A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A membrane bound member of the TNF superfamily that is expressed on activated B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; and DENDRITIC CELLS. The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-LYMPHOCYTES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member that is expressed on activated antigen-presenting cells such as B-LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES. It signals T-LYMPHOCYTES by binding the OX40 RECEPTOR.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A sialomucin protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It is a negative regulator of certain types of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A costimulatory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 RECEPTOR. It is closely-related to CD274 antigen; however, its expression is restricted to DENDRITIC CELLS and activated MACROPHAGES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (1/1953)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Expression of stromelysin-3 in atherosclerotic lesions: regulation via CD40-CD40 ligand signaling in vitro and in vivo. (2/1953)

Stromelysin-3 is an unusual matrix metalloproteinase, being released in the active rather than zymogen form and having a distinct substrate specificity, targeting serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), which regulate cellular functions involved in atherosclerosis. We report here that human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 7) express stromelysin-3 in situ, whereas fatty streaks (n = 5) and normal arterial specimens (n = 5) contain little or no stromelysin-3. Stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages within the lesion. In vitro, usual inducers of matrix metalloproteinases such as interleukin-1, interferon-gamma, or tumor necrosis factor alpha did not augment stromelysin-3 in vascular wall cells. However, T cell-derived as well as recombinant CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), an inflammatory mediator recently localized in atheroma, induced de novo synthesis of stromelysin-3. In addition, stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with CD40L and CD40 within atheroma. In accordance with the in situ and in vitro data obtained with human material, interruption of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic mice substantially decreased expression of the enzyme within atherosclerotic plaques. These observations establish the expression of the unusual matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 in human atherosclerotic lesions and implicate CD40-CD40L signaling in its regulation, thus providing a possible new pathway that triggers complications within atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Minimal cross-linking and epitope requirements for CD40-dependent suppression of apoptosis contrast with those for promotion of the cell cycle and homotypic adhesions in human B cells. (3/1953)

Eight different CD40 mAb shared with soluble trimeric CD40 ligand (sCD40LT) the capacity to rescue germinal center (GC) B cells from spontaneous apoptosis and to suppress antigen receptor-driven apoptosis in group I Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Three mAb (G28-5, M2 and M3) mimicked sCD40LT in its ability to promote strong homotypic adhesion in resting B cells, whereas others (EA5, BL-OGY/C4 and 5C3) failed to stimulate strong clustering. Binding studies revealed that only those mAb that promoted strong B cell clustering bound at, or near to, the CD40L binding site. While all eight mAb and sCD40LT were capable of synergizing with IL-4 or phorbol ester for promoting DNA synthesis in resting B cells, co-stimulus-independent activation of the cells into cycle through CD40 related directly to the extent of receptor cross-linking. Thus, mAb which bound outside the CD40L binding site synergized with sCD40LT for promoting DNA synthesis; maximal levels of stimulation were achieved by presenting any of the mAb on CD32 transfectants in the absence of sCD40LT or by cross-linking bound sCD40LT with a second antibody. Monomeric sCD40L, which was able to promote rescue of GC B cells from apoptosis, was unable to drive resting B cells into cycle. These studies demonstrate that CD40-dependent rescue of human B cells from apoptosis requires minimal cross-linking and is essentially epitope independent, whereas the requirements for promoting cell cycle progression and homotypic adhesion are more stringent. Possible mechanisms underlying these differences and their physiological significance are discussed.  (+info)

TRANCE, a TNF family member, is differentially expressed on T cell subsets and induces cytokine production in dendritic cells. (4/1953)

TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE) is a member of the TNF family recently identified in activated T cells. We report here that TRANCE mRNA is constitutively expressed in memory, but not naive, T cells and in single-positive thymocytes. Upon TCR/CD3 stimulation, TRANCE mRNA and surface protein expression are rapidly up-regulated in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which can be further enhanced on CD4+ T cells by CD28-mediated costimulation. However, TRANCE induction is significantly suppressed when cells are stimulated in the presence of IL-4, but is not modified in the presence of IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, or IL-2. High levels of TRANCE receptor expression are found on mature dendritic cells (DCs). In this study we show that activated T and B cells also express TRANCE receptor, but only at low levels. TRANCE, however, does not exert any significant effect on the proliferation, activation, or survival of those cells. In DCs, TRANCE induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1) and T cell growth and differentiation factors (IL-12, IL-15) in addition to enhancing DC survival. Moreover, TRANCE cooperates with CD40 ligand or TNF-alpha to further increase the viability of DCs, suggesting that several TNF-related molecules on activated T cells may cooperatively regulate the function and survival of DCs to enhance T cell-mediated immune responses.  (+info)

N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibits primary human T cell responses at the dendritic cell level: association with NF-kappaB inhibition. (5/1953)

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant molecule endowed with immunomodulatory properties. To investigate the effect of NAC on the induction phase of T cell responses, we analyzed its action on human dendritic cells (DC) derived from adherent PBMC cultured with IL-4 and granulocyte-macrophage CSF. We first found that NAC inhibited the constitutive as well as the LPS-induced activity of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. In parallel, NAC was shown to down-regulate the production of cytokines by DC as well as their surface expression of HLA-DR, CD86 (B7-2), and CD40 molecules both at the basal state and upon LPS activation. NAC also inhibited DC responses induced by CD40 engagement. The inhibitory effects of NAC were not due to nonspecific toxicity as neither the viability of DC nor their mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis were modified by NAC. Finally, we found that the addition of NAC to MLR between naive T cells and allogeneic DC resulted in a profound inhibition of alloreactive responses, which could be attributed to a defect of DC as APC-independent T cell responses were not inhibited by NAC. Altogether, our results suggest that NAC might impair the generation of primary immune responses in humans through its inhibitory action on DC.  (+info)

Lymphocyte activation gene-3, a MHC class II ligand expressed on activated T cells, stimulates TNF-alpha and IL-12 production by monocytes and dendritic cells. (6/1953)

Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) is an MHC class II ligand structurally and genetically related to CD4. Although its expression is restricted to activated T cells and NK cells, the functions of LAG-3 remain to be elucidated. Here, we report on the expression and function of LAG-3 on proinflammatory bystander T cells that are activated in the absence of TCR engagement. LAG-3 is expressed at high levels on human T cells cocultured with autologous monocytes and IL-2 and synergizes with the low levels of CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressed on these cells to trigger TNF-alpha and IL-12 production by monocytes. Indeed, anti-LAG-3 mAb inhibits both IL-12 and IFN-gamma production in IL-2-stimulated cocultures of T cells and autologous monocytes. Soluble LAG-3Ig fusion protein markedly enhances IL-12 production by monocytes stimulated with infra-optimal concentrations of sCD40L, whereas it directly stimulates monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) for the production of TNF-alpha and IL-12, unravelling an enhanced responsiveness to MHC class II engagemenent in DC as compared with activated monocytes. Thus similar to CD40L, LAG-3 may be involved in the proinflammatory activity of cytokine-activated bystander T cells and most importantly it may directly activate DC.  (+info)

Regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 receptor beta2 subunit expression by endogenous IL-12: a critical step in the differentiation of pathogenic autoreactive T cells. (7/1953)

The interleukin (IL)-12 receptor (R)beta2 subunit is the critical molecule involved in maintaining IL-12 responsiveness and controlling T helper cell type 1 lineage commitment. We demonstrate that IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-gamma play separate, but complementary, roles in regulating IL-12Rbeta2 expression on antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. These results are consistent with our previous observation that IL-12 can promote autoimmune disease through IFN-gamma-independent as well as -dependent pathways. Therefore, we compared the induction of IL-12 by, and the expression of the IL-12Rbeta2 subunit on, myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)-susceptible SJL (H-2(s)) mice and from EAE- resistant B10.S mice (H-2(s)). B10.S mice had an antigen-specific defect in their capacity to upregulate the IL-12Rbeta2 subunit. Defective expression was not secondary to the production of suppressive cytokines, but to a failure of B10.S MBP-specific T cells to upregulate CD40 ligand expression and to induce the production of IL-12. IL-12Rbeta2 expression as well as encephalitogenicity of these cells could be restored by the addition of IL-12. These results suggest that the development of immunotherapies that target the IL-12Rbeta2 subunit may be useful for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.  (+info)

Bone marrow-derived cells are required for the induction of a pulmonary inflammatory response mediated by CD40 ligation. (8/1953)

The expression of inflammatory mediators by various cells following in vitro CD40 ligation is well known. However, knowledge of the role and interaction with these cells in the establishment and maintenance of in vivo immune-mediated inflammation is limited. In this report, a chimeric mouse model based on CD40 knockout and wild-type mice was used to assess the role of bone marrow (BM)-derived and non-BM-derived cells in a CD40-mediated pulmonary inflammation response. CD40+ BM-derived cells were required for initial cell recruitment, pulmonary edema, and weight loss associated with this response. The structural CD40+ non-BM-derived cells of the lung, such as fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, could not by themselves establish any level of pulmonary inflammation. However, both the CD40+ BM-derived cells and the structural CD40+ non-BM-derived cells of the lung were required to maximize the level of pulmonary inflammation. Both B cells and T cells played a contributing role in macrophage recruitment and pulmonary edema but neither contributed to the inflammation-associated weight loss. These experiments indicate that CD40+ BM-derived cells were critical to the induction of pulmonary inflammation and that alveolar macrophages, B cells, and T cells contributed to selective aspects of the response.  (+info)

Buy anti-Vaccinia Virus, A27L antibody, Mouse Vaccinia Virus, A27L Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 12K239) (MBS644440) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: ELISA (EL/EIA),Immunofluorescence (IF)
These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognize the heavy and light chains (H+L) of rabbit or mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. They are provided in unlabeled form or as a conjugate with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. The antibodies were raised in goat or rabbit using rabbit IgG (H+L) or mouse IgG (H+L), and can be used as a secondary antibody for Western blot (WB) detection, immunohistochemical (IHC) detection, or ELISAs.. ...
