A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A CYCLIN C dependent kinase that is an important component of the mediator complex. The enzyme is activated by its interaction with CYCLIN C and plays a role in transcriptional regulation by phosphorylating RNA POLYMERASE II.
A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The first cervical vertebra.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

Induced expression of p16(INK4a) inhibits both CDK4- and CDK2-associated kinase activity by reassortment of cyclin-CDK-inhibitor complexes. (1/1134)

To investigate the mode of action of the p16(INK4a) tumor suppressor protein, we have established U2-OS cells in which the expression of p16(INK4a) can be regulated by addition or removal of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. As expected, induction of p16(INK4a) results in a G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. However, induction of p16(INK4a) also causes marked inhibition of CDK2 activity. In the case of cyclin E-CDK2, this is brought about by reassortment of cyclin, CDK, and CDK-inhibitor complexes, particularly those involving p27(KIP1). Size fractionation of the cellular lysates reveals that a substantial proportion of CDK4 participates in active kinase complexes of around 200 kDa. Upon induction of p16(INK4a), this complex is partly dissociated, and the majority of CDK4 is found in lower-molecular-weight fractions consistent with the formation of a binary complex with p16(INK4a). Sequestration of CDK4 by p16(INK4a) allows cyclin D1 to associate increasingly with CDK2, without affecting its interactions with the CIP/KIP inhibitors. Thus, upon the induction of p16(INK4a), p27(KIP1) appears to switch its allegiance from CDK4 to CDK2, and the accompanying reassortment of components leads to the inhibition of cyclin E-CDK2 by p27(KIP1) and p21(CIP1). Significantly, p16(INK4a) itself does not appear to form higher-order complexes, and the overwhelming majority remains either free or forms binary associations with CDK4 and CDK6.  (+info)

Differential roles for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 in the mechanisms of senescence and differentiation in human fibroblasts. (2/1134)

The irreversible G1 arrest in senescent human diploid fibroblasts is probably caused by inactivation of the G1 cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes responsible for phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). We show that the Cdk inhibitor p21(Sdi1,Cip1,Waf1), which accumulates progressively in aging cells, binds to and inactivates all cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes in senescent cells, whereas in young cells only p21-free Cdk2 complexes are active. Furthermore, the senescent-cell-cycle arrest occurs prior to the accumulation of the Cdk4-Cdk6 inhibitor p16(Ink4a), suggesting that p21 may be sufficient for this event. Accordingly, cyclin D1-associated phosphorylation of pRb at Ser-780 is lacking even in newly senescent fibroblasts that have a low amount of p16. Instead, the cyclin D1-Cdk4 and cyclin D1-Cdk6 complexes in these cells are associated with an increased amount of p21, suggesting that p21 may be responsible for inactivation of both cyclin E- and cyclin D1-associated kinase activity at the early stage of senescence. Moreover, even in the late stage of senescence when p16 is high, cyclin D1-Cdk4 complexes are persistent, albeit reduced by +info)

Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activation, and cell proliferation in uterine epithelial cells in mice. (3/1134)

The response of the uterine epithelium to female sex steroid hormones provides an excellent model to study cell proliferation in vivo since both stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation can be studied. Thus, when administered to ovariectomized adult mice 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulates a synchronized wave of DNA synthesis and cell division in the epithelial cells, while pretreatment with progesterone (P4) completely inhibits this E2-induced cell proliferation. Using a simple method to isolate the uterine epithelium with high purity, we have shown that E2 treatment induces a relocalization of cyclin D1 and, to a lesser extent, cdk4 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and results in the orderly activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinases and hyperphosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 pretreatment did not alter overall levels of cyclin D1, cdk4, or cdk6 nor their associated kinase activities but instead inhibited the E2-induced nuclear localization of cyclin D1 to below the control level and, to a lesser extent, nuclear cdk4 levels, with a consequent inhibition of pRb and p107 phosphorylation. In addition, it abrogated E2-induced cyclin E-cdk2 activation by dephosphorylation of cdk2, followed by inhibition of cyclin A expression and consequently of cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activity and further inhibition of phosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 is used therapeutically to oppose the effect of E2 during hormone replacement therapy and in the treatment of uterine adenocarcinoma. This study showing a novel mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by P4 may provide the basis for the development of new antiestrogens.  (+info)

Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins. (4/1134)

Human cyclin A1, a newly discovered cyclin, is expressed in testis and is thought to function in the meiotic cell cycle. Here, we show that the expression of human cyclin A1 and cyclin A1-associated kinase activities was regulated during the mitotic cell cycle. In the osteosarcoma cell line MG63, cyclin A1 mRNA and protein were present at very low levels in cells at the G0 phase. They increased during the progression of the cell cycle and reached the highest levels in the S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, the cyclin A1-associated histone H1 kinase activity peaked at the G2/M phase. We report that cyclin A1 could bind to important cell cycle regulators: the Rb family of proteins, the transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family of proteins. The in vitro interaction of cyclin A1 with E2F-1 was greatly enhanced when cyclin A1 was complexed with CDK2. Associations of cyclin A1 with Rb and E2F-1 were observed in vivo in several cell lines. When cyclin A1 was coexpressed with CDK2 in sf9 insect cells, the CDK2-cyclin A1 complex had kinase activities for histone H1, E2F-1, and the Rb family of proteins. Our results suggest that the Rb family of proteins and E2F-1 may be important targets for phosphorylation by the cyclin A1-associated kinase. Cyclin A1 may function in the mitotic cell cycle in certain cells.  (+info)

Heparin inhibits proliferation of myometrial and leiomyomal smooth muscle cells through the induction of alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin h1 and p27. (5/1134)

Mast cells are widely distributed in human tissues, including the human uterus. However, the function of mast cells in uterine smooth muscle has not been clearly established. Mast cells possess secretory granules containing such substances as heparin, serotonin, histamine and many cytokines. To help establish the role of mast cells in the human myometrium, the action of heparin was investigated using smooth muscle cells (SMC) from normal myometrium and from leiomyoma. The proliferation of cultured myometrial and leiomyomal SMC was inhibited by heparin treatment. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the population in the G1 phase of the cell cycle increased under heparin treatment. Western blotting analysis showed that markers of SMC differentiation such as alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), calponin h1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 were induced by heparin, whereas cell-cycle-related gene products from the G1 phase of the cell cycle, such as cyclin E and cdk2, were not changed. Taken together, these results indicate that heparin inhibits the proliferation of myometrial and leiomyomal SMC through the induction of alpha-SMA, calponin h1 and p27. We suggest that heparin from mast cells may induce differentiation in uterine SMC and may influence tissue remodelling and reconstruction during physiological and pathophysiological events.  (+info)

Impact of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in tumor cells. (6/1134)

Following exposure to 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (an inhibitor of the cellular DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon), human erythroleukemia K562, human T-lymphoid CEM and murine leukemia L1210 cells markedly accumulated in the S phase of the cell cycle. In contrast to DNA replication, RNA synthesis (transcription) and protein synthesis (mRNA translation) were not affected by 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)-adenine. The ribonucleoside triphosphate pools were slightly elevated, while the intracellular levels of all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates were 1.5-4-fold increased in 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562, CEM and L1210 cells. The effect of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine on de novo (thymidylate synthase-mediated) and salvage (thymidine kinase-mediated) dTTP synthesis was investigated using radio-labelled nucleoside precursors. The amount of thymidylate synthase-derived dTTP in the acid soluble pool was 2-4-fold higher in PMEA-treated than in untreated K562 cells, which is in accord with the 3-4-fold expansion of the global dTTP level in the presence of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Strikingly, 2-derived dTTP accumulated to a much higher extent (i.e. 16-40-fold) in the soluble dTTP pool upon 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine treatment. In keeping with this finding, a markedly increased thymidine kinase activity could be demonstrated in extracts of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine-treated K562 cell cultures. Also, in the presence of 200 microM 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, 14-fold less thymidylate synthase-derived but only 3-fold less thymidine kinase-derived dTTP was incorporated into the DNA of the K562 cells. These data show that thymidine incorporation may be inappropriate as a cell proliferation marker in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors such as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. Our findings indicate that 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine causes a peculiar pattern of (deoxy)ribonucleotide metabolism deregulation in drug-treated tumor cells, as a result of the metabolic block imposed by the drug on the S phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

A new pathway for mitogen-dependent cdk2 regulation uncovered in p27(Kip1)-deficient cells. (7/1134)

BACKGROUND: The ability of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) to promote cell proliferation is opposed by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs), proteins that bind tightly to cyclin-CDK complexes and block the phosphorylation of exogenous substrates. Mice with targeted CKI gene deletions have only subtle proliferative abnormalities, however, and cells prepared from these mice seem remarkably normal when grown in vitro. One explanation may be the operation of compensatory pathways that control CDK activity and cell proliferation when normal pathways are inactivated. We have used mice lacking the CKIs p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) to investigate this issue, specifically with respect to CDK regulation by mitogens. RESULTS: We show that p27 is the major inhibitor of Cdk2 activity in mitogen-starved wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Nevertheless, inactivation of the cyclin E-Cdk2 complex in response to mitogen starvation occurs normally in MEFs that have a homozygous deletion of the p27 gene. Moreover, CDK regulation by mitogens is also not affected by the absence of both p27 and p21. A titratable Cdk2 inhibitor compensates for the absence of both CKIs, and we identify this inhibitor as p130, a protein related to the retinoblastoma gene product Rb. Thus, cyclin E-Cdk2 kinase activity cannot be inhibited by mitogen starvation of MEFs that lack both p27 and p130. In addition, cell types that naturally express low amounts of p130, such as T lymphocytes, are completely dependent on p27 for regulation of the cyclin E-Cdk2 complex by mitogens. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of Cdk2 activity in mitogen-starved fibroblasts is usually performed by the CKI p27, and to a minor extent by p21. Remarkably p130, a protein in the Rb family that is not related to either p21 or p27, will directly substitute for the CKIs and restore normal CDK regulation by mitogens in cells lacking both p27 and p21. This compensatory pathway may be important in settings in which CKIs are not expressed at standard levels, as is the case in many human tumors.  (+info)

Modulation of apoptosis by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1). (8/1134)

Proliferation and apoptosis are increased in many types of inflammatory diseases. A role for the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) (p27) in limiting proliferation has been shown. In this study, we show that p27(-/-) mesangial cells and fibroblasts have strikingly elevated rates of apoptosis, not proliferation, when deprived of growth factors. Apoptosis was rescued by restoration of p27 expression. Cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, but not cyclin E-CDK2 activity, was increased in serum-starved p27(-/-) cells, and decreasing CDK2 activity, either pharmacologically (Roscovitine) or by a dominant-negative mutant, inhibited apoptosis. Our results show that a new biological function for the CDK inhibitor p27 is protection of cells from apoptosis by constraining CDK2 activity. These results suggest that CDK inhibitors are necessary for coordinating the cell cycle and cell-death programs so that cell viability is maintained during exit from the cell cycle.  (+info)

Recombinant human CDKN1B protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E. coli and purified by using conventional chromatography. MW: 24.2 kDa.
Lenti ORF clone of Human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) (CDKN2A), transcript variant 1, mGFP tagged
CDKN2A - CDKN2A (untagged)-Human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) (CDKN2A), transcript variant 4 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
p27/Kip1 antibody to detect human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Purified Recombinant Human CDK5 Protein, Myc/DDK-tagged, C13 and N15-labeled from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human CDK5 Protein, Myc/DDK-tagged, C13 and N15-labeled can be used for research.
Buy our Recombinant Human Cdk4 protein. Ab126909 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in WB, SDS-PAGE…
AZD5438 is a potent inhibitor of CDK1/2/9 with IC50 of 16 nM/6 nM/20 nM. It is less potent to CDK5/6 and also inhibits GSK3β. Phase 1.Quality confirmed by NMR & HPLC. See customer reviews, validations & product citations.
Mouse anti Human Cdk6 antibody, clone DCS-83 recognizes the human cyclin dependent kinase 6, also known as Cdk6 or Serine/threonine-protei
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Your Search Returned No Results.. Sorry. There is currently no product that acts on isoform together.. Please try each isoform separately.. ...
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The human cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) gene generates several transcript variants that differ in their first exons. At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported. One of these, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (melanoma, p16, inhibits CDK4) or p16INK4a, interacts with, and sequesters, the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. Thus, p16-INK4a functions as a tumor suppressor in a variety of cells. Mutations in the CDKN2A gene are often found in many tumors. p16INK4a is also suggested to play a role in controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis during mammary gland development. p16-INK4a is also known as cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A, CDK4 inhibitor p16-INK4, cell cycle negative regulator beta, multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS-1), ARF, MLM, p14, p16, p19, CMM2, INK4, INK4A, TP16, CDK4I, CDKN2, p14-ARF, p19-ARF, and p16-INK4.. ...
CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinases) are serine-threonine kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle. They are also involved in regulating transcription, mRNA processing, and the differentiation of nerve cells. CDKs are relatively small proteins, with molecular weights ranging from 34 to 40 kDa, and contain little more than the kinase domain. In fact, yeast cells can proliferate normally when their CDK gene has been replaced with the homologous human gene. By definition, a CDK binds a regulatory protein called a cyclin. Without cyclin, CDK has little kinase activity; only the cyclin-CDK complex is an active kinase.. There are around 20 Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1-20) known till date. CDK1, 4 and 5 are involved in cell cycle, and CDK 7, 8, 9 and 11 are associated with transcription.. CDK levels remain relatively constant throughout the cell cycle and most regulation is post-translational. Most knowledge of CDK structure and function is based on CDKs of S. pombe (Cdc2), S. ...
The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27Kip1 has been shown to regulate cellular proliferation via inhibition of CDK activities. routine and g27Kip1 (hereafter g27) can regulate CDK actions.1-3 The p27 protein was originally known as an inhibitor of CDK activities for things containing CDK2 and shown to inhibit cyclin E and cyclin A activities which regulate G1 and S phase traverse.4-6 In addition to CDK inhibition, g27 provides other multifarious connections with cyclin N/cdk4 processes putatively.7 Since cellular amounts of g27 are elevated in response to high cell thickness, serum deprival, and TGF, it was hypothesized g27 brought cells into quiescence and held them in G0 through the inhibition of CDK actions.8 Numerous reviews have got characterized the control of p27 including the control of its transcription,9,10 translation,11,12 post-translational adjustments.7,13,14 cellular localization15-19 and balance.20-23 The regulations of its stability has a main role in adjusting mobile ...
Activation of the cyclin-dependent kinases to promote cell cycle progression requires their association with cyclins as well as phosphorylation of a threonine (residue 161 in human p34cdc2). This phosphorylation is carried out by CAK, the Cdk-activating kinase. We have purified and cloned CAK from S …
The CDK10/PISSLRE gene has been shown to encode two different CDK-like putative kinases. The function(s) of the gene products are unknown, although a role at the G2/M transition has been suggested. We characterised two novel cDNAs. CDK10 mRNA quantity was not found to be correlated with cell prolife …
Progestin antagonists inhibit the proliferation of progesterone receptor-positive cells, including breast cancer cells, by G1 phase-specific actions, but the molecular targets involved are not defined. Reduced phosphorylation of pRB, a substrate for G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in vivo, was apparent after 9 h treatment of T-47D breast cancer cells with the antiprogestins RU 486 or ORG 31710, accompanying changes in S phase fraction. Although the abundance of cyclin D1, Cdk4, and Cdk6 did not decrease cyclin D1-associated kinase activity was reduced by approximately 50% at 9-18 h. Similarly, cyclin E-associated kinase activity decreased by approximately 60% at 12-24 h in the absence of significant changes in the abundance of cyclin E and Cdk2. The CDK inhibitor p21 increased in mRNA and protein abundance and was present at increased levels in cyclin D1 and cyclin E complexes at times when their kinase activity was decreased. Increased p21 protein abundance was observed in another antiprogestin
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systematic determination of human cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)-9 interactome identifies novel functions in RNA splicing mediated by the DEAD Box (DDX)-5/17 RNA helicases. AU - Yang, Jun. AU - Zhao, Yingxin. AU - Kalita, Mridul. AU - Li, Xueling. AU - Jamaluddin, Mohammad. AU - Tian, Bing. AU - Edeh, Chukwudi B.. AU - Wiktorowicz, John E.. AU - Kudlicki, Andrzej. AU - Brasier, Allan R.. PY - 2015/10/1. Y1 - 2015/10/1. N2 - Inducible transcriptional elongation is a rapid, stereotypic mechanism for activating immediate early immune defense genes by the epithelium in response to viral pathogens. Here, the recruitment of a multifunctional complex containing the cyclin dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) triggers the process of transcriptional elongation activating resting RNA polymerase engaged with innate immune response (IIR) genes. To identify additional functional activity of the CDK9 complex, we conducted immunoprecipitation (IP) enrichment-stable isotope labeling LC-MS/MS of the CDK9 ...
A8326 AZD-5438 AZD5438 is a potent small molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1, 2 and 9 with half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 16 nmol/L, 6 nmol/L and 20 nmol/L respectively. AZD5438 has also been found to potently inhibit the human cyclin E/CDK2 complex, the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex and the cyclin A/CDK2 complex with IC50 of 0.006 μM, 0.016 μM and 0.045 μM respectively. In previous studies, AZD5438 has exhibited significant anti-proliferative activity in a few human tumor cell lines with IC50 ranging from 0.2 μmol/L to 1.7 μmol/L, in which the phosphorylation of a few proteins, including CDK substrates pRb, nucleolin, protein phosphatase 1a and RNA polymerase II COOH-terminal domain, and cell cycling at G2-M, S and G1 phases were inhibited. ...
Abstract. Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 or CDK6 activity by gain of function or loss of inhibition is one of the most frequent aberrations in
P 276 is a flavone that selectively inhibits the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4-D1, Cdk9-T and Cdk1-B, thus inhibiting the pathways necessary for cancer cell
1PXK: Discovery of a novel family of CDK inhibitors with the program LIDAEUS: structural basis for ligand-induced disordering of the activation loop
In that study MCM7 and cyclin E proteins were found to be elevated in the epithelium lining the K14E6 mouse cervix and vagina ...
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Antigen Background p27 protein, also known as kinase inhibitory protein 1 (Kip1), binds to cyclin E/cdk2 complexes, but not to cdk2 alone, and is detected in purified extracts of growth-arrested cells. p27 protein constrains cell proliferation by setting the threshold level of cyclin E necessary to activate cdk2. The p27 protein is also present in proliferating cells, but only in a sequestered form when it is unavailable to interact with cyclin E/cdk2 complexes. It is likely that cyclin D complexed with catalytically inactive cdk4 is sufficient to sequester p27 protein and titrate its function. The presence of bound p27 protein in proliferating cells suggests that its role may not be restricted to inducing cell cycle arrest but to also set the cyclin E threshold for execution of the G1 to S phase transition during each mitotic cycle.. ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific
Coxon CR, Anscombe E, Harnor SJ, Martin MP, Carbain B, Golding BT, Hardcastle IR, Harlow LK, Korolchuk S, Matheson CJ, Newell DR, Noble ME, Sivaprakasam M, Tudhope SJ, Turner DM, Wang LZ, Wedge SR, Wong C, Griffin RJ, Endicott JA, Cano C. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase (CDK) Inhibitors: Structure-Activity Relationships and Insights into the CDK-2 Selectivity of 6-Substituted 2-Arylaminopurines. J Med Chem. 2017 03 09; 60(5):1746-1767 ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Caroline Newnham.. Host: Viji Draviam. Tissue homeostasis in metazoans is regulated by transitions of cells between quiescence and proliferation. The hallmark of proliferating populations is progression through the cell cycle, which is driven by Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. I will discuss our recent development of a live-cell sensor for CDK2 activity and the finding that proliferating cells bifurcate into two populations as they exit mitosis. Some cells immediately commit to the next cell cycle by building up CDK2 activity from an intermediate level, while other cells lack CDK2 activity and enter a transient state of quiescence. This bifurcation is directly controlled by the CDK inhibitor p21 and is regulated by mitogens during a restriction window at the end of the previous cell cycle. We are currently exploring the role of cell stress in controlling this bifurcation in an attempt to uncover the root cause of this striking ...
Dinaciclib, also known as SCH727965, is a potent CDK inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Dinaciclib selectively inhibits cyclin dependent kinases CDK1, CDK2, CDK5, and CDK9 activity in vitro with IC(50) values of 1, 1, 3, and 4 nmol/L, respectively. Compared with flavopiridol, Dinaciclib exhibits superior activity with an improved therapeutic index. Dinaciclib induced regression of established solid tumors in a range of mouse models following intermittent scheduling of doses below the maximally tolerated level..
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Recombinant Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 10 (CDK10) Protein (His tag). Species: Human. Source: Insect Cells. Order product ABIN3091398.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Complete information for CDK10 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase 10, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CDK19 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin Dependent Kinase 19, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
View mouse Cdk11b Chr4:155624854-155649938 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
The i-CDK9-induced increase in CDK9s binding to the MYC locus is mostly BRD4-dependent.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06535.017
Blocking oncogenic signaling induced by the BRAFV600E mutation is usually a promising approach for melanoma treatment. upon exposure to PLX4032 than resistant cell lines. In conclusion, BRAFV600E mutant melanoma cell lines displayed a range of sensitivities to PLX4032 and metabolic imaging using PET probes can be used to assess sensitivity. Background Improved knowledge of the oncogenic events in melanoma indicates that a majority of mutations activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway [1,2]. The most frequent mutation in the MAPK pathway is in the BRAF gene, present in 60-70% of malignant melanomas [3]. NRAS mutations occur in approximately 15% of melanomas [1,4,5] and are mutually unique with BRAF mutations [6,7]. The majority of mutations in BRAF are accounted for by a single nucleotide transversion from thymidine to adenosine leading to a substitution of valine by glutamic acid at position 600 (termed BRAFV600E) [3,4,8], which leads to a 500-fold increase in activity ...
Phosphorylation of Sic1, a Cyclin-dependent Kinase (Cdk) Inhibitor, by Cdk Including Pho85 Kinase Is Required for Its Prompt Degradation: In the yeast Saccharom
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Johnson KW, Smith KA (1991). "Molecular cloning of a novel human cdc2/CDC28-like protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (6): 3402- ... "Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (1): 125-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00549- ... This gene encodes a member of the CDC2-like (or LAMMER) family of dual specificity protein kinases. In the cell nucleus, the ... "Entrez Gene: CLK1 CDC-like kinase 1". Colwill K, Feng LL, Yeakley JM, Gish GD, Cáceres JF, Pawson T, Fu XD (Oct 1996). "SRPK1 ...
"Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (1): 125-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00549- ... Mao H, Li F, Ruchalski K, Mosser DD, Schwartz JH, Wang Y, Borkan SC (2003). "hsp72 inhibits focal adhesion kinase degradation ... Park KJ, Gaynor RB, Kwak YT (2003). "Heat shock protein 27 association with the I kappa B kinase complex regulates tumor ... Deak M, Clifton AD, Lucocq LM, Alessi DR (1998). "Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated ...
2003). "Beacon interacts with cdc2/cdc28-like kinases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304 (1): 125-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X( ...
... two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2249-58. PMID 1437147. "Entrez Gene: ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It may play a ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11 (8): 2909-17. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1992.tb05360.x. PMC 556772. ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK1 gene. ...
... two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family". Oncogene. 7 (11): 2249-58. PMID 1437147. "Entrez Gene: ... PCTK3 PCTAIRE protein kinase 3". Meyerson M, Enders GH, Wu CL, et al. (1992). "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase PCTAIRE-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCTK3 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Palmer KJ, Konkel JE, Stephens DJ (2005). "PCTAIRE protein kinases interact directly with the COPII complex and modulate ...
"Entrez Gene: CKS1B CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B". Harper, J.W. 2001. Protein destruction: Adapting roles for Cks ... "Human cDNAs encoding homologs of the small p34Cdc28/Cdc2-associated protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces ... Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CKS1B gene. The CKS1B protein binds ... Bhatt KV, Hu R, Spofford LS, Aplin AE (2007). "Mutant B-RAF signaling and cyclin D1 regulate Cks1/S-phase kinase-associated ...
The M-phase kinases Polo-like kinase (Plk1) and Cdc2 phosphorylate two serine residues in Wee1A which are recognized by SCFβ- ... polo kinase homologue) phosphorylate Swe1 at different stages of the cell cycle. Swe1 is also phosphorylated by Clb2-Cdc28 ... Wee1 is a nuclear kinase belonging to the Ser/Thr family of protein kinases in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. ... Wu L, Russell P (June 1993). "Nim1 kinase promotes mitosis by inactivating Wee1 tyrosine kinase". Nature. 363 (6431): 738-41. ...
This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 2.7.11.7). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ...
... cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D12.776.476.250.067.500 - cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae MeSH D12.776.476.250.067.875 - cyclin- ... dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.476.250.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.476.250.580.500 - cdc2 protein kinase ... casein kinase ialpha MeSH D12.776.476.150.300.200 - casein kinase idelta MeSH D12.776.476.150.300.300 - casein kinase iepsilon ... mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 MeSH D12.776.476.450.169.750 - mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 MeSH D12.776.476.450. ...
... cdc2-cdc28 kinases MeSH D12.644.360.250.067.249 - cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D12.644.360.250.067.500 - cdc28 protein kinase, s ... map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D12.644.360.400.200 - map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D12.644.360.400.300 - map kinase kinase ... kinase 3 MeSH D12.644.360.400.400 - map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D12.644.360.400.500 - map kinase kinase kinase 5 MeSH ... map kinase kinase 1 MeSH D12.644.360.440.200 - map kinase kinase 2 MeSH D12.644.360.440.300 - map kinase kinase 3 MeSH D12.644. ...
... cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.500 - cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.875 - cyclin- ... dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.167.200.580.500 - cdc2 protein kinase ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.700 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57 See List of MeSH ... cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15 MeSH D12.776.624.776.355.200 - cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 MeSH D12.776.624.776 ...
... cdc2-cdc28 kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.200.067.249 - cdc2 protein kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.200. ... map kinase kinase kinase 1 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.200 - map kinase kinase kinase 2 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... map kinase kinase kinase 3 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.559.400 - map kinase kinase kinase 4 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... cdc2-cdc28 kinases MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.646.500.500.500 - cyclin-dependent kinase 5 MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ...
CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and known as important ... "Entrez Gene: CDK9 cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDC2-related kinase)". MacLachlan TK, Sang N, De Luca A, Puri PL, Levrero M, ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 or CDK9 is a cyclin-dependent kinase associated with P-TEFb. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... This kinase was found to be a component of the multiprotein complex TAK/P-TEFb, which is an elongation factor for RNA ...
Most knowledge of CDK structure and function is based on CDKs of S. pombe (Cdc2), S. cerevisiae (CDC28), and vertebrates (CDC2 ... One of the kinases that place the tyrosine phosphate is Wee1, a kinase conserved in all eukaryotes. Fission yeast also contains ... A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) is a protein that interacts with a cyclin-CDK complex to block kinase activity, ... Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are the families of protein kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell ...
... where it is encoded by genes cdc28 and cdc2, respectively. In humans, Cdk1 is encoded by the CDC2 gene. With its cyclin ... Cdk1 is comprised mostly by the bare protein kinase motif, which other protein kinases share. Cdk1, like other kinases, ... "Downregulation of the cdc2/cyclin B protein kinase activity by binding of p53 to p34(cdc2)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 283 ... "Association with Cdc2 and inhibition of Cdc2/Cyclin B1 kinase activity by the p53-regulated protein Gadd45". Oncogene. 18 (18 ...
The CDK subfamily members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and are known to ... "Entrez Gene: CDK10 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDC2-like) 10". Kasten M, Giordano A (Apr 2001). "Cdk10, a Cdc2-related kinase, ... Graña X, Claudio PP, De Luca A, Sang N, Giordano A (Jul 1994). "PISSLRE, a human novel CDC2-related protein kinase". Oncogene. ... Li S, MacLachlan TK, De Luca A, Claudio PP, Condorelli G, Giordano A (1995). "The cdc-2-related kinase, PISSLRE, is essential ...
"A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". The EMBO Journal. 11 (8): 2909-17. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1992.tb05360.x. PMC ... CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe ... This kinase is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex, important for the G1 phase progression and G1/S transition of ... "Entrez Gene: CDK6 cyclin-dependent kinase 6". Meyerson, M; Harlow, E (1994). "Identification of G1 Kinase Activity for cdk6, a ...
This protein kinase is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, also known as Cdk1 in ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2, also known as cell division protein kinase 2, or Cdk2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 is structured in two lobes. The lobe beginning at the N-terminus (N-lobe) contains many beta sheets, ...
... and purification of a Cdc2-activating threonine-161 protein kinase from human cells". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. ... CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 7, or cell division protein kinase 7, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK7 gene. The ... Drapkin R, Le Roy G, Cho H, Akoulitchev S, Reinberg D (June 1996). "Human cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase exists in ...
This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene ... This kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (Rb). Ser/Thr-kinase component ... Kato JY; Matsuoka M; Strom DK; Sherr CJ (1994). "Regulation of cyclin D-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) by cdk4-activating kinase". ...
Cell division protein kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK3 gene. CDK3 complements cdc28 mutants of ... 1995). "Chromosomal mapping of members of the cdc2 family of protein kinases, cdk3, cdk6, PISSLRE, and PITALRE, and a cdk ... "A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases". EMBO J. 11 (8): 2909-17. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1992.tb05360.x. PMC 556772. ... 2002). "ik3-1/Cables is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk 3)". Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (23): 6076-82. doi:10.1046/j. ...
For example, in S. pombe, Cdc2 associates with Cdk13 to form the Cdk13-Cdc2 complex. In S. cerevisiae, the association of Cdc28 ... Once in the S phase, Cln1 and Cln2 dissociates with Cdc28 and complexes between Cdc28 and Clb5 or Clb6 are formed. In G2 phase ... Cyclin Cyclin-dependent kinase Malumbres M, Barbacid M. Mammalian cyclin-dependent kinases. Trends Biochem. Sci. 2005 Nov;30(11 ... Cdc2 and Cdc28 respectively, which complexes with several different cyclins. Depending on the cyclin, various portions of the ...
Cdk1 is also known as Cdc2 in fission yeast and Cdc28 in budding yeast) is activated by Cdc25, a protein phosphatase. As ... Many factors including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), ubiquitin ligases, inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, and ... there are two cell cycle kinases that help to control the checkpoint: cell cycle kinases CDK4/6-cyclin D and CDK2-cyclin E. The ... For example, Cdk, or cyclin dependent kinase, is a major control switch for the cell cycle and it allows the cell to move from ...
"Entrez Gene: CKS2 CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2". Human CKS2 genome location and CKS2 gene details page in the UCSC ... "Human cDNAs encoding homologs of the small p34Cdc28/Cdc2-associated protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces ... Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CKS2 gene. CKS2 protein binds to ... 2007). "Gene expression of cyclin-dependent kinase subunit Cks2 is repressed by the tumor suppressor p53 but not by the related ...
G2: Fission yeast expressing some mutant forms of CDC2 unable to arrest in G2 in response to DNA damage, indicating the gene ... Driving this conversion is Cdc7 and S-phase cyclin-dependent kinases, which are both upregulated after the G1/S transition. ... Examples include: G1: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast expressing dominant mutant alleles of CDC28 arrest in G1, which indicates ... The suspected mechanism is dependent on p27Kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. p27Kip1 protein levels are elevated in ...
Esta quinasa es muy similar a los productos génicos de S. cerevisiae cdc28, y S. pombe cdc2. Es una subunidad catalítica del ... a b «Entrez Gene: CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2». *↑ Berthet C, Aleem E, Coppola V, Tessarollo L, Kaldis P (octubre de 2003). ... de 1994). «KAP: a dual specificity phosphatase that interacts with cyclin-dependent kinases». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ( ... de 2000). «p12(DOC-1) is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (17): 6300- ...
CDK4 is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. ... pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The ... Stepanova L, et al. (1996) Mammalian p50Cdc37 is a protein kinase-targeting subunit of Hsp90 that binds and stabilizes Cdk4. ... CDK4 is the ser/Thr-kinase component of cyclin D-CDK4 (DC) complexes that phosphorylate and inhibit members of the ...
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have important roles in regulating key checkpoints between stages of the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Upon DNA damage, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are typically inhibited to block cell division. (stanford.edu)
  • Activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) is achieved through the binding of a cyclin subunit and phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue in the T loop of the kinase. (asm.org)
  • Cdks (cyclin-dependent kinases) are heteromeric serine/threonine kinases that control progression through the cell cycle in concert with their regulatory subunits, the cyclins. (genecards.org)
  • Cell proliferation is controlled by a universally conserved molecular machinery in which the core key players are Ser/Thr kinases, known as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (plantcell.org)
  • It is now firmly established that progression of the cell cycle- that is, transitions between one phase of the cycle and the next- are controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (biologists.org)
  • And given that the cdc2 gene was central to cell-cycle control in yeast, it was extremely likely that CDKs were controlling cell reproduction by the same mechanism in all eukaryotes, from the humble yeast cell all the way to the cells in human beings. (springer.com)
  • Our results indicate that C. elegans uses multiple Cdks to regulate cell-cycle transitions and that ncc-1 is the C. elegans ortholog of Cdk1/Cdc2 in other metazoans, required for M phase in meiotic as well as mitotic cell cycles. (biologists.org)
  • The central convergence point of these regulatory pathways are cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and only if a certain threshold of CDK activity is reached will the entry into the next cell cycle phase be promoted. (plantcell.org)
  • Cyclins comprise a family of highly conserved proteins and exert their crucial roles by activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (prolekare.cz)
  • CDKs are serine/threonine kinases, first discovered in yeast, and found to promote transitions between different cell cycle stages [ 7 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • The kinase activities of CDKs are modulated by interacting with the regulatory subunits of cyclins and CDK inhibitors. (prolekare.cz)
  • CDKs can also be phosphorylated by other protein kinases and dephosphorylated by phosphatases. (prolekare.cz)
  • The phosphorylation of these sites is also involved in regulating the kinase activity of CDKs [ 8 - 9 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • As genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinases had been cloned from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the fission yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisae, the budding yeast, and human cells, investigators working in plant systems designed experiments to determine whether plants also possessed CDKs that functioned as the catalysts for cell cycle progression. (biology-online.org)
  • Proteolysis commences during anaphase, persisting throughout G1 until it is terminated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) as cells enter S phase. (sdbonline.org)
  • The mutual inhibition between APC and CDKs explains how cells suppress mitotic CDK activity during G1 and then establish a period with elevated kinase activity from S phase until anaphase (Zachariae, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • Exit from mitosis requires inactivation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). (sdbonline.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are involved in the control of cell cycle progression. (usda.gov)
  • Plant A-type CDKs are functional homologs of yeast Cdc2/Cdc28 and are expressed throughout the cell cycle. (usda.gov)
  • Cdks are constitutively expressed and are regulated by several kinases and phosphastases, including Wee1, CDK-activating kinase and Cdc25 phosphatase. (sinobiological.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of protein kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle . (enacademic.com)
  • [ 1 ] [ 2 ] CDKs are relatively small proteins, with molecular weights ranging from 34 to 40 kDa, and contain little more than the kinase domain. (enacademic.com)
  • CDKs phosphorylate their substrates on serines and threonines, so they are serine-threonine kinases. (enacademic.com)
  • Most knowledge of CDK structure and function is based on CDKs of S. pombe (Cdc2), S. cerevisiae (CDC28), and vertebrates (CDC2 and CDK2). (enacademic.com)
  • Whereas the Cdc28 protein kinase of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an essential role in cell cycle progression during the G1 interval, a function in the progression from the G2 interval into M phase has been inferred for its homologs, including the Cdc2Hs protein kinase of humans. (scripps.edu)
  • CTD kinase large subunit is encoded by CTK1, a gene required for normal growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (nih.gov)
  • This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Cdc37 is required for the productive formation of Cdc28-cyclin complexes. (asm.org)
  • Phosphorylation of the activating threonine (T169 in Cdc28) is constitutive and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is carried out by the essential Cdk-activating kinase, Cak1 ( 9 , 10 , 16 , 29 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Mitotic role for the Cdc28 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (pnas.org)
  • The Cdc28 protein kinase functions in the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (pnas.org)
  • The dual role of the Cdc28 protein kinase in the S. cerevisiae cell cycle thus parallels that demonstrated for the cdc2 protein kinase of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (pnas.org)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae initiation and progression through the mitotic cell cycle are determined by the sequential activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28. (genetics.org)
  • The CDK subfamily members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and are known to be essential for cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • The founding member of this family, the Pho85 cyclin-dependent kinase, was isolated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae because of its involvement in the regulation of phosphate-scavenging enzymes, and it has been implicated in many other cellular processes, including stress adaptation, glycogen storage, cell cycle progression and morphogenesis (for a review, see Carroll and O'Shea, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE, S CEREVISIAE and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species. (bvsalud.org)
  • To isolate a cDNA encoding a CDK in maize, investigators aligned the predicted amino acid sequences of human cdc2, S. pombe cdc2, and S. cerevisiae cdc28 genes. (biology-online.org)
  • The clone was sequenced, and the predicted amino acid sequence was 64% identical to human cdc2 and 63% identical to S. pombe cdc2 and to S. cerevisiae cdc28. (biology-online.org)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a single cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc28, regulates both G1/S and G2/M phase transitions by associating with stage-specific cyclins. (sdbonline.org)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC7 gene encodes a protein kinase that functions in three aspects of DNA metabolism: replication, repair, and meiotic recombination. (naver.com)
  • Characterisation of the CDC7 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a protein kinase needed for the initiation of mitotic DNA synthesis. (naver.com)
  • The Cln3-Cdc28 kinase complex of S. cerevisiae is regulated by proteolysis and phosphorylation. (naver.com)
  • In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Cdc28 protein kinase controls commitment to cell division at Start, but no biologically relevant G1-phase substrates have been identified. (cshl.edu)
  • CDK4 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family and highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What does cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae mean? (definitions.net)
  • Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae . (definitions.net)
  • A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE. (definitions.net)
  • Are we missing a good definition for cdc28 protein kinase, s cerevisiae ? (definitions.net)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase-associated protein 1 (Cks1) is involved in the control of the transcription of a subset of genes in addition to its role in controlling the cell cycle in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1991) cloned 2 different cDNAs that can complement cdc28 mutations of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (sinobiological.com)
  • The human CDC2 and CDK2 genes were both able to complement the inviability of a null allele of S. cerevisiae, CDC28. (sinobiological.com)
  • The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16 INK4a . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. (abcam.com)
  • In cdc37-1 cells, Cdc28 fails to bind both G 1 and mitotic cyclins, exhibits reduced phosphorylation at Thr169, and is found at three- to fivefold-lower levels ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases and cyclins regulate with the help of different interacting proteins the progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle. (plantcell.org)
  • The idea that Cdc2 and cyclins play a key role in the control of the G2/M transition of the cell cycle came largely from genetic analysis of fission yeast and physiological studies of clam, frog, sea urchin and starfish eggs and oocytes. (biologists.org)
  • However, it took a long time to realise that Cdc2 and cyclins form a stoichiometric complex and that a cyclin subunit is necessary for the Cdc2 subunit to gain its protein kinase activity. (biologists.org)
  • Fission yeast mutants that are prematurely advanced into mitosis and thus enter prophase at reduced size focused attention on Cdc2, but gave no clues about cyclins. (biologists.org)
  • Progression from one phase to another is controlled by cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) and their activators, cyclins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • During progression through S phase and G2/M, Cdc28 is activated by the B-type cyclins Clb1-6. (sdbonline.org)
  • The CLN cyclins are required for activation of Clb-Cdc28p kinase in addition to other cell cycle roles. (sdbonline.org)
  • Morphogenesis in the yeast cell cycle: regulation by Cdc28 and cyclins. (naver.com)
  • Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. (curehunter.com)
  • We have studied the kinase complexes formed between Cdc28 and each of the G1 cyclins Cln1, Cln2, and Cln3. (cshl.edu)
  • E2F induces transcription of genes including cyclins A and E, DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase. (sinobiological.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) are protein kinases which associate with cyclins to regulate eukaryotic cell cycle progression. (expasy.org)
  • Their activity is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including through binding with cyclin proteins and the Cdc2/Cdc28 kinase subunit (CKS), and their phosphorylation at specific amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • This kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product ( Rb ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The SRPK family of kinases, containing bipartite kinase domains separated by a unique spacer, is mainly localized in the cytoplasm, which is critical for nuclear import of SR proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Modulation of protein activity by phosphorylation through kinases and subsequent de-phosphorylation by phosphatases is one of the most prominent cellular control mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CDK activity is regulated in a complex manner, including phosphorylation/dephosphorylation by specific kinases/phosphatases and association with regulatory proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • 1988 ) Activation of cdc2 protein kinase during mitosis in human cells: cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and subunit rearrangement. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, the other vegetative MAP kinases-Hog1p, Fus3p, or Kss1p-are not required for Ask10p phosphorylation, suggesting the existence of an alternative pathway for transducing the Pkc1p→Bck1→Mkk1/2 oxidative stress signal. (asm.org)
  • Phosphorylation of a canonical Thr residue in the T-loop of the kinases is required for high enzyme activity in animals and yeast. (plantcell.org)
  • We show that the Arabidopsis thaliana Cdc2 + /Cdc28 homolog CDKA;1 is also phosphorylated in the T-loop and that phosphorylation at the conserved Thr-161 residue is essential for its function. (plantcell.org)
  • We have now found that this feature of the Kv3.1 channel is strongly influenced by its constitutive phosphorylation by the enzyme casein kinase II. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events. (curehunter.com)
  • Treatment with alpha-factor induces a preferential association and/or phosphorylation of Far1 by the Cln1, Cln2, and Cln3 kinase complexes. (cshl.edu)
  • Purified Hct1 is phosphorylated in vitro at these sites by purified Cdc28-cyclin complexes, and phosphorylation abolishes the ability of Hct1 to activate the APC in vitro. (sdbonline.org)
  • Phosphorylation of Hct1 provides a mechanism by which Cdc28 blocks its own inactivation during S phase and early mitosis. (sdbonline.org)
  • 2011) Phosphorylation of MCM3 protein by cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) regulates its function in cell cycle. (sinobiological.com)
  • Kinase catalyzed phosphorylation acts as molecular on/off switches to modulate or regulate the biological function of the target protein. (allindianpatents.com)
  • [ 1 ] Phosphorylation by CDK-activating kinase (CAK) at Thr 161 on the T-loop increases the complex activity. (enacademic.com)
  • It is proposed that PCTAIRE 3 is a paired helical filaments-associated kinase that modulates tau phosphorylation. (signalchem.com)
  • Because the mammalian lamin kinase PKC-βII is activated by DAG, we tested whether lipins might trigger lamin phosphorylation and disassembly by producing the lipid-signaling molecule DAG to activate PKCs. (rupress.org)
  • To better understand these apparently disparate roles, we constructed a yeast strain in which the resident CDC28 gene was replaced by its human homolog, CDC2Hs. (scripps.edu)
  • This transgenic yeast strain was able to perform the G1 functions attributed to the Cdc28 protein kinase, including the ability to grow and divide normally, to respond to environmental signals that induce G1 arrest, and to regulate the Cdc2Hs protein kinase appropriately in response to these signals. (scripps.edu)
  • We previously purified a yeast protein kinase that specifically hyperphosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II largest subunit and showed that this CTD kinase consists of three subunits of 58, 38, and 32 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • The CTK1 gene product contains a central domain homologous to catalytic subunits of other protein kinases, notably yeast CDC28, suggesting that the 58 kDa subunit is catalytic. (nih.gov)
  • Here we have applied a chemical genetic approach and generated an analog-sensitive version of CDKA;1, the central cell-cycle regulator in Arabidopsis and homolog of the yeast Cdc2/CDC28 kinases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Substantial work in yeast and animal model systems has shown that high kinase activity levels are in particular required to promote the transition from a gap phase (G1) into S phase where the nuclear DNA becomes replicated and from a second gap phase (G2) into M phase (mitosis) during which the chromosomes are distributed to the newly forming daughter cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The homolog of the yeast Cdc2/CDC28 gene is the Arabidopsis CDKA;1 , which is the only Arabidopsis CDK that contains the conserved PSTAIRE cyclin-binding motif also found in animal Cdk1, Cdk2 and Cdk3 proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that budding yeast Cdc37, like its higher eukaryotic homologs, promotes the physical integrity of multiple protein kinases, perhaps by virtue of a cotranslational role in protein folding. (asm.org)
  • Budding yeast has an additional requirement for activation of the Cdc28 kinase: Cdc37. (asm.org)
  • Likewise, Cdc37 is required for the activity of the protein kinase v-Src when it is expressed in yeast ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • There was no question that the fission yeast cdc2 cell-cycle control gene, encoding a cyclin-dependent protein kinase, or CDK, and our newly identified human gene were structurally very similar. (springer.com)
  • This similarity, and the fact that the human gene could functionally substitute for the yeast cdc2 gene, meant that these genes were the same, despite up to 1.5 billion years of divergence between the two organisms. (springer.com)
  • The transmembrane protein kinase Ire1p (also known as Ern1p) is considered to function as a sensor molecule of ER stress ( 8 , 32 ), and the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein Hac1p is a yeast UPR-specific transcription factor ( 9 , 31 , 36 ) that activates transcription of target genes in the nucleus through binding to the cis -acting UPR element ( 34 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • Boulton TG, Yancopoulos GD, Gregory JS, Slaughter C. Moomaw C, Hsu J, Cobb MH (1990) An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control. (springer.com)
  • Srb11p-Srb10p is the budding yeast C-type cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase that is required for the repression of several stress response genes. (asm.org)
  • In budding yeast, Ssk1p and Skn7p are response proteins of the Sln1p histidine kinase ( 3 , 4 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, the yeast C-type cyclin (Ume3p/Srb11p) and its cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) Ume5p/Srb10p ( 6 , 35 , 53 ) are components of the Mediator ( 35 ). (asm.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases from the Cdk5/Pho85 family are thought to play important roles in morphogenesis in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans. (biologists.org)
  • To provide new insights into the function of the budding yeast polo kinase Cdc5, we generated novel temperature-sensitive cdc5 mutants by mutagenizing the C-terminal noncatalytic polo box domain, a region that is critical for proper subcellular localization. (asm.org)
  • Found from budding yeast to mammalian cells, the polo kinases are a conserved subfamily of Ser/Thr protein kinases that play pivotal roles during the cell cycle and proliferation ( 2 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Molecular genetic studies of the Cdc7 protein kinase and induced mutagenesis in yeast. (naver.com)
  • The most well known CDK is p34-cdc2 (CDC28 in yeast) which is required for entry into S-phase and mitosis. (expasy.org)
  • However, CDK2 was unable to complement cdc2 mutants in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under the condition where the human CDC2 gene could complement them. (sinobiological.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 also known as cell division protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK4 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • CDK4 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Ser/Thr-kinase component of cyclin D-CDK4 (DC) complexes that phosphorylate and inhibit members of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulate the cell-cycle during G1/S transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent work suggests that Cdc37 acts by recruiting Hsp90 to Cdk4 and Raf, resulting in kinase stabilization and activation ( 13 , 27 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • CDK4 (Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Ser/Thr-kinase component of cyclin D-CDK4 (DC) complexes that phosphorylate and inhibit members of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulate the cell-cycle during G(1)/S transition. (genecards.org)
  • MBS2533543 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • In order to define kinase properties of CDK2 and CDK4 in complex with cycline A or cycline D1 in relation to their respective role in cell cycling regulation, we examined enzymatic properties of both CDK4/cycline D1 and CDK2/cycline A in vitro. (bvsalud.org)
  • Association constant, Km for ATP in CDK4/cyclin D1 was found as 418 micrometer, a value unusually high whereas CDK2/cyclin A was 23 micrometer, a value close to most of other regulatory protein kinases. (bvsalud.org)
  • CDK4 is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (sinobiological.com)
  • CDK4 is a protein kinase in the CDK family important for G1/S phase cell cycle progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex including CDK4, CDK6, and CCND1 important for G1 to S cell cycle progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclin D1-dependent kinase (CDK4) associates with MCM7 and may regulate its binding to RB1/RB, the tumour suppressor protein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Three genes encoding protein kinases were identified in the T. vaginalis genome, and the corresponding recombinant proteins (TvCRK1, TvCRK2, TvCRK5) were studied. (nih.gov)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase-associated proteins Cks1 and Cks2 are essential during early embryogenesis and for cell cycle progression in somatic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Serine/arginine (SR) protein-specific kinase (SRPK), a family of cell cycle-regulated protein kinases, phosphorylate SR domain-containing proteins in nuclear speckles and mediate the pre-mRNA splicing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SR protein-specific kinase 1 (SRPK1) and SRPK2 are regulated by the cell cycle and are specific for SR proteins ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A pilot set of five proteins involved in a range of different processes could be confirmed in independent kinase assays to be phosphorylated by CDKA;1 approving the applicability of the here-developed method to identify substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pulse-chase analysis indicates that Cdc28 and Cak1 proteins are both destabilized when Cdc37 function is absent during but not after translation. (asm.org)
  • 1991 ) Evidence that the G1-S and G2-M transitions are controlled by different cdc2 proteins in higher eukaryotes. (biologists.org)
  • The Pho85 kinase shows genetic interactions with genes encoding proteins involved in cell polarity such as Cdc42, its regulators (i.e. (biologists.org)
  • Ca2+ binding to calmodulin (CaM) Voreloxin and consequent activation of Ca2+/CaM-dependent proteins kinases (Hudmon and Schulman 2002 Kennedy 2000 assists support E-T coupling (Wheeler et al. (biopaqc.com)
  • Protein and lipid kinases regulate many different cell processes by aHrffpg phosphate groups to targets such as proteins or lipids. (allindianpatents.com)
  • From Cdc2 to Cdk1: when did the cell cycle kinase join its cyclin partner? (biologists.org)
  • Here we look back to this heroic age and try to establish precisely when and how Cdc2 became Cdk1. (biologists.org)
  • Mitotic regulation of SEPT9 protein by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and Pin1 protein is important for the completion of cytokinesis. (sickkids.ca)
  • Drosophila Myt1 is a Cdk1 inhibitory kinase that regulates multiple aspects of cell cycle behavior during gametogenesis. (sickkids.ca)
  • Cdc2 (Montrer CDK1 Kits ELISA )-like kinases and DNA topoisomerase I (Montrer TOP1 Kits ELISA ) regulate alternative splicing of tissue factor (Montrer F3 Kits ELISA ) in human endothelial cells. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis due to the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome is essential for separation of sister chromatids, requiring degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1, and for exit from mitosis, requiring inactivation of cyclin B Cdk1 kinases. (sdbonline.org)
  • cdk2 is a cell cycle protein closely related to Cdc2 (cdk1) that has proved useful as a marker of proliferation. (bioon.com.cn)
  • The activity of several kinases, including CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) and protein kinase C (PKC), has been shown to trigger mitotic lamin disassembly, yet their precise contributions are unclear. (rupress.org)
  • CKS2 protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of cyclin kinase subunit 2 in human breast cancer and its prognostic significance. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical and biological impact of cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Oncogenic potential of cyclin kinase subunit-2 in cholangiocarcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • B. Each lane was reacted with antibodies affinity purified against a single subunit of CTD kinase (1:20 dilution). (nih.gov)
  • It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and is essential for cell cycle G1/S phase transition. (abcam.com)
  • This concept of a direct association between a cyclin subunit and a cell cycle kinase subunit (Cdc2) emerged from analysis of the G2/M transition. (biologists.org)
  • This protein is a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF), which is essential for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions of eukaryotic cell cycle. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Genetic and biochemical analyses reveal a functional interaction of MSL1 (zeige MSL1 Antikörper ) with CDK7 , a subunit of the Cdk-activating kinase ( CAK ) complex (zeige CCNH Antikörper ) of the general transcription factor TFIIH (zeige GTF2H5 Antikörper ). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Dual specificity protein kinase CLK1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CLK1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the CDC2-like (or LAMMER) family of dual specificity protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that carry a disrupted version of the CTK1 gene lack the characterized CTD kinase activity, grow slowly and are cold-sensitive, demonstrating that the CTK1 gene product is essential for CTD kinase activity and normal growth. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family . (wikipedia.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CDK subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • MYC (zeige MYC Antikörper ) promotes mRNA cap methylation and protein production of Wnt (zeige WNT2 Antikörper )/ beta-catenin (zeige CTNNB1 Antikörper ) signaling transcripts through recruitment of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7 ) and consequently RNMT to gene promoters. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • 2. Okuda, T.et.al: PCTAIRE-1 and PCTAIRE-3, two members of a novel cdc2/CDC28-related protein kinase gene family. (signalchem.com)
  • We showed that subsequent to promoter binding, Cdc28 binding is required to modulate the level of gene expression. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One corresponded to a gene encoding human p34(CDC2) kinase (116940), and the other to a gene that had not been characterized previously, CDK2 (cell division kinase-2). (sinobiological.com)
  • p27, a novel inhibitor of G1 cyclin-Cdk protein kinase activity, is related to p21 (1994) Toyoshima Hideo et al. (naver.com)
  • Property based tests qualified prospects to great self-confidence in code correctness as a larger section of a features MLN8237 kinase inhibitor domain can be confirmed in these tests than with manually written unit tests. (inno-406.info)
  • Type MLN8237 kinase inhibitor driven development In addition to enforcing or at least encouraging a pure programming style, languages as the ones described above are equipped with powerful, versatile type systems. (inno-406.info)
  • While this example might not appear to be extremely useful, MLN8237 kinase inhibitor the concept could be prolonged to even more useful type declarations. (inno-406.info)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase-associated protein Cks2 is associated with bladder cancer progression. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, cell cycle signal induces nuclear translocation of the kinases at the G 2 -M boundary, indicating that SRPKs play a role in cell cycle progression ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CDC37 is essential for progression through Start ( 24 , 25 ) and is required for the activation of Cdc28 ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • The role of this kinase in entry and progression through the meiotic cycle is unclear, since all cdc28 temperature-sensitive alleles are leaky for meiosis. (genetics.org)
  • Results from RNA interference experiments indicate that at least one of these kinases is required for cell-cycle progression during meiosis and mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • As in other eukaryotes, progression through the cell cycle in plants is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases. (plantcell.org)
  • Here, we show that IL-4 inhibits cell cycle progression at the G1 phase in Caki-1 cells by increasing the expression of p21WAF1 and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1, and decreasing the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 2 activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • In many organisms, polo kinases appear to play multiple roles during M-phase progression. (asm.org)
  • Phospho-mutant analysis shows that Aurora contributes to the microtubule bundling capacity of MAP65-1 in concert with other mitotic kinases. (stanford.edu)
  • 1996 ) Vanadate triggers the transition from chromosome condensation to decondensation in a mitotic mutant (tsTM13) inactivation of p34cdc2/H1 kinase and dephosphorylation of mitosis-specific histone H3. (biologists.org)
  • This suggests that multiple kinases promote efficient mitotic lamin disassembly. (rupress.org)
  • Clk/Sty was initially cloned as a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-like kinase by PCR ( 4 , 5 ), as well as a dual specificity kinase in an expression screening ( 6 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dual specificity kinase acting on both serine/threonine and tyrosine-containing substrates. (uniprot.org)
  • Nevertheless, the lethality of cdc28-4 clb5 diploids is not rescued by CLB2 or CLB4 overexpression, indicating a specificity of Clb5 function beyond temporality of expression (Segal, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • This protein is a nuclear dual-specificity kinase that regulates the intranuclear distribution of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) family of splicing factors. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Thus, we trace a path through which a mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates a Cdc2 kinase. (cshl.edu)
  • Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in basic fibroblast growth factor-induced interl. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This induced interaction depends upon the Fus3 protein kinase, a mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog that functions near the bottom of the alpha-factor signal transduction pathway. (cshl.edu)
  • A phospho-mimicry T161D substitution restored the primary defect of cdka;1 mutants, and although the T161D substitution displayed a dramatically reduced kinase activity with a compromised ability to bind substrates, homozygous mutant plants were recovered. (plantcell.org)
  • The CDK2 protein was highly homologous to p34(CDC2) kinase and more significantly homologous to Xenopus Eg1 kinase, suggesting that CDK2 is the human homolog of Eg1. (sinobiological.com)
  • Aurora kinases are key effectors of mitosis. (stanford.edu)
  • We present evidence that the Cdc28 protein kinase is also required for mitosis and that this function is executed in the G2 interval of the cell cycle. (pnas.org)
  • Activated Clb-Cdc28p kinase is then required for initiation of DNA replication, spindle formation, and initiation of mitosis. (sdbonline.org)
  • The positions of the three subunits of the CTD kinase are denoted at left. (nih.gov)
  • It binds both CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and thus regulate separate functions in cell cycle. (abcam.com)
  • S-phase regulator, cyclin-A and its associated CDK2 and CDC2 kinase activities were also increased by irradiation and hsp25 overexpression attenuated these phenomena. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Thus, 2 different CDC2-like kinases appear to regulate the human cell cycle at different stages. (sinobiological.com)
  • ERK1 and ERK2 Map Kinases: Specific Roles or Functional Redundancy? (frontiersin.org)
  • Higher eukaryotes contain Cdc37 homologs that also appear to play general roles in the maintenance of protein kinase integrity ( 4 , 15 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Several observations suggest that polo kinases play critical roles in regulating spindle functions. (asm.org)
  • A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. (sickkids.ca)
  • To help genetically define such roles, strains carrying a cdc28(ts) allele, combined with single CLB deletions were studied. (sdbonline.org)
  • Differential roles of PI3-kinase and Kit tyrosine 821 in Kit receptor-mediated proliferation, survival and cell adhesion in mast cells. (naver.com)
  • This G1 arrest is associated with a dramatic decrease in the protein levels of Cdk2 and cyclin E correlated with an inhibition of the Cdk2 kinase activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Removal of the spacer in SRPK1 has little effect on the kinase activity, but triggers the nuclear translocation of kinases and consequently induces aggregation of splicing factors in the nucleus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Equally, the possibility to deliberately tune kinase activity is of great value to analyze the biological process controlled by a particular kinase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Applying bulky kinase inhibitors allowed the reduction of kinase activity in an organismic context in vivo and the modulation of plant growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The here presented generation of an analog-sensitive CDKA;1 version is functional and represent a novel tool to modulate kinase activity in vivo and identify kinase substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cdc37-1 mutant arrests at Start with low levels of Cdc28 protein, which is predominantly unphosphorylated at Thr169, fails to bind cyclin, and has little protein kinase activity. (asm.org)
  • We have also found that the levels and activity of the protein kinase Cak1 are significantly reduced in the cdc37-1 mutant. (asm.org)
  • cdc37 mutations are synthetically lethal with mutations in the protein kinases Cdc28, Mps1, and Kin28 ( 24 , 26 , 31 ), and Mps1 activity is reduced in a cdc37 mutant. (asm.org)
  • clk1 has several biochemical functions, for example, ATP binding, non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity, protein binding. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This is in contrast with observations of the homologous protein kinase from a variety of metazoans, where activity and function are associated with the G2 to M phase transition. (pnas.org)
  • The kinase activity. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In addition, cyclin-B1 expression and its associated kinase activity, which are responsible for the transition of G2 to M phase, were increased by radiation and hsp25 overexpression also decreased these phenomena. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. (sickkids.ca)
  • The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated. (sickkids.ca)
  • It is assumed that by limiting the activity of the kinase, these strains would be rendered more sensitive to loss of individual Clbs. (sdbonline.org)
  • Mutagenesis of a potential substrate-targeting domain of CLB5 reduces biological activity without reducing Clb5p-associated kinase activity. (sdbonline.org)
  • 2012 Extra CaM kinases CaMKIV and CaMKK type a CaMK cascade inside the nucleus (Means 2000 Soderling 1999 Neuronal activity and Ca2+/CaM Tlr2 travel CaMKK to phosphorylate and activate nuclear CaMKIV which phosphorylates CREB (Bito et al. (biopaqc.com)
  • Hct1 is phosphorylated in vivo at multiple CDK consensus sites during cell cycle stages when activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 is high and APC activity is low. (sdbonline.org)
  • The activity of protein kinases can be regulated by a variety of mechanisms and any individual protein might be regulated by more than one mechanism. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Thus, protein and lipid kinases can function in signaling pathways to activate or inactivate, or modulate the activity (either directly or indirectly) of the targets. (allindianpatents.com)
  • 6] Initial interest in protein kinases as pharmacological targets was stimulated by findings that many viral oacogenes encode structurally modified cellular protein kinases with constitutive enzyme activity. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Subsequently, deregulated protein kinase activity, resulting from a variety of mechanisms, has been implicated in the pafhophysiology of a number of important human disorders including, for example, cancer, CNS conditions, and immunologically related diseases. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Sample Kinase Activity Plot. (signalchem.com)
  • What does the level of sequence similarity suggest about the evolution of cdc2 genes? (biology-online.org)
  • CDC7 kinase complex as a molecular switch for DNA replication. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, identification of kinase substrates is pivotal for the understanding of many - if not all - molecular biological processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, inhibitors of casein kinase 2 mimicked the effect of phosphatase treatment on voltage-dependent activation and inactivation, whereas inhibitors of protein kinase C failed to alter these parameters. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Here we provide biochemical, genetic, and cell biological evidence that the microtubule-bundling protein MAP65-1-a member of the MAP65/Ase1/PRC1 protein family, implicated in central spindle formation and cytokinesis in animals, yeasts, and plants-is a genuine substrate of alpha Aurora kinases. (stanford.edu)
  • The Snf1p AMP kinase, which signals switches in carbon source availability, has been shown to associate with the Mediator complex of RNA Pol II ( 28 ), although no substrate has been identified to date. (asm.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (EC 2.7.11.22) (Cell division protein kinase 2) (p33 protein kinase) Homo sapiens (Human). (sinobiological.com)
  • Mouse anti Human CDK2 antibody recognizes CDK2, also known as cdc2-related protein kinase, cell division protein kinase 2 and p33 protein kinase. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases. (naver.com)
  • 1. Meyerson, M.et.al: A family of human cdc2-related protein kinases. (signalchem.com)
  • Protein kinases, with at least 400 identified, constitute the largest subfamily of structurally related phosphoryi transferases and are responsible for the control of a wide variety of signal transduction processes within the cell. (allindianpatents.com)
  • PCTK3 or PCTAIRE protein kinase 3 is a member of the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. (signalchem.com)
  • CDC2/CDKX subfamily. (sinobiological.com)
  • Lactoferrin inhibits G1 cyclin-dependent kinases during growth arrest of human breast carcinoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, Cdc37 promotes the production of Cak1, but not that of Cdc28, when coexpressed in insect cells. (asm.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase that phosphorylates the transcription factor ETS2 (in vitro) and positively controls its proteasomal degradation (in cells) (PubMed:24218572). (nih.gov)
  • Casein kinase 2 determines the voltage dependence of the Kv3.1 channel in auditory neurons and transfected cells. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • CDK2 mRNA appeared late in G1 or in early S phase, slightly before CDC2 mRNA, after growth stimulation in the normal human fibroblast cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • CDK2 is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (abcam.com)
  • We have identified six protein kinases that belong to the family of cdc2-related kinases in Caenorhabditis elegans. (biologists.org)
  • Boulton TG, Nye SH, Robbins DJ, Ip NY, Radziejewska E, Morgenbesser SD, DePinho RA, Panayotatos N, Cobb MH, Yancopoulos GD (1991) ERKs: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases that are activated and tyrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin and NGF. (springer.com)
  • Cdk5 belongs to a family of cyclin-dependent kinases that seem to be involved in the control of cell differentiation and morphology rather than cell division ( Dhavan and Tsai, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • CLK3 encodes a protein belonging to the serine/threonine type protein kinase family. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • 2001 The CaM kinase family members is most well-known for ��CaMKII which contributes highly to synaptic potentiation learning and memory space (Giese et al. (biopaqc.com)
  • CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (sinobiological.com)
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (sickkids.ca)
  • The protein kinases may be categorized into families by the substrates they phosphorylate (e.g., protein-tyrosine, protein- serine/threonine, etc. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The phosphatase Cdc14, which is known to be required for APC activation in vivo, is able to reverse the effects of Cdc28 by catalyzing Hct1 dephosphorylation and activation. (sdbonline.org)
  • 1996 ) A Cdc2 dependent checkpoint maintains diploidy in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • Characterization by cDNA cloning of two new human protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation. (uchicago.edu)
  • Proline-rich (PxxP) motifs in HIV-1 Nef bind to SH3 domains of a subset of Src kinases and are required for the enhanced growth of Nef+ viruses but not for down-regulation. (naver.com)

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