Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Conditions in which there is histological damage to the lower epidermis along with a grouped chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis disturbing the interface between the epidermis and dermis. LICHEN PLANUS is the prototype of all lichenoid eruptions. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p398)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.
A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.

Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (1/13590)

Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells.  (+info)

Generation of CD8(+) T-cell responses to Mycobacterium bovis and mycobacterial antigen in experimental bovine tuberculosis. (2/13590)

Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8(+) T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8(+) T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8(+) T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8(+) cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen.  (+info)

Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. (3/13590)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas/FasL) system in the inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: Frozen muscle sections obtained from 7 patients with polymyositis (PM), 4 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), and 3 controls were studied by immunochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by DNA electrophoresis and in situ labeling using the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Fas was detected on muscle fibers and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNC) in 6 PM patients and 2 DM patients. FasL was expressed mainly on CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells, and on macrophages surrounding Fas-positive muscles in 4 PM patients and 1 DM patient. In 3 of the 5 patients with FasL-positive MNC, the TUNEL method showed that both invaded myonuclei and MNC underwent apoptosis. Chromosomal DNA from the muscle tissue of these patients showed ladder formation. CONCLUSION: Fas/FasL is involved in muscle cell apoptosis in at least 2 of the inflammatory myopathies, PM and DM. Although CD8+-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be the main mechanism of muscle injury in PM, our data suggest that CD4+ T cells also directly cause muscle cell damage.  (+info)

Protection against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection induced by a reduced peptide bond analogue of the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope GP33. (4/13590)

Recent investigations have suggested that pseudopeptides containing modified peptide bonds might advantageously replace natural peptides in therapeutic strategies. We have generated eight reduced peptide bond Psi(CH2-NH) analogues corresponding to the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope (called GP33) of the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. One of these pseudopeptides, containing a reduced peptide bond between residues 6 and 7 (Psi(6-7)), displayed very similar properties of binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and recognition by T cell receptor transgenic T cells specific for GP33 when compared with the parent peptide. We assessed in vitro and in vivo the proteolytic resistance of GP33 and Psi(6-7) and analyzed its contribution to the priming properties of these peptides. The Psi(6-7) analogue exhibited a dramatically increased proteolytic resistance when compared with GP33, and we show for the first time that MHC-peptide complexes formed in vivo with a pseudopeptide display a sustained half-life compared with the complexes formed with the natural peptide. Furthermore, in contrast to immunizations with GP33, three injections of Psi(6-7) in saline induced significant antiviral protection in mice. The enhanced ability of Psi(6-7) to induce antiviral protection may result from the higher stability of the analogue and/or of the MHC-analogue complexes.  (+info)

Disproportionate recruitment of CD8+ T cells into the central nervous system by professional antigen-presenting cells. (5/13590)

Inappropriate immune responses, thought to exacerbate or even to initiate several types of central nervous system (CNS) neuropathology, could arise from failures by either the CNS or the immune system. The extent that the inappropriate appearance of antigen-presenting cell (APC) function contributes to CNS inflammation and pathology is still under debate. Therefore, we characterized the response initiated when professional APCs (dendritic cells) presenting non-CNS antigens were injected into the CNS. These dendritic cells expressed numerous T-cell chemokines, but only in the presence of antigen did leukocytes accumulate in the ventricles, meninges, sub-arachnoid spaces, and injection site. Within the CNS parenchyma, the injected dendritic cells migrated preferentially into the white matter tracts, yet only a small percentage of the recruited leukocytes entered the CNS parenchyma, and then only in the white matter tracts. Although T-cell recruitment was antigen specific and thus mediated by CD4+ T cells in the models used here, CD8+ T cells accumulated in numbers equal to or greater than that of CD4+ T cells. Few of the recruited T cells expressed activation markers (CD25 and VLA-4), and those that did were primarily in the meninges, injection site, ventricles, and perivascular spaces but not in the parenchyma. These results indicate that 1) the CNS modulates the cellular composition and activation states of responding T-cell populations and that 2) myelin-restricted inflammation need not be initiated by a myelin-specific antigen.  (+info)

N,N'-Diacetyl-L-cystine-the disulfide dimer of N-acetylcysteine-is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity/delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in rodents. (6/13590)

Oral N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used clinically for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NAC is easily oxidized to its disulfide. We show here that N,N'-diacetyl-L-cystine (DiNAC) is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity (CS)/delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in rodents. Oral treatment of BALB/c mice with 0.003 to 30 micromol/kg DiNAC leads to enhancement of a CS reaction to oxazolone; DiNAC is 100 to 1000 times more potent than NAC in this respect, indicating that it does not act as a prodrug of NAC. Structure-activity studies suggest that a stereochemically-defined disulfide element is needed for activity. The DiNAC-induced enhancement of the CS reaction is counteracted by simultaneous NAC-treatment; in contrast, the CS reaction is even more enhanced in animals treated with DiNAC together with the glutathione-depleting agent buthionine sulfoximine. These data suggest that DiNAC acts via redox processes. Immunohistochemically, ear specimens from oxazolone-sensitized and -challenged BALB/c mice treated with DiNAC display increased numbers of CD8(+) cells. DiNAC treatment augments the CS reaction also when fluorescein isothiocyanate is used as a sensitizer in BALB/c mice; this is a purported TH2 type of response. However, when dinitrofluorobenzene is used as a sensitizer, inducing a purported TH1 type of response, DiNAC treatment reduces the reaction. Treatment with DiNAC also reduces a DTH footpad-swelling reaction to methylated BSA. Collectively, these data indicate that DiNAC in vivo acts as a potent and effective immunomodulator that can either enhance or reduce the CS or DTH response depending on the experimental conditions.  (+info)

Interleukin-10-treated human dendritic cells induce a melanoma-antigen-specific anergy in CD8(+) T cells resulting in a failure to lyse tumor cells. (7/13590)

Dendritic cells (DC) are critically involved in the initiation of primary immune processes, including tumor rejection. In our study, we investigated the effect of interleukin-10 (IL-10)-treated human DC on the properties of CD8(+) T cells that are known to be essential for the destruction of tumor cells. We show that IL-10-pretreatment of DC not only reduces their allostimulatory capacity, but also induces a state of alloantigen-specific anergy in both primed and naive (CD45RA+) CD8(+) T cells. To investigate the influence of IL-10-treated DC on melanoma-associated antigen-specific T cells, we generated a tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T-cell line by several rounds of stimulation with the specific antigen. After coculture with IL-10-treated DC, restimulation of the T-cell line with untreated, antigen-pulsed DC demonstrated peptide-specific anergy in the tyrosinase-specific T cells. Addition of IL-2 to the anergic T cells reversed the state of both alloantigen- or peptide-specific anergy. In contrast to optimally stimulated CD8(+) T cells, anergic tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T cells, after coculture with peptide-pulsed IL-10-treated DC, failed to lyse an HLA-A2-positive and tyrosinase-expressing melanoma cell line. Thus, our data demonstrate that IL-10-treated DC induce an antigen-specific anergy in cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, a process that might be a mechanism of tumors to inhibit immune surveillance by converting DC into tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional characterization of CD8(+) T cell clones specific for a mouse cytomegalovirus epitope. (8/13590)

A series of CD8(+) T cell clones, specific for the IE1 epitope YPHFMPTNL, of the immediate-early protein 1 of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) were generated in order to determine their protective activity against this infection and correlate their phenotypic markers with antiviral activity. We found that the adoptive transfer of three of these anti-MCMV CD8(+) T cell clones into irradiated naive mice resulted in protection against challenge, while another CD8(+) T cell clone, of the same specificity, failed to confer protection. The clones that conferred protection against lethal challenge reduced greatly viral replication in the lung and other organs of the mice. Using one of the protective anti-MCMV CD8(+) T cell clones we found that in order to be fully protective the cells had to be transferred to recipient mice no later than 1 day after MCMV challenge. The adoptive transfer of these CD8(+) T cell clones also protected CD4(+) T-cell-depleted mice. Phenotypic characterization of the anti-MCMV clones revealed that the nonprotective clone expressed very low levels of CD8 molecules and produced only small amounts of TNF-alpha upon antigenic stimulation. Most importantly, our current study demonstrates that this MHC class I-restricted IE1 epitope of MCMV is efficiently presented to CD8(+) T cell clones in vivo and further strengthens the possibility of the potential use of CD8(+) T cell clones as immunotherapeutic tools against cytomegalovirus-induced disease.  (+info)

Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 infection can lead to pre-malignant and malignant diseases of the lower genital tract. Several lines of evidence suggest that T cell responses can control HPV infection. However, relative to other human viruses, strong effector memory T cell responses against HPV have been difficult to detect. We used an in vitro stimulation step prior to enzyme-linked immunospot assays to identify IFN-gamma-secreting T cells specific for HPV16 and 18 E6/E7 peptides. This allowed the detection of HPV-specific CD4+ T cells that were not evident in direct ex vivo assays. T cell responses against HPV16 or 18 peptides were detected in healthy volunteers (7/9) and patients with lower genital tract neoplasia (10/20). Importantly, this assay allowed tracking of vaccine-induced T cell responses in nine patients, following inoculation with a live recombinant vaccinia virus (HPV16 and 18 E6/E7, TA-HPV). Novel vaccine-induced T cell responses were demonstrated in five ...
The results presented herein suggest that generation of an effective influenza-specific CD8 T cell response requires activated CD8 T cells to interact with pulmonary pDCs, CD8α+ DCs, or iDCs in a MHC class I-, viral epitope-dependent manner once they enter the lungs. This secondary interaction is in addition to the initial DC-T cell interactions that occur in the LN during activation of naive CD8 T cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study detailing a critical role for peripheral DC-CD8 T cell interactions after initial programming of primary effector T cells in the LN. This suggests that the influenza-specific CD8 T cell response may be regulated by a two-hit model of development and that the magnitude, and possibly phenotype, of the peripheral CD8 T cells generated may be related to both the initial programming that occurs in the LN, but also by secondary contacts with DC subsets at the site of the infection. Of note, we have observed differential magnitudes of recruitment into the ...
p286/I-Ag7 tetramer-positive CD4+ T cells from G286 mice delay diabetes transfer. Tetramer-positive and -negative cells were sorted from G286 lymph node cells w
We show here that HCV-specific CD8+ T cells can be frequently detected in HCV-seronegative (HCV-SN) individuals and that these cells may impact the response to vaccination. Virus-specific T cell responses in unexposed individuals have been reported before in several settings (15, 16, 19, 32), and the composition of this preexisting T cell repertoire may influence the response toward vaccines, as suggested by reports for other infections (14, 33). However, thus far, no study has systematically studied the frequency and repertoire of HCV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in a large number of HCV-SN individuals and investigated how preexisting HCV-specific CD8+ T cells may influence vaccine responses. Our study, which included a total of 121 HCV-SNs, revealed a high prevalence of HCV NS3-1073-specific CD8+ T cell responses both ex vivo, as well as in vitro in about one-third of individuals tested, whereas the NS3-1073-specific T cell responses were low or absent in the remaining two-thirds. However, ...
Influenza A virus remains a major threat to public health, and the inactivated split-virus vaccine is the most prevalent vaccine used worldwide. However, our knowledge about cellular immune responses to the inactivated influenza virus vaccine and its correlation with humoral responses are yet limited, which has restricted our understanding of the vaccines protective mechanisms. Herein, in two clinical trials, T-cell responses specific for both previously identified human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-I-restricted epitopes from influenza virus and hemagglutinin (HA) protein were longitudinally investigated before, during, and after a two-dose vaccination with the inactivated 2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009-pH1N1) vaccine. A robust antibody response in all of the donors after vaccination was observed. Though no CD8(+) T-cell responses to known epitopes were detected, HA-specific T-cell responses were primed following vaccination, and the responses were found to be mainly CD4(+) T-cell dependent. However, ...
T cell responses play an important role in the outcome of HBV and HCV infection, e.g. viral elimination versus persistence. However, multiple mechanisms can lead to the failure of the virus-specific T cell response. These mechanisms include primary T cell failure, T cell exhaustion, the emergence of viral escape mutants, as well as T cell dysfunction. Furthermore, genetic factors such as the individual HLA allele background play an important role in the outcome of infection. Once viral persistence has been established, HBV or HCV infection can progress to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis with an enhanced risk for HCC. Tumor-specific T cells (e.g. AFP-specific T cells) are thought to contribute to cancer control.. The focus of our group is the identification and characterization of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during acute and chronic HBV and HCV infection with a special focus on intrahepatic T cell responses as well as the mechanisms of viral persistence (e.g., viral escape, T cell ...
The need for CD4+ T cell responses to arise de novo following vaccination can limit the speed of B cell responses. Populations of pre-existing vaccine-induced or anti-viral CD4+ T cells recognising distinct antigens could be exploited to overcome this limitation. We hypothesise that liposomal vaccine particles encapsulating epitopes that are recognised, after processing and B cell MHCII presentation, by pre-existing CD4+ T cells will exploit this pre-existing T cell help and result in improved antibody responses to distinct target antigens displayed on the particle surface. Liposomal vaccine particles were engineered to display the malaria circumsporozoite (CSP) antigen on their surface, with helper CD4+ epitopes from distinct vaccine or viral antigens contained within the particle core, ensuring the B cell response is raised but focused against CSP. In vivo vaccination studies were then conducted in C57Bl/6 mice as models of either vaccine-induced pre-existing CD4+ T cell immunity (using ovalbumin-OVA)
The need for CD4+ T cell responses to arise de novo following vaccination can limit the speed of B cell responses. Populations of pre-existing vaccine-induced or anti-viral CD4+ T cells recognising distinct antigens could be exploited to overcome this limitation. We hypothesise that liposomal vaccine particles encapsulating epitopes that are recognised, after processing and B cell MHCII presentation, by pre-existing CD4+ T cells will exploit this pre-existing T cell help and result in improved antibody responses to distinct target antigens displayed on the particle surface. Liposomal vaccine particles were engineered to display the malaria circumsporozoite (CSP) antigen on their surface, with helper CD4+ epitopes from distinct vaccine or viral antigens contained within the particle core, ensuring the B cell response is raised but focused against CSP. In vivo vaccination studies were then conducted in C57Bl/6 mice as models of either vaccine-induced pre-existing CD4+ T cell immunity (using ovalbumin-OVA)
Autoreactive CD8 T cells play a central role in the destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells that leads to type 1 diabetes, yet the key features of this immune-mediated process remain poorly defined. In this study, we combined high-definition polychromatic flow cytometry with ultrasensitive peptide-human leukocyte antigen class I tetramer staining to quantify and characterize β-cell-specific CD8 T cell populations in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes and healthy control subjects. Remarkably, we found that β-cell-specific CD8 T cell frequencies in peripheral blood were similar between subject groups. In contrast to healthy control subjects, however, patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes displayed hallmarks of antigen-driven expansion uniquely within the β-cell-specific CD8 T cell compartment. Molecular analysis of selected β-cell-specific CD8 T cell populations further revealed highly skewed oligoclonal T cell receptor repertoires comprising exclusively private clonotypes. ...
Despite progress toward understanding the correlates of protective T cell immunity in HIV infection, the optimal approach to Ag delivery by vaccination remains uncertain. We characterized two immunodominant CD8 T cell populations generated in response to immunization of BALB/c mice with a replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing the HIV-derived Gag and Pol proteins at equivalent levels. The Gag-AI9/H-2Kd epitope elicited high-avidity CD8 T cell populations with architecturally diverse clonotypic repertoires that displayed potent lytic activity in vivo. In contrast, the Pol-LI9/H-2Dd epitope elicited motif-constrained CD8 T cell repertoires that displayed lower levels of physical avidity and lytic activity despite equivalent measures of overall clonality. Although low-dose vaccination enhanced the functional profiles of both epitope-specific CD8 T cell populations, greater polyfunctionality was apparent within the Pol-LI9/H-2Dd specificity. Higher proportions of central ...
T cell exhaustion is a major factor in failed pathogen clearance during chronic viral infections. Immunoregulatory pathways, such as PD-1 and IL-10, are upregulated upon this ongoing antigen exposure and contribute to loss of proliferation, reduced cytolytic function, and impaired cytokine production by CD4 and CD8 T cells. In the murine model of LCMV infection, administration of blocking antibodies against these two pathways augmented T cell responses. However, there is currently no in vitro assay to measure the impact of such blockade on cytokine secretion in cells from human samples. Our protocol and experimental approach enable us to accurately and efficiently quantify the restoration of cytokine production by HIV-specific CD4 T cells from HIV infected subjects. Here, we depict an in vitro experimental design that enables measurements of cytokine secretion by HIV-specific CD4 T cells and their impact on other cell subsets. CD8 T cells were depleted from whole blood and remaining PBMCs were ...
Improving adaptive anti-viral responses: a key to eliminating persistent viral infection. HCMV establishes a persistent infection, and although in a healthy subject infection is generally asymptomatic, infection of immunocompromised hosts leads to severe disease. Using the MCMV-infection model, recent studies have shown that MCMV-susceptible and MCMV-resistant mouse strains have functional differences in the efficacy of the antiviral CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and in the ability to control persistent virus. These studies provided evidence to indicate that antiviral T cell responses are negatively affected by natural killer (NK) cells. Our data indicate that the NK cell-mediated elimination of virus-infected dendritic cells (DC) may be the key event in this process. Ongoing studies will address how T cells control persistent infection and how their anti-viral activity can be restored therapeutically. This research will help us understand viral pathogenesis and importantly will provide ...
This thesis focuses on the decision making in the most common business form: family businesses. A well-established theoretical model within the family business field is The three circle-model, which is based on three different dimensions: family, ownership and business. Most of the family businesses stay small but the ones expanding face the dilemma of balancing the best development of the dimensions. However, these three dimensions can contradict each other and as a result the founders are forced to choose which of the dimensions to prioritize when taking decisions.The purpose of this thesis is to create an understanding of how the family, the ownership and the business dimensions affect founders thoughts and reasoning behind decisions in the expansion phase in first generation family firms with few owners.We have reached the conclusions with a qualitative approach using case studies. We have gathered the empirical data by using Life story and Critical incident to define expansion decisions in ...
Sergeev, V.A. and Kubyshkina, M.V. and Baumjohann, W. and Nakamura, R. and Amm, O. and Pulkkinen, T. and Angelopoulos, V. and Mende, S.B. and Klecker, B. and Nagai, T. and Sauvaud, J.-A. and Slavin, J.A. and Thomsen, M.F. (2005) Transition from substorm growth to substorm expansion phase as observed with a radial configuration of ISTP and Cluster spacecraft. Annales Geophysicae, 23 (6). pp. 2183-2198. ISSN 0992-7689 ...
Gras, S. et al. (2010). Allelic polymorphism in the T cell receptor and its impact on immune responses. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 207(7): 1555-67. [PubMed ID 20566715]. Though many millions of T cell receptor (TCR) specificities are possible, there are often strong population biases in the presence of particular TCRs specific for disease epitopes. Using ProImmune Pro5® MHC Class I Pentamers, Gras et al. addressed the previously overlooked question of the impact of sequence variation in the TCR on immunity. They demonstrated that a single amino acid difference within a TCR can reduce its binding affinity for a viral peptide-MHC complex and preclude its dominance in an antiviral T cell response.. As their model system, the team chose to employ the HLA-B*35:01 - restricted HPVGEADYFEY (HPVG) epitope from the EBNA-1 protein of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), which is highly immunogenic in EBV-exposed individuals. They established that the T cell response to this epitope is characterized by biases ...
Abstract In a human melanoma model of tumor antigen (TA)-based immunization, we tested the functional status of TA-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. A quiescent phenotype lacking direct ex vivo cytotoxic and proliferative potential was identified that was further characterized by comparing its transcriptional profile to that of TA-specific T cells sensitized in vitro by exposure to the same TA and the T-cell growth factor interleukin 2 (IL-2). Quiescent circulating tumor-specific CD8+ T cells were deficient in expression of genes associated with T-cell activation, proliferation, and effector function. This quiescent status may explain the observed lack of correlation between the presence of circulating immunization-induced lymphocytes and tumor regression. In addition, the activation of TA-specific T cells by in vitro antigen recall and IL-2 suggests that a complete effector phenotype might be reinstated in vivo to fulfill the potential of anticancer vaccine protocols.. ...
