Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.NAD+ NucleosidaseHLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Cell SeparationLectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred BALB CTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD164: A sialomucin protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It is a negative regulator of certain types of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
In breast cancer cells expressing CD44 and CD24, DHRS7B expression was observed to be down regulated. CD44 is an antigen found ... CD24 is associated with B-cells, epithelial cells, and dendritic cells, functioning as an adhesion molecule and shown to ... "The CD44+/CD24- phenotype is enriched in basal-like breast tumors". Breast Cancer Res. 10 (3): R53. doi:10.1186/bcr2108. PMC ...
Both CD44+CD24− and CD44+CD24+ cell populations are tumor initiating cells; however, CSC are most highly enriched using the ... stage-specific embryonic antigen-1), EGFR and CD44. The use of CD133 for identification of brain tumor stem-like cells may be ... In breast cancer CD44+CD24−/low cells are detectable in metastatic pleural effusions. By contrast, an increased number of CD24+ ... It is possible that CD44+CD24−/low cells initially metastasize and in the new site change their phenotype and undergo limited ...
CD24 CD44 CD146 CD164 CD69 Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1PR1 S1PR2 S1PR3 S1PR4 S1PR5 Co-stimulatory molecules CD80 - ... CD44 Carcinoembryonic antigens CEACAM1 CEACAM3 CEACAM4 CEACAM5 CEACAM6 CEACAM7 CEACAM8 CEACAM16 CEACAM18 CEACAM19 CEACAM20 ... Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ...
... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... 2008). "Tissue-specific promoters active in CD44+CD24-/low breast cancer cells". Cancer Res. 68 (14): 5533-9. doi:10.1158/0008- ... Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in ... description of CD24 expression CD24 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. CD24 human gene details in the UCSC Genome ...
Recently, Heneberg proposed that basophils may be defined as the cellular population positive for CD13, CD44, CD54, CD63, CD69 ... CD24−, CD19−, CD80−, CD14−, CD23−, Ly49c−, CD122−, CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR−, α4 and β4-integrin ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ...
... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.098 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd44 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.625.347 -- integrin alpha4beta1 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.625.550 -- lymphocyte function ... 395.550.200.170 -- antigens, cd146 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.175 -- antigens, cd164 MeSH D12.776.395.550.200.200 -- cadherins ... antigens, cd43 MeSH D12.776.395.560.631.650.264 -- antigens, cd164. ...
... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd44 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.625.347 -- integrin alpha4beta1 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.625.550 -- lymphocyte function ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd27 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.072 -- antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 ...
... cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 --- antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 --- antigens, cd147 MeSH D23.050.285.050 --- antigens, tumor- ... antigens, cd44 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.850.347 --- integrin alpha4beta1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.850.550 --- lymphocyte ... antigens, cd20 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.122 --- antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.124 --- antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D23.050.301.350.098 --- antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.301.350.131 --- antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.350.150 ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... CD44 are reported as cell surface markers for some breast and prostate cancer stem cells.In breast cancer research CD44+/CD24- ... Monoclonal antibodies against CD44 variants include bivatuzumab for v6. CD44 in cancer[edit]. CD44 is a multistructural and ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ...
Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ...
Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ... "Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ... Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • ... CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... The chondroitin sulfate form of invariant chain can enhance stimulation of T cell responses through interaction with CD44 (англ ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • ... CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
CD24 • CD25 • CD26 • CD27 • CD28 • CD29 • CD30 • CD31 • CD32 (A, B) • CD33 • CD34 • CD35 • CD36 • CD37 • CD38 • CD39 • CD40 • ... CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of healthy adults and mice is about 2:1, and an altered ratio can indicate diseases relating to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. An inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio (namely, less than 1/1) indicates an impaired immune system. A reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with reduced resistance to infection. Patients with tuberculosis show a reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio. A declining ...
... is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, angiogenesis, presentation of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors to the corresponding receptors, and docking of proteases at the cell membrane, as well as in signaling for cell survival. All these biological properties are essential to the physiological activities of normal cells, but they are also associated with the pathologic activities of cancer cells. Experiments in animals have shown that targeting of CD44 by antibodies, antisense oligonucleotides, and CD44-soluble proteins markedly reduces the malignant activities of various neoplasms, stressing the therapeutic potential of anti-CD44 agents. High levels of the adhesion molecule CD44 on leukemic cells are ...
CD64 (Cluster of Differentiation 64) is a type of integral membrane glycoprotein known as an Fc receptor that binds monomeric IgG-type antibodies with high affinity.[1] It is more commonly known as Fc-gamma receptor 1 (FcγRI). After binding IgG, CD64 interacts with an accessory chain known as the common γ chain (γ chain), which possesses an ITAM motif that is necessary for triggering cellular activation.[2] Structurally CD64 is composed of a signal peptide that allows its transport to the surface of a cell, three extracellular immunoglobulin domains of the C2-type that it uses to bind antibody, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail.[3] CD64 is constitutively found on only macrophages and monocytes, but treatment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes with cytokines like IFNγ and G-CSF can ...
HIV infection leads to a progressive reduction in the number of T cells expressing CD4. Medical professionals refer to the CD4 count to decide when to begin treatment during HIV infection, although recent medical guidelines have changed to recommend treatment at all CD4 counts as soon as HIV is diagnosed. A CD4 count measures the number of T cells expressing CD4. While CD4 counts are not a direct HIV test-e.g. they do not check the presence of viral DNA, or specific antibodies against HIV-they are used to assess the immune system of a patient.[citation needed] National Institutes of Health guidelines recommend treatment of any HIV-positive individuals, regardless of ...
Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD24 gene. CD24 is a cell adhesion molecule. CD24 is a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts. This gene encodes a sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on mature granulocytes and in many B cells. The encoded protein is anchored via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) link to the cell surface. The protein also contributes to a wide range of downstream signaling networks and is crucial for neural development. CD24 gene is found on chromosome 6 (6q21) An alignment of this gene's sequence finds genomic locations ...
La CD154, anche chiamata CD40 ligando o semplicemente CD40L, è una proteina espressa soprattutto nei linfociti T attivati e facente parte della superfamiglia del TNF[1]. Si lega al CD40 presente sulle antigen-presenting cell (APC) agendo come co-attivatore[1]. In particolare, il legame CD40/CD40L attiva i linfociti B stimolandoli a formare i centri germinativi, porta le cellule dendritiche ad aumentare la produzione di molecole stimolatorie e citochine (licensing delle cellule dendritiche), e aumenta l'attività microbicida dei macrofagi. ...
CD4+ T细胞的激活需要T细胞上的TCR和共受体(CD28或ICOS),抗原呈递细胞上的MHCII和共激活分子两对分子的分别,同时结合。仅其中一对的结合,无法产生有效的T细胞激活。理想的CD8+ T细胞激活则依赖于CD4+ T细胞的信号转导[28]。CD4+细胞可以在初级CD8 T细胞的初次免疫应答中给予帮助,并且在急性感染的后期维持CD8+ 记忆T细胞的活性。所以,CD4+ T的激活对于CD8+ T细胞的活动是有利的[29][30][31]。 相比于MHC分子上的抗原,抗原呈递细胞的共激活分子一般是由病原体的副产物、热休克蛋白或者坏死的细胞碎片诱导表达的。共刺激机制被认为可以避免自体免疫的发生,因为即使T细胞错误地结合了自体抗原,也可能因为没有受到合适的共刺激而无法正常活化。一旦T细胞被正确地活化,它的细胞表面蛋白表达就会发生巨大的改变,活化T细胞的标志蛋白包括CD69,CD71,CD25 ...
O CD11c (cluster de diferenciación 11c) ou cadea alfa X de integrina é unha subunidade de proteína transmembrana de tipo I que se expresa en altos niveis na maioría das células dendríticas humanas, e tamén en monocitos, macrófagos, neutrófilos, e algunhas células B que está codificada no xene ITGAX do cromosoma 16 humano.[1] O CD11c induce a activación celular e axuda a desencadear a explosión respiratoria de neutrófilo. Exprésase en moitas tricoleucemias, leucemias non linfocíticas agudas, e algunhas leucemias linfocíticas crónicas de células B. O xene ITGAX codifica a cadea alfa X de integrina. As integrinas son proteínas integrais de membrana heterodímeras compostas por unha cadea alfa e outra beta. A cadea alfa X de integrina combínase coa cadea beta 2 (CD18 ou ITGB2) para formar unha integrina específica de leucocitos denominada CR4 ou receptor 4 do ...