These products are affinity-purified IgG antibodies that recognize the heavy and light chains (H+L) of rabbit or mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. They are provided in unlabeled form or as a conjugate with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. The antibodies were raised in goat or rabbit using rabbit IgG (H+L) or mouse IgG (H+L), and can be used as a secondary antibody for Western blot (WB) detection, immunohistochemical (IHC) detection, or ELISAs.. ...
Cdc5L Antibody (2136C1a) is a monoclonal anti-Cdc5L antibody that detects m, r, and h Cdc5L by WB, IP, IF and FCM. Cited in 6 publications
CD40 ligand (CD40L) blockade has demonstrated efficacy in experimental autoimmune models. However, clinical trials of hu5c8, an anti-human CD40L IgG1 antibody, in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were halted due to an increased incidence of thrombotic events. This study evaluated CDP7657, a high affinity PEGylated monovalent Fab anti-CD40L antibody fragment, to assess whether an Fc-deficient molecule retains efficacy while avoiding the increased risk of thrombotic events observed with hu5c8. The potency and cross-reactivity of CDP7657 was assessed in in vitro assays employing human and non-human primate leukocytes, and the capacity of different antibody formats to activate platelets in vitro was assessed using aggregometry and dense granule release assays. Given the important role CD40L plays in regulating humoral immunity, in vivo efficacy was assessed by investigating the capacity of Cynomolgus monkeys to generate immune responses to the tetanus toxoid antigen while the potential to induce
Targeting CD40L-CD40 interaction could be useful in clinical applications for curing autoimmune diseases, providing treatment following transplantation and treating tumors [15]. One strategy to disrupt this interaction is to use an anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody: this approach has been shown to be effective in mouse models of RA, SLE, MS, IBD, T1 diabetes, and inflammatory heart disease [29]. The humanized CD40L monoclonal antibody BG9588 (hu5c8) has shown therapeutic effects on SLE patients in clinical trials [17, 30]. Another humanized monoclonal antibody, IDEC-131, was tested in a phase II clinical study in ITP patients [31]. However, they were not approved for clinical use because of thrombotic complications when BG9588 was used in some SLE patients and IDEC-131 was used in treating Crohns disease [27]. A third humanized anti-CD40L antibody, ABI793, targeted a different epitope and was found to have the same thrombotic complications, suggesting that these complications are a common effect ...
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Rabbit anti Human Flt3 Ligand antibody recognizes the ubiquitously expressed human growth factor Flt3-Ligand (Flt3L), a 235aa type I trans
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant CDC5L. CDC5L (NP_001244, 719 a.a. ~ 802 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00000988-M08) - Products - Abnova
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant SKIV2L. SKIV2L (NP_008860, 1125 a.a. ~ 1233 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00006499-M05) - Products - Abnova
145/15 recognizes the human CD62L antigen, a 74 kDa glycoprotein and a member of the selectin family of cell surface molecules. CD62L is also known as L-selectin, LECAM-1, or LAM-1 and binds a series of glycoproteins including CD34, GlyCAM-1, and MAdCAM-1. CD62L is important for homing of naive lymphocytes via endothelial venules to peripheral lymph nodes and Peyers patches. The CD62L antigen also contributes to the recruitment of leukocytes from the blood to areas of inflammation. Most hematopoietic cells express CD62L, including many peripheral blood B cells, T cells, monocytes, granulocytes, and some myeloid cells from bone marrow, and thymocytes. CD62L is continuously endoproteolytically cleaved from the cell surface neutrophils and lymphocytes (shedding). Proteolysis is accelerated, for example, after antigenic activation of T cells.Always use fresh material for immunofluorescent staining of CD62L+ cells. For optimal results, the cells should not be older than 8-12 hours. Keep cells continuously
The CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is a key event in the initiation of an adaptive immune response, and as such the therapeutic value of CD40L blockade has been studied in many experimental models of tissue transplantation and autoimmune disease. In rodents, transplantation of allogeneic tissues under the cover of anti-CD40L Abs has resulted in prolonged graft survival but not tolerance. In this report, we show that failure to induce tolerance probably results from the inability of anti-CD40L Abs to prevent graft rejection elicited by the CD8+ T cell subset. When the CD8+ T cell population is controlled independently, using anti-CD8 Abs, then tolerance is possible. Transplantation tolerance induced by anti-CD4 mAbs can often be associated with dominant regulation, manifested as infectious tolerance and linked suppression, both of which are mediated by CD4+ T cells. We show here that CD4+ T cells rendered tolerant using anti-CD40L therapy exhibit the same regulatory property of linked suppression,
Complete information for CCDC71L gene (Protein Coding), Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 71 Like, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for VPS35L gene (Protein Coding), VPS35 Endosomal Protein Sorting Factor Like, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
specificalPrinciple of the Assay: CD40L ELISA kit applies the competitive enzyme immunoassay technique utilizing a monoclonal anti-CD40L antibody and an CD40L-HRP conjugate. The assay sample and buffer are incubated together with CD40L-HRP conjugate in pre-coated plate for one hour. After the incubation period, the wells are decanted and washed five times. The wells are then incubated with a substrate for HRP enzyme. The product of the enzyme-substrate reaction forms a blue colored complex. Finally, a stop solution is added to stop the reaction, which will then turn the solution yellow. The intensity of color is measured spectrophotometrically at 450nm in a microplate reader. The intensity of the color is inversely proportional to the CD40L concentration since CD40L from samples and CD40L-HRP conjugate compete for the anti-CD40L antibody binding site. Since the number of sites is limited, as more sites are occupied by CD40L from the sample, fewer sites are left to bind CD40L-HRP conjugate. A ...
|jats:p|CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is required for the generation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens as well as for the development of germinal centers and memory B cells. The role of the CD40-CD40L interaction in the induction of antigen-specific. Th cells and in mediating Th cell effector functions other than cognate help for B cells is less well understood. Using CD40- and CD40L-deficient mice together with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus as viral model antigens, this study corroborates earlier findings that no lg isotype switching of virus-specific antibodies was measurable upon infection of CD40- or CD40L-deficient mice. In contrast, in vivo induction of virus-specific CD4+ T cells measured by proliferation and cytokine secretion of primed virus-specific Th cells in vitro was not crucially dependent on the CD40-CD40L interaction. In addition, virus-specific Th cells primed in a CD40-deficient environment, adoptively transferred into CD40
Purified Recombinant Human CD96 protein, Mouse IgG2a Fc-tagged, low endotoxin from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human CD96 protein, Mouse IgG2a Fc-tagged, low endotoxin can be used for research.
Purified Recombinant Human CD47 protein, Fc/Avi-tagged, Biotinylated from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human CD47 protein, Fc/Avi-tagged, Biotinylated can be used for research.
Shop a large selection of Proteins A-Z products and learn more about enQuireBio™ Recombinant Human CD54 / ICAM-1 Protein 1mg enQuireBio™ Recombinant
Impaired T cell priming and cytokine production in OX40L-deficient mice and MGP34-treated mice. (A) OX40L-deficient mice have impaired recall proliferative responses to protein antigens. OX40L-deficient (□) or wild-type (▪) mice (four per group) were immunized with KLH, HEL, or OVA in the hind footpads. 9 d after immunization, draining lymph nodes were extracted and subjected to an in vitro challenge of the various protein antigens. After culturing for 3 d, their [3H]thymidine uptake was measured. (B) Impairment of recall proliferative response of the CD4+ T cells of OX40L-deficient mice. Purified CD4+ T cells from the draining lymph nodes of the OX40L-deficient (□) or wild-type mice (▪) were assayed for their recall proliferation in response to KLH in the presence of APCs from wild-type mice. (C) Defective APC function in OX40L-deficient mice. Purified CD4+ T cells from the draining lymph nodes from wild-type mice primed with KLH were assayed for their recall proliferation in response ...
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Recombinant Human CD96 Protein (His Tag) product information; Recombinant Human CD96 Protein (His Tag) is available 1 time from supplier adv at Gentaur.com shop
40 antibodies to RANKL (RANK Ligand) and validated for use in 10 applications (Immunohistochemistry, Western Blot, Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, ChIP assay, Immunocytochemistry, Blocking Assay, Functional Assay, ELISA, Neutralization)
Recombinant human CD40 ligand (aka CD40L CD154, TRAP or gp39) is a 149 amino acid, non-glycosylated protein with an approximate molecular mass of 16.3kDa, produced in E. coli. Purity |95%
TY - JOUR. T1 - Soluble CD4 suppresses T-dependent IgG2a antibody response of CD4 loosing mice by inhibiting IFNγ production. AU - Wang, Chrong-Reen. PY - 2001/4/25. Y1 - 2001/4/25. N2 - To analyze the role of soluble CD4 (sCD4) in antibody (Ab) responses in CD4 loosing (CD4L) mice, experiments have been done in comparing CD4L mice with CD4 knockout (CD4KO) mice on the same C57BL/6 background. The CD4L mice have a defect in CD4 expression where CD4 mRNA is alternatively spliced so that a transmembrane portion is deleted and sCD4 are secreted without expression of membrane-bound CD4. Significantly reduced immunoglobulin (Ig) G2a isotype Ab response against a T-dependent antigen (Ag), trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH), was found in CD4L mice as compared with those of CD4KO mice. Gamma interferon (IFNγ) production of KLH-stimulated lymph nodes cells was significantly reduced in CD4L mice as compared with those in CD4KO mice. The positive proportion of cells expressing CD40 ligand ...
Results Histological analysis of paws showed increased synovial infiltration and joint destruction in WT mice while Flt3L-/- mice showed mild infiltration without inflammation (H&E staining). Cartilage destruction (Safranin O staining) and the number of osteoclast were higher in WT compared with Flt3L-/- mice. Importantly, in steady-state (no CIA induced), Flt3L-/- mice show reduced celularity in both spleen (p=0.007) and LN (p=0.01) and reduced T and B cell numbers compared with WT. CIA induction in Flt3L-/- led to decreased disease incidence and severity (AUC p=0.001) compared with WT littermates. In addition, Flt3L-/- mice showed reduced spleen and LN cellularity (p,0.0001) but also reduced percentage of CD4+CD25+T cells compared with WT (p=0.03). Flt3L-/- CD4+ T cells produced significantly less IL-17 (p=0.016) and TNF-a (p=0.010) while CD8+ T cells produced less IFN-g (p=0.029) compared with WT.. ...
Jakarta, Indonesia - September 3, 2020 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany Supports Eijkman Institute to Expedite Covid-19 Vaccine Development Research Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany today announced the donation of research instruments and materials worth IDR 1.2 billion (€ 74,000) to support the efforts of Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Indonesia, in its efforts to accelerate vaccine development research. The institute is developing a Covid-19 vaccine based on a local virus strain, in collaboration with several local research institutions.. Read More ...
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Results: 84 HIV+ men completed both clinical and laboratory aspects of the study: median age 59 years; 95% Caucasian, 93% had undetectable viral load. Using the FP, 10% (n=8) were categorized as frail, 52% (n=44) pre-frail and 38% (n=32) robust. The median FI score was 0.13, (0.25 was the cut-off between frail and non-frail), with 23% (n=19) categorised as frail on the FI. HIV+ pre-frail and frail men (using the FP) had higher levels of inflammation than robust men (mean plasma sCD163 3.07 vs. 2.35 ng/ml, respectively, p=0.015), remaining significant on multivariable analysis. The FI correlated with markers of inflammation, metabolic dysregulation and mitochondrial dysfunction (plasma sCD163 (ρ=0.263, p=0.036), Glut-1 MFI and DiOC6(3) MFI on non-classical monocytes (ρ=0.246, p=0.049; ρ=-0.248, p=0.048 respectively) with Glut-1 and DiOC6(3) remaining significant in multivariable analysis. Neither the FP nor the FI were associated with T-cell immune activation ...
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Interleukin-2 (IL-2) stimulates both activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate. IL-2 signals through an identical receptor complex and promotes the same dose-dependent phosphorylation of the canonical transcription factor STAT5 in both cell types. Despite this, CD8+ T cells enter the S phase earlier and proliferate to a greater extent than do CD4+ T cells in response to IL-2. We identified distinct IL-2 signaling dynamics in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In IL-2-stimulated CD8+ T cells, STAT5 phosphorylation increased rapidly and was sustained for 6 hours. In contrast, CD4+ T cells had a biphasic response, with maxima at 15 min and 2 to 4 hours after stimulation. Both cell types required vesicular trafficking, but only CD4+ T cells required new protein synthesis to maintain high phosphorylation of STAT5. Two subunits of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ, were twice as abundant in CD8+ T cells than in CD4+ T cells. Reduction of IL-2Rβ abundance by 50% was sufficient to convert CD8+ T cells to ...
The CD154-CD40 interaction is critical for the induction and progression of EAE (14, 15, 16) and many other autoimmune diseases. Because of the role of the CD154-CD40 interaction in regulating IL-12 production, it has been proposed that the protection from autoimmunity is due to a deviation of T cell response from a proinflammatory Th1 response to an anti-inflammatory Th2 response (23, 24). However, CD40-CD154 interactions are critical in regulating many other immune cell functions (4). Here we address the specific mechanism(s) by which clinical autoimmune disease may be prevented by CD40 ligand blockade. The actual mechanism appears to have little or nothing to do with Th1 to Th2 cell deviation, but instead is associated with significantly reduced Ag-specific T cell responses in the lymph nodes and the prevention of CD4 T cell effector expansion/function within the autoimmune target organ.. Unlike therapies that target the B7-CD28/CD152 costimulatory pathways, interference with the CD40-CD154 ...
CD154 (CD40 ligand, gp39) interaction with its receptor CD40 has been shown to be critically important for the generation of cell-mediated as well as humoral immunity. It has been proposed that ligation of CD40 on APCs, presumably by activated Th cells, leads to increased APC function as defined by up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and enhancement of IL-12 production. In this report, we directly examined the contribution of the CD154:CD40 pathway in a murine model of allograft rejection. Generation of both the CTL and alloantibody responses following injection with allogeneic P815 tumor cells was severely compromised in CD154 knockout mice and wild-type C57BL/6 mice treated with the anti-CD154 mAb, MR1. Splenic production of IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF was significantly suppressed from CD154-deficient mice, indicating a lack of T cell priming. However, splenic cells from CD154 knockout mice induced comparable levels of CD86 expression and IL-12 production when compared with their wild-type ...
Cell Density Cell densities in the 31, 63, 130, 250, 500 and 1000 mg a.i./L treatment levels averaged 83, 136, 137, 89, 11 and 0 x 10E4 cells/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis based on Williams Test determined a significant reduction in cell density in all treatment level tested as compared to the pooled control. Based on Williams Test the NOEC was determined to be ,31 mg a.i./L. Additional statistical analysis (Bonferronis Test) determined a significant reduction in cell density in the 31, 250, 500 and 1000 mg a.i./L treatments. The effect on the 31 mg a.i./L treatment level is not considered treatment-related since the two higher concentrations (63 and 130 mg a.i./L) were not affected and were less than 10% inhibited. Therefore, the NOEC was determined to be 130 mg a.i./L. The 96 hour EC50 for cell density was calculated to be 260 mg a.i./L, with 95% confidence intervals of 190 and 360 mg a.i./L. Biomass Biomass in the 31, 63, 130, 250, 500 and 1000 mg a.i./L treatment levels averaged ...
Impaired T cell priming and cytokine production in OX40L-deficient mice and MGP34-treated mice. (A) OX40L-deficient mice have impaired recall proliferative resp
Our stable, high copy and episomal expression plasmid, Kl-HCEPEX is the best solution for high yield recombinant production in the yeast K. lactis. The new technology developed by GEEN Biotech is resolving the segregation and maintenance problems of episomal plasmids.. HCEPEX reaches average 80-100 plasmid copy number per cell and provides up to 300mg-1gr/L concentration for recombinant protein expression.. ...
Clone REA661 recognizes the human CD80 antigen, also known as B7-1. CD80 is a 262 amino acid long 60 kDa molecule and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Together with CD86 (B7-2) it belongs to the B7 family of costimulatory molecules. CD80 is expressed on activated B cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes/ macrophages. The interaction of CD80 with its ligands CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4) plays a critical role in induction and regulation of immune responses. Binding of CD80 to CD28, which is constitutively expressed on T cells, provides a costimulatory signal and induces T cell proliferation and cytokine production. In contrast, binding to CTLA-4 strongly inhibits proliferation and IL-2 secretion by T cells. Additional information: Clone REA661 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
Human CD30 / TNFRSF8 protein (6126-CD) is manufactured by R&D Systems, over 95% purity. Reproducible results in bioactivity assays. Learn More...
CD154 (CD40 Ligand), APC, clone: MR1, eBioscience™ 100μg; APC CD154 (CD40 Ligand), APC, clone: MR1, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD151 to CD200
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
CD154 (CD40 Ligand) Mouse anti-Human, APC-eFluor 780, Clone: 24-31, eBioscience™ 25 tests; APC-eFluor 780 CD154 (CD40 Ligand) Mouse anti-Human, APC-eFluor 780,...
"CD40CD40 ligand." Journal of leukocyte biology 67.1 (2000): 2-17. Banchereau, Jacques, et al. "Immune and clinical responses ... "Long-term human B cell lines dependent on interleukin-4 and antibody to CD40." Science251.4989 (1991): 70-72. Banchereau, ...
van Kooten C, Banchereau J (January 2000). "CD40-CD40 ligand". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 67 (1): 2-17. PMID 10647992.. ... CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells[5] and is a member of ... CD40 ligand is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes but is also found in a soluble form. While CD40L was ... Schönbeck U, Libby P (January 2001). "The CD40/CD154 receptor/ligand dyad". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 58 (1): 4-43 ...
CD40 (protein) and CD40L) and through cytokines. CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a cell surface protein that ... "Entrez Gene: CD40LG CD40 ligand (TNF superfamily, member 5, hyper-IgM syndrome)". Sullivan, Kathleen E. (Professor of ... May 1992). "Molecular and biological characterization of a murine ligand for CD40". Nature. 357 (6373): 80-2. doi:10.1038/ ... It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. CD154 acts ...
This gene codes for the CD40 ligand, which is expressed on T cells. When the CD40 ligand binds CD40 on B cells, then the B cell ...
March 2001). "Regulation of CD40 and CD40 ligand by the AT-hook transcription factor AKNA". Nature. 410 (6826): 383-7. doi: ... AKNA is known to upregulate expression of the receptor CD40 and its ligand CD40L/CD154. AKNA is an essential part in the ... December 2018). "The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6 Oncoprotein Regulates CD40 Expression via the AT-Hook Transcription Factor ...
February 2006). "Autoantibody to CD40 ligand in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with thrombocytopenia but not ...
CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a cell surface protein that mediates T cell helper function in a contact-dependent ... "Entrez Gene: CD40LG CD40 ligand (TNF superfamily, member 5, hyper-IgM syndrome)".. ... "Molecular and biological characterization of a murine ligand for CD40". Nature. 357 (6373): 80-2. doi:10.1038/357080a0. PMID ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ...
SAg activation in T-cells leads to production of CD40 ligand which activates isotype switching in B cells to IgG and IgM and ... Jabara HH, Geha RS (October 1996). "The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces CD40 ligand expression and modulates ...
Han S, Hathcock K... Kelsoe G (1995). Cellular interaction in germinal centers: Roles of CD40 ligand and B7-2 in established ...
CD40 is a co-stimulatory receptor on B cells that, when bound to CD40 ligand (CD40L), sends a signal to the B-cell receptor. ... Many CD40 Ligand Deficiency are first diagnosed after having PCP in their first year of life. The fungus is common and is ... "CD40 gene". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 27 November 2016. Lougaris V, Badolato R, Ferrari S, Plebani A (2005). "Hyper ... When there is a defect in CD40, this leads to defective T-cell interaction with B cells. Consequently, humoral immune response ...
2001). "Structure of CD40 ligand in complex with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing humanized antibody". Structure. 9 (4): 321- ...
"Immune responses to Pneumocystis murina are robust in healthy mice but largely absent in CD40 ligand-deficient mice". Journal ...
Lederman discovered the CD40-Ligand (CD154) and elucidated the molecular basis of T cell helper function. Lederman also ... Dartmouth College challenged the CD40-Ligand patents, but the challenge (called an interference) was rejected on all claims. ... Lederman discovered the CD40-Ligand (CD154) and elucidated the molecular basis of T cell helper function. Lederman's work on ... collaborated with Professor David Baltimore in identifying and functionally characterizing the CD40 signaling molecule, TRAF-3 ...
As mentioned above, CD40 is expressed on the surface of B cells, and its binding to CD40 ligand on activated T cells induces Ig ... The mutation in the TNFSF5 gene causes there to be no recognition of CD40 by CD40 ligand, and thus the T cells do not induce Ig ... Normally, CD40 ligand is expressed on activated T cells, and is necessary to induce immunoglobulin class switching from IgM to ... CD40 ligand is also required in the functional maturation of T lymphocytes and macrophages, so patients with this disorder have ...
1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ...
"Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is expressed on CD40 ligand-activated dendritic cells and directly augments ... Li SC, Gish G, Yang D, Coffey AJ, Forman-Kay JD, Ernberg I, Kay LE, Pawson T (2000). "Novel mode of ligand binding by the SH2 ...
Watanabe N, Hanabuchi S, Marloie-Provost MA, Antonenko S, Liu YJ, Soumelis V (June 2005). "Human TSLP promotes CD40 ligand- ... Liu YJ (August 2007). "Thymic stromal lymphopoietin and OX40 ligand pathway in the initiation of dendritic cell-mediated ...
Responses to human CD40 ligand/human interleukin-2 autologous cell vaccine in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...
In in vitro studies, it inhibited cell proliferation induced by CD40 ligands and induced cell lysis. Over three Phase 1 trials ... It is an antagonist to CD40 that was created by scientists at Chiron using Abgenix' XenoMouse transgenic mouse to generate ... Hassan SB, Sørensen JF, Olsen BN, Pedersen AE (April 2014). "Anti-CD40-mediated cancer immunotherapy: an update of recent and ... 627-II) A Fully Human Anti-CD40 Antagonistic Antibody, CHIR-12.12, Inhibit the Proliferation of Human B Cell Non-Hodgkin's ...
The transmembrane E3 ligase GRAIL ubiquitinates the costimulatory molecule CD40 ligand during the induction of T cell anergy". ...
Peitsch MC, Jongeneel CV (February 1993). "A 3-D model for the CD40 ligand predicts that it is a compact trimer similar to the ... contains full affinity for both ligands. The ligands are type II transmembrane protein cytokines that have various effects on ... TACI binds two ligands, APRIL and BAFF, which it binds to with high affinity and contains two cysteine-rich domains (CRDs) in ... This shorter form is capable of ligand-induced cell signaling and that the second CRD alone (TACI-CRD2) ...
CD40 is a costimulatory receptor on B cells that, when bound to CD40 ligand (CD40L), sends a signal to the B-cell receptor. ... When there is a defect in CD40, this leads to defective T-cell interaction with B cells. Consequently, humoral immune response ... Hyper IgM syndromes is a group of primary immune deficiency disorders characterized by defective CD40 signaling; via B cells ... Lougaris V, Badolato R, Ferrari S, Plebani A (2005). "Hyper immunoglobulin M syndrome due to CD40 deficiency: clinical, ...
... monoclonal antibody inhibits CD40 ligand-independent immune responses and prevents chronic vasculopathy in CD40 ligand- ...
CD40 is a costimulatory receptor on B cells that, when bound to CD40 ligand (CD40L), sends a signal to the B-cell receptor. ... Hyper-IgM syndrome type 3 is a form of hyper IgM syndrome characterized by mutations of the CD40 gene. In this type, Immature B ... When there is a defect in CD40, this leads to defective T-cell interaction with B cells. Consequently, humoral immune response ... Hyper IgM syndromes is a group of primary immune deficiency disorders characterized by defective CD40 signaling; via B cells ...
1997). "In Vivo Microbial Stimulation Induces Rapid CD40 Ligand-independent Production of Interleukin 12 by Dendritic Cells and ... September 2003). "The Inducible CXCR3 Ligands Control Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Responsiveness to the Constitutive Chemokine ... and CD40 greatly enhancing their ability to activate T-cells. They also upregulate CCR7, a chemotactic receptor that induces ...
... with CD28 and CD40 ligand on the T cell. Only licensed dendritic cells are able to activate cytotoxic T cells. T cell licensing ... When a T helper cell with a TCR specific for that peptide binds, the B cell marker CD40 binds to CD40L on the T cell surface. ... It also upregulates several co-stimulatory molecules required for T cell activation, including CD40 and B7. The latter can ... This occurs through the interaction of co-stimulatory molecules including B7 and CD40 on the dendritic cell, ...
... a monoclonal antibody targeting CD40-ligand with a focus on organ rejection in kidney transplantation. In August 2019, Tonix ... will focus on developing a vaccine candidate utilizing a novel live virus vaccine vector platform and the CD40-ligand to ...
X-linked disorder that causes a deficiency in the production of CD40 ligand on activated T-cells. This increases the production ...
SAg activation in T-cells leads to production of CD40 ligand which activates isotype switching in B cells to IgG and IgM and ... "The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces CD40 ligand expression and modulates IgE isotype switching". Int. Immunol ...
4-1BB ligand • Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija • FAS ligand • Limfotoksin • OX40L • RANKL • TRAIL ... CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... BAFF je citokin iz TNF ligand familije. Ovaj citokin je ligand za receptore TNFRSF13B/TACI, TNFRSF17/BCMA, i TNFRSF13C/BAFFR. ... Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija, (BAFF) koji je takođe poznat kao faktor nekroze tumora ligand superfamilija član 13B, je protein ...
Gorczynski R.M. Evidence for an immunoregulatory role of OX2 with its counter ligand (OX2L) in the regulation of transplant ...
... reticular dysgenesis Omenn syndrome DNA ligase type IV deficiency Cernunnos deficiency CD40 ligand deficiency CD40 deficiency ... Fas ligand defects), type 2a (CASP10 defects), type 2b (CASP8 defects) (b) APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy with ...
Jung W, Krueger S, Renner C, Gause A, Sahin U, Trümper L, Pfreundschuh M (Dec 1994). "Opposite effects of the CD30 ligand are ...
Ligand[edit]. The primary ligand for P-selectin is P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) which is expressed on almost all ... However, PSGL-1 is not specific for P-selectin, as it can also function as a ligand for both E- and L-selectin.[17] ... Ligands for P-selectin on eosinophils and neutrophils are similar sialylated, protease-sensitive, endo-beta-galactosidase- ... Vestweber D, Blanks JE (January 1999). "Mechanisms that regulate the function of the selectins and their ligands". Physiol. Rev ...
CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 4-1BB ligand • Kolesterilester transfer protein • Klasterin • Faktor stimulacije kolonije • Hemopeksin • Laktoferin • ...
CD40 (Teneliksimab, Toralizumab) • CD62L/L-selektin (Aselizumab) • CD80 (Galiksimab) • CD147/Basigin (Gavilimomab) • CD154 ( ... "Noncalcemic Actions of Vitamin D Receptor Ligands". Endocrine Reviews 26 (5): 662-687. PMID 15798098. doi:10.1210/er.2004-0002 ...
Stimulation of CXCR1 in neutrophils by its primary ligand, Interleukin 8, leads to neutrophil chemotaxis and activation.[6] ...
Huber AH, Weis WI (May 2001). "The structure of the beta-catenin/E-cadherin complex and the molecular basis of diverse ligand ...
The ligand of this receptor is macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP-3 alpha). This receptor has been shown to be ... 2002). "Human B cells become highly responsive to macrophage-inflammatory protein-3 alpha/CC chