Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.ReadingCardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Interferon Inducers: Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.FlavoproteinsAdaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesCD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 15: A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS that plays a role in the inhibition of endothelial cell growth and PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: B-cells that have a role in regulating the immune response including the production of CYTOKINES. This function is in addition to their traditional role in making antibodies.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Inbred C57BLToll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Bender-Gestalt Test: A psychological test consisting of nine geometric designs on cards. The subject is asked to redraw them from memory after each one is presented individually.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Matrix Metalloproteinase 11: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is believed to play a role in EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 was originally isolated in primary BREAST NEOPLASMS and may be involved in the process of tumorigenesis.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Matrix Metalloproteinase 10: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that may play a role in matrix degradation during WOUND HEALING. It is expressed at high levels by KERATINOCYTES, suggesting its role in keratinocyte migration.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (1/1953)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Expression of stromelysin-3 in atherosclerotic lesions: regulation via CD40-CD40 ligand signaling in vitro and in vivo. (2/1953)

Stromelysin-3 is an unusual matrix metalloproteinase, being released in the active rather than zymogen form and having a distinct substrate specificity, targeting serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), which regulate cellular functions involved in atherosclerosis. We report here that human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 7) express stromelysin-3 in situ, whereas fatty streaks (n = 5) and normal arterial specimens (n = 5) contain little or no stromelysin-3. Stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages within the lesion. In vitro, usual inducers of matrix metalloproteinases such as interleukin-1, interferon-gamma, or tumor necrosis factor alpha did not augment stromelysin-3 in vascular wall cells. However, T cell-derived as well as recombinant CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), an inflammatory mediator recently localized in atheroma, induced de novo synthesis of stromelysin-3. In addition, stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with CD40L and CD40 within atheroma. In accordance with the in situ and in vitro data obtained with human material, interruption of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic mice substantially decreased expression of the enzyme within atherosclerotic plaques. These observations establish the expression of the unusual matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 in human atherosclerotic lesions and implicate CD40-CD40L signaling in its regulation, thus providing a possible new pathway that triggers complications within atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Minimal cross-linking and epitope requirements for CD40-dependent suppression of apoptosis contrast with those for promotion of the cell cycle and homotypic adhesions in human B cells. (3/1953)

Eight different CD40 mAb shared with soluble trimeric CD40 ligand (sCD40LT) the capacity to rescue germinal center (GC) B cells from spontaneous apoptosis and to suppress antigen receptor-driven apoptosis in group I Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Three mAb (G28-5, M2 and M3) mimicked sCD40LT in its ability to promote strong homotypic adhesion in resting B cells, whereas others (EA5, BL-OGY/C4 and 5C3) failed to stimulate strong clustering. Binding studies revealed that only those mAb that promoted strong B cell clustering bound at, or near to, the CD40L binding site. While all eight mAb and sCD40LT were capable of synergizing with IL-4 or phorbol ester for promoting DNA synthesis in resting B cells, co-stimulus-independent activation of the cells into cycle through CD40 related directly to the extent of receptor cross-linking. Thus, mAb which bound outside the CD40L binding site synergized with sCD40LT for promoting DNA synthesis; maximal levels of stimulation were achieved by presenting any of the mAb on CD32 transfectants in the absence of sCD40LT or by cross-linking bound sCD40LT with a second antibody. Monomeric sCD40L, which was able to promote rescue of GC B cells from apoptosis, was unable to drive resting B cells into cycle. These studies demonstrate that CD40-dependent rescue of human B cells from apoptosis requires minimal cross-linking and is essentially epitope independent, whereas the requirements for promoting cell cycle progression and homotypic adhesion are more stringent. Possible mechanisms underlying these differences and their physiological significance are discussed.  (+info)

TRANCE, a TNF family member, is differentially expressed on T cell subsets and induces cytokine production in dendritic cells. (4/1953)

TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE) is a member of the TNF family recently identified in activated T cells. We report here that TRANCE mRNA is constitutively expressed in memory, but not naive, T cells and in single-positive thymocytes. Upon TCR/CD3 stimulation, TRANCE mRNA and surface protein expression are rapidly up-regulated in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which can be further enhanced on CD4+ T cells by CD28-mediated costimulation. However, TRANCE induction is significantly suppressed when cells are stimulated in the presence of IL-4, but is not modified in the presence of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, or IL-2. High levels of TRANCE receptor expression are found on mature dendritic cells (DCs). In this study we show that activated T and B cells also express TRANCE receptor, but only at low levels. TRANCE, however, does not exert any significant effect on the proliferation, activation, or survival of those cells. In DCs, TRANCE induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1) and T cell growth and differentiation factors (IL-12, IL-15) in addition to enhancing DC survival. Moreover, TRANCE cooperates with CD40 ligand or TNF-alpha to further increase the viability of DCs, suggesting that several TNF-related molecules on activated T cells may cooperatively regulate the function and survival of DCs to enhance T cell-mediated immune responses.  (+info)

N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibits primary human T cell responses at the dendritic cell level: association with NF-kappaB inhibition. (5/1953)

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant molecule endowed with immunomodulatory properties. To investigate the effect of NAC on the induction phase of T cell responses, we analyzed its action on human dendritic cells (DC) derived from adherent PBMC cultured with IL-4 and granulocyte-macrophage CSF. We first found that NAC inhibited the constitutive as well as the LPS-induced activity of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. In parallel, NAC was shown to down-regulate the production of cytokines by DC as well as their surface expression of HLA-DR, CD86 (B7-2), and CD40 molecules both at the basal state and upon LPS activation. NAC also inhibited DC responses induced by CD40 engagement. The inhibitory effects of NAC were not due to nonspecific toxicity as neither the viability of DC nor their mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis were modified by NAC. Finally, we found that the addition of NAC to MLR between naive T cells and allogeneic DC resulted in a profound inhibition of alloreactive responses, which could be attributed to a defect of DC as APC-independent T cell responses were not inhibited by NAC. Altogether, our results suggest that NAC might impair the generation of primary immune responses in humans through its inhibitory action on DC.  (+info)

Lymphocyte activation gene-3, a MHC class II ligand expressed on activated T cells, stimulates TNF-alpha and IL-12 production by monocytes and dendritic cells. (6/1953)

Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) is an MHC class II ligand structurally and genetically related to CD4. Although its expression is restricted to activated T cells and NK cells, the functions of LAG-3 remain to be elucidated. Here, we report on the expression and function of LAG-3 on proinflammatory bystander T cells that are activated in the absence of TCR engagement. LAG-3 is expressed at high levels on human T cells cocultured with autologous monocytes and IL-2 and synergizes with the low levels of CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressed on these cells to trigger TNF-alpha and IL-12 production by monocytes. Indeed, anti-LAG-3 mAb inhibits both IL-12 and IFN-gamma production in IL-2-stimulated cocultures of T cells and autologous monocytes. Soluble LAG-3Ig fusion protein markedly enhances IL-12 production by monocytes stimulated with infra-optimal concentrations of sCD40L, whereas it directly stimulates monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) for the production of TNF-alpha and IL-12, unravelling an enhanced responsiveness to MHC class II engagemenent in DC as compared with activated monocytes. Thus similar to CD40L, LAG-3 may be involved in the proinflammatory activity of cytokine-activated bystander T cells and most importantly it may directly activate DC.  (+info)

Regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 receptor beta2 subunit expression by endogenous IL-12: a critical step in the differentiation of pathogenic autoreactive T cells. (7/1953)

The interleukin (IL)-12 receptor (R)beta2 subunit is the critical molecule involved in maintaining IL-12 responsiveness and controlling T helper cell type 1 lineage commitment. We demonstrate that IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma play separate, but complementary, roles in regulating IL-12Rbeta2 expression on antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. These results are consistent with our previous observation that IL-12 can promote autoimmune disease through IFN-gamma-independent as well as -dependent pathways. Therefore, we compared the induction of IL-12 by, and the expression of the IL-12Rbeta2 subunit on, myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)-susceptible SJL (H-2(s)) mice and from EAE- resistant B10.S mice (H-2(s)). B10.S mice had an antigen-specific defect in their capacity to upregulate the IL-12Rbeta2 subunit. Defective expression was not secondary to the production of suppressive cytokines, but to a failure of B10.S MBP-specific T cells to upregulate CD40 ligand expression and to induce the production of IL-12. IL-12Rbeta2 expression as well as encephalitogenicity of these cells could be restored by the addition of IL-12. These results suggest that the development of immunotherapies that target the IL-12Rbeta2 subunit may be useful for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Bone marrow-derived cells are required for the induction of a pulmonary inflammatory response mediated by CD40 ligation. (8/1953)

The expression of inflammatory mediators by various cells following in vitro CD40 ligation is well known. However, knowledge of the role and interaction with these cells in the establishment and maintenance of in vivo immune-mediated inflammation is limited. In this report, a chimeric mouse model based on CD40 knockout and wild-type mice was used to assess the role of bone marrow (BM)-derived and non-BM-derived cells in a CD40-mediated pulmonary inflammation response. CD40+ BM-derived cells were required for initial cell recruitment, pulmonary edema, and weight loss associated with this response. The structural CD40+ non-BM-derived cells of the lung, such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, could not by themselves establish any level of pulmonary inflammation. However, both the CD40+ BM-derived cells and the structural CD40+ non-BM-derived cells of the lung were required to maximize the level of pulmonary inflammation. Both B cells and T cells played a contributing role in macrophage recruitment and pulmonary edema but neither contributed to the inflammation-associated weight loss. These experiments indicate that CD40+ BM-derived cells were critical to the induction of pulmonary inflammation and that alveolar macrophages, B cells, and T cells contributed to selective aspects of the response.  (+info)

*CD154

"CD40-CD40 ligand". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (1): 2-17. PMID 10647992. Schattner EJ (May 2000). "CD40 ligand in CLL ... CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the ... Wang JH, Zhang YW, Zhang P, Deng BQ, Ding S, Wang ZK, Wu T, Wang J (September 2013). "CD40 ligand as a potential biomarker for ... "Entrez Gene: CD40LG CD40 ligand (TNF superfamily, member 5, hyper-IgM syndrome)". Lederman S, Yellin MJ, Krichevsky A, Belko J ...

*Seth Lederman

January 1996). "The central role of the CD40-ligand and CD40 pathway in T-lymphocyte-mediated differentiation of B lymphocytes ... Lederman discovered the CD40-Ligand (CD154) and elucidated the molecular basis of T cell helper function. Dr. Lederman's work ... Lederman discovered the CD40-Ligand (CD154) and elucidated the molecular basis of T cell helper function. Lederman also ... July 1993). "Deletions in the ligand for CD40 in X-linked immunoglobulin deficiency with normal or elevated IgM (HIGMX-1)". Int ...

*T helper cell

CD40 (protein) and CD40L) and through cytokines. CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a cell surface protein that ... "Entrez Gene: CD40LG CD40 ligand (TNF superfamily, member 5, hyper-IgM syndrome)". Armitage RJ, Fanslow WC, Strockbine L, Sato ... May 1992). "Molecular and biological characterization of a murine ligand for CD40". Nature. 357 (6373): 80-2. doi:10.1038/ ... It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. CD154 acts ...

*Hyper-IgM syndrome type 1

This gene codes for the CD40 ligand, which is expressed on T cells. When the CD40 ligand binds CD40 on B cells, then the B cell ...

*AKNA

Mar 2001). "Regulation of CD40 and CD40 ligand by the AT-hook transcription factor AKNA". Nature. 410 (6826): 383-7. doi: ... AKNA is known to upregulate expression of CD40 and CD154. Siddiqa A, Sims-Mourtada JC, Guzman-Rojas L, et al. ( ...

*Ruplizumab

"Autoantibody to CD40 ligand in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with thrombocytopenia but not thromboembolism". ...

*Phagocyte

Th1 cells activate macrophages by signaling with IFN-gamma and displaying the protein CD40 ligand. Other signals include TNF- ...

*Superantigen

SAg activation in T-cells leads to production of CD40 ligand which activates isotype switching in B cells to IgG and IgM and ... Jabara HH, Geha RS (October 1996). "The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces CD40 ligand expression and modulates ...

*Lucatumumab

In in vitro studies, it inhibited cell proliferation induced by CD40 ligands and induced cell lysis. Over three Phase 1 trials ... It is an antagonist to CD40 that was created by scientists at Chiron using Abgenix' XenoMouse transgenic mouse to generate ... 627-II) A Fully Human Anti-CD40 Antagonistic Antibody, CHIR-12.12, Inhibit the Proliferation of Human B Cell Non-Hodgkin's ... Hassan, SB; Sørensen, JF; Olsen, BN; Pedersen, AE (April 2014). "Anti-CD40-mediated cancer immunotherapy: an update of recent ...

*Lentiviral vector in gene therapy

More specifically, Lentiviruses attach to the CD40 ligand glycoproteins on the surface of T-lymphocyte cells. The viral ...

*Hyper IgM syndrome

CD40 is a co-stimulatory receptor on B cells that, when bound to CD40 ligand (CD40L), sends a signal to the B-cell receptor. ... Many CD40 Ligand Deficiency are first diagnosed after having PCP in their first year of life. The fungus is common and is ... "CD40 gene". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 27 November 2016. Lougaris V, Badolato R, Ferrari S, Plebani A (2005). "Hyper ... When there is a defect in CD40, this leads to defective T-cell interaction with B cells. Consequently, humoral immune response ...

*IGKC

2001). "Structure of CD40 ligand in complex with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing humanized antibody". Structure. 9 (4): 321- ...

*CD80

"HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 (B71)". ... It is the ligand for two different proteins on the T cell surface: CD28 (for autoregulation and intercellular association) and ...

*Pneumocystis murina

"Immune responses to Pneumocystis murina are robust in healthy mice but largely absent in CD40 ligand-deficient mice". Journal ...

*HLA-DOB

1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ...

*SLAMF1

"Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is expressed on CD40 ligand-activated dendritic cells and directly augments ... Li SC, Gish G, Yang D, Coffey AJ, Forman-Kay JD, Ernberg I, Kay LE, Pawson T (2000). "Novel mode of ligand binding by the SH2 ...

*Immunotransplant

Responses to human CD40 ligand/human interleukin-2 autologous cell vaccine in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

*RNF128

The transmembrane E3 ligase GRAIL ubiquitinates the costimulatory molecule CD40 ligand during the induction of T cell anergy". ...

*Thymic stromal lymphopoietin

2005). "Human TSLP promotes CD40 ligand-induced IL-12 production by myeloid dendritic cells but maintains their Th2 priming ... Liu YJ (2007). "Thymic stromal lymphopoietin and OX40 ligand pathway in the initiation of dendritic cell-mediated allergic ...

*Tumor necrosis factor superfamily

Peitsch MC, Jongeneel CV (February 1993). "A 3-D model for the CD40 ligand predicts that it is a compact trimer similar to the ... "Molecular characterization of murine and human OX40/OX40 ligand systems: identification of a human OX40 ligand as the HTLV-1- ... Suda T, Takahashi T, Golstein P, Nagata S (December 1993). "Molecular cloning and expression of the Fas ligand, a novel member ... All members of the TNF family, with the exception of the secreted lymphotoxin and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), are ...

*TACI-CRD2 protein domain

Peitsch MC, Jongeneel CV (February 1993). "A 3-D model for the CD40 ligand predicts that it is a compact trimer similar to the ... contains full affinity for both ligands. The ligands are type II transmembrane protein cytokines that have various effects on ... TACI binds two ligands, APRIL and BAFF, which it binds to with high affinity and contains two cysteine-rich domains (CRDs) in ... This shorter form is capable of ligand-induced cell signaling and that the second CRD alone (TACI-CRD2) ...

*Odulimomab

... monoclonal antibody inhibits CD40 ligand-independent immune responses and prevents chronic vasculopathy in CD40 ligand- ...

*Dendritic cell

1997). "In Vivo Microbial Stimulation Induces Rapid CD40 Ligand-independent Production of Interleukin 12 by Dendritic Cells and ... September 2003). "The Inducible CXCR3 Ligands Control Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Responsiveness to the Constitutive Chemokine ... and CD40 greatly enhancing their ability to activate T-cells. They also upregulate CCR7, a chemotactic receptor that induces ...

*Hypergammaglobulinemia

As mentioned above, CD40 is expressed on the surface of B cells, and its binding to CD40 ligand on activated T cells induces Ig ... The mutation in the TNFSF5 gene causes there to be no recognition of CD40 by CD40 ligand, and thus the T cells do not induce Ig ... Normally, CD40 ligand is expressed on activated T cells, and is necessary to induce immunoglobulin class switching from IgM to ... CD40 ligand is also required in the functional maturation of T lymphocytes and macrophages, so patients with this disorder have ...

*Antigen-presenting cell

... with CD28 and CD40 ligand on the T cell. Only licensed dendritic cells are able to activate cytotoxic T cells. T cell licensing ... When a T helper cell with a TCR specific for that peptide binds, the B cell marker CD40 binds to CD40L on the T cell surface. ... It also upregulates several co-stimulatory molecules required for T cell activation, including CD40 and B7. The latter can ... This occurs through the interaction of co-stimulatory molecules including B7 and CD40 on the dendritic cell, ...

*Cytokine receptor

... and includes several other non-cytokine ligands like receptors, CD40, CD27 and CD30, besides the ligands on which the family is ... Arimont A, Sun S, Smit MJ, Leurs R, de Esch IJ, de Graaf C (2017). "Structural Analysis of Chemokine Receptor-Ligand ...
Buy anti-Vaccinia Virus, A27L antibody, Mouse Vaccinia Virus, A27L Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 12K239) (MBS644440) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: ELISA (EL/EIA),Immunofluorescence (IF)
These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognize the heavy and light chains (H+L) of rabbit or mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. They are provided in unlabeled form or as a conjugate with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. The antibodies were raised in goat or rabbit using rabbit IgG (H+L) or mouse IgG (H+L), and can be used as a secondary antibody for Western blot (WB) detection, immunohistochemical (IHC) detection, or ELISAs.. ...
These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognize the heavy and light chains (H+L) of rabbit or mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. They are provided in unlabeled form or as a conjugate with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. The antibodies were raised in goat or rabbit using rabbit IgG (H+L) or mouse IgG (H+L), and can be used as a secondary antibody for Western blot (WB) detection, immunohistochemical (IHC) detection, or ELISAs.. ...
Cdc5L Antibody (2136C1a) is a monoclonal anti-Cdc5L antibody that detects m, r, and h Cdc5L by WB, IP, IF and FCM. Cited in 6 publications
Targeting CD40L-CD40 interaction could be useful in clinical applications for curing autoimmune diseases, providing treatment following transplantation and treating tumors [15]. One strategy to disrupt this interaction is to use an anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody: this approach has been shown to be effective in mouse models of RA, SLE, MS, IBD, T1 diabetes, and inflammatory heart disease [29]. The humanized CD40L monoclonal antibody BG9588 (hu5c8) has shown therapeutic effects on SLE patients in clinical trials [17, 30]. Another humanized monoclonal antibody, IDEC-131, was tested in a phase II clinical study in ITP patients [31]. However, they were not approved for clinical use because of thrombotic complications when BG9588 was used in some SLE patients and IDEC-131 was used in treating Crohns disease [27]. A third humanized anti-CD40L antibody, ABI793, targeted a different epitope and was found to have the same thrombotic complications, suggesting that these complications are a common effect ...
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Soluble proteins are poorly immunogenic, and will often lead to Ag-specific tolerance. Similarly, Ag associated with apoptotic cells will frequently induce tolerance. These types of Ag are not very "dangerous", so that recruitment and stimulation of professional APC is minimal. Treatment with the hematopoietic growth factor Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) results in tremendous DC expansion, and previous studies have shown that Flt3L treatment can prevent the establishment of tolerance. Yet, the exact mechanism by which Flt3L treatment enhances immune responses remains undefined. I.V. injection of apoptotic cells or soluble Ag into wt mice induces tolerance, but this tolerance is abrogated by treatment with Flt3L. Interestingly, similar abrogation of tolerance was not observed in CD154-/- mice, suggesting a role for CD40-CD40L interaction. Further analysis of Flt3L-treated mice found reduced expansion of CD11c+ cells in CD154-/- mice versus B6 mice. This reduction in CD11c+ cells ...
Direct inhibition of T cell expansion by CD8 T cell CD40L blockade. 2.5 × 106 naive OT-I-RAG−/− cells (Ly5.2) were transferred to Ly5.1 CD40L−/− mice
CD14 (also known lipopolysaccharide [LPS] receptor) is expressed strongly on monocytes and macrophages and weakly on the surface of neutrophils. CD14 (1-201 a.a.) is anchored to cells by linkage to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) and functions as a high affinity receptor for complexes of LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP). Soluble CD14, also binding to LPS, acts at physiological concentrations as an LPS agonist and has, at higher concentrations, an LPS antagonizing effect in cell activation. The myeloid differentiation antigen CD14 acts as the major receptor for bacterial LPS. The dominant form of the recombinant wildtype CD14 is the 50 kDa protein.,The rHuCD14 is produced from human CD14-transfected CHO-cells. Before transfection, the complete human CD14-cDNA was amplified by PCR and cloned into expression vector p-POL-DHFR ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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Dybul M, Mercier G, Belson M, Hallahan C, Liu S, Perry C, Herpin B, Ehler L, Davey R, Metcalf J, Mican J, Seder R, Fauci AS. CD40 ligand trimer and IL-12 enhance PBMC and CD4+ T-cell proliferation and production of IFN-γ in response to p24 antigen in HIV-infected individuals: potential contribution of anergy in the lack of HIV-specific unresponsiveness. J Immunol. 2000;165:1685-1692 ...
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Results Histological analysis of paws showed increased synovial infiltration and joint destruction in WT mice while Flt3L-/- mice showed mild infiltration without inflammation (H&E staining). Cartilage destruction (Safranin O staining) and the number of osteoclast were higher in WT compared with Flt3L-/- mice. Importantly, in steady-state (no CIA induced), Flt3L-/- mice show reduced celularity in both spleen (p=0.007) and LN (p=0.01) and reduced T and B cell numbers compared with WT. CIA induction in Flt3L-/- led to decreased disease incidence and severity (AUC p=0.001) compared with WT littermates. In addition, Flt3L-/- mice showed reduced spleen and LN cellularity (p,0.0001) but also reduced percentage of CD4+CD25+T cells compared with WT (p=0.03). Flt3L-/- CD4+ T cells produced significantly less IL-17 (p=0.016) and TNF-a (p=0.010) while CD8+ T cells produced less IFN-g (p=0.029) compared with WT.. ...
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Results: 84 HIV+ men completed both clinical and laboratory aspects of the study: median age 59 years; 95% Caucasian, 93% had undetectable viral load. Using the FP, 10% (n=8) were categorized as frail, 52% (n=44) pre-frail and 38% (n=32) robust. The median FI score was 0.13, (0.25 was the cut-off between frail and non-frail), with 23% (n=19) categorised as frail on the FI. HIV+ pre-frail and frail men (using the FP) had higher levels of inflammation than robust men (mean plasma sCD163 3.07 vs. 2.35 ng/ml, respectively, p=0.015), remaining significant on multivariable analysis. The FI correlated with markers of inflammation, metabolic dysregulation and mitochondrial dysfunction (plasma sCD163 (ρ=0.263, p=0.036), Glut-1 MFI and DiOC6(3) MFI on non-classical monocytes (ρ=0.246, p=0.049; ρ=-0.248, p=0.048 respectively) with Glut-1 and DiOC6(3) remaining significant in multivariable analysis. Neither the FP nor the FI were associated with T-cell immune activation ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) stimulates both activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate. IL-2 signals through an identical receptor complex and promotes the same dose-dependent phosphorylation of the canonical transcription factor STAT5 in both cell types. Despite this, CD8+ T cells enter the S phase earlier and proliferate to a greater extent than do CD4+ T cells in response to IL-2. We identified distinct IL-2 signaling dynamics in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In IL-2-stimulated CD8+ T cells, STAT5 phosphorylation increased rapidly and was sustained for 6 hours. In contrast, CD4+ T cells had a biphasic response, with maxima at 15 min and 2 to 4 hours after stimulation. Both cell types required vesicular trafficking, but only CD4+ T cells required new protein synthesis to maintain high phosphorylation of STAT5. Two subunits of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ, were twice as abundant in CD8+ T cells than in CD4+ T cells. Reduction of IL-2Rβ abundance by 50% was sufficient to convert CD8+ T cells to ...
The CD154-CD40 interaction is critical for the induction and progression of EAE (14, 15, 16) and many other autoimmune diseases. Because of the role of the CD154-CD40 interaction in regulating IL-12 production, it has been proposed that the protection from autoimmunity is due to a deviation of T cell response from a proinflammatory Th1 response to an anti-inflammatory Th2 response (23, 24). However, CD40-CD154 interactions are critical in regulating many other immune cell functions (4). Here we address the specific mechanism(s) by which clinical autoimmune disease may be prevented by CD40 ligand blockade. The actual mechanism appears to have little or nothing to do with Th1 to Th2 cell deviation, but instead is associated with significantly reduced Ag-specific T cell responses in the lymph nodes and the prevention of CD4 T cell effector expansion/function within the autoimmune target organ.. Unlike therapies that target the B7-CD28/CD152 costimulatory pathways, interference with the CD40-CD154 ...
Impaired T cell priming and cytokine production in OX40L-deficient mice and MGP34-treated mice. (A) OX40L-deficient mice have impaired recall proliferative resp
Clone REA661 recognizes the human CD80 antigen, also known as B7-1. CD80 is a 262 amino acid long 60 kDa molecule and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Together with CD86 (B7-2) it belongs to the B7 family of costimulatory molecules. CD80 is expressed on activated B cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes/ macrophages. The interaction of CD80 with its ligands CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4) plays a critical role in induction and regulation of immune responses. Binding of CD80 to CD28, which is constitutively expressed on T cells, provides a costimulatory signal and induces T cell proliferation and cytokine production. In contrast, binding to CTLA-4 strongly inhibits proliferation and IL-2 secretion by T cells. Additional information: Clone REA661 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
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Das vom CD40LG Gen kodierte Protein ist der Ligand des CD40 auf den T-Lyphozyten. Die kopplung des CD40 auf den B-Lymphozyten mit dem CD40LG ist für eine reife Immunantwort insbesondere dem Klassenwechsel unerlässlich. Deshalb produzieren Patienten exzessiv das Immunglobulin IgM und zeigen eine erhöhte Infektanfälligkeit.. ...
SCD1小鼠单克隆抗体[CD.E10](ab19862)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到6个独立的用户反馈。
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in B cell-mediated innate and adaptive immunity. It has been shown that interleukin 10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory B cells (B10 cells) can negatively regulate cellular immune responses and inflammation in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we determined the effect of TLR4 signaling on the CD40-activated B10 cell competency. The results demonstrated that LPS and CD40L synergistically stimulated proliferation of mouse splenocytes. The percentage of B10 cells in cultured splenocytes was significantly increased after CD40L stimulation but such increase was diminished by the addition of LPS. Such effects by LPS were only observed in cells from WT but not TLR4−/− mice. IL-10 mRNA expression and protein production in B10 cells from cultured splenocytes were significantly up-regulated by CD40L stimulation but were inhibited after the addition of LPS in a TLR4-dependent manner. This study suggests that LPS-induced TLR4 signaling attenuate CD40L-activated
The results of this study show that plasma sCD40L levels are significantly elevated in CD and UC patients compared with those found in normal individuals, and that platelets display enhanced expression of surface CD40L in both forms of IBD. Elevation of circulating sCD40L is not a phenomenon unique to IBD, being found in a variety of inflammatory, autoimmune, and thrombotic disorders.20-26 However, combined with increased expression of CD40 in affected tissues, it provides important clues to disease pathogenesis, as shown in other chronic inflammatory conditions such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.4,5 Similarly, overexpression of CD40 in actively inflamed IBD mucosa7,8 demonstrates the presence of resident cells which, upon binding of CD40L, can become activated and produce proinflammatory mediators. We have previously reported that this is indeed the case, as T cell bound, platelet bound, or soluble CD40L induce chemokine production, CAM upregulation, and increased leucocyte ...
In this study of untreated, HIV-infected patients, sCD14, a marker of microbial translocation and monocyte activation was detectable in both plasma and CSF. High CSF and plasma sCD14 was not explained by higher HIV RNA or lower CD4+ cell counts, while a significant association between plasma sCD14 and LPS was found. Furthermore, significant associations between CSF sCD14 and markers of inflammation and axonal damage in the CSF were found, independent of age, HIV RNA, and CD4+ cell count. Hence, it is possible that elevated monocyte activation, partly driven by microbial translocation, may contribute to the pathogenesis in CNS by promoting inflammation.. Infection of the CNS occurs early during HIV infection [34, 35]. HIV enters the CNS unassisted or in infected monocytes that cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) [36-38]. In the CNS, HIV and migrated immune cells lead to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and further immune activation. Inflammation in the CNS creates a neurotoxic ...
BACKGROUND Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence shows that CD40-CD40L interaction plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to assess whether CD40 system expressions were disrupted in patients with diabetes. METHODS Sixteen normal controls and 72 patients including 20 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), 15 with type 1 DM, 20 with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 17 CHD with coexisting DM were investigated. The expression of CD40 and CD40L on platelet was analyzed by indirect-immunofluorescence flow cytometry and serum-soluble CD40L level was determined by a commercially available ELISA. Serum of AGE was detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. RESULTS Type 1 DM, type 2 DM, CHD and CHD Patients with coexisting diabetes showed a significant increase of CD40 (81.8 +/- 11.7, 70.7 +/- 11.6, 68.5 +/- 10.2, 79.9 +/- 11.9 MIF, respectively) and CD40L (18.4 +/
Other approaches in addition to existing treatment of HIV infection need to be evaluated. One approach may be to block HIV infection by interrupting the assembly of the virus within the cell or the budding of virus from the membrane of the infected cell. In addition, blocking the attachment of HIV to its cellular receptor may offer another point of attack. HIV binds to the CD4 receptor on the target T4 lymphocyte and the envelope glycoprotein of the virus (gp120) is capable of high affinity binding to CD4. Any agent that prevents the attachment of gp120 to the CD4 receptor should be able to block virus transmission and spread. Recently, scientists have succeeded in producing highly purified recombinant soluble human CD4. Recombinant CD4 is capable of binding to HIV envelope protein (gp120) and inhibiting HIV infectivity in test tube studies. Potential therapeutic benefit in patients with HIV infection could be derived from either or both of these biologic effects. In order to extend the length ...
Clone REA1226 recognizes the murine CD18 antigen, a 95 kDa glycoprotein also known as integrin beta-2 (ITGB2). CD18 associates non-covalently with CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c to form LFA-1, Mac-1, and gp150/95, respectively and plays an important role in leukocytes adhesion. It is expressed on all leukocytes with NK and T cells showing higher density of surface expression. The CD18 integrin complexes bind CD54 (ICAM-1), CD102 (ICAM-2), CD50 (ICAM-3), iC3b, and fibrinogen. Heterodimers of CD18 with α subunits show different expression patterns on different leucocytes. Mice leucocytes lacking CD18 or expressing dysfunctional CD18 are defective in chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. Additional information: Clone REA1226 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Schweiz
These biological targets are conserved across species, making pharmaceutical pollution of the environment a danger to species who possess the same targets.[9] For example, the synthetic estrogen in human contraceptives, 17-R-ethinylestradiol, has been shown to increase the feminization of fish downstream from sewage treatment plants, thereby unbalancing reproduction and creating an additional selective pressure on fish survival.[10] Pharmaceuticals are usually found at ng/L to lowµg/L concentrations in the aquatic environment.[11] Adverse effects may occur in non-target species as a consequence of specific drug target interactions.[12] Therefore, evolutionarily well-conserved drug targets are likely to be associated with an increased risk for non-targeted pharmacological effects.[9]. ...
1)does costimulatory blockade make the body more prone to illnesses caused by foreign anitigens? since it induces t-cell anergy, or is it specific? because i know that it is used to suppress or prevent some autoimmune/graft effects. 2)i was reading a student report quoted "previous studies have suggested that combined treatment of cytokines may induce immuonological tolerance", however, I cannot find the actual paper, could you please help me out with that? Thankyou and your time and help is greatly appreciated ...
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Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
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CD274 / PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1), also known as B7-H1, is a member of the B7 family of regulatory proteins. It can act as both costimulatory and coinhibitory molecule for T cells. Interaction with its ligand CD279 (PD1) appears to be important in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and in prevention of tumor rejection. Even pathogens (e.g. Schistosoma) may exploit CD274 to evade an immune response. Besides CD279, existence of other receptor(s) for CD274 is likely ...
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CD84 (Cluster of Differentiation 84) is a human protein encoded by the CD84 gene.. Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup of the Ig superfamily, such as CD84, have similar patterns of conserved disulfide bonds and function in adhesion interactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells. ...
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1. I am concerned about the trend in CD4% decline. If it truly is approaching 20%, then regardless of the absolute number, you are losing CD4 cells. Despite your viral load being detectable and low,...
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CD4+ T cells play a major role in adaptive immune responses to intracellular and extracellular microbes by regulating the functions of B cells, CD8+ T cells, an...
2001 05 22.20858 16 06 45.68 -20 01 22.4 22.0R 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 05 22.28897 16 06 45.29 -20 01 21.3 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 06 10.02875 16 05 16.38 -19 57 27.3 22.9R 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 06 10.10380 16 05 16.05 -19 57 26.3 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 08 19.03454 16 02 18.80 -19 50 35.3 21.4R 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 20.03188 16 02 19.15 -19 50 37.8 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 21.03938 16 02 19.58 -19 50 40.7 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2002 04 07.29240 16 15 09.97 -20 25 16.3 21.6R 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 04 07.38861 16 15 09.68 -20 25 15.6 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 05 12.03950 16 12 54.85 -20 19 22.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.08513 16 12 54.63 -20 19 21.8 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.13062 16 12 54.41 -20 19 21.3 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.04812 16 12 50.15 -20 19 10.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.11749 16 12 49.83 -20 19 09.6 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 07 10.99718 16 08 34.27 -20 08 36.4 22.2R 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 11.20921 16 08 33.59 -20 08 35.0 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 13.10322 16 08 27.82 -20 08 ...
CD8 T 세포는 바이러스나 박테리아와 같은 병원체 및 종양, 이식된 장기 등에서 발현되는 외부 항원을 인지하고 이 외부항원을 발현하는 세포를 제거하는 기능을 갖는 세포독성 T 세포이다. 외부항원들에 대한 CD8 T 세포 기억의 형성은 차 후 이 항원들에 재노출되었을 때 강하고 빠른 면역 반응을 일으켜, 감염 병원체나 종양을 퇴치하는데 기여하기 때문에 면역력 향상에 중요한 요인이다. 감염 병원체 항원에 대한 백신을 접종하는 이유는 바로 이와 같은 T 세포 기억을 형성하기 위함이다. 반대로, 특정 항원에 대한 CD8 T 세포의 관용 (tolerance)이 형성하게 되면 그 항원들이 제거되지 않고 받아들여지게 되는데, 이식거부 반응이나 자가면역질환이 억제되기 위해서는 이식 항원이나 자가 항원에 대한 관용의 형성이 중요하다 ...
CD4 cells protect the body from infection by circulating in the blood to identify bacteria and viruses then produce antibodies to destroy them. CD4 cells also trigger the body to respond to infection...
ഒരുപോലെയിരിക്കുന്ന ശരാശരി വലിപ്പമുള്ള ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളാണ് സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനിയിലൂടെ ദൃശ്യമാവുക. നക്ഷത്രപൂരിതമായ ആകാശം എന്നാണ് ഈ സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനി ദൃശ്യത്തെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്.[4] ഈ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകൾക്ക് ക്ഷാരാഭിമുഖ്യമുള്ള കോശദ്രവ്യം ഉണ്ടാകും. ചെറിയ മുറിയാത്ത കോശങ്ങൾ എന്നാണ് ബർക്കിറ്റ് ലിംഫോമയിലെ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്. ബി-കോശ വ്യതിരക്ത മാർക്കറുകളായ CD20, CD22, CD19 എന്നിവ ...
Pill with imprint cardizem CD 300 mg is Blue & Gray, Capsule-shape and has been identified as Cardizem CD 300 mg. It is supplied by BTA Pharmaceuticals.
Are people with HIV getting their blood taken for CD4 testing more often than they need? Paul Sax, M.D., makes the case for less frequent measurements -- ...
Im a bit unsettled today because my cycle was supposed to start and it didnt. And I am super-regular. AF arrives every 28 days like clockwork. The FET schedule is built upon today being Day One, not Day Twenty-nine. (Actually, to make matters worse, I miscounted and the FET schedule is built upon yesterday being CD One.) Now Im going to be at least two days behind on the path to an April 22 transfer . . . Or ...
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High-quality CD14 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of PCSK9 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
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Index of comprehensive articles on medical diseases and conditions, l listing. Covers all aspects of medicine produced by doctors.
Welcome to my humble abode! Im just here, caught up in life and everything in between. Every now and then, I write. So, Im still learning and Im...
ゲット・イット・ベイビー (ノーナ・リーヴス・リミックス) ,ボーナス・トラック, / ティト・ ...
101.ru: Faceoff (Ran Shani Mix / 16 Bit Lolitas Edit) слушать онлайн в хорошем качестве на 101.ru и другие треки исполнителя 16 Bit Lolitas
Siit näeme, et kui arstid peavad normaalseks näiteks 12 nmol/L testosteroonitaset, siis tegelikkuses vastab see sisuliselt 100-aastase mehe tasemele. 35-aastase mehe puhul kuuluks ta sellise tulemusega oma vanusekaaslastega võrreldes sisuliselt alumise 5% hulka, evides tõenäoliselt paljusid madalast meessuguhormooni tasemes tulenevaid probleeme. Meditsiinilisest vaatepunktist kuulub ta aga soovitatud referentsvahemikku ning on tõenäoline, et mingit ravi talle riikliku süsteemi poolt ei kohaldata.. Seetõttu on soovitav lasta oma testosteroonitaset mõõta ning võrrelda seda ülaltoodud tabelite, mitte meditsiini poolt sätestatud "normaalse" vahemikuga. Eestis pakub mõõtmisteenust näiteks Quattromed.. Optimaalne testosteroonitase. Optimaalne testosterooni tase on suuresti individuaalne, kuid võib oletada, et vahemik 22-25 nmol/L on piisav, et vältida muidu defitsiidist tuleneda võivaid negatiivseid efekte. Lisaks kaasneb sellise tasemega ka vitaalsus ning vaimne ...
Page 3 - Hello everyone So I took the AANP in March 2011 after taking the Fitz course, and failed (personally I didnt think I was ready), but I thought I would try. Then I purchased the Barkley Assoc CD
هدف: پلاکت‏ها قطعات سلولی بدون هسته و مشتق از مگاکاریوسیت‏ها هستند که علاوه بر ایفای نقش در هموستاز و ایمنی ذاتی به واسطه داشتن شاخص‏های مهم نظیر CD40L (یک شاخص مولکولی مهم در تحریک سلول‏های ایمنی) می‏توانند در ایمنی اکتسابی نیز نقش داشته باشند؛ از جمله تأثیر آن‏ها بر لنفوسیت‏های B و فعال‏سازی آن‏ها مشخص شده است. اکنون در پاسخ به این سؤال که آیا میکروذرات مشتق از غشای پلاکت نیز می‏تواند این تأثیر‏گذاری را داشته باشد، تأثیر آن‏ها بر فعال‏سازی لنفوسیت‏های B بررسی شد. مواد و روش‏ها: در ابتدا پلاکت کنسانتره از پایگاه انتقال خون منطقه‌ای و آموزشی استان
Peripheral blood lymphocytes expressing CD8 and CD57 determinants are a small (1-15%) subset in healthy humans. CD8+, CD57+ peripheral blood lymphocytes may be divided by the level of CD8 expression, into CD8+high (CD57+) T-cells and CD8+low (CD57+) natural killer (NK) cells. CD8+high (CD57+) T-cell numbers are increased in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-seropositive subjects, and there is substantial evidence that HCMV is integral in the development of this subset in health and disease. Furthermore, the CD8+high (CD57+) subset is clonally derived, expressing a limited range of T-cell receptors, and are therefore likely to have restricted antigen specificity. Functionally, CD8+low(CD57+) cells exhibit NK activity, while CD8+high(CD57+) T-cells from healthy subjects mediate contact-dependent suppression in several in vitro systems including: (i) pokeweed mitogen-induced proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis, and (ii) generation of antiviral MHC-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. This is ...
Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells inhibits HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Purified CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− T cells (2 × 106/mouse) were adoptively transferred into WT B6 mice 24 h before HSV infection, and the immune response was measured on days 7 and 28 p.i. (A) On days 7 and 28 p.i., spleen cells were incubated with gB498-505, and CD8/IFN-γ production was measured by intracellular staining. The number shown in each plot is the mean percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells obtained from four mice per group. (B) The resulting decrease in IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in B6 mice after adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells were also measured by a standard ELISPOT assay. On days 7 and 28 post HSV infection, spleen cells were analyzed for the number of IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in response to SSIEFARL peptide. The error bars represent the mean ± SD of four different mice in the same group. *P , 0.05 compared with HSV-infected B6 mice receiving no adoptive transfer. Without ...
Hyper-IgM Syndrome Hyper-IgM Syndrome (HIGM) is a relatively rare group of diseases resulting from mutations in the pathway from B-cell activation to isotype switching and SHM. Patients with HIGM are usually diagnosed within the first two years of life and experience severe immunosuppression, owing to decreased levels of serum IgG, IgA, and IgE (reviewed in Etzioni and Ochs 2004). Treatment options currently include intravenous supplement of immunoglobulins for which the patient is deficient as well as bone marrow transplants. Depending on the mutation causing this syndrome, different modes of inheritance are seen. The severity of phenotypes within each form of HIGM varies widely due to variability in the mutations causing the disease (Serra et al. 2001 ; Lopez-Granados et al. 2003).. Hyper-IgM Type 1 HIGM1 is an X-linked recessive disease, with the majority of cases occurring in males. Female carriers do not experience immunosuppression and undergo normal isotype switching and SHM (reviewed in ...
Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. The conservation of large CD1 gene families among most mammals suggests that each type of CD1 protein has distinct functions that confer selective advantage. Cellular studies of CD1 proteins increasingly explain how each CD1 protein differs from the others. CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d have distinct antigen groove structures, patterns of expression in tissues, intracellular trafficking, and trigger T cells expressing diverse TCRs (Kasmar et al., 2009). CD1d (group 2) diverges most clearly from CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c (group 1) with regard to protein sequence. Also, group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins show differing transcriptional responses to pathogens, suggesting that they function at different stages of the immune response (Roura-Mir et al., 2005b). Collectively, these cellular studies suggest that group 1 and group 2 CD1 proteins likely have differing roles in immune responses.. The majority ...
The X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome (XHIGM) is an uncommon primary combined immunodeficiency disease caused by CD40L gene mutations. A delayed or missed diagnosis of XHIGM is common and concerning, owing to atypical immunoglobulin profile and phenotype of some patients, low recognition, and limited knowledge of clinicians on XHIGM in some underdeveloped areas. Opportunistic infections are a prominent clinical feature of XHIGM. However, toxoplasma encephalitis occurs sporadically and is extremely rare in patients with XHIGM.
How is X-Linked Hyper-IGM Immunodeficiency with Ectodermal Dysplasia abbreviated? XHM-ED stands for X-Linked Hyper-IGM Immunodeficiency with Ectodermal Dysplasia. XHM-ED is defined as X-Linked Hyper-IGM Immunodeficiency with Ectodermal Dysplasia very rarely.
CD27 is a lymphocyte-specific member of the TNF receptor family and has a TNF-related transmembrane ligand, CD70. The CD27/CD70 receptor-ligand pair cooperates with the TCR in the regulation of the peripheral T cell response. The study presented here reveals that CD27 may play a similar role in thymic pre-T cell development. We have previously cloned the cDNA encoding murine CD27, prepared specific mAbs and observed that murine CD27 is expressed on virtually all thymocytes, with the exception of a subpopulation of CD4-8- precursor T cells. It is shown here that induction of murine CD27 expression occurs at the transition from the CD4-8-25+ to the CD4-8-25- precursor T cell stage and is regulated by the pre-TCR. Therefore, we investigated whether CD27 contributes to pre-TCR-mediated thymocyte development. Pre-TCR function was mimicked by the induction of CD3 signaling in thymocytes of recombination activating gene (RAG)-deficient mice. This in vivo anti-CD3 epsilon mAb treatment induces an about ...
Biobreeding (BB) rats model type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D). BB diabetes-prone (BBDP) rats develop T1D spontaneously. BB diabetes-resistant (BBDR) rats develop T1D after immunological perturbations that include regulatory T cell (Treg) depletion plus administration of low doses of a TLR ligand, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. Using both models, we analyzed CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD45RC- candidate rat Treg populations. In BBDR and control Wistar Furth rats, CD25+ T cells comprised 5-8% of CD4+ T cells. In vitro, rat CD4+CD25+ T cells were hyporesponsive and suppressed T cell proliferation in the absence of TGF-beta and IL-10, suggesting that they are natural Tregs. In contrast, CD4+CD45RC(-) T cells proliferated in vitro in response to mitogen and were not suppressive. Adoptive transfer of purified CD4+CD25+ BBDR T cells to prediabetic BBDP rats prevented diabetes in 80% of recipients. Surprisingly, CD4+CD45RC-CD25- T cells were equally protective. Quantitative studies in an adoptive cotransfer model
CD4(+)CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are pivotal for the maintenance of self-tolerance, and their adoptive transfer gives protection from autoimmune diseases and pathogenic alloresponses after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation in murine model systems. In vitro, human CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells display phenotypic and functional characteristics similar to those of murine CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells: namely, hyporesponsiveness to T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and suppression of CD25- T cells. Thus far, the detailed characterization and potential clinical application of human CD4(+)CD25+ Treg cells have been hampered by their paucity in peripheral blood and the lack of appropriate expansion protocols. Here we describe the up to 40 000-fold expansion of highly purified human CD4(+)CD25high T cells in vitro through the use of artificial antigen-presenting cells for repeated stimulation via CD3 and CD28 in the presence of high-dose interleukin 2 (IL-2). Expanded CD4(+)CD25high T cells were ...
Human regulatory T cells (Treg) have been variously defined as CD4(+)CD25(+), CD4(+)CD25(high) or CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) cells which are responsible for maintaining peripheral tolerance. Their isolation from human peripheral blood or tissues depends on the expression level of CD25(IL-2Ralpha) - a surface marker which is also expressed on activated effector helper T cells. CD39, a cell surface associated ectonucleotidase, can be used to purify Treg with strong suppressor functions. The CD4(+)CD39(+) T cells catalyze cleavage of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which is then further cleaved to adenosine. CD4(+)CD39(+) T cells largely overlap with CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) but not CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell subset, and mediate equally potent immune suppression. Thus, CD39 surface marker can be successfully used for routine isolation of functionally-active human Treg from the peripheral blood of healthy donors or patients with cancer for studies of their role in health and disease.

Cardiopulmonary Bypass Induces Release of Soluble CD40 Ligand | CirculationCardiopulmonary Bypass Induces Release of Soluble CD40 Ligand | Circulation

Cardiopulmonary Bypass Induces Release of Soluble CD40 Ligand. Lisa Nannizzi-Alaimo, Mark H. Rubenstein, Veronica L. Alves, Gil ... Cardiopulmonary Bypass Induces Release of Soluble CD40 Ligand. Lisa Nannizzi-Alaimo, Mark H. Rubenstein, Veronica L. Alves, Gil ... Cardiopulmonary Bypass Induces Release of Soluble CD40 Ligand. Lisa Nannizzi-Alaimo, Mark H. Rubenstein, Veronica L. Alves, Gil ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2002/05/28/01.CIR.0000019068.32280.B3

anti-CD40 Ligand Primary Antibodiesanti-CD40 Ligand Primary Antibodies

Selected quality suppliers for anti-CD40 Ligand antibodies. ... Order monoclonal and polyclonal CD40 Ligand antibodies for many ... CD40 ligand (TNF superfamily, member 5, hyper-IgM syndrome) , CD40 ligand , TNF superfamily member 5 , CD40 antigen ligand , ... Top referenced anti-CD40 Ligand Antibodies. Show all anti-CD40 Ligand (CD40LG) Antibodies with Pubmed References. * Mouse ( ... Human CD40 Ligand (CD40LG) interaction partners * the CD40 (show CD40 Antibodies) rs1883832 T allele acts as a risk factor for ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/nf-kappab-signaling-pathway-5/cd40-ligand-antibody-365/

The Role of CD40/CD40 Ligand Interactions in Bone Marrow GranulopoiesisThe Role of CD40/CD40 Ligand Interactions in Bone Marrow Granulopoiesis

C. Van Kooten and J. Banchereau, "CD40-CD40 ligand: a multifunctional receptor-ligand pair," Advances in Immunology, vol. 61, ... The Role of CD40/CD40 Ligand Interactions in Bone Marrow Granulopoiesis. Irene Mavroudi1,2 and Helen A. Papadaki1 ... D. H. Wagner, R. D. Stout, and J. Suttles, "Role of the CD40-CD40 ligand interaction in CD4+ T cell contact-dependent ... I. Mavroudi, V. Papadaki, K. Pyrovolaki, P. Katonis, A. G. Eliopoulos, and H. A. Papadaki, "The CD40/CD40 ligand interactions ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2011/671453/ref/

Recombinant Human CD40 Ligand |  Cell SciencesRecombinant Human CD40 Ligand | Cell Sciences

CD40 Ligand is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the TNF family. CD40L is expressed predominantly on activated ... CD40 Ligand (CD40L) is a 261 amino acid type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the TNF family. CD40L is expressed ... CD40, is expressed on B lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells and thymic epithelium. CD40L-CD40 interaction stimulates B cell ... Soluble CD40L can bind its receptor, CD40, in monomeric, dimeric and trimeric forms, though the trimeric form of soluble CD40L ...
more infohttps://www.cellsciences.com/recombinant-human-cd40-ligand-2164

Recombinant Mouse CD40 Ligand |  Cell SciencesRecombinant Mouse CD40 Ligand | Cell Sciences

The CD40 Ligand stimulates B cell proliferation and secretion of all immunoglobulin isotypes in the presence of cytokines. CD40 ... CD40-L), or CD154, is a membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T cells. ... CD40 Ligand (CD40-L), or CD154, is a membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T cells. The ... CD40 Ligand has been shown to induce cytokine production and tumoricidal activity in peripheral blood monocytes. It also co- ...
more infohttps://www.cellsciences.com/recombinant-mouse-cd40-ligand-2

anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper (PerCP) | Produkt Nr. ABIN4260972anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper (PerCP) | Produkt Nr. ABIN4260972

Jetzt diesen anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper bestellen. , Produkt ABIN4260972 ... Hamster Monoklonal CD40 Ligand Antikörper für BP, FACS, Neut. ... anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper (CD40LG) (PerCP) CD40 Ligand ... Produktdetails anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper Handhabung Anwendungsinformationen Antigendetails zurück nach oben Produktdetails ... Target Details CD40 Ligand Handhabung Anwendungsinformationen zurück nach oben Target Details CD40 Ligand Anzeigen Verstecken ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/4260972/anti-CD40+Ligand+CD40LG+antibody+PerCP/

anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper (PE) | Produkt Nr. ABIN4261013anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper (PE) | Produkt Nr. ABIN4261013

Jetzt diesen anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper bestellen. , Produkt ABIN4261013 ... Maus Monoklonal CD40 Ligand Antikörper für ELISA, WB. ... anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper (CD40LG) (PE) CD40 Ligand ... Produktdetails anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper Handhabung Anwendungsinformationen Antigendetails zurück nach oben Produktdetails ... Target Details CD40 Ligand Handhabung Anwendungsinformationen zurück nach oben Target Details CD40 Ligand Anzeigen Verstecken ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/4261013/anti-CD40+Ligand+CD40LG+antibody+PE/

Soluble CD40 Ligand in Aspirin-Treated Patients Undergoing Cardiac CatheterizationSoluble CD40 Ligand in Aspirin-Treated Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

Plasma soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is mainly generated by cleavage of CD40L from the surface of activated platelets, and ... "Soluble CD40 Ligand in Aspirin-Treated Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization." PLoS ONE 10 (8): e0134599. doi:10.1371/ ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/21462553

CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibody (TRAP1.3.6) [PerCP] (NBP1-42527PCP): Novus BiologicalsCD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibody (TRAP1.3.6) [PerCP] (NBP1-42527PCP): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibody (TRAP1.3.6) [PerCP]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse. 100% ... Additional CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Products. CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 NBP1-42527PCP * CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibodies ... Home » CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 » CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibodies » CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibody (TRAP1.3.6) [PerCP] ... Blogs on CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5. There are no specific blogs for CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd40-ligand-tnfsf5-antibody-trap136_nbp1-42527pcp

Human CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Quantikine ELISA Kit DCDL40: R&D SystemsHuman CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Quantikine ELISA Kit DCDL40: R&D Systems

ELISA kit for human CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 (Cat#DCDL40). 10.1 pg/mL detection sensitivity. View CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 ELISA kit ... CD154 antigen; CD154; CD40 antigen ligand; CD40 Ligand; CD40L; CD40-L; CD40LG; CD40LIGM; gp39; hCD40L; HIGM1; T-B cell- ... The Quantikine Human CD40 Ligand Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed to measure human CD40 Ligand in cell ... Background: CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5. CD40 Ligand, also known as TNFSF5, CD154, TRAP, and gp39, is a trimeric protein that is ...
more infohttps://www.rndsystems.com/products/human-cd40-ligand-tnfsf5-quantikine-elisa-kit_dcdl40

The antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand.  - PubMed - NCBIThe antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand. - PubMed - NCBI

The antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand.. Ruedl C1, Bachmann MF, Kopf M. ... we show here that high-dose antigen induced Th1 development by up-regulation of CD40 ligand (CD40L), whereas low-dose antigen ... CD40-CD40L interaction was essential for IL-12 production by DC. In the absence, de novo IL-4 production by T cells and ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10940895?dopt=Abstract

Requirement for CD40 Ligand in Costimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis | ScienceRequirement for CD40 Ligand in Costimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis | Science

Requirement for CD40 Ligand in Costimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis ... Requirement for CD40 Ligand in Costimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis ... Requirement for CD40 Ligand in Costimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis ... Requirement for CD40 Ligand in Costimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/273/5283/1864/tab-pdf

CD40 ligand is a critical effector of Epstein-Barr virus in host cell survival and transformation | PNASCD40 ligand is a critical effector of Epstein-Barr virus in host cell survival and transformation | PNAS

Its ligand, CD40 ligand (CD40L), is a member of the TNF family and expressed mainly on activated T cells. CD40-CD40L ... because of the dysfunctional gene of CD40 ligand (CD40L) of the patients. Unlike CD40, CD40L is not usually expressed on B ... CD40 ligand is a critical effector of Epstein-Barr virus in host cell survival and transformation. Ken-Ichi Imadome, Masaki ... CD40 ligand is a critical effector of Epstein-Barr virus in host cell survival and transformation ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/100/13/7836?ijkey=8de8b9c7e1370055b29fa6ace8bfc42ccd3e828c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Serum Levels of Platelet Released CD40 Ligand Are Increased in Early Onset Occlusive Carotid Artery DiseaseSerum Levels of Platelet Released CD40 Ligand Are Increased in Early Onset Occlusive Carotid Artery Disease

Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) has been suggested as a key mediator between inflammation and atherosclerosis, and the CD40-CD40L ... Serum Levels of Platelet Released CD40 Ligand Are Increased in Early Onset Occlusive Carotid Artery Disease. József Balla,1 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2006/427174/abs/

Soluble CD40 Ligand Levels Indicate Lipid Accumulation in Carotid Atheroma | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular BiologySoluble CD40 Ligand Levels Indicate Lipid Accumulation in Carotid Atheroma | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

Plasma levels of soluble CD40 ligand were determined by ELISA. Baseline levels of soluble CD40 ligand were higher among ... The binding of CD40 ligand with its receptor CD40 mediates many inflammatory responses important in atherosclerosis. A wide ... Objective- The CD40/CD40 ligand pathway mediates inflammatory processes important in atherogenesis and the formation of the ... Evidence from animal studies supports the importance of CD40 ligand because inhibition of CD40 signaling in atherosclerosis- ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/23/1/e11

Lipopolysaccharide Attenuates CD40 Ligand-Induced Regulatory B10 Cell Expansion and IL-10 Production in Mouse SplenocytesLipopolysaccharide Attenuates CD40 Ligand-Induced Regulatory B10 Cell Expansion and IL-10 Production in Mouse Splenocytes

In this study, we determined the effect of TLR4 signaling on the CD40-activated B10 cell competency. The results demonstrated ... Lipopolysaccharide Attenuates CD40 Ligand-Induced Regulatory B10 Cell Expansion and IL-10 Production in Mouse Splenocytes () ... Lin, M. , Lin, J. , Wang, Y. , Bonheur, N. , Kawai, T. , Wang, Z. and Han, X. (2015) Lipopolysaccharide Attenuates CD40 Ligand- ... Castigli, E., Young, F., Carossino, A.M., Alt, F.W. and Geha, R.S. (1996) CD40 Expression and Function in Murine B Cell ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=54020

Patent US6391637 - Use of CD40 ligand, a cytokine that binds CD40, to stimulate hybridoma cells - Google PatentsPatent US6391637 - Use of CD40 ligand, a cytokine that binds CD40, to stimulate hybridoma cells - Google Patents

... this invention provides isolated human and murine CD40-L polypeptides that bind to the extracellular binding region of a CD40 ... disclosed are methods of simulating hybridoma cells to increase monoclonal antibody production by administering a CD40 ligand ... vectors and transformed host cells useful in providing CD40-L polypeptides. More particularly, ... a ligand for CD40 was unknown. Accordingly, there is a need in the art to identify and characterize a CD40 ligand (CD40-L). ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US6391637

Should Soluble CD40 Ligand Be Measured From Serum or Plasma Samples? | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular BiologyShould Soluble CD40 Ligand Be Measured From Serum or Plasma Samples? | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

Upregulation of CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD154) in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Circulation. 2001; 104: 2395.. ... Should Soluble CD40 Ligand Be Measured From Serum or Plasma Samples?. Dániel Bereczki, Emõke Nagy, András Pál, Mária T. Magyar ... Should Soluble CD40 Ligand Be Measured From Serum or Plasma Samples?. Dániel Bereczki, Emõke Nagy, András Pál, Mária T. Magyar ... Should Soluble CD40 Ligand Be Measured From Serum or Plasma Samples?. Dániel Bereczki, Emõke Nagy, András Pál, Mária T. Magyar ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/23/6/1129

The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces CD40 ligand expression and modulates IgE isotype switching.The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces CD40 ligand expression and modulates IgE isotype switching.

... and the second signal is delivered by the interaction between the B cell antigen CD40 and its ligand (CD40L) which is expressed ... CD40 Ligand. Enterotoxins / pharmacology*. Humans. Immunoglobulin Class Switching / drug effects*. Immunoglobulin E / ... 147205-72-9/CD40 Ligand; 37341-29-0/Immunoglobulin E From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... and the second signal is delivered by the interaction between the B cell antigen CD40 and its ligand (CD40L) which is expressed ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/superantigen-toxic-shock-syndrome-toxin/8921429.html

The CD40-ligand stimulates T-lymphocytes via the neutral sphingomyelinase: a novel function of the CD40-ligand as signalling...The CD40-ligand stimulates T-lymphocytes via the neutral sphingomyelinase: a novel function of the CD40-ligand as signalling...

The CD40-ligand stimulates T-lymphocytes via the neutral sphingomyelinase: a novel function of the CD40-ligand as signalling ... Recent results suggest an activation of T-lymphocytes via the CD40L implying a dual function of this ligand involved in the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9315737?dopt=Abstract

CD40 Ligand/TRAP, soluble (100-115S): ReliaTechCD40 Ligand/TRAP, soluble (100-115S): ReliaTech

Recombinant human soluble CD40 ligand is a 16.3 kDa protein containing 149 amino acid residues comprising the receptor binding ... The membrane-anchored CD40-Ligand is expressed almost exclusively on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Failure to express CD40L ... CD40, a member of the TNF receptor family, is a cell surface protein expressed on B cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, thymic ... Signaling though CD40 plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells, and is critical for ...
more infohttps://www.reliatech.de/products/recombinant-proteins/cytokines-growth-factors/product/100-115s/

CD40 Ligand/TRAP, soluble (M10-054): ReliaTechCD40 Ligand/TRAP, soluble (M10-054): ReliaTech

The membrane-anchored CD40-Ligand is expressed almost exclusively on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Failure to express CD40L ... CD40, a member of the TNF receptor family, is a cell surface protein expressed on B cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, thymic ... Signaling though CD40 plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells, and is critical for ... Cd40lg; IGM; IMD3; Ly62; TRAP; gp39; CD154; Cd40l; HIGM1; Ly-62; T-BAM; CD40-L; Tnfsf5. ...
more infohttps://www.reliatech.de/products/recombinant-proteins/cytokines-growth-factors/product/m10-054/

The CD40/CD40 Ligand System | JACC: Journal of the American College of CardiologyThe CD40/CD40 Ligand System | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology

CD40 ligand. EC. endothelial cell. GP. glycoprotein. IL. interleukin. sCD40L. soluble CD40 ligand. SMC. smooth muscle cell. ... The role of CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) in atherothrombosis is now widely accepted. However, the exact mechanisms linking the CD40 ... Activated platelets express CD40 ligand (CD40L), which is then cleaved and released as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L). The sCD40L ... 2007) Diurnal variation of soluble CD40 ligand in patients with acute coronary syndrome: Soluble CD40 ligand and diurnal ...
more infohttp://www.onlinejacc.org/content/54/8/669?ijkey=a9da27215d98dec8d49b53f9e2991b96e1c48a62&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Human Th1 responses driven by IL-12 are associated with enhanced expression of CD40 ligandHuman Th1 responses driven by IL-12 are associated with enhanced expression of CD40 ligand

CD40 ligand (CD40L) plays important roles in regulation of immune responses, including T cell-dependent activation of B cells ... CD40 ligand (CD40L) plays important roles in regulation of immune responses, including T cell-dependent activation of B cells ... Human Th1 responses driven by IL-12 are associated with enhanced expression of CD40 ligand ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/clinical-experimental-immunology/cleim/1999/01/000/human-th1-responses-driven-il-12-associated/11/00003040

Evaluation of serum levels and significance of soluble CD40 ligand in screening patients with hepatitis C virus-related...Evaluation of serum levels and significance of soluble CD40 ligand in screening patients with hepatitis C virus-related...

Evaluation of serum levels and significance of soluble CD40 ligand in screening patients with hepatitis C virus-related ... Lobjectif de létude était dévaler limportance clinique du ligand de CD40 soluble [‎sCD40L]‎ chez des patients attaints dun ... Evaluation of serum levels and significance of soluble CD40 ligand in screening patients with hepatitis C virus-related ...
more infohttp://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/260117
  • DeKruyff, Gieni, Umetsu: Antigen-driven but not lipopolysaccharide-driven IL-12 production in macrophages requires triggering of CD40. (antibodies-online.com)
  • CD40 Ligand (CD40-L), or CD154, is a membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T cells. (cellsciences.com)
  • TRAP1.3.6 recognises the human CD154 cell surface antigen, a 32kD glycoprotein also known as CD40 ligand. (novusbio.com)
  • It binds to CD40 on antigen presenting cells, platelets, and endothelial and epithelial cells, leading to enhanced B cell activation and T cell dependent humoral immune responses. (rndsystems.com)
  • The antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand. (nih.gov)
  • Using co-cultures of dendritic cells (DC) and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4+ T cells obtained from RAG-2)(-/-) DO11.10 mice, we show here that high-dose antigen induced Th1 development by up-regulation of CD40 ligand (CD40L), whereas low-dose antigen stimulation failed to induce CD40L and promoted Th2 development. (nih.gov)
  • The first signal is provided by the cytokines IL-4 or IL-13, and the second signal is delivered by the interaction between the B cell antigen CD40 and its ligand (CD40L) which is expressed on activated T cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1-3 doses of an interleukin-2 immunotoxin directed to the CD25 antigen (denileukin diftitox, ONTAK) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients, followed by six subcutaneous (SC) injections of autologous leukemic cells modified ex vivo to secrete human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) and to express human CD40 ligand (hCD40L). (knowcancer.com)
  • Upon stimulation with bacterial products, cytokines, or CD40 ligation, DCs undergo characteristic modulations of the phenotype, antigen-presenting function, and the ability to migrate to the secondary lymphoid organs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40/CD40L may participate in the development of coronary atherosclerosis and the triggering of acute coronary syndromes, while sCD40L seems to have a prognostic role not only in subjects with advanced atherosclerosis but also in the general population. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Although conventional cardiovascular medication such as antiplatelet therapy, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and many others have been shown to reduce both sCD40L and cardiovascular risk, it is still unclear whether specific treatments targeting the CD40/CD40L system will prove to be beneficial against atherothrombosis in the near future. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The inflammatory receptor CD40 is expressed on human adipocytes: contribution to crosstalk between lymphocytes and adipocytes," Diabetologia , vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1152-1163, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • More particularly, this invention provides isolated human and murine CD40-L polypeptides that bind to the extracellular binding region of a CD40 receptor. (google.com.au)
  • In accordance with the in situ and in vitro data obtained with human material, interruption of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic mice substantially decreased expression of the enzyme within atherosclerotic plaques. (rupress.org)
  • Cloning of the human homologue of the murine flt3 ligand: a growth factor early hematopoietic progenitor cells," Blood , vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 2795-2801, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • CD40 ligation induces Apo-1/Fas expression on human B lymphocytes and facilitates apoptosis through the Apo-1/Fas pathway," Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 182, no. 5, pp. 1557-1565, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • These results suggest that EBV infection induces CD40L/CD40 signaling in host cells, which appears to play an essential role in its persistent infection and malignancies of lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces CD40 ligand expression and modulates IgE isotype switching. (biomedsearch.com)
  • That we had very few LCLs from XHIM B cells upon EBV infection led us to investigate whether CD40L and CD40 play a role in EBV infection and/or subsequent B cell transformation. (pnas.org)
  • To explore CD40 ligation as a strategy to activate tolerogenic DCs, systemic administration of agonist anti-CD40 Abs has been investigated. (jimmunol.org)
  • Based on these observations, CD40 ligation has been used to boost the CD8 + T cell response to tumors and to break peripheral self-tolerance ( 15 - 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We therefore analyzed the effects of different activation stimuli including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and CD40 ligation on IL-10 mediated inhibition of DC development and stimulatory capacity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results show that TNF-α or CD40 ligation can antagonize the IL-10-mediated inhibition on DC function, suggesting that depending on activation stimuli, the presence of IL-10 does not necessarily result in T-cell anergy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, chronic active EBV infection of peripheral T cells, implicated in T cell malignancies, was associated with ectopic expression of CD40, and, in Jurkat T cells, EBV infection induced CD40 expression. (pnas.org)
  • These observations establish the expression of the unusual matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 in human atherosclerotic lesions and implicate CD40-CD40L signaling in its regulation, thus providing a possible new pathway that triggers complications within atherosclerotic lesions. (rupress.org)
  • Richard Armitage at Immunex cloned a cDNA encoding CD154 by screening an expression library with CD40-Ig. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent results suggest an activation of T-lymphocytes via the CD40L implying a dual function of this ligand involved in the activation of both B- and T-lymphocytes [1- (nih.gov)
  • The membrane-anchored CD40-Ligand is expressed almost exclusively on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. (reliatech.de)
  • Over the recent years, it has been well established that interactions between CD40 and its immunomodulating ligand (CD40L), expressed in a variety of cell types including platelets, vascular wall cells, and immune cells, are actively involved in atherogenetic and thrombotic mechanisms and may serve as a link between inflammation, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis ( 2 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • CD40 ligand (CD40L) plays important roles in regulation of immune responses, including T cell-dependent activation of B cells and cytokine production by monocytes and dendritic cells. (ovid.com)
  • CD40L plays a central role in costimulation and regulation of the immune response via T cell priming and activation of CD40-expressing immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40 Ligand has been shown to induce cytokine production and tumoricidal activity in peripheral blood monocytes. (cellsciences.com)
  • Although the initial phase I clinical results have shown significant objective antitumor responses ( 30 ), and no major systemic toxicity has been observed, transient cytokine release syndrome has been a side effect with several of the agonist anti-CD40 mAbs ( 30 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The CD40-TRAF6 axis controls affinity maturation and the generation of long-lived plasma cells," Nature Immunology , vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 451-456, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • For CD40 stimulation in LCL analysis, an agonistic mAb to CD40 (mAb89, Immunotech, Luminy, France) was used ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • To assess the linearity of the assay, samples containing and/or spiked with high concentrations of CD40 Ligand were serially diluted with Calibrator Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay. (rndsystems.com)
  • Monocytes are activated in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and can contribute to bone marrow failure through CD40-CD40L interactions with T helper cells," Leukemia , vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 2411-2419, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • As Assistant Professor at Columbia, Dr. Lederman discovered the CD40-Ligand (CD154) and elucidated the molecular basis of T cell helper function. (wikipedia.org)
  • FDA awarded TNX -102 SL "Breakthrough Therapy" (breakthrough therapy) designation for PTSD because its effects in military-related PTSD have the potential to be improvements over existing therapies As Assistant Professor at Columbia, Dr. Lederman discovered the CD40-Ligand (CD154) and elucidated the molecular basis of T cell helper function. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40 Ligand (CD40L) is a 261 amino acid type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the TNF family. (cellsciences.com)
  • Dartmouth University challenged the CD40-Ligand patents, but the challenge (called an interference) was rejected on all claims. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice null for CD40 or CD40L had severe defects not only in their Ig isotype switching, but also in germinal center formation and establishment of B cell memory ( 4 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • On TFH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The in vivo function of a noncanonical TRAF2-binding domain in the C-terminus of CD40 in driving B-cell growth and differentiation," Blood , vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 193-200, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Results obtained using natural human CD40 Ligand showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine kit standards. (rndsystems.com)
  • These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for naturally occurring human CD40 Ligand. (rndsystems.com)
  • Because elevated CD40 activation has also been implicated in the progression of systemic lupus erythematosus ( 31 ), rheumatoid arthritis ( 32 ), type 1 diabetes ( 33 ), neurodegenerative disorders ( 34 , 35 ), and allograft rejection ( 36 - 38 ), systemic activation of CD40 could potentially induce autoimmunity. (jimmunol.org)