CD36 - мембранный белок, экспрессированный на поверхности клеток нескольких типов, особенно макрофагах; относится к классу B скэвенджер-рецепторов, компонент системы врождённого иммунитета. Связывает эритроциты, заражённые паразитическим Plasmodium falciparum, окисленные липопротеины низкой плотности, фосфолипиды и жирные кислоты. Кроме этого, CD36, экспрессированный на поверхности эпителия вкусовых сосочков языка, является рецептором, связывающим жирные кислоты пищи и участвующим в формировании «вкуса жира». ...
ഒരുപോലെയിരിക്കുന്ന ശരാശരി വലിപ്പമുള്ള ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളാണ് സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനിയിലൂടെ ദൃശ്യമാവുക. 'നക്ഷത്രപൂരിതമായ ആകാശം' എന്നാണ് ഈ സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനി ദൃശ്യത്തെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്.[4] ഈ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകൾക്ക് ക്ഷാരാഭിമുഖ്യമുള്ള കോശദ്രവ്യം ഉണ്ടാകും. 'ചെറിയ മുറിയാത്ത കോശങ്ങൾ' എന്നാണ് ബർക്കിറ്റ് ലിംഫോമയിലെ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്. ബി-കോശ വ്യതിരക്ത മാർക്കറുകളായ CD20, CD22, CD19 എന്നിവ ...
Yn aml mae gan enynnau lawer o gyfystyron. Mae hyn oherwydd eu bod yn aml yn cael eu darganfod gan nifer o bobl mewn cyd-destunau gwahanol heb wybod mai'r un genynnau oeddyn nhw. Hefyd mae gan wahanol gymunedau gwyddonol safonau gwahanol ar gyfer enwi genynnau. Dyma restr o gyfystyron ar gyfer y genyn CD40. ...
TNFRSF18 входит в многочисленное надсемейство рецепторов факторов некроза опухоли (TNFR). Экспрессия этого рецептора повышается при активации T-лимфоцитов. Играет ключевую роль в доминантной иммунологической аутотолерантности, обеспечиваемой регуляторными CD25+/CD4+ T-лимфоцитами. Исследования с нокаутными мышами показали роль этого рецептора в регуляции CD3-опосредуемых активации T-лимфоцитов и апоптозе.[1] Участвует в связывании лейкоцитов с эндотелиальными клетками. Активирует фактор транскрипции NF-κB через сигнальный путь TRAF2/NIK.[2] Участвует в ...
TLR2 (толл-подобный рецептор 2, CD282) - мембранный белок, входящий в группу толл-подобных рецепторов, обеспечивающих функционирование врождённого иммунитета. TLR2 так же как TLR1 распознаёт патоген-связанные молекулярные структуры грам-положительных бактерий, включая пептидогликаны, липотейхоевую кислоту, некоторые компоненты микобактерий и зимозан клеточной стенки дрожжей. ...
Antigens, CD24 / metabolism. Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry, pharmacology*, therapeutic use*. ... 0/Antigens, CD24; 0/Antigens, CD44; 0/Antineoplastic Agents; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0/Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 ... CD24, and CD44. RESULTS: Continuous exposure to HSS for 48 h produced cytotoxic effects on both cell lines in a concentration ... Apoptosis associated gene bcl-2 and caspase-3, tumor metastasis associated gene ?-catenin, but not E-cadherin, and CD24, but ...
Analysis of CD44high/CD24low/epithelial-specific antigen-positive (ESA+) population. Cells were trypsinized, washed with PBS ... CD44high/CD24low/epithelial-specific antigen (ESA)+], aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) activity, and ability to form ... 5C) and CD44high/CD24low population (Fig. 5D) was significantly attenuated by overexpression of Ron and sfRon. Moreover, the ... Results shown are mean ± SD (n = 6). D, bar graph shows the percentage of CD44high/CD24low population normalized to respective ...
In breast cancer cells expressing CD44 and CD24, DHRS7B expression was observed to be down regulated. CD44 is an antigen found ... CD24 is associated with B-cells, epithelial cells, and dendritic cells, functioning as an adhesion molecule and shown to ... "The CD44+/CD24- phenotype is enriched in basal-like breast tumors". Breast Cancer Res. 10 (3): R53. doi:10.1186/bcr2108. PMC ...
CD24 expression by pleural effusion cells as detected by antibodies SWA11 and ML5. Cells isolated from pleural effusions were ... Antigens, CD24/biosynthesis. *Antigens, CD44/biosynthesis. *Cell Line, Tumor. *Cell Membrane/metabolism ... Using the same CD24 antibody used by Al Hajj and colleagues [12] (ML5) and the same CD44 antibody, we found that only some ... Using the same CD24 antibody used by Al Hajj and colleagues [12] (ML5) and the same CD44 antibody, we found that only some ...
A) Flow cytometry profiles of the expression of CD24 and CD44 cell surface antigens in adherent grown parental HMLER (HP) cells ... Thus, the opposite expression patterns of CD24 and CD44 as the CD24+/CD44- and CD24-/CD44+ constellations in individual HP_late ... Characteristic CD24/CD44 FACS profiles of clones after about 5-10 passages are shown. Note the small but distinct CD24-/CD44+ ( ... overlapping with CD24-/CD44+(M) cells. The difference between CD24+/CD44- and CD24-/CD44+ cells with respect to their position ...
Cells are stained against surface antigens that provide specific expression patterns for CBCCs (CD44, CD24). Cells are analyzed ... and surface antigen expression (CD44+, CD24-) to the standard technique using the CellSearch® system in women with metastatic ... and surface antigen expression (CD44+, CD24-) in isolating circulating breast cancer cells (CBCCs) from blood and pleural or ... low or CD44+ vs CD24-/low→ALDHhigh) for detection of CBCCs. For further confirmation of epithelial origin, ALDHhighCD44+CD24-/ ...
Antibodies for CD24, CD44, and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA) were purchased from BioLegend. β-Actin antibody and other ... CD24, CD44, and ESA were stained in MCF-7, TAMR-MCF-7, and 5 nmol/L BI2536-treated TAMR-MCF-7 cells. CD24, CD44, and ESA ... we analyzed the CD44+, CD24−, and ESA+ populations in MCF-7 and TAMR-MCF-7 cells by flow cytometry and found that the CD 24− ... but CD44+ and ESA+ populations completely disappeared relative to MCF-7 cells. CSCs are not restricted to CD44+/CD24− ...
Both CD44+CD24− and CD44+CD24+ cell populations are tumor initiating cells; however, CSC are most highly enriched using the ... stage-specific embryonic antigen-1), EGFR and CD44. The use of CD133 for identification of brain tumor stem-like cells may be ... In breast cancer CD44+CD24−/low cells are detectable in metastatic pleural effusions. By contrast, an increased number of CD24+ ... It is possible that CD44+CD24−/low cells initially metastasize and in the new site change their phenotype and undergo limited ...
2.1.4. CD44. The CD44 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions and cell adhesion and migration ... Surprisingly, both sphere-forming and monolayer adherent cells expressed comparable levels of CD133, CD44, and CD24 markers, ... This study suggests that TNF-α derived from tumor-associated macrophages is linked to CD44 upregulation via NF-κB signaling in ... described CD44+/CD24− cells with several CSC features [50]. Although the nature of CSCs is still the subject of debate, CD44+ ...
Materials and methods: CD44+/CD24-/low/epithelial-specific antigen+ BCSCs were isolated by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and ... Materials and methods: CD44+/CD24-/low/epithelial-specific antigen+ BCSCs were isolated by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and ...
The CD24 antibody can be used, for example, to differentiate CD44+ CD24- breast cancer stem cells from CD24+ expressing cells ... CD24 has been identified to be a negative marker for breast cancer stem cells and a positive marker for ovarian or pancreatic ... The human CD24 antigen is also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA). ... CD44 antibodies, human. Clone DB105 recognizes the CD44 antigen. CD44 is a marker for many types of cancer stem cells (CSCs ...
The CD24 antibody can be used, for example, to differentiate CD44+ CD24- breast cancer stem cells from CD24+ expressing cells ... CD24 has been identified to be a negative marker for breast cancer stem cells and a positive marker for ovarian or pancreatic ... The human CD24 antigen is also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA). ... The human CD24 antigen is also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA). CD24 has been identified to be a negative marker for breast ...
R&D Systems MagCellect CD24- CD44+ Breast Cancer Stem Cell Isolation Kit includes positive and negative selection antibodies. ... Analysis of CD24low/-CD44+ Cells Isolated using the MagCellect CD24- CD44+ Breast Cancer Stem Cell Isolation Kit. A small ... Mouse Anti-Human CD24 Biotinylated Antigen Affinity-purified Antibody - 0.5 mL (20 tests) ... The MagCellect CD24- CD44+ Breast Cancer Stem Cell Isolation Kit:. *Isolates CD24low/- CD44+ cells which have been shown to ...
