G2-M, S and G1 phases were inhibited. ...
P 276 is a flavone that selectively inhibits the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4-D1, Cdk9-T and Cdk1-B, thus inhibiting the pathways necessary for cancer cell
1PXK: Discovery of a novel family of CDK inhibitors with the program LIDAEUS: structural basis for ligand-induced disordering of the activation loop
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Antigen Background p27 protein, also known as kinase inhibitory protein 1 (Kip1), binds to cyclin E/cdk2 complexes, but not to cdk2 alone, and is detected in purified extracts of growth-arrested cells. p27 protein constrains cell proliferation by setting the threshold level of cyclin E necessary to activate cdk2. The p27 protein is also present in proliferating cells, but only in a sequestered form when it is unavailable to interact with cyclin E/cdk2 complexes. It is likely that cyclin D complexed with catalytically inactive cdk4 is sufficient to sequester p27 protein and titrate its function. The presence of bound p27 protein in proliferating cells suggests that its role may not be restricted to inducing cell cycle arrest but to also set the cyclin E threshold for execution of the G1 to S phase transition during each mitotic cycle.. ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Caroline Newnham.. Host: Viji Draviam. Tissue homeostasis in metazoans is regulated by transitions of cells between quiescence and proliferation. The hallmark of proliferating populations is progression through the cell cycle, which is driven by Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. I will discuss our recent development of a live-cell sensor for CDK2 activity and the finding that proliferating cells bifurcate into two populations as they exit mitosis. Some cells immediately commit to the next cell cycle by building up CDK2 activity from an intermediate level, while other cells lack CDK2 activity and enter a transient state of quiescence. This bifurcation is directly controlled by the CDK inhibitor p21 and is regulated by mitogens during a restriction window at the end of the previous cell cycle. We are currently exploring the role of cell stress in controlling this bifurcation in an attempt to uncover the root cause of this striking ...
Dinaciclib, also known as SCH727965, is a potent CDK inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Dinaciclib selectively inhibits cyclin dependent kinases CDK1, CDK2, CDK5, and CDK9 activity in vitro with IC(50) values of 1, 1, 3, and 4 nmol/L, respectively. Compared with flavopiridol, Dinaciclib exhibits superior activity with an improved therapeutic index. Dinaciclib induced regression of established solid tumors in a range of mouse models following intermittent scheduling of doses below the maximally tolerated level..
Recombinant Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 10 (CDK10) Protein (His tag). Species: Cow (Bovine). Source: Yeast. Order product ABIN1616360.
Recombinant Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 10 (CDK10) Protein (His tag). Species: Human. Source: Insect Cells. Order product ABIN3091398.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Complete information for CDK5 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CDK18 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase 18, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
View mouse Cdk11b Chr4:155624854-155649938 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
The i-CDK9-induced increase in CDK9s binding to the MYC locus is mostly BRD4-dependent.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06535.017
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Johnson KW, Smith KA (1991). "Molecular cloning of a novel human cdc2/CDC28-like protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (6): 3402- ... "Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (1): 125-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00549- ... This gene encodes a member of the CDC2-like (or LAMMER) family of dual specificity protein kinases. In the cell nucleus, the ... "Entrez Gene: CLK1 CDC-like kinase 1". Colwill K, Feng LL, Yeakley JM, Gish GD, Cáceres JF, Pawson T, Fu XD (Oct 1996). "SRPK1 ...
"Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (1): 125-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00549- ... Mao H, Li F, Ruchalski K, Mosser DD, Schwartz JH, Wang Y, Borkan SC (2003). "hsp72 inhibits focal adhesion kinase degradation ... Park KJ, Gaynor RB, Kwak YT (2003). "Heat shock protein 27 association with the I kappa B kinase complex regulates tumor ... Deak M, Clifton AD, Lucocq LM, Alessi DR (1998). "Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated ...
2003). "Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (1): 125-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X( ...
This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ...
... two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2249-58. PMID 1437147. "Entrez Gene: ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It may play a ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11 (8): 2909-17. PMC 556772 . PMID 1639063. Knight JC, Renwick PJ, ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK1 gene. ...
... two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2249-58. PMID 1437147. "Entrez Gene: ... PCTK3 PCTAIRE protein kinase 3". Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, et al. (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Palmer KJ, Konkel JE, Stephens DJ (2005). "PCTAIRE protein kinases interact directly with the COPII complex and modulate ...