In this study, we documented that local cryo-thermal therapy generated a stronger systematic antitumor immune response than RFA and a long-lasting antitumor immunity that protected against tumor rechallenge. At the same time, a systemic antigen-specific T-cell immune response induced via local cryo-thermal therapy was revealed. Although the survival rate between RFA and cryo-thermal therapy was not statistically significant, the long-term immunity against tumor challenge elicited by two treatments was different. In vitro studies showed that the antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell response was induced by both cryo-thermal therapy and RFA, but the strong neoantigen-specific CD4+ T-cell response was only induced by cryo-thermal therapy. Moreover, we demonstrated that the cryo-thermal therapy-induced strong antitumor immune response was mainly mediated by CD4+ T-cells, particularly neoantigen-specific CD4+ T-cells, which are the major contributors to the cryo-thermal therapy-induced antitumor immune ...
T cells play pivotal roles in shaping host immune responses in infectious diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. The activation of T cells requires immune and growth factor-derived signals. However, alterations in nutrients and metabolic signals tune T cell responses by impinging upon T cell fates and immune functions. In this review, we summarize how key nutrients, including glucose, amino acids and lipids, and their sensors and transporters shape T cell responses. We also briefly discuss regulation of T cell responses by oxygen and energy sensing mechanisms.
As the central player in the immune response fighting against pathogen invasions in mammals, the activation of T cells must be tightly regulated. Proper resolution of a T cell response is as essential as its initiation because of the possible severe pathological consequences of a hyperinflammatory response. NF-κB activation is a key signaling event downstream of TCR engagement and regulates almost all of the important aspects of T cell activation. Because of its pivotal role, NF-κB activation in T cells is regulated through a multilayered negative regulatory network (Schulze-Luehrmann and Ghosh, 2006). In this study, we identified miR-146a as an important new member of the negative feedback loop that modulates TCR signaling to NF-κB and demonstrated its physiological role in regulating both acute T cell response and chronic hyperinflammatory autoimmune T cell response in vivo. Based on these results, we propose a model of miR-146a as an important new constituent of the negative feedback ...
The drug being tested in this study is called TAK-169. The study will evaluate the safety, tolerability, preliminary efficacy, PK, pharmacodynamic, and immunogenicity of TAK-169 monotherapy in participants with RRMM.. The study will be conducted in 2 phases: Dose Escalation Phase (Part 1) and an Expansion Phase (Part 2). The study will enroll approximately 81 to 102 participants (39 to 60 participants in Part 1 and approximately 54 participants in Part 2).. In the Dose Escalation Phase (Part 1), the starting dose level will be 50 microgram/kilogram (mcg/kg), once weekly. On the basis of investigator and sponsor review of available safety, PK, pharmacodynamic, and efficacy data from Cohort 1, the dose will be escalated in the subsequent cohorts to 100, 200, 335, 500, and 665 mcg/kg, once weekly. A separate dose escalation may also occur in which TAK-169 will be administered once every 2 weeks.. In the Expansion Phase (Part 2), the study will evaluate two types of RRMM cohorts: ...
Spleen 3 days after immunisation. B cells (red), CTL (green) and dendritic cells (blue I noted some time ago that, despite the name, its clear that cytotoxic T
The scope of the genital herpes problem is daunting. The disease-technically known as HSV-2-affects one in every six people between the ages of 14 and 49 in the United States. Worldwide infection estimates reach 500 million. An approved vaccine would have the potential to impact patients on so many levels, says Darren Higgins, co-founder of…
These kits utilize a patented technique for exchanging up to ten peptides on an MHC class I tetramer. Components for quantifying the extent of peptide exchange by flow cytometry are included ...
Researchers have discovered that an important part of the immune system puts up a strong anti-inflammatory T cell response following the development of atherosclerotic lesions.
A major challenge in the HIV field has been to understand why the strength of virus-specific CD8 T cell responses has no relationship to viral load, and yet CD8 depletion studies indicate that these cells are critical for immune control. And a major challenge in the field of immunology in general has been the rapid translation of advances in murine models to humans. In late 2005, through a telephone conversation with Rafi Ahmed, we became aware of yet unpublished data in the mouse model of chronic infection. His laboratory had shown that in mice persistently infected with LCMV, T cells up-regulate a surface molecule termed PD-1, for programmed death-1, a negative immunoregulatory molecule that turned off CD8 T cell function. The potential parallels with HIV were immediately obvious to us-perhaps persistent exposure to HIV was having a similar impact on CD8 T cell function in humans, and perhaps similar immune regulation was rendering CD4 T cells exhausted as well.. We immediately formed a ...
The contraction phase of T cell activation is an important part of the immune response. A recent paper looks at the mechanisms involved
bricko sends this disappointing but not unexpected news from Techdirt: While it didnt get nearly as much attention as other parts of SOPA, one section in the bill that greatly concerned us was the massive expansion of the diplomatic corp.s IP attaches. If youre unfamiliar with the program, bas...
While MHC class Ia-restricted CD8 T cell responses to viral infections have been extensively characterized, little is known about MHC class Ib-restricted CD8 T cells during viral infection. Mouse polyoma virus establishes a persistent low-level infection and induces tumors in MHC class Ia + class Ib deficient (i.e., b2m−/−) mice. Unexpectedly, mice selectively deficient for MHC class Ia molecules (i.e., Kb−/−Db−/−) mice efficiently control polyoma viral replication and are resistant to polyoma virus-induced tumors. Polyoma virus-specific CD8 T cell cloned lines were isolated from immune Kb−/−Db−/− mice. Using these cloned lines, we mapped their MHC restriction to H2-Q9, an MHC Class Ib molecule of the Qa-2 family. We identified the Q9-restricted viral epitope as a 9mer peptide from a viral capsid protein. In preliminary studies, we found that the magnitude of the Q9-restricted antiviral CD8 T cell response progressively inflates over the course of infection. Experiments are ...
Peptide-major histocompatibility complex (p-MHC) class I tetramer complexes have facilitated the early detection and functional characterisation of epitope specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here, we report on the generation of seven recombinant bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) and recombinant bovine β2-microglobulin from which p-MHC class I tetramers can be derived in ~48 h. We validated a set of p-MHC class I tetramers against a panel of CTL lines specific to seven epitopes on five different antigens of Theileria parva, a protozoan pathogen causing the lethal bovine disease East Coast fever. One of the p-MHC class I tetramers was tested in ex vivo assays and we detected T. parva specific CTL in peripheral blood of cattle at day 15-17 post-immunization with a live parasite vaccine. The algorithm NetMHCpan predicted alternative epitope sequences for some of the T. parva CTL epitopes. Using an ELISA assay to measure peptide-BoLA monomer formation and p-MHC class I tetramers of new ...
The primary goal of this study was to resolve the uncertainty about whether HESNs make T cell responses to HIV-1. We compared the frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cell responses over time between HESN and HUSN groups in a powered, blind study with independent data analysis. In these donors, no T cell responses were detectable without culture, except, notably, in an HESN participant who was homozygous for CCR5Δ32 and therefore genetically resistant to HIV-1 infection (18, 46). Using the more sensitive cultured ELISpot assay, T cell responses were found in both HESNs and HUSNs. Significant differences were found in the frequencies of T cell responses over time, with HESNs more likely to have positive T cell responses than HUSNs. HESNs more often maintained HIV-1-specific T cell responses across visits than HUSNs. Also, among positive responders, T cell responses were of significantly higher magnitude in HESNs than in HUSNs. Given that the cultured ELISpot assay expands antigen-specific cells ...
How vaccines control the development of antigen-specific effector and memory T helper cells is central to protective immunity but remains poorly understood. Here we found that protein vaccination selected high-affinity, CXCR5+ICOS(hi) follicular B-helper T cells (T(FH) cells) that developed in draining lymphoid tissue to regulate B cell responses. In the memory phase, reservoirs of antigen-specific CXCR5+ICOS(lo) T(FH) cells persisted with less effector activity but accelerated antigen-recall ability. This new compartment of memory T(FH) cells was retained in draining lymphoid sites with antigen-specific memory B cells, persistent complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex class II and continued expression of CD69. Thus, protein vaccination promotes B cell immunity by selecting high-affinity effector T(FH) cells and creating lymphoid reservoirs of antigen-specific memory T(FH) cells in vivo ...
T lymphocytes play a primary role in recovery from viral infections and in antiviral immunity. Although viral-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells have been shown to be able to lyse virally infected targets in vitro and promote recovery from lethal infection in vivo, the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes and their mechanism(s) of action in viral immunity are not well understood. The ability to further dissect the role that CD4+ T cells play in the immune response to a number of pathogens has been greatly enhanced by evidence for more extensive heterogeneity among the CD4+ T lymphocytes. To further examine the role of CD4+ T cells in the immune response to influenza infection, we have generated influenza virus-specific CD4+ T cell clones from influenza-primed BALB/c mice with differential cytokine secretion profiles that are defined as T helper type 1 (Th1) clones by the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), or as Th2 clones by the production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. Our ...
Unlike HIV-1-infected people, most HIV-2-infected subjects maintain a healthy CD4+ T cell count and a strong HIV-specific CD4+ T cell response. To define the cellular immunological correlates of good prognosis in HIV-2 infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV Gag-specific T cell function in HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected Gambians. Using cytokine flow cytometry and lymphoproliferation assays, we show that HIV-specific CD4+ T cells from HIV-2-infected individuals maintained proliferative capacity, were not terminally differentiated (CD57-), and more frequently produced IFN-gamma or IL-2 than CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected donors. Polyfunctional (IFN-gamma+/IL-2+) HIV-specific CD4+ T cells were found exclusively in HIV-2+ donors. The disparity in CD4+ T cell responses between asymptomatic HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected subjects was not associated with differences in the proliferative capacity of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. This study demonstrates that HIV-2-infected donors have a well-preserved and
What are the decisive factors that determine which effector cells survive to become long-lived memory cells and which cells die during the contraction phase? We have characterized the transcriptome of effector and memory T cells and identified genetic pathways and several transcription factors that regulate this life or death decision in activated T cells. Our work has helped to outline a model of effector T cell differentiation wherein a small subset of T cells develop into memory precursor cells that are more fit to persist following the first infection than the majority of effector cells. These memory precursor cells develop into long-lived memory T cells that protect against re-infection. Several types of memory T cells, which differ by their phenotypes, functions and anatomical locations, are produced to create a sophisticated, multi-layered defense system. Conceptually, the memory T cells are divided into three subsets: (1) Tissue resident memory T (TRM) cells, which locally reside in ...
The original study of EBV-specific CD8+ responses with HLA class I tetramers was the first to show definitively that Ag-experienced CD8+ T cells in man could be phenotypically heterogeneous in terms of CD45RO vs RA expression and in terms of CD28 status (3). The present work was prompted by our observation that these tetramer-staining CD8+ populations also appeared functionally heterogeneous, in that only 20-40% of tetramer-positive cell numbers were detected in ELISPOT assays of peptide-induced IFN-γ release (21). Our aim was to readdress the much discussed relationship between CD8+ T cell phenotype, type I cytokine production, and cytotoxic capacity (7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 31) with assays specific for the cognate epitope rather than the nonspecific assays (PMA/ionomycin stimulation and anti-CD3 redirected cytotoxicity respectively) that had been used to date. As others have reported (22, 33), we found that staining for the tetramer, CD8, and a third surface marker of choice could be combined with ...
BACKGROUND: The relative immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins for CD8+ and CD4+ cell responses has not been defined. METHODS: HIV-1-specific T cell responses were evaluated in 65 chronically HIV-1-infected untreated subjects by interferon- gamma flow cytometry with peptides spanning the clade C consensus sequence. RESULTS: The magnitude of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses correlated significantly with CD4+ cell responses, but the percentage of CD8+ T cells directed against HIV-1 (median, 2.76%) was always greater than that of CD4+ cells (median, 0.24%). Although CD8+ T cell responses were equally distributed among Gag, Pol, and the regulatory and accessory proteins, Gag was the dominant target for CD4+ cell responses. There was no consistent relationship between virus-specific CD8+ or CD4+ cell response and viral load. However, the median viral load in subjects in whom Gag was the dominant CD8+ T cell target was significantly lower than that in subjects in whom non
T cell function is tightly regulated by a fine balance of coinhibitory signals, including those transduced by 2B4 (SLAMf4, CD244), an immunoglobulin-superfamily member constitutively expressed on NK cells and induced on some T cell subsets. Recent studies from our group suggest that 2B4 plays a functional role in the inhibition of donor-reactive CD8+ T cell responses in vivo in the setting of selective CD28 blockade. These findings raise the possibility that 2B4 itself may be a therapeutic target to attenuate allograft rejection. Thus, we hypothesized that augmenting 2B4 signaling would attenuate graft-specific CD8+ T cell responses following transplantation. To test this, we created 2B4 retrogenic (2B4rg) donor-reactive CD8+ OT-I T cells which ectopically express 2B4. 2B4 retrogenic Thy1.1+ CD8+ T cells (or empty vector-transduced controls) were adoptively transferred into naïve animals. Mice then received an OVA-expressing skin graft and were sacrificed ten days later. Data show that ...
T cells are critical to generate early control and clearance of many viral infections of the respiratory system (3). Recent studies in transgenic mouse models provided evidence that T cells are also important for viral clearance and disease resolution after SARS-CoV-2 infection (4). Hence, it is expected that T cell activation has emerged as a hallmark of acute COVID-19, probably as a consequence of an early SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immune response (5-9). Although early T cell responses may play a critical role in dampening disease severity, there are also reports describing a dysregulated and unchecked T cell activation pattern in severe cases (10-12). Increased T cell activation in severe cases likely reflects increased antigen levels in the respiratory system, but whether the early T cell response reaches a state of exhaustion in individuals with severe hyperinflammation remains to be determined. Furthermore, given that COVID-19 is a disease of the respiratory tract, it will be important ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiation of CD8 T cells in response to acute and chronic viral infections. T2 - Implications for HIV vaccine development. AU - Miller, J. D.. AU - Masopust, D.. AU - Wherry, E. J.. AU - Kaech, S.. AU - Silvestri, G.. AU - Ahmed, R.. PY - 2005/6/1. Y1 - 2005/6/1. N2 - Successful HIV vaccine strategies will likely require the induction of robust cellular immune responses, in addition to strong humoral responses. Unfortunately, there is no clear molecular definition of an effective HIV-specific CD8 T cell response. In this review, we discuss the differentiation of CD8 T cells in response to acute and chronic viral infections. We then apply concepts derived from these studies to predict the desirable characteristics of HIV-specific CD8 T cell memory.. AB - Successful HIV vaccine strategies will likely require the induction of robust cellular immune responses, in addition to strong humoral responses. Unfortunately, there is no clear molecular definition of an effective ...
It was hypothesized that the EBV-specific CD8(+) T cell response may be dysregulated in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, possibly leading to a suboptimal control of this virus.
TY - JOUR. T1 - T-cell exhaustion in HIV infection. AU - El-Far, Mohamed. AU - Halwani, Rabih. AU - Said, Elias. AU - Trautmann, Lydie. AU - Doroudchi, Mehrnoosh. AU - Janbazian, Loury. AU - Fonseca, Simone. AU - Van Grevenynghe, Julien. AU - Yassine-Diab, Bader. AU - Sékaly, Rafick Pierre. AU - Haddad, Elias K.. PY - 2008/2. Y1 - 2008/2. N2 - Generation of memory T cells, which mediate immunity against microbes and cancers, relies, for optimal activity, on the interactions of multiple cell types that are highly regulated through the expression of soluble factors and negative and positive receptors. Their disruption will lead to aberrant immune responses, which can result in the invasion of the host by foreign pathogens. In chronic viral infections including HIV and hepatitis C virus, persistence of antigen and lack of CD4 help (HIV) disrupt memory T-cell function and induce defects in memory T-cell responses, which have been defined as T-cell exhaustion. In this review, we examine the ...
The specificity of T cells is determined by the TCR. T cell populations activated and expanded during most in vivo antigen challenges are highly complex, with diverse TCR repertoires, complicating the detection of these cells. The ideal reagent to identify complex epitope-specific T cell populations would be the natural ligand of the TCR, the MHC/epitope complex. However, the affinity of the TCR-MHC/epitope interaction is very low; the association is characterized by a particularly high dissociation rate. To increase the overall avidity of this interaction, MHC/epitope complexes are multimerized into e.g. tetramers. MHC tetramer reagents conjugated with a fluorescent dye can be used in flow cytometry, allowing highly specific detection and isolation of (complex) epitope specific T cell populations directly ex vivo.. The generation of MHC class I multimer reagents has become well established over the past few years. Beta-2-microglobulin and the heavy chains (HC) of MHC molecules are expressed as ...
Purpose: NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a tumor specific antigen of the Cancer/Testis group, is presently viewed as an important model antigen for the development of generic anti-cancer vaccines. The ESO119-143 region is immunodominant following immunization with a recombinant ESO vaccine. In this study, we have generate DRB1*0101/ESO119-143 tetramers and used them to assess CD4 T cell responses in vaccinated patients expressing DR1. Experimental design: We generated tetramers of DRB1*0101 incorporating peptide ESO119-143 using a previously described strategy. We assessed ESO119-143 specific CD4 T cells in peptide-stimulated post-vaccine cultures using the tetramers. We isolated DR1/ESO119-143 tetramer+ cells by cell sorting and characterized them functionally. We assessed vaccine-induced CD4+ DR1/ESO119-143 tetramer+ T cells ex vivo and characterized them phenotypically. Results: Staining of cultures from vaccinated patients with DR1/ESO119-143 tetramers identified vaccine-induced CD4 T cells. Tetramer+ cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased frequency of cytotoxic CXCR5+effector memory CD8+T cells during natural control of HIV-1 infection. AU - Adams, P.. AU - Iserentant, G.. AU - Servais, J-Y. AU - Pannus, P.. AU - Rutsaert, S.. AU - Van Frankehuijsen, M.. AU - De Wit, S.. AU - Allard, S. D.. AU - Messiaen, P.. AU - Moutschen, M.. AU - Aerts, J. L.. AU - Vandekerckhove, L.. AU - Vanham, G.. AU - Devaux, C.. N1 - NPP. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. M3 - Conference abstract in journal. VL - 20. SP - 42. EP - 43. JO - HIV Medicine. JF - HIV Medicine. SN - 1464-2662. ER - ...
Purpose: NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a tumor-specific antigen of the cancer/testis group, is presently viewed as an important model antigen for the development of generic anticancer vaccines. The ESO119-143 region is immunodominant following immunization with a recombinant ESO vaccine. In this study, we generated DRB1*0101/ESO119-143 tetramers and used them to assess CD4 T-cell responses in vaccinated patients expressing DRB1*0101 (DR1).. Experimental Design: We generated tetramers of DRB1*0101 incorporating peptide ESO119-143 using a previously described strategy. We assessed ESO119-143-specific CD4 T cells in peptide-stimulated postvaccine cultures using the tetramers. We isolated DR1/ESO119-143 tetramer+ cells by cell sorting and characterized them functionally. We assessed vaccine-induced CD4+ DR1/ESO119-143 tetramer+ T cells ex vivo and characterized them phenotypically.. Results: Staining of cultures from vaccinated patients with DR1/ESO119-143 tetramers identified vaccine-induced CD4 T cells. ...
The adoptive transfer of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or TCR-redirected peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) is a promising treatment for patients with metastatic cancer (48, 49). The experiments described in this report show that small numbers of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells engineered to produce high levels of IL-12 can lead to the regression of large vascularized tumors without the need for exogenous IL-2 or vaccine in lymphodepleted hosts. The marked improvement in treatment was associated with an increase in tumor infiltration by adoptively transferred T cells, along with an increase in endogenous NK cells and endogenous CD8+ T cells from the reconstituting host. Based on the delayed kinetics of tumor destruction, modulation of endogenous host immune cells likely plays an important role in facilitating tumor destruction, but the effect of host NK cells and CD8+ T cells remains unclear.. Nevertheless, one of our key findings in this study included isolating ...
Mono-7D6-Fab co-potentiated TCR/CD3 signaling in response to weak pMHC antigens that possessed a critical minimal antigenic strength. Here, we present the main model of receptor co-potentiation by an otherwise intrinsically inert monovalent Fab (fig. S8). Ligation of TCR/CD3 by weak antigens induces weak signal transduction and weak T cell responses (fig. S8A). In contrast, ligation by anti-TCR/CD3 monovalent Fab is inert, inducing no classical signal transduction and producing no functional T cell response even though such Fab binding may induce biophysical alteration to the receptor (fig. S8B). The co-potentiation principle states that weak antigenic ligation plus intrinsically inert monovalent Fab ligation can synergize to enhance TCR signaling and T cell responses (fig. S8C).. The identification of specific properties displayed by Mono-7D6-Fab permitted an investigation of the co-potentiation concept. Mono-7D6-Fab did not impede pMHC:TCR interactions and did not intrinsically induce TCR/CD3 ...
An adoptive transfer system was used to monitor physically the behavior of a trace population of TCR transgenic T cells in vivo. After subcutaneous injection of antigen in adjuvant, the antigen-specific cells accumulated first in the paracortical region of the draining lymph nodes, proliferated ther …
Due to an increase in its expression following the activation of B-cells and T-cells, CD44 can serve as a valuable marker for memory cells. Furthermore, the upregulation of CD44 expression is sustained on effector cells and memory cells after the immune response has subsided, so CD44 expression can also be used as an indicator of prior exposure to an antigen. However, little is currently known about its function of T cells. Recent studies have suggested that the CD44 signaling pathway may be involved in ensuring proper T cell effector responses by providing contextual signals at various anatomical sites. CD44 ligation may also promote T cell survival through the augmentation of T cell activation in response to an antigen. Studies also suggest that CD44 may contribute to both the regulation of the contraction phase of an immune response and the maintenance of immune tolerance. Furthermore, CD44 may play a role in ensuring the functional fitness of memory T cells once the memory stage has been ...
of research plan for MERIT extension. Memory T cell populations with a history of repeated antigen exposure will be generated in humans due to recurring infecti...
Inflammatory reactions are believed to be triggered by innate signals and have a major protective role by recruiting innate immunity cells, favoring lymphocyte activation and differentiation, and thus contributing to the sequestration and elimination of the injurious stimuli. Although certain lymphocyte types such as TH17 cells co-participate in inflammatory reactions, their generation from the naïve pool requires the pre-existence of an inflammatory milieu. In this context, inflammation is always regarded as beginning with an innate response that may be eventually perpetuated and amplified by certain lymphocyte types. In contrast, we here show that even in sterile immunizations or in MyD88 deficient mice, CD8 T cells produce a burst of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These functions follow opposite rules to the classic CD8 effector functions since they are generated prior to cell expansion and decline before antigen elimination. As few as 56 CD8+ inflammatory effector cells in a lymph node
A novel clinical-grade CD40L reagent was developed to test the hypothesis that immunization with functionally mature IL-12p70-producing DCs elicits effective CD8+ T immunity in patients with newly diagnosed advanced melanoma. Immunological responses to the gp100 antigen were observed in 6 of the 7 treated patients, while clinical response (as defined by RECIST criteria) was observed in 3 of 7 patients. Importantly, IL-12p70 levels produced by patient-derived CD40L/IFN-γ-activated mDCs as well as the development of antitumor Tc1 CD8+ T cell immunity correlated with TTP. Impairment in IL-12p70 production by CD40L/IFN-γ activated mDCs was observed in the 4 clinical nonresponder patients (all with Tc2-skewed immunity), and this deficiency resulted from impaired IL-12p35 subunit transcription. However, incorporating TLR3 and TLR8 signals with CD40L/IFN-γ activation corrected the IL-12p70 production defect in clinical nonresponder patient DCs, suggesting new ways to improve vaccine efficacy in ...
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Irreversible T cell exhaustion limits the efficacy of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) blockade. We observed that dual CD40-TLR4 stimulation within a single tumor restored PD-1 sensitivity and that this regimen triggered a systemic tumor-specific CD8+ T cell response. This approach effectively treated established tumors in diverse syngeneic cancer models, and the systemic effect was dependent on the injected tumor, indicating that treated tumors were converted into necessary components of this therapy. Strikingly, this approach was associated with the absence of exhausted PD-1hi T cells in treated and distant tumors, while sparing the intervening draining lymph node and spleen. Furthermore, patients with transcription changes like those induced by this therapy experienced improved progression-free survival with anti-PD-1 treatment. Dual CD40-TLR4 activation within a single tumor is thus an approach for overcoming resistance to PD-1 blockade that is unique in its ability to cause the loss of ...
We used flow cytometry to investigate the percentage of IL-17-expressing blood T cells ex vivo in 49 healthy controls. Nonadherent PBMCs were stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, and IL-17. No IL-17-producing T cells were detected in the absence of activation (unpublished data). Upon activation with PMA-ionomycin, the percentage of CD3-positive cells producing IL-17 ranged from 0.06 to 2% (Fig. 1, A and B). The vast majority (,90%) of IL-17-positive cells were CD4-positive and CD8-negative (unpublished data). Thus, within the general population, there is considerable interindividual variability in the numbers of IL-17-producing cells present among freshly isolated T cells activated ex vivo. This makes it difficult to assess the impact of genetic lesions on the development of IL-17-producing T cells. We tested nine patients with null mutations in IRAK4 or MYD88, whose cells were unresponsive to IL-1β (and most TLRs and other IL-1 cytokine family members). The proportion of IL-17-producing T cells was not ...
KALINA, Tomáš, Jan STUCHLÝ, Aleš JANDA, Ondřej HRUŠÁK, Šárka RŮŽIČKOVÁ, Anna ŠEDIVÁ, Jiří LITZMAN a Marcela VLKOVÁ. Profiling of polychromatic flow cytometry data on B cells reveals. \textit{Cytometry Part A}. UNITED STATES: John Wiley \&{} Sons, Inc., 2009, roč.~75A, č.~11, s.~902-909. ISSN~1552-4922 ...
Inflammatory responses play decisive roles at different stages of tumor development, including initiation, promotion, malignant conversion, invasion, and metastasis. Inflammation also affects immune surveillance and responses to therapy. Immune cells that infiltrate tumors engage in an extensive and …
CD4+ T cells play a major role in adaptive immune responses to intracellular and extracellular microbes by regulating the functions of B cells, CD8+ T cells, an...
In order to more effectively address the expansion of type 2 diabetes worldwide, this study investigated the role that stressors and the stress response play in the development of diabetes. This study analyzed clinical ...
MHC Tetramers for detecting specific T-cell populations. Easy immuophenotyping of your t-cell sample! Class I and II antigen specific tetramers available.
Oxford Immunotec releases the T-SPOT Discovery SARS-CoV-2 kit for research into measuring the T cell immune response to SARS-CoV-2, which may offer new insights into immunity to COVID-19 ...
Many T lymphocytes were identified by these authors positive to CD4 and CD8. Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a ... The foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin are positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68 as pointed out by Nakashiro et al. in ... Under microscope, the cellular infiltrate includes neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, erythrocytes, hemosiderin-laden ...
The most activity was observed during the subacute phase with an increase in CD8 and CD4 lymphocytes. At this phase, clusters ... During the chronic phase, a high amount of CD4 T- cells and a few IgM-positive B-cells were observed. Infections of chickens ... Within the synovium collected, plasma cells and T-lymphocytes were the primary inflammatory cells present. During the acute- ... and T and B-lymphocytes were observed to determine its effects on cellular infiltrates during the development of reovirus ...
The number of CMV memory CD8 + T lymphocytes then predominate and the total number of available naïve T lymphocytes decrease. ... CD8+T cells form up to 50 % of all peripheral blood memory cells in HCV-positive elderly individuals. The same effect on the ... This results in a population of migrating effector CD8 + T-lymphocytes and the second small population called central memory T- ... Immune response against CMV is primarily provided by CD8 + T cells which recognize viral fragments in MHC class I complex on ...
CD8-positive) T cells against infected B lymphocytes, resulting in enlarged, atypical lymphocytes (Downey cells). When the ... When positive, they feature similar specificity to the heterophile antibody test. Therefore, these tests are useful for ... The atypical lymphocytes resembled monocytes when they were first discovered, thus the term "mononucleosis" was coined. A ... Usually, a person with IM has few, if any, further symptoms or problems from the latent B lymphocyte infection. However, in ...
On the contrary, it was stressed: "Interferon-γ secreted by CD8-positive lymphocytes upregulates PD-L1 on ovarian cancer cells ... It was also shown to be produced in human lymphocytes. or tuberculin-sensitized mouse peritoneal lymphocytes challenged with ... and by CD4 Th1 and CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector T cells once antigen-specific immunity develops as part of the ... The mechanism by which IFN-γ benefits CGD is via enhancing the efficacy of neutrophils against catalase-positive bacteria by ...
Homozygous mutant animals had abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytes, specifically decreased CD8-positive T cell and NK cell ... numbers and an increase in CD4-positive T cells. The mice also had an abnormal integument phenotype determined by a study of ...
... positive for both CD4 and CD8). The final stage in maturation is the single positive stage (positive for either CD4 or CD8). In ... Additionally, other non-T hematopoietic lineages can develop in the thymus, including B lymphocytes (B cells), Natural Killer ... At this stage thymocytes upregulate both CD4 and CD8, becoming double positive cells. Double positive thymocytes that have a T ... Expression of both CD4 and CD8 makes them double positive, and matures into either CD4+ or CD8+ cells. Thymocytes are ...
CD8 positive T cell; a T cell receptor that binds mostly to MHC class II tends to produce a CD4 positive T cell. T cells that ... B cells and T cells were identified as different types of lymphocytes in 1968, and the fact that T cells required maturation in ... The subtypes of T cells (CD8 and CD4) were identified by 1975. The way that these subclasses of T cells matured - positive ... Some CD4 positive T cells exposed to self antigens persist as T regulatory cells. As the thymus is where T cells develop, ...
Foreign antigens presented by MHC class I attract T-lymphocytes called killer T-cells (also referred to as CD8-positive or ... HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. These ... A representative cellular assay is the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and used to determine the HLA class II types. The ... particular antigens stimulate the multiplication of T-helper cells (also called CD4-positive T cells), which in turn stimulate ...
... are proliferated and differentiated to the double positive (DP) stages. These CD4+ and CD8+ double positive T lymphocytes ... Double negative (DN) T cells, as a progenitors with CD44 and CD25 expression but lack of CD4 and CD8 coreceptor expression, ... T lymphocytes. These single positive cells migrate out of the cortex to the medulla, where the process continues as a negative ... These factors partake in positive selection of T cells. Specific markers on the surface of cTEC are Ly51 and CD 205 and even ...
... shown an inflammatory response consisting of CD3/CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes, variable numbers of eosinophils and mast ...
... or CD8-positive lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells, and exhibits interstitial fibrosis and acinar cell atrophy in later ... It has been proposed that a cytologic smear primarily composed of acini rich in chronic inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, plasma ... Histopathologic examination of the pancreas shows fibrotic changes with lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltrate. For diagnosis, ...
... cd8-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569.220.200 - t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569.500 - t ... cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569.200.400 - t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569. ... b-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.550.500 - t-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.562 - b-lymphocytes MeSH ... lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.622 - lymphocytes, null MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.650 - lymphocytes, tumor- ...
... cd8-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567.569.220.200 - t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567. ... t-lymphocytes, regulatory MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569.220 - cd8-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569.220.200 - ... t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567.569.200 - cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567.569.200.400 - t- ... cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569.200.400 - t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569. ...
... for ALPS Mild elevations also found in other autoimmune diseases Thought to be cytotoxic T lymphocytes that have lost CD8 ... Can have antibodies to blood cells (DAT, anti-neutrophil, anti-platelet). Also, can have positive ANA, RF, ANCA Defective in ... Sirolimus may not be as immune suppressive in normal lymphocytes as other agents. Some patients have had improvement in immune ... 2009). "FAS-L, IL-10, and double-negative CD4−CD8− TCR α/β+ T cells are reliable markers of autoimmune lymphoproliferative ...
T-PLL has the immunophenotype of a mature (post-thymic) T-lymphocyte, and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T ... The immunophenotype CD4+/CD8- is present in 60% of cases, the CD4+/CD8+ immunophenotype is present in 25%, and the CD4-/CD8+ ... A high lymphocyte count (> 100 x 109/L) along with low amounts of red blood cells and platelets in the blood are common ... In the peripheral blood, T-PLL consists of medium-sized lymphocytes with single nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm with ...
CD7 positive T cells, CD3 negative, CD4 positive T cells, or CD3 positive, CD4 negative, CD8 negative T cells) and is thought ... In on study of 16 lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia patients with the aberrant CD3 negative, CD41 positive immunophenotype, ... in T-cells or the proliferation of lymphocytes with the CD3 negative, CD41 positive immunophenotype may occur during the ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia is a disorder attributed to the expansion of a cytokine-producing, aberrant population of ...
... and different lymphocyte subtypes, reacting to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD138. The sensitivity of McDonald criteria is low with ... In order to reduce false positives, McDonald et al. propose that their criteria should be applied only after any other disease ... of positives in the follow up using as reference the 2010 criteria after a follow-up of 3.8 ± 2.9 years. No reduction in ... ", "dissemination" and a "positive MRI", etc. Later they were revised again in 2017. McDonald criteria are the standard ...
Primary cutaneous CD8-positive aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma Primary cutaneous acral CD8-positive T-cell ... Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma Classic Hodgkin lymphoma Nodular sclerosis classic Hodgkin lymphoma Lymphocyte- ... leg type EBV-positive DLBCL, NOS EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer DLBCL associated with chronic inflammation Fibrin-associated ... ALK-positive Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-negative Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma Hodgkin ...
CD8-positive) subset, similar populations appear to exist for both the helper T cells (CD4-positive) and the cytotoxic T cells ... Effector memory T cells (TEM): TEM and TEMRA lymphocytes are primarily active as the CD8 variants, thus being mainly ... Those lymphocytes are capable of self-renewal as are the TCM lymphocytes and are also capable of generating both the TCM and ... Although CD8 virtual memory T cells were the first to be described, it is now known that CD4 virtual memory cells also exist. ...
T cells with functionally stable TCRs express both the CD4 and CD8 co-receptors and are therefore termed "double-positive" (DP ... Then, T-lymphocytes become memory T cells. This type of T cells are those that have been in contact with the antigen at least ... Those cells that survive positive and negative selection differentiate into single-positive T cells (either CD4+ or CD8+), ... MHC1 for CD8, MHC2 for CD4). In this case, the cells would have been presented antigen in the context of MHC1. Positive ...
Von Boehmer studied the role of T lymphocytes in the immune system. In particular he addressed the contribution of the T cell ... Questions concerned with the role of positive and negative selection of developing T cells by peptide-MHC complexes in the ... Nature 261, 141 (1976). Allo-MHC-restricted CD4 and CD8 T cells in hemopoietic chimeras reveal plasticity of MHC-restricted ... Harald von Boehmer (30 November 1942 - 24 June 2018) was a German-Swiss immunologist best known for his work on T lymphocytes. ...
Women who test positive for thyroid antibodies may be at increased risk of developing symptoms associated with postpartum ... CD8 ratio) TSH-receptor antibodies (TSH-R Abs) This condition is commonly undiagnosed by physicians due to either unfamiliarity ... increase in TPOAb subclasses IgG1-IgG3 lymphocyte infiltration and follicle formation within thyroid gland (Hashimoto's ...
The polymorphous infiltrate consists of lymphocytes of moderate size with pale/clear cytoplasm and smaller reactive lymphocytes ... AITL typically has the phenotype of a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, with a CD4:CD8 ratio greater than unity. Polyclonal ... and positive rheumatoid factor. The normal architecture of a lymph node is partially effaced by a polymorphous infiltrate and ...
"Clonal expansion of lymphocytes bearing the gamma delta T-cell receptor in a patient with large granular lymphocyte disorder". ... Immunohistochemistry for perforin, TIA-1, and granzyme B are usually positive. Clonal rearrangements of the T-cell receptor ( ... are transformed CD8+ T-cell with clonal rearrangements of β chain T-cell receptor genes for the majority of cases and a CD8- T- ... The neoplastic lymphocytes seen in this disease are large in size with azurophilic granules that contains proteins involved in ...
CTLs are also called CD8+ T-cells, because they have CD8 co-receptors that bind to MHC class I molecules. Most cells in the ... Hence, if a tetramer stain specific for a pathogenic peptide results in a positive signal, this may indicate that the person's ... "The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types". Anatomy and Physiology II. Lumen Learning. Retrieved ... Tetramer stains usually analyze cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) populations. ...
CD8αα homodimer is an alternative isoform to classical CD8αβ heterodimer, which is expressed on conventional CD8 T-cells. CD8αα ... TCRαβ+ IELs develop in thymus where they undergo agonist positive selection and thereby are self-reactive. Nevertheless, they ... One subset of IELs typically express activation marker CD8αα and some IELs express CD8αβ+ marker (CD8αβ promotes TCR activation ... These innate lymphocytes express homodimer CD8αα and CD3 and develop outside of thymus. They have cytotoxic and phagocytic ...
... rearrangement of a reactive TCR supports survival and restriction of expression to CD4 or CD8 alone on single-positive ... CD83 expression correlates with rate of activation of B lymphocytes and it is under control of the B cell receptor, CD40, or ... Upregulation of MHC II turnover on thymic nurse cells by CD83 may enlarge the population of CD4+ single-positive thymocytes. T ... A MARCH1 knockout mouse shows accumulation of MHC II, which leads to reduced CD4+ T lymphocyte activation and reduced IL-12 ...
It measures the density of two T lymphocyte populations (CD3/CD8, CD3/CD45RO or CD8/CD45RO) in the center and at the periphery ... It is based on Jerome Galon's finding from 2006 which revealed a positive association of cytotoxic and memory T cells with ...
This is called positive selection. During positive selection, co-receptors CD4 and CD8 initiate a signaling cascade following ... When primary lymphocytes are developing and differentiating in the thymus or bone marrow, T cells die by apoptosis if they ... It follows that MHC restriction is imposed by CD4 and CD8 co-receptors during positive selection of T cell selection. A ... T cell maturation involves two distinct developmental stages: positive selection and negative selection. Positive selection ...
The molecule's positive charge allows for binding to phospholipids and cardiolipin, both of which can be found as epitopes on ... Ma LL, Spurrell JC, Wang JF, Neely GG, Epelman S, Krensky AM, Mody CH (November 2002). "CD8 T cell-mediated killing of ... Donlon TA, Krensky AM, Clayberger C (1990). "Localization of the human T lymphocyte activation gene 519 (D2S69E) to chromosome ... Granulysin plays a role in a myriad of diseases, where it can be a positive or negative influence on the immune response. In ...
All of these lymphocytes act, at least in part, by secreting IL-10 and other suppressive cytokines.[citation needed] CD4+ T ... 2014). "CD8 T Cell Exhaustion in Human Visceral Leishmaniasis". J. Infect. Dis. 209 (2): 290-99. doi:10.1093/infdis/jit401. PMC ... A second rapid test (called latex agglutination test) gave correct, positive results in 64% of the people with the disease and ... There is a 9.6 fold increase in IL-10 expressing CD8+ T cells among PBMC lymphocytes from PKDL patients. In the one study of T ...
For example, patients with tumors have a local relative excess of Foxp3 positive T cells which inhibits the body's ability to ... These mice have overproliferation of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, extensive multiorgan infiltration, and elevation of numerous cytokines ... Foxp3 is a recruiter of other anti-tumor enzymes such as CD39 and CD8. The overexpression of CD39 is found in patients with ... The induction or administration of Foxp3 positive T cells has, in animal studies, led to marked reductions in (autoimmune) ...
To prove this, several hundred experimental repopulation kinetics from clonal Thy-1lo SCA-1+ lin−(B220, CD4, CD8, Gr-1, Mac-1 ... In shape, hematopoietic stem cells resemble lymphocytes. The very first hematopoietic stem cells during (mouse and human) ... Lack of expression of lineage markers is used in combination with detection of several positive cell-surface markers to isolate ... Colony-forming unit-lymphocyte (CFU-L) Colony-forming unit-erythrocyte (CFU-E) Colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU- ...
PTHB1 Bare lymphocyte syndrome, type I; 604571; TAP1 Bare lymphocyte syndrome, type I; 604571; TAPBP Bare lymphocyte syndrome, ... CD59 CD8 deficiency, familial; 608957; CD8A Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome; 212780; LRP4 Central core disease; 117000; RYR1 ... B-cell/natural killer-cell positive; 608971; CD3D Severe combined immunodeficiency, T cell-negative, B-cell/natural killer-cell ... MHC2TA Bare lymphocyte syndrome, type II, complementation group C; 209920; RFX5 Bare lymphocyte syndrome, type II, ...
This includes negative changes like inflammation due to misfolded proteins and positive changes such as avoidance of ... "JAML promotes CD8 and γδ T cell antitumor immunity and is a novel target for cancer immunotherapy". Journal of Experimental ... intraepithelial lymphocyte's. Havran has also made significant discoveries such as that discrete γδ T cell subsets come from ... T cells and IgE team up to prevent tumors JAML promotes CD8 and gamma 8 T cell antitumor immunity and is a novel target for ...
Vremec D, Pooley J, Hochrein H, Wu L, Shortman K (March 2000). "CD4 and CD8 expression by dendritic cell subtypes in mouse ... Removal of sialic acid residues from the surface of tumor cells makes them available to NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes ... Natural high genomic stability of SeV is a positive feature for it potential use as a vaccine vector or as an oncolytic agent. ... SeV activates natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and dendritic cells (DC). The secretion of interleukin-6 ...
... s, also known as NK cells or large granular lymphocytes (LGL), are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical ... NK cells apparently evolved as an evolutionary response to this adaptation (the loss of the MHC eliminates CD4/CD8 action, so ... CD56dim NK cells are always CD16 positive (CD16 is the key mediator of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). ... Pross HF, Jondal M (August 1975). "Cytotoxic lymphocytes from normal donors. A functional marker of human non-T lymphocytes". ...
... hemizygous mutant males had decreased CD4-positive and CD8-positive T cell numbers. RBBP7 has been shown to interact with: ... ". "Peripheral blood lymphocytes data for Rbbp7". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[dead link] Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger ...
"Laboratory control values for CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Implications for HIV-1 diagnosis". Clinical and Experimental ... National Institutes of Health guidelines recommend treatment of any HIV-positive individuals, regardless of CD4 count Normal ... They are called helper cells because one of their main roles is to send signals to other types of immune cells, including CD8 ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ...
CD8+ T lymphocytes destroy melanocytes in some parts of the skin what manifest like white spots on the skin. Multiple genes as ... TRM cells positive for this marker produce perforin and IFNɤ. On the other side, TRM without CD49a expression produce IL-17. ... Skin-resident memory CD8⁺ T cells trigger a state of tissue-wide pathogen alert". Science. 346 (6205): 101-5. doi:10.1126/ ... Cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes are able to recognize malignant cells. Production of neoantigens by tumour cells can lead to ...
It triggers a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) response and thus, it is cleared rapidly by the host. This is referred to ... It was the original model when first studied focused on CD-8 T cells response towards LCMV infection. In addition, a better ... indicates that it must first be transcribed into a positive mRNA strand before it can be translated into the required proteins ... Their key experiment involved harvesting of splenocytes containing LCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTL) from an infected ...
IFNγ and lymphocytes prevent primary tumor development and shape tumor immunogenicity. Nature 410, pp. 1107-1111. Smyth, M.J., ... TNF may in turn increase local immunosuppression and impair the effector functions of CD8 T cells (Donia M. et al., 2015). The ... Cancer immunotherapy by antisense suppression of Ii protein in MHC-class-II-positive tumor cells. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. ... The critical need for CD4 help in maintaining effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte Responses. J. Exp. Med. 188:12, pp. 2199-2204. ...
... therefore during the positive selection these cells are chosen for maturation. The threshold for positive and negative ... Lck (or lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is a 56 kDa protein that is found inside specialized cells of the immune ... The role of the Lck is less prominent in the activation or in the maintenance of memory CD8 T cells in comparison to CD4 T ... The T cells maturation occurs in the thymus and it is regulated by a threshold that defines the limit between the positive and ...
The association of AS with HLA-B27 suggests the condition involves CD8 T cells, which interact with HLA-B. This interaction is ... There is, however, a possibility that CD4+ T lymphocytes are involved in an aberrant way, since HLA-B27 appears to have a ... Over 85% of people that have been diagnosed with AS are HLA-B27 positive, although this ratio varies from population to ... tendon-bone attachments Family history for axial spondyloarthritis or other associated rheumatic/autoimmune conditions Positive ...
Members of a healthy gut microbiome have been shown to increase interferon-γ-producing CD8 T-cells and tumor-infiltrating ... The human microbiome modulates the host immune in positive ways to help defend itself from potential pathogens but can also ... is a pathogen-specific immune response that is carried out by lymphocytes through antigen presentation on MHC molecules to ... Not only do these CD8 T-cells enhance resistance against intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes but they also ...
... or of infiltration of the epithelium lining by the types of lymphocytes seen in celiac disease. The lymphocytes in these ... Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK positive (ALCL,ALK+): ALCL,ALK+ is a subtype of anaplastic large cell lymphoma. It commonly ... CD8, or CD56. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS): PTCL-NOS is a heterogenous group of T cell ... Unlike MEITL, it is more commonly due to the proliferation of NK rather than T cell lymphocytes, in all cases is caused by ...
MAIT cells were initially specified as T cells that do not express the TCR co-receptors CD4 or CD8 on the cell surface. However ... MAIT cells constitute a subset of αβ T lymphocytes characterized by a semi-invariant T cell receptor alpha (TCRα) chain. The ... Here, T cells rearrange their TCRs and are subjected to TCR affinity tests as a part of positive selection and negative ... MAIT cells are most common in the liver, where they usually comprise 20-40% of the T lymphocyte population. Moreover, ...
IVL fall into three different forms based on the type of lymphocyte causing the disease. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma ( ... and/or CD8) as well as EBV marker proteins and/or small RNAs but usually not B-cell or NK-cell marker proteins. Patients with ... Epstein-Barr virus positive with multiorgan involvement: a clinical dilemma". BMC Cancer. 18 (1): 1115. doi:10.1186/s12885-018- ... Almost all other tyes of lymphoma involve the proliferation and accumulation of malignant lymphocytes in lymph nodes, other ...
CD8-positive T-lymphocytes Remove constraint Subject term: CD8-positive T-lymphocytes Text availability Citation in PubAg ... CD8-positive T-lymphocytes; animal injuries; animal models; biotin; cerebrospinal fluid; cytokines; enzyme-linked immunosorbent ... 1. CD8 T cell-derived perforin aggravates secondary spinal cord injury through destroying the blood-spinal cord barrier ...
Cancer stem-like cells evade CD8+CD103+ tumor-resident memory T (TRM) lymphocytes by initiating an epithelial-to-mesenchymal ... vaccine-induced CD4 T cells confer protective immunity in a mouse model of multiple myeloma through activation of CD8 T cells ...
CD4/CD8 lymphocyte counts in healthy, HIV-positive individuals & AIDS patients.. Authors: Ray, Krishna. Gupta, S M. Bala, Manju ... Ray K, Gupta SM, Bala M, Muralidhar S, Kumar J. CD4/CD8 lymphocyte counts in healthy, HIV-positive individuals & AIDS patients ... BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The enumeration of CD4 and CD8 positive cells, surrogate markers for HIV disease progression, is ... In assessing the degree of immune deficiency in HIV-positive patients of a particular region, knowledge of reference range of T ...
... may represent a CD8+T cell-mediated, organ-specific autoimmune disease in which as yet elusive autoantigens are recognized, ... CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes * GPI-Linked Proteins / immunology * Hair Follicle / immunology* * Humans ... However, natural killer group 2D-positive (NKG2D+) cells (incl. NK, NKT, and CD8+T cells) and NKG2D-activating ligands from the ... Alopecia areata (AA) may represent a CD8+T cell-mediated, organ-specific autoimmune disease in which as yet elusive ...
CD8-, and CD45RO-positive lymphocytes. High MAGE-A expression was significantly associated with shorter metastasis-free ... Czito et al reported on the use of adjuvant radiotherapy after resection of T3 or T4 and/or node-positive UTUC. In this ... 263 patients with LN-positive UTUC underwent full surgical resection. Study group (n=107, 41%) received three to six cycles of ... The 30-day perioperative mortality is 1.8%. The risk of a positive surgical margin is 8.5%. [74] ...
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. EN. dc.subject. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes. EN. ... T-Lymphocytes. EN. dc.title. T-lymphocyte subsets and thymic size in malnourished infants in Egypt: a hospital-based study. EN ... Thymus size was assessed ultrasonographically and correlated to the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood ... T-lymphocyte subsets and thymic size in malnourished infants in Egypt: a hospital-based study. Nassar, M ...
However, no increased number of CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes was observed in the group that received Neoplasmoxan. ... macrophages and CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes were evaluated. Results: It was observed that administration of ...
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes; Melanoma; Neoplasms; Signal Transduction; Killer Cells, Natural; pembrolizumab ... activating NK cells and CD8 T cells in various solid tumors. Part B now allows for the pembrolizumab combination phase of this ...
HIV antibodies were undetectable, and CD4/CD8 lymphocyte counts were within reference ranges. No mediastinal or lung ... An aspiration specimen of the lymph node showed positive AFB staining and was submitted for molecular biologic analysis. M. ... staining of the lymph-node aspiration specimen yielded positive results; however, findings on solid media culture and PCR for ...
Reddehase, M.J.; Mutter, W.; Münch, K.; Bühring, H.J.; Koszinowski, U.H. CD8-positive T lymphocytes specific for murine ... Wikby, A.; Johansson, B.; Olsson, J.; Löfgren, S.; Nilsson, B.O.; Ferguson, F. Expansions of peripheral blood CD8 T-lymphocyte ... The CMV-Specific CD8+ T Cell Response Is Dominated by Supra-Public Clonotypes with High Generation Probabilities by Kilian ... "The CMV-Specific CD8+ T Cell Response Is Dominated by Supra-Public Clonotypes with High Generation Probabilities" Pathogens 9, ...
... of CD8 cells were found to be PD-1-positive, whereas in 4T1 tumors less than 30% of CD8 cells were positive for PD-1 (n = 4 for ... B) Highest number of lymphocytes was isolated from largest tumors, 4T1. (C) Percentage of CD8 cells that expressed PD-1 varied ... 2C). In LLC and A9F1 tumors, over 97% of CD8+ cells were found to be PD-1-positive, whereas in 4T1 tumors, less than 30% of CD8 ... 18F-AraG Signal Correlates with Number of PD-1-Positive CD8 Cells. To evaluate the ability of 18F-AraG to report on the ...
Most lymphocytes are T-cells (CD3 positive) and variably express nuclear TdT. Variable expression of CD4 and CD8 (smear pattern ... The flow cytometry profile of CD10 positive T-cell population with variable CD4 and CD8 is characteristic of thymic lymphocytes ... Once differentiated, almost all normal mature T-cells are either CD4 or CD8 positive, but never express both. Clonal T-cell ... Thymoma T-lymphocytes demonstrate variable expression (smear pattern) of CD4 and CD8 antigens. (e) ...
CD8 Antigens use Antigens, CD8. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes. CD80 Antigens use Antigens, CD80 ...
TIGIT,sup,+,/sup, lymphocytes were seen in all 86 different tumour entities with considerable high variability of TIGIT ... Particularly, high densities of TIGIT,sup,+,/sup, lymphocytes were, for example, seen in squamous cell cancers of various ... The high frequency of TIGIT (and PD-1) expressing lymphocytes in cancers highlights considerable opportunities for cotargeting ... B lymphocytes. TIGIT expression paralleled that of PD-1. More than 70% of TIGIT,sup,+,/sup, cells were PD-1,sup,+,/sup ...
CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in tumor specimens were also evaluated. ... Results: PD-L1/PD-L2 TPS and CD8-positive TILs were evaluable in 39 of 44 pretreatment tumor specimens. PD-L1 TPS of ≥50%, 1-49 ... CD8-positive TILs density was significantly higher in PD-L1 high than in PD-L1 low (median: 1298/mm2 vs. 331/mm2, p=0.035), ...
Genetic studies performed on LCNEC revealed that positive FOXp3 and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TiLS) represent favorable ... prognosis while CD4, CD8 and TiLS are an unfavorable prognosis factor. High presence of PD-L1 in LCNEC may constitute an ... The cases of SCLC that were negative for neuroendocrine markers tested positive for INSM-1 in 75% of cases. This indicated a ... Immunohistochemistry positive results for neuroendocrine markers, other than neuron specific enolase (NSA), can qualify the ...
The positive immune reactions were augmented from expansion of HPV specific interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) ... T lymphocytes cells (Ding et. al., 2009). In a later study by Yin et al. (2010), Chinese researchers found that three unique ...
Immunohistochemistry: positive labeling in vessels for CD34 and CD31, positive sectors for CD8 and negative for CD34. One IgG4 ... infiltrated by lymphocytes and macrophages. The stroma between the nodules shows myofibroblastic proliferation with lymphocytes ... The percentages of CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD90 positive cells of ADSCs in the third passage were all ,90%, and the percentages of ... At 24 h after operation, endothelial cells in lung tissues of mice in 3 groups showed positive expression of CD31; compared ...
Graphic display: gated CD45 positive lymphocytes displayed as SingleFlowEx CD8 PE-Cy™7 versus CD3 APC ... Example of separation of positive (red-filled) and negative (black-dashed) events using SingleFlowEx CD8 PE-Cy™7 Clone: MEM-31 ... Exbio - Clinical products - Hematology - Single color antibodies - SingleFlowEx CD8 PE-Cy™7 ... Example of surface staining pattern using SingleFlowEx CD8 PE-Cy™7 Clone: MEM-31 Sample: EDTA-anticoagulated human peripheral ...
CD1a-positive cells are consistent with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. A lymphocyte-predominant BAL with an elevated CD4/CD8 ... Stool occult blood results may be positive in patients with pulmonary haemorrhage; indeed these children may have undergone ... positive bronchiolitis, which fails to resolve;12 there is animal evidence that RSV causes increased inflammation and worse ... but the yield of positive results is much less. ...
CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were gated from single cells (FSC-A vs FSC-H), lymphocytes (FSC-A vs SSC-A) and live CD3+ T cells (CD3+ ... vs Near-IR−), successively, and the detection results were defined as the percentage of cytokine-positive cells among CD8+ or ... 5c, d). Both the middle-dose IM and IN groups exhibited significant induction of IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2 responses in splenic CD8+ ... and anti-CD8 FITC (clone 5H10-1, 1:200 dilution), and the viability dye Near-IR to exclude dead cells from data analysis. After ...
... in CD4 and CD8 determinations. *Report data as a percentage of the total lymphocytes and correct for the lymphocyte purity of ... Monocytes are positive for CD14 and have intermediate intensity for CD45.. iv. Granulocytes are dimly positive for CD14 and ... a. Optimally, at least 95% of the lymphocytes should be within the lymphocyte gate. Minimally, at least 90% of the lymphocytes ... b. The lymphocyte proportion within the gate should be at least 90%.. c. The lymphocyte purity of the gate should be at least ...
NETs show a positive association with IL-8 and a trend towards a negative association with CD8(+) tumour-infiltrating ... lymphocytes. (c) 2021 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological ... This effect required CD8 cells, boosted the intratumoral CD8/Treg ratio and led to the development of tumor-specific immunity. ... The tumor from the upper left lobe was positive for TP53 c.725G¿,¿T and KRAS c.35G¿,¿T mutations. The tumor from the lower left ...
keywords = "Bursitis, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Giant Cell Arteritis, Humans, Polymyalgia Rheumatica, Tenosynovitis", ... Results: Besides an increase of TH17 (CD4+IL-17+IFN-γ-) cells and T cytotoxic 17 (TC17; CD8+IL-17+IFN-γ-) cells, no other major ... Bursa tissue biopsies contained a small number of T cells, which were mostly CD8 negative. The majority of bursa tissue T cells ... Bursa tissue biopsies contained a small number of T cells, which were mostly CD8 negative. The majority of bursa tissue T cells ...
CD8 positive T cell; a T cell receptor that binds mostly to MHC class II tends to produce a CD4 positive T cell.[14] ... Within the thymus, thymus cell lymphocytes or T cells mature. T cells are critical to the adaptive immune system, where the ... CD8 and CD4) were identified by 1975.[14] The way that these subclasses of T cells matured - positive selection of cells that ... A T cell that does react will survive and proliferate.[13] A mature T cell expresses only CD4 or CD8, but not both.[12] This ...
The majority of lymphocytes in the often dense infiltrate are memory cells, identified using histochemistry by positive CD8 and ... ELISA will be positive to 180 and 230kd BP antigens 2 and 1 respectively. Using skin separated by a salt splitting process, ... Lymphocytes are characteristically observed in a viral exanthem, pigmented purpura, gyrate erythema, polymorphous light ... Lymphocytes and histiocytes. The predominant cell type in most inflammatory skin diseases. Histiocytes are macrophages, and may ...
  • The present cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the reference range of T-cell subsets in healthy north Indians and to compare the values with those in HIV-positives. (
  • The study revealed thymus atrophy in patients with PEM, especially the oedematous type, accompanied by changes in the peripheral lymphocyte subsets. (
  • CD4+ T-cells and other lymphocyte subsets in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • The guidelines describe single-platform technology (SPT), a process in which absolute counts of lymphocyte subsets are measured from a single tube by a single instrument. (
  • With CD45 gating, the relative numbers of beads and lymphocyte subsets are enumerated, and their absolute numbers and percentage values are calculated. (
  • The level of The infants with PEM were enrolled in T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood the study after fulfilling a set of inclusion provide information about the development criteria. (
  • Our objectives were to determine the effects of malnutrition in a sample of obese and underweight young and elderly individuals in order to determine whether malnutrition has any association with alterations in the frequency of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets. (
  • Any such study of possible associations would provide further supporting evidence for the presence of an immune diathesis of obesity and underweight, which will help to identify specific lymphocyte subsets as those most important to monitor in further studies in nutritional immunology. (
  • HLA-B27- and -B57-positive HIV-infected humans have long been associated with control of HIV replication, implying that CD8(+) T cell responses contribute to control of viral replication. (
  • Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) expressing TIGIT have been demonstrated in several tumour types such as nonsmall cell lung cancer, colorectal carcinoma, melanoma, and acute myeloid leukaemia [ 9 , 13 , 14 ]. (
  • CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in tumor specimens were also evaluated. (
  • PD-L1/PD-L2 TPS and CD8-positive TILs were evaluable in 39 of 44 pretreatment tumor specimens. (
  • Upon multivariate Cox-regression analysis, KRAS mutation ( p = 0.008) and density of CD8-positive TILs ( p = 0.009) were retained as prognostic parameters for metachronous distant metastasis. (
  • Methods: Analysis of RNA-sequencing data from CD8 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) led to identification of Cbl-b as a potential target. (
  • Results: Our results show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b is upregulated in exhausted (PD1 + Tim3 +) CD8 + TILs. (
  • CRISPR-Cas9-mediated inhibition of Cbl-b restores the effector function of exhausted CD8 + TILs. (
  • Importantly, the reduced growth of syngeneic MC38 tumors in cbl-b -/- mice was associated with a marked reduction of PD1 + Tim3 + CD8 + TILs. (
  • Progressive depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes is associated with an increased likelihood of clinical complications. (
  • Laboratory tests will show low lymphocytes with atypical forms, depletion of the CD4 cells, elevated CD8 cells. (
  • Although values range from one individual to another, typically in HIV infection there is a dramatic drop not only in CD4 count, but also in the CD4-to-CD8 ratio, indicating a serious depletion of T-helper cells. (
  • HIV infection is characterized by a decrease and, eventually, a depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes (helper T cells). (
  • Early results from the ongoing Part A of the Phase 1/1b trial investigating SO-C101 monotherapy dose escalation to date have shown encouraging biological activity, activating NK cells and CD8 T cells in various solid tumors. (
  • Interactions between B cells and CD8 T cells are not as well studied, although CD8 T cells exhibit an accelerated contraction after certain infections in B-cell-deficient mice. (
  • Novel immune therapies using antibodies against immune checkpoint receptors, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and cell death protein-1 (PD-1), have demonstrated remarkable clinical efficiency in different tumour types, including metastatic melanoma, lung cancer, renal, and bladder carcinoma [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • T cells that successfully develop react appropriately with MHC immune receptors of the body (called positive selection ) and not against proteins of the body (called negative selection ). (
  • Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) (LIGHT) is an interesting costimulatory molecule associated with T lymphocyte activation, and it mainly exerts its biological effects by binding to its receptors herpesvirus invasion mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin-ß receptor. (
  • 2021. CD8 coreceptor-mediated focusing can reorder the agonist hierarchy of peptide ligands recognized via the T cell receptor . (
  • Combined targeting of melanoma-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte epitopes was associated with improved survival compared with targeting either alone, or when a nonspecific helper epitope was used. (
  • Detailed knowledge of the Mamu-B*08 peptide-binding motif enabled us to identify six additional novel Mamu-B*08-restricted SIV-specific CD8(+) T cell immune responses directed against epitopes in Gag, Vpr, and Env. (
  • Flow cytometry reveals mature T and B-cells (minor subset) along with a population of immature T-cells, which express both CD4 (variable) and CD8 (variable). (
  • The flow cytometry profile of CD10 positive T-cell population with variable CD4 and CD8 is characteristic of thymic lymphocytes, in the process of early maturation. (
  • The process of measuring the percentage of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in the whole blood sample is referred to as ``immunophenotyping by flow cytometry'' (9-14). (
  • To evaluate the reliability of the cytosphere assay, heparinized blood was collected from 117 HIV-infected individuals and tested for both CD4 + and CD8 + lymphocytes by flow cytometry and the cytosphere assay. (
  • The Pearson correlation coefficient of the cytosphere assay compared with that of flow cytometry for CD4 + T lymphocytes was 0.93, with mean values ± standard deviations of 534 ± 509 by flow cytometry and 499 ± 477 by the cytosphere assay. (
  • The correlation coefficient for CD8 + T lymphocytes was 0.86, with mean values of 831 ± 543 by flow cytometry and 746 ± 472 by the cytosphere assay. (
  • The cytosphere assay was highly correlative to flow cytometry in determining CD4 + and CD8 + T-lymphocyte counts among HIV-infected patients. (
  • All enrolled thymic lymphocytes is widely accepted as infants were breastfed in addition to receiv- an indicator of the depression of thymus- ing some traditional foods, according to dependent immune competence associated their age. (
  • Histologic sections show a biphasic tumor composed of spindled epithelial cells and occasional polygonal epithelial cells admixed with equal proportion of lymphocytes. (
  • Using immunophenotyping, HIV-positive blood samples and age-matched controls were tested for the proportion of lymphocytes that are T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells (helper T cells), and CD8+ T cells (suppressor/inducer T cells). (
  • Recent biochemical data has linked Brg1 function to genes important for T lymphocyte differentiation. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: CD4/CD8 lymphocyte counts in healthy, HIV-positive individuals & AIDS patients. (
  • In assessing the degree of immune deficiency in HIV-positive patients of a particular region, knowledge of reference range of T-cell subset counts of healthy individuals of that particular region is essential. (
  • HIV antibodies were undetectable, and CD4/CD8 lymphocyte counts were within reference ranges. (
  • T-lymphocyte counts, with special emphasis and stunted children has not changed dra- on the effect of nutritional rehabilitation. (
  • The sensitivity and specificity of the cytosphere assay in determining absolute CD4 + T-lymphocyte counts of less than 200/μl were 97.6 and 94.7%, respectively. (
  • The peripheral immune system was studied by assessment of circulating white blood cell counts, cellular changes of the spleen and influx of peripheral immune cells (MPO-positive neutrophils) into the brain. (
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays specific for antimyeloperoxidase antibodies were positive in 10 of 11 patients in whom this test was performed by Guillevin et al. (
  • The demonstration of antibodies, mixed T-helper (Th) type 1/2 responses diisocyanate occupational asthma in a murine model after sub- and the involvement of CD8 T lymphocytes in chronic inhalation exposure at relevant exposure levels should diisocyanate OA. (
  • If supplemental testing for HIV-1/HIV-2 antibodies shows nonreactive or indeterminant results (or if acute HIV infection or recent exposure is suspected or reported), an HIV-1 nucleic acid test is recommended to differentiate acute HIV-1 infection from a false-positive test result. (
  • Thymus size was assessed ultrasonographically and correlated to the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood in 32 infants with protein-energy malnutrition [‎PEM]‎ and compared with 14 healthy control infants. (
  • Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were surface stained with CD4 Brilliant Violet 421™ and CD8 Alexa Fluor® 647, and then were treated with True-Nuclear™ Transcription Factor Buffer Set. (
  • TIGIT was detected in CD8 + cytotoxic T cells, CD4 + T helper cells, FOXP3 + regulatory T cells, and NK cells, but not in CD11c + dendritic cells, CD68 + macrophages, and CD20 + B lymphocytes. (
  • Microscopy: rounded angiomatoid-like coalescing nodules, with vascular proliferation lined by endothelial cells without atypia, interspersed with spindle cells, infiltrated by lymphocytes and macrophages. (
  • The main disadvantage of kaolin induction is that the inflammatory reaction, composed of macrophages and CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytes [33] , might confound interpretation of microglial reactions in these animal models. (
  • The levels of the PD-1, PD-L1, and CD8 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. (
  • Alopecia areata (AA) may represent a CD8+T cell-mediated, organ-specific autoimmune disease in which as yet elusive autoantigens are recognized, once they become exposed by ectopic major histocompatibility complex class I expression by anagen hair follicles (HFs) that have lost their relative immune privilege (IP). (
  • CD4 helper T-cells which alert the immune the studied infants were from low socio- system to an attack by a pathogen and the economic status families according to the CD8 suppressor T-cells which destroy cells classification of Park and Park [11]. (
  • The utility of these reagents is demonstrated here in identifying the CD8+ T-cell specificity most effective in preventing HIV progression in HIV-infected HLA-B*27-positive immune controllers. (
  • The effects of undernutrition on immune status may be judged from the fact that a substantial part of the lean mass of human body is comprised of lymphocytes [ 7 ]. (
  • Over the past decade, teams at Touch Research Institute(TRI) in Miami, Fla., have conducted several studies investigating the effects of massage therapy on immune system function in HIV-positive children and adults. (
  • A key marker of HIV progression is the decline of CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells - the immune system's "helper" cells. (
  • 8 Another marker of HIV is the ratio of CD4 to CD8 cells, an indicator of immune status. (
  • It may be possible for us to use programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and CD8 as biomarkers of response to immune therapy in CA patients. (
  • Natural killer cells, also known as NK cells are a type of lymphocytes and are key components of the innate immune system. (
  • PD-L1 positivity, high tumor mutational burden and infiltration of NK cells, CD8, CD26 and Tim3 positive lymphocytes at time of surgery have been correlated with pathologic responses. (
  • Inactivation of Th-POK in mature CD4+ T cells results in induction of the genes preferentially expressed in CD8+ T cells, such as CD8, granzyme B, and IFN-γ. (
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The enumeration of CD4 and CD8 positive cells, surrogate markers for HIV disease progression, is helpful in management and follow up of immunocompromised HIV-positive patients. (
  • Enumeration of CD4+ lymphocytes in HIV-positive participants and age-matched controls was performed on cryopreserved whole blood using the method reported by Fiebig et. (
  • A low ratio of CD4+ (helper) any chromosomal or hereditary disorder lymphocytes relative to CD8+ (suppressor) that caused the malnutrition. (
  • They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes. (
  • Whole EDTA anti-coagulated blood stored at -70°C from the 31 HIV antibody-positive participants from NHANES 1999-2004 and 34 age-matched controls were used. (
  • 4. She had oral dryness, ocular dryness (with signs of corneal abrasions confirmed by an ophthalmologist), and positive SSA and SSB antibody tests. (
  • The transfer of lymphocytes or ethylene di-isocyanate (HDI), which are used in a serum from sensitized mice can cause clinical disease in naive variety of industries including polyurethane foam mice. (
  • The CD4, CD8 and TdT expression forms a continuous/variable pattern with some events positive and some negative. (
  • Immunohistochemistry: positive labeling in vessels for CD34 and CD31, positive sectors for CD8 and negative for CD34. (
  • NETs show a positive association with IL-8 and a trend towards a negative association with CD8(+) tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes. (
  • Bursa tissue biopsies contained a small number of T cells, which were mostly CD8 negative. (
  • Single-platform technology (SPT) is designed to enable de- system and managing the health care of persons infected with terminations of both absolute and percentage lymphocyte sub- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ( 1-4 ). (
  • and the percentage of lymphocytes that are CD4+ T-cells. (
  • [ 3 ] The prominence of CD3 and CD4 lymphocytes, with a lower percentage of CD8 lymphocytes, further differentiates tumid lupus from other diseases, such as lymphomas, pseudolymphomas , and polymorphous light eruption . (
  • At least in NSCLC, bladder cancer and metastatic melanoma, NET density positively correlated with IL-8 protein expression and inversely correlated with CD8(+) T-cell densities. (
  • In a series of serum samples from melanoma and NSCLC patients, a positive correlation between circulating NETs and IL-8 was found. (
  • Particularly, high densities of TIGIT + lymphocytes were, for example, seen in squamous cell cancers of various origins. (
  • TIGIT expression is restricted to T lymphocytes and highly expressed in effector and regulatory CD4 + T cells, follicular helper CD4 + T cells, effector CD8 + T cells, and NK cells [ 6 , 7 , 9 - 12 ]. (
  • This was greater within the young group and affected the CD4 subset more profoundly than the CD8 subset. (
  • The subset of lymphocytes known as T cells are so called because their final stage of development occurs in the thymus. (
  • The muscle biopsy revealed moderate neuromyopathic findings with positive expression for MHC-class I, C5b9, CD8 and CD68. (
  • A biópsia muscular mostrou achados neuromiopáticos moderados com imunoexpressão positiva para MHC classe I, C5b9, CD8 e CD68. (
  • However, at present, few literatures reported about HIV positive patients with GCT with pathological fracture and there are no effective treatments of this disease currently. (
  • The infiltrating CXCR3+ lymphocytes can contribute to adverse pathological effects of inflammation. (
  • CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes play an import role in the inflammatory response, as these cells may manage the profile of cytokines produced against an infectious agent 4 . (
  • CD4 + T lymphocytes are currently the most common surrogate marker indicating disease progression in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • Here we report a case of typical NPTCL-TFH while the B cell marker CD20 is positive. (
  • However, with all these evidences of NPTCL-TFH, the tissue weirdly expressed CD20, a B lymphocyte maturing marker. (
  • We report the first case of CD20 positive in a NPTCL-TFH. (
  • These are often associated with cancer of the tissue of the thymus, called thymoma , or tissues arising from immature lymphocytes such as T cells, called lymphoma . (
  • This document has been developed by CDC to give guidance to laboratories performing lymphocyte immunophenotyping assays in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. (
  • Here, we find that B cells significantly enhance primary CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. (
  • CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels are also used as prognostic indicators in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease (8). (
  • We also show that interleukin-27 production by B cells contributes to their impact on primary, but not memory, CD8 responses. (
  • A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. (
  • The stroma between the nodules shows myofibroblastic proliferation with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and siderophages. (
  • TIGIT + lymphocytes were seen in all 86 different tumour entities with considerable high variability of TIGIT positivity within and between different cancer entities. (
  • Here, we investigated the presence of NETs in a variety of human solid tumours and their association with IL-8 (CXCL8) protein expression and CD8(+) T-cell density in the tumour microenvironment. (
  • The total number (intratumoural, tumour-adjacent, and stromal) of CD8 + T cells in each core was calculated by automated analysis. (
  • Cells were then stained with Th-POK (clone 11H11A14) PE (filled histogram: CD4-positive cells, open histogram with solid line: CD8-positive cells) or mouse IgG1, κ PE isotype control (open histogram with dotted line: CD4-positive cells, open histogram with dashed line: CD8-positive cells). (
  • We observed a significant inverse-correlation between the PD-1 and CD8 expression (p=0.001, chi square test). (
  • We also found a significant inverse-correlation between the PD-L1 and CD8 expression (p=0.027). (
  • In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and CD8 can predict the prognosis of CA patients and their response to ICI therapy. (
  • To evaluate the ability of 18 F-AraG to report on the presence of CD8+ cells within the tumor microenvironment, we imaged a panel of syngeneic tumor models (MC38, CT26, LLC, A9F1, 4T1, and B16F10) and correlated the signal intensity with the number of lymphocytes found in the tumors. (
  • Because of these findings, it has been postulated that during inflammation, expression of ligands for CXCR3 is upregulated, resulting in recruitment of CXCR3+ lymphocytes into the inflamed tissue. (
  • In this study, we use ribosome profiling and deep RNA sequencing to define the acute mRNA translation changes in CD8 memory T cells following initial activation events. (
  • Briefly, early events in the activation of Ag-experienced CD8 T cells are insensitive to transcriptional blockade with actinomycin D, and instead depend on the translation of pre-existing mRNAs and are blocked by cycloheximide. (
  • Multiplex immunofluorescence panels were developed to identify NETs in human cancer tissues by co-staining with the granulocyte marker CD15, the neutrophil marker myeloperoxidase and citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit), as well as IL-8 protein and CD8(+) T cells. (
  • The high frequency of TIGIT (and PD-1) expressing lymphocytes in cancers highlights considerable opportunities for cotargeting with checkpoint inhibitors. (
  • To assure the accuracy and reliability of CD4+ T-lymphocyte test results obtained within individual laboratories and to assure the comparability of results between laboratories, standard methods for performing the test, as well as guidelines for quality control and quality assurance, are desirable. (