Recent studies suggest that CD44+CD24+ESA+ (epithelial specific antigen) and ALDH1 could potentially be pancreatic cancer stem- ... and expression of CD44 and CD24. SP, ALDEFLUOR+ and CD44+ and CD24+ (CD44+CD24+) cell rates were lower in DNMT1−/− cells than ... Potential markers of colorectal cancer stem cells have been proposed, including CD133, CD166, CD24, CD44, ALDH1, LGR5, and ... CD44+, CD24−/low, and ESA+) (116-118). Many groups have attempted to confirm that the minimum surface phenotype for a ...
... and CD44+/CD24+/EpCAM+ (epithelial adhesion molecule)/ESA (epithelial specific antigen) [3, 4, 20]. To investigate the ... The ability of AHP3 and 3-Cl-AHPC to induce apoptosis in CD44−/CD24−, CD44+/CD24−, CD44−/CD24+, and CD44+/CD24+ cells was also ... The sorted CD133+, CD44+/CD24+ EpCAM+, and CD44+/CD24+ cells using flow cytometry were suspended in serum-free stem cell medium ... For sphere formation, the CD44+/CD24+/EpCAM+, CD133+, and CD44+/CD24+ cells were sorted by flow cytometry and approximately 200 ...
2), as measured via tumor sphere forming assay and surface marker CD24 and CD44 analysis. The expression of CD24, CD44 surface ... Cells were then stained for surface antigens according to the antibody manufacturers instructions. Following the last rinse to ... This being said, we have included CD24 and CD44 surface membrane expression in one cancer cell line (PANC-1) and showed that ... For the surface marker expression analysis, APC-labeled mouse anti-human CD44 (clone G44-26) and FITC-labeled mouse anti-human ...
Breast CSCs (BCSC), in particular, are enriched in the epithelial surface antigen (ESA)+/CD44+/high/CD24−/low subfraction of ... AD-01 reduces the ESA+/CD44+/CD24−/low and the ALDH+ cell subpopulation. A change in ESA+/CD44+/CD24−/low was analyzed by flow ... and leukemia cells lacking CD44 could not home to bone marrow. Also, when CD44 was knocked down in CD44+/CD24− breast cancer ... The functional relevance of CD44/CD24 markers in relation to breast cancer stemness is poorly understood. However, CD44 seems ...
Nevertheless, specific T cells can be generated using genetic modification to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR), which ... Nevertheless, specific T cells can be generated using genetic modification to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR), which ... A central requirement for the efficacy of this approach is the existence of cancer antigen-specific T cells, but these are ... A central requirement for the efficacy of this approach is the existence of cancer antigen-specific T cells, but these are ...
ALDH(high)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) or ALDH(low)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) phenotypes do not appear to significantly contribute to tumor formation ... ALDH(high)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) or ALDH(low)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) phenotypes do not appear to significantly contribute to tumor formation ... Antigens, CD/metabolism*. *Glycoproteins/metabolism*. *Isoenzymes/metabolism*. *Neoplastic Stem Cells/enzymology*/pathology* ... cell populations were further examined for co-expression of CD44 and/or CD24. We demonstrate that unlike cell populations ...
CD24−/lowLineage− cells and 20,000 nontumorigenic CD44+CD24+Lineage− cells were examined by histology. The CD44+CD24−/low ... anti-CD24 (PE or FITC), anti-B38.1 (APC), anti-epithelial-specific antigen (ESA)-FITC (Biomeda, Foster City, CA), and anti-H2Kd ... ESA+CD44+CD24−/lowLineage− tumorigenic cells from T1 (c) or CD44+CD24−/lowLineage− tumorigenic cells from T2 (d) were isolated ... c) A representative tumor in a mouse at the CD44+CD24−/lowLineage− injection site, but not at the CD44+CD24+Lineage− injection ...
CD24highCD44lowNK1.1low), stage 1 (CD24lowCD44lowNK1.1low), stage 2 (CD24lowCD44highNK1.1low), and stage 3 (CD24lowCD44high ... CD44−NK1.1−), stage 1 (CD24CD44−NK1.1−), stage 2 (CD24CD44+NK1.1−), and stage 3 (CD24CD44+NK1.1+) (data representative of n ... Stage 0 (PBS57-CD1d+CD24+CD44−, second row), stage 1 (PBS57-CD1d+CD24CD44−, third row), and stage 2/3 (PBS57-CD1d+CD24−CD44+, ... A) Total thymocytes were MACS bead-enriched for PBS57-CD1d+ population and then stained for CD24, CD44, and NK1.1 to ...
EpCAM+/CD44+/CD24−) than that of free Dox alone (FIG. 16), while the EpCAM+/CD44+/CD24− population remained at ˜22.5% and 21.7 ... Heat induced antigen retrieval was performed in a microwave oven using Tris-EDTA buffer (10 mM Tris, 1 mM EDTA, 0.05% Tween 20 ... 11B, in HT29 spheres treated with aptamer-Dox, there was only 0.52% EpCAMhigh/CD44high/CD24high cells, in sharp contrast to 91 ... Flow cytometry analysis of EpCAM, CD44 and CD24 expression in HT29 spheres treated with EpCAM aptamer-Dox (B) or Dox alone (A). ...
CD24, and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA). Pancreatic cancer cells with the CD44(+)CD24(+)ESA(+) phenotype (0.2-0.8% of ... The CD44(+)CD24(+)ESA(+) pancreatic cancer cells showed the stem cell properties of self-renewal, the ability to produce ... The enhanced ability of CD44(+)CD24(+)ESA(+) pancreatic cancer cells to form tumors was confirmed in an orthotopic pancreatic ... We prospectively identified and isolated the tumorigenic cells as CD44(+)CD24(-/low)Lineage(-) in eight of nine patients. As ...
... in an increasing number of other human malignancies using CD44 and CD24 as well as a number of other surface antigens. ... We found that ALDH+ and CD44+CD24+ pancreatic CSCs are similarly tumorigenic, but ALDH+ cells are relatively more invasive8. In ... CSCs from pancreatic adenocarcinoma based on ALDH activity and the expression of the cell surface antigens CD44 and CD24, and ... Tissue debris and dead cells are separated from live cells and then stained using antibodies against CD44 and CD24 and using ...
CD44, CD24, ABCG2, and EpCAM [25-32]. In this study CD44, CD24, ABCG2, and EpCAM could be detected by flow cytometry in all the ... CD44, and ABCG2. Isotype controls for the corresponding antibodies used were as follows: antigen presenting cell (APC)- ... Results: EpCAM was co-expressed with all cancer stem cell markers (CD44, CD24, and ABCG2) in primary RB tumors. EpCAM+ cells ... Methods: Flow cytometry was used to study the co-expression of EpCAM with putative cancer stem cell markers, such as CD44, CD24 ...
  • 5 ) reported that a phenotypically distinct and relatively rare population of CD44 + CD24epithelial-specific antigen (ESA) + tumor-initiating cells (TIC) was responsible for the propagation of human metastatic breast cancer specimens in immunodeficient nonobese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The biomarker pairs CD44/CD24, N-cadherin/E-cadherin and CD74/CD59 stratified DCIS samples. (nature.com)
  • The assessment of CD24 as a potential prostate cancer biomarker through RNA expression profiling and IHC analysis in previous studies further illustrates the difficulties in directly comparing gene and protein expression levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, each increase of 10% in the percent of the tumor classified as grade 4/5 at the time of surgery leads to a 10% increase in the failure rate as measured by detectable and rising serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker of prostate cancer (PCa). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To compare identification of circulating breast cancer cells (CBCCs) in blood or pleural or peritoneal fluid by a novel technique using stem cell marker retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and surface antigen expression (CD44+, CD24-) to the standard technique using the CellSearch® system in women with metastatic breast cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • OUTLINE: Patients undergo sample collection to help develop a new technique using stem cell marker retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and surface antigen expression (CD44+, CD24-) in isolating circulating breast cancer cells (CBCCs) from blood and pleural or peritoneal fluid. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ALDH(high)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) or ALDH(low)/CD44(+)/CD24(+) phenotypes do not appear to significantly contribute to tumor formation at low numbers of inoculated tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of the underlying mechanism showed that 6-S and PTE decreased the expression of the surface antigen CD44 on BCSCs and promoted β-catenin phosphorylation through the inhibition of hedgehog/Akt/GSK3β signaling, thus decreasing the protein expression of downstream c-Myc and cyclin D1 and reducing BCSC stemness. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the CD44 and CD24 expressions in different canine mammary neoplasms, including benign, malignant and lymph node metastatic sites, and correlate them with histological grade of malignancy and histopatological type, since no similar data has been found in the literature. (beds.ac.uk)