"Entrez Gene: CKS1B CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B". Harper, J.W. 2001. Protein destruction: Adapting roles for Cks ... "Human cDNAs encoding homologs of the small p34Cdc28/Cdc2-associated protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces ... Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CKS1B gene. The CKS1B protein binds ... Bhatt KV, Hu R, Spofford LS, Aplin AE (2007). "Mutant B-RAF signaling and cyclin D1 regulate Cks1/S-phase kinase-associated ...
The M-phase kinases Polo-like kinase (Plk1) and Cdc2 phosphorylate two serine residues in Wee1A which are recognized by SCFβ- ... polo kinase homologue) phosphorylate Swe1 at different stages of the cell cycle. Swe1 is also phosphorylated by Clb2-Cdc28 ... Wee1 is a nuclear kinase belonging to the Ser/Thr family of protein kinases in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. ... Wu L, Russell P (June 1993). "Nim1 kinase promotes mitosis by inactivating Wee1 tyrosine kinase". Nature. 363 (6431): 738-41. ...
... cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D12.776.476.250.067.500 -- cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae MeSH D12.776.476.250.067.875 -- cyclin- ... dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.476.250.067.900 -- cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.476.250.580.500 -- cdc2 protein ... casein kinase ialpha MeSH D12.776.476.150.300.200 -- casein kinase idelta MeSH D12.776.476.150.300.300 -- casein kinase ... mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 MeSH D12.776.476.450.169.750 -- mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 MeSH D12.776.476.450. ...
... cdc2-cdc28 kinases MeSH D12.644.360.250.067.249 --- cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D12.644.360.250.067.500 --- cdc28 protein kinase, ... map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D12.644.360.400.200 --- map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D12.644.360.400.300 --- map kinase ... kinase kinase 3 MeSH D12.644.360.400.400 --- map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D12.644.360.400.500 --- map kinase kinase kinase 5 ... map kinase kinase 1 MeSH D12.644.360.440.200 --- map kinase kinase 2 MeSH D12.644.360.440.300 --- map kinase kinase 3 MeSH ...
... cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.500 - cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.875 - cyclin- ... dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.167.200.580.500 - cdc2 protein kinase ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.200 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 MeSH D12.776.624.776 ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.400 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19 MeSH D12.776.624.776 ...
... cdc2-cdc28 kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.067.249 --- cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.200. ... map kinase kinase kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.100 --- map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.300 --- map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ... map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.500 --- map kinase kinase kinase 5 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682 ...
CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and known as important ... CDK9 cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDC2-related kinase)". MacLachlan TK, Sang N, De Luca A, Puri PL, Levrero M, Giordano A (1998 ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 or CDK9 is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... This kinase was found to be a component of the multiprotein complex TAK/P-TEFb, which is an elongation factor for RNA ...
Most knowledge of CDK structure and function is based on CDKs of S. pombe (Cdc2), S. cerevisiae (CDC28), and vertebrates (CDC2 ... One of the kinases that place the tyrosine phosphate is Wee1, a kinase conserved in all eukaryotes. Fission yeast also contains ... Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of sugar kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle. ... A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) is a protein that interacts with a cyclin-CDK complex to block kinase activity, ...
... where it is encoded by genes cdc28 and cdc2, respectively. In humans, Cdk1 is encoded by the CDC2 gene. With its cyclin ... Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase motif, which other protein kinases share. Cdk1, like other kinases, ... "Downregulation of the cdc2/cyclin B protein kinase activity by binding of p53 to p34(cdc2)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 283 ... "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ...
The CDK subfamily members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and are known to ... "Entrez Gene: CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDC2-like) 10". Kasten M, Giordano A (Apr 2001). "Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, ... Li S, MacLachlan TK, De Luca A, Claudio PP, Condorelli G, Giordano A (1995). "The cdc-2-related kinase, PISSLRE, is essential ... Kasten M, Giordano A (2001). "Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, associates with the Ets2 transcription factor and modulates its ...
"Chromosomal mapping of members of the cdc2 family of protein kinases, cdk3, cdk6, PISSLRE, and PITALRE, and a cdk inhibitor, ... CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe ... This kinase is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex, important for the G1 phase progression and G1/S transition of ... "Entrez Gene: CDK6 cyclin-dependent kinase 6". Meyerson, M; Harlow, E (1994). "Identification of G1 Kinase Activity for cdk6, a ...
This protein kinase is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, also known as Cdk1 in ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, also known as cell division protein kinase 2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK2 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, CDK2AP1, CDKN1B CDKN3, CEBPA, Cyclin A1, Cyclin E1, Flap ...
... and purification of a Cdc2-activating threonine-161 protein kinase from human cells". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. ... CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe ... Drapkin R, Le Roy G, Cho H, Akoulitchev S, Reinberg D (Jun 1996). "Human cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase exists in ... "Entrez Gene: CDK7 cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (MO15 homolog, Xenopus laevis, cdk-activating kinase)". Lee DK, Duan HO, Chang C ( ...
This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene ... This kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (Rb). Ser/Thr-kinase component ... Kato JY, Matsuoka M, Strom DK, Sherr CJ (1994). "Regulation of cyclin D-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) by cdk4-activating kinase". ...
Cell division protein kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK3 gene. CDK3 complements cdc28 mutants of ... 1995). "Chromosomal mapping of members of the cdc2 family of protein kinases, cdk3, cdk6, PISSLRE, and PITALRE, and a cdk ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11 (8): 2909-17. PMC 556772 . PMID 1639063. "Entrez Gene: CDK3 cyclin- ... 2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ...
For example, in S. pombe, Cdc2 associates with Cdk13 to form the Cdk13-Cdc2 complex. In S. cerevisiae, the association of Cdc28 ... Once in the S phase, Cln1 and Cln2 dissociates with Cdc28 and complexes between Cdc28 and Clb5 or Clb6 are formed. In G2 phase ... Cyclin Cyclin-dependent kinase Malumbres M, Barbacid M. Mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases. Trends Biochem. Sci. 2005 Nov;30(11 ... Cdc2 and Cdc28 respectively, which complexes with several different cyclins. Depending on the cyclin, various portions of the ...
Cdk1 is also known as Cdc2 in fission yeast and Cdc28 in budding yeast) is activated by Cdc25, a protein phosphatase. As ... Many factors including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), ubiquitin ligases, inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, and ... there are two cell cycle kinases that help to control the checkpoint: cell cycle kinases CDK4/6-cyclin D and CDK2-cyclin E. The ... For example, Cdk, or cyclin dependent kinase, is a major control switch for the cell cycle and it allows the cell to move from ...
"Entrez Gene: CKS2 CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2". Human CKS2 genome location and CKS2 gene details page in the UCSC ... "Human cDNAs encoding homologs of the small p34Cdc28/Cdc2-associated protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces ... Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CKS2 gene. CKS2 protein binds to ... 2007). "Gene expression of cyclin-dependent kinase subunit Cks2 is repressed by the tumor suppressor p53 but not by the related ...
Esta quinasa es muy similar a los productos génicos de S. cerevisiae cdc28, y S. pombe cdc2. Es una subunidad catalítica del ... a b «Entrez Gene: CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2». *↑ Berthet C, Aleem E, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Kaldis P (octubre de 2003). ... de 1994). «KAP: a dual specificity phosphatase that interacts with cyclin-dependent kinases». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ( ... de 2000). «p12(DOC-1) is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (17): 6300- ...
IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf. IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom. IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS. IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS. ... Cdc2-like CDK2/CDC28 like protein kinaseImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,Q5CRJ8,Q5CRJ8_CRYPI Cdc2-like CDK2/CDC28 like protein kinase (Fragment) OS=Cryptosporidium parvum (strain Iowa II) OX=353152 ...
... including through binding with cyclin proteins and the Cdc2/Cdc28 kinase subunit (CKS), and their phosphorylation … ... Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have important roles in regulating key checkpoints between stages of the cell cycle. Their ... Characterization of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Cdc2/Cdc28 Kinase Subunits in Trichomonas Vaginalis Erick Amador 1 , Karla ... Characterization of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Cdc2/Cdc28 Kinase Subunits in Trichomonas Vaginalis Erick Amador et al. ...
cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2. Names. CDC28 protein kinase 2. CKS-2. CKS1(S. cerevisiae Cdc28/Cdc2 kinase ... CKS2 CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2 [Homo sapiens] CKS2 CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2 [Homo sapiens]. ... CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:2000 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000123975 ... CKS2 CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 1164, updated on 4-Mar-2018 ...
EC 2.7.11.1/Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.22/CDC2-CDC28 Kinases; EC 2.7.11.22/CDK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.22/ ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / ... CDC2-CDC28 Kinases*. Carrier Proteins*. Cell Cycle*. Cell Cycle Proteins*. Cyclin D. Cyclin E / physiology. ... CDK4 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.22/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.22/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4; EC 2.7.11.22/Cyclin- ...
EC 2.7.11.1/Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.22/CDC2-CDC28 Kinases; EC 2.7.11.22/CDK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.22/ ... CDC2-CDC28 Kinases*. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Cycle Proteins*. Cell Division. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclin E / ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclin- ... 0/CDKN1A protein, human; 0/Cell Cycle Proteins; 0/Cyclin E; 0/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase ...
Johnson KW, Smith KA (1991). "Molecular cloning of a novel human cdc2/CDC28-like protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (6): 3402- ... "Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (1): 125-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00549- ... This gene encodes a member of the CDC2-like (or LAMMER) family of dual specificity protein kinases. In the cell nucleus, the ... "Entrez Gene: CLK1 CDC-like kinase 1". Colwill K, Feng LL, Yeakley JM, Gish GD, Cáceres JF, Pawson T, Fu XD (Oct 1996). "SRPK1 ...
"Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (1): 125-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00549- ... Mao H, Li F, Ruchalski K, Mosser DD, Schwartz JH, Wang Y, Borkan SC (2003). "hsp72 inhibits focal adhesion kinase degradation ... Park KJ, Gaynor RB, Kwak YT (2003). "Heat shock protein 27 association with the I kappa B kinase complex regulates tumor ... Deak M, Clifton AD, Lucocq LM, Alessi DR (1998). "Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated ...
Enzymatic screening has recently led to the discovery of specific inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase … ... These kinases and their regulators are frequently deregulated in human tumours. ... Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk) play an essential role in the intracellular control of the cell division cycle (cdc). ... CDC2 Protein Kinase / antagonists & inhibitors* * CDC2-CDC28 Kinases* * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / ...
Sequence homologies among cdc2 of S. pombe, CDC28 of S. cerevisiae, and CTK1. Identical sequences are shown as white letters in ... Immunoblot of CTD kinase with anti-CTD kinase and anti-CDC28 antibodies. Mono-S purified CTD kinase (lanes 1 and 3, 0.1 μl) and ... The CTK1 gene product contains a central domain homologous to catalytic subunits of other protein kinases, notably yeast CDC28 ... Immunoblots of CTD kinase. Mono S purified CTD kinase was run in a 12% polyacrylamide SDS gel and analyzed by Western blotting ...
This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ...
Molecular cloning of a novel human cdc2/CDC28-like protein kinase. J Biol Chem 1991; 266: 3402-7. ... Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) ... cdc2 kinase, a cdc2/cyclin B complex essential for G2-M phase transition, phosphorylates SF2/ASF ( 11). Thus, SRPKs and SR ... Cdc2 kinase-mediated phosphorylation of splicing factor SF2/ASF. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 249: 872-8. ...
In this review we devoted our attention to ERK1 and ERK2, which are the effector kinases of the pathway. Whether ERK1 and ERK2 ... In this review we devoted our attention to ERK1 and ERK2, which are the effector kinases of the pathway. Whether ERK1 and ERK2 ... The MAP kinase signalling cascade Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK has been involved in a large variety of cellular and physiological processes ... The MAP kinase signalling cascade Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK has been involved in a large variety of cellular and physiological processes ...
... the central cell-cycle regulator in Arabidopsis and homolog of the yeast Cdc2/CDC28 kinases. This variant could largely rescue ... Applying bulky kinase inhibitors allowed the reduction of kinase activity in an organismic context in vivo and the modulation ... 1 version is functional and represent a novel tool to modulate kinase activity in vivo and identify kinase substrates. Our here ... Thus, identification of kinase substrates is pivotal for the understanding of many - if not all - molecular biological ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are at the heart of eukaryotic cell-cycle control. The yeast Cdc2/CDC28 PSTAIRE kinase and its ... CDKA;1 is the only PSTAIRE kinase in the flowering plant Arabidopsis and can rescue Cdc2/CDC28 mutants. Here, we show that cdka ... Taken together, our data indicate divergent functional differentiation of Cdc2-type kinases during eukaryote evolution. ... Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved key mitotic determinants in all eukaryotes. Yeasts contain a single Aurora kinase, ...
This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the ... cyclin-dependent kinase 4. MGI:88357 Go Annotations as Summary Text (Tabular View) (GO Graph). Summary from NCBI RefSeq. [ ... This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. ... The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and ...
1995) The effect of phosphorylation by CAK on cyclin binding by CDC2 and CDK2. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:345-350. ... Cdc28-HA was immunopurified, and the formation of active kinase complexes was determined by histone H1 kinase assay. ... Insect cells were infected with baculoviruses encoding the following kinases: Cdc28 with a C-terminal six-His tag (Cdc28-C6His ... Cdc28 binds neither G1 nor mitotic cyclins, resulting in low Cdc28-associated kinase activity (12). To determine whether this ...
CLK1 , CDC-like kinase 1 , CDC28/CDC2-like kinase , CLK , Protein kinase clk1 , Protein tyrosine kinase STY , STY , Protein ...
It binds both CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and ... CDK2 is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S ... pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S ... Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which ...
CDK2 is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S ... pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S ...
So did the cdc2 also encode a protein kinase? Steve Reed was asking the same question about CDC28 (21,22). This required making ... Moreno S, Hayles J, Nurse P. (1989) Regulation of p34cdc2 protein kinase during mitosis. Cell. 58:361-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Simanis V, Nurse P. (1986) The cell cycle control gene cdc2+ of fission yeast encodes a protein kinase potentially regulated by ... There was no question that the fission yeast cdc2 cell-cycle control gene, encoding a cyclin-dependent protein kinase, or CDK, ...
Cloning of a human cDNA encoding a CDC2-related kinase by complementation of a budding yeast cdc28 mutation. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... This suggested that cyclins could be subunits of Cdc2 kinase, even though Cdc2 retained H1 kinase activity at the restrictive ... Since Cdc2 appeared to be a component of Xenopus MPF, Arion et al. suggested that Cdc2 kinase and MPF could be the same entity ... Thus the heterodimeric Cdc2 kinase behaved differently from the earlier preparation ( Labbé et al., 1989a) in which Cdc2 was ...
Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC2/CDKX subfamily. ... This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC2/CDKX subfamily. ...
Hata, S. (1991). cDNA cloning of a novel cdc2+/CDC28-related protein kinase from rice. FEBS Lett. 279, 149-152. ... Umeda, M., Bhalerao, R.P., Schell, J., Uchimiya, H., and Koncz, C. (1998). A distinct cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase ... Dominant negative mutants of the Cdc2 kinase uncouple cell division from iterative plant development. EMBO J. 14, 3925-3936. ... A single WEE1 gene was identified on chromosome 1. The WEE1 kinase was annotated using two cDNA sequences that were at our ...
This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the ... Kinases. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinases. MEMSAT-SVM predicted membrane proteins. Predicted intracellular proteins. Plasma ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 A0A024RBB6 [Target identity:100%; Query identity:100%]. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4, isoform CRA_a ... GO:0016301 [kinase activity]. GO:0016310 [phosphorylation]. GO:0016538 [cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase ...
The dual role of the Cdc28 protein kinase in the S. cerevisiae cell cycle thus parallels that demonstrated for the cdc2 protein ... The Cdc28 protein kinase functions in the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle of the budding yeast Saccharomyces ... Mitotic role for the Cdc28 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... We present evidence that the Cdc28 protein kinase is also required for mitosis and that this function is executed in the G2 ...
  • Here we provide biochemical, genetic, and cell biological evidence that the microtubule-bundling protein MAP65-1-a member of the MAP65/Ase1/PRC1 protein family, implicated in central spindle formation and cytokinesis in animals, yeasts, and plants-is a genuine substrate of alpha Aurora kinases. (stanford.edu)
  • The Snf1p AMP kinase, which signals switches in carbon source availability, has been shown to associate with the Mediator complex of RNA Pol II ( 28 ), although no substrate has been identified to date. (asm.org)
  • Mutagenesis of a potential substrate-targeting domain of CLB5 reduces biological activity without reducing Clb5p-associated kinase activity. (sdbonline.org)
  • Enzymatic screening has recently led to the discovery of specific inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, such as butyrolactone I, flavopiridol and the purine olomoucine. (nih.gov)
  • Removal of the spacer in SRPK1 has little effect on the kinase activity, but triggers the nuclear translocation of kinases and consequently induces aggregation of splicing factors in the nucleus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Equally, the possibility to deliberately tune kinase activity is of great value to analyze the biological process controlled by a particular kinase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Applying bulky kinase inhibitors allowed the reduction of kinase activity in an organismic context in vivo and the modulation of plant growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The here presented generation of an analog-sensitive CDKA;1 version is functional and represent a novel tool to modulate kinase activity in vivo and identify kinase substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cdc37-1 mutant arrests at Start with low levels of Cdc28 protein, which is predominantly unphosphorylated at Thr169, fails to bind cyclin, and has little protein kinase activity. (asm.org)
  • We have also found that the levels and activity of the protein kinase Cak1 are significantly reduced in the cdc37-1 mutant. (asm.org)
  • cdc37 mutations are synthetically lethal with mutations in the protein kinases Cdc28, Mps1, and Kin28 ( 24 , 26 , 31 ), and Mps1 activity is reduced in a cdc37 mutant. (asm.org)
  • This is in contrast with observations of the homologous protein kinase from a variety of metazoans, where activity and function are associated with the G2 to M phase transition. (pnas.org)
  • The kinase activity. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A phospho-mimicry T161D substitution restored the primary defect of cdka;1 mutants, and although the T161D substitution displayed a dramatically reduced kinase activity with a compromised ability to bind substrates, homozygous mutant plants were recovered. (plantcell.org)
  • It is assumed that by limiting the activity of the kinase, these strains would be rendered more sensitive to loss of individual Clbs. (sdbonline.org)
  • Hct1 is phosphorylated in vivo at multiple CDK consensus sites during cell cycle stages when activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 is high and APC activity is low. (sdbonline.org)
  • The activity of protein kinases can be regulated by a variety of mechanisms and any individual protein might be regulated by more than one mechanism. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Thus, protein and lipid kinases can function in signaling pathways to activate or inactivate, or modulate the activity (either directly or indirectly) of the targets. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Initial interest in protein kinases as pharmacological targets was stimulated by findings that many viral oacogenes encode structurally modified cellular protein kinases with constitutive enzyme activity. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Subsequently, deregulated protein kinase activity, resulting from a variety of mechanisms, has been implicated in the pafhophysiology of a number of important human disorders including, for example, cancer, CNS conditions, and immunologically related diseases. (allindianpatents.com)
  • PCTAIRE-1: Characterization, Subcellular Distribution, and Cell Cycle-dependent Kinase Activity -- Charrasse et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to MAP kinase cascades, a "two-component" regulatory system responds to heat shock and oxidative stress ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • The phosphatase Cdc14, which is known to be required for APC activation in vivo, is able to reverse the effects of Cdc28 by catalyzing Hct1 dephosphorylation and activation. (sdbonline.org)
  • Escherichia coli cytolethal distending toxin blocks the HeLa cell cycle at the G2/M transition by preventing cdc2 protein kinase dephosphorylation and activation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ERK1 and ERK2 Map Kinases: Specific Roles or Functional Redundancy? (frontiersin.org)
  • Higher eukaryotes contain Cdc37 homologs that also appear to play general roles in the maintenance of protein kinase integrity ( 4 , 15 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • To help genetically define such roles, strains carrying a cdc28(ts) allele, combined with single CLB deletions were studied. (sdbonline.org)
  • Extracellular regulated kinases erk1 and erk2 are inhibited with an IC50 of 34 microM and 14 microM, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • In this review we devoted our attention to ERK1 and ERK2, which are the effector kinases of the pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • The two-component system utilizes a histidine kinase sensor and its effector protein, which is known as a response regulator ( 26 , 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Because Cdc28 protein kinase and Dbf4 protein, a Cdc7 kinase regulator, are also important for induced mutagnesis and the CDC7 promoter is not induced in response to DNA damage, Cdc7 protein kinase may be regulated post-translationally following DNA damage, in the same manner as it is regulated during the cell cycle. (naver.com)
  • Proline-rich (PxxP) motifs in HIV-1 Nef bind to SH3 domains of a subset of Src kinases and are required for the enhanced growth of Nef+ viruses but not for down-regulation. (naver.com)
  • In addition, these results define a new role for the Pkc1p MAP kinase cascade (except the MAP kinase itself) in transducing the oxidative damage signal directly to the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme, thereby bypassing the stress-activated transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • Instead, the plant-specific transcription factor SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response 1) plays a central role in the transmission of signals from both ATM and ATR kinases. (pnas.org)
  • A recent report has identified a plant-specific transcription factor, SOG1 (suppressor of gamma response 1), that participates in pathways governed by both ATM and ATR kinases ( 10 ). (pnas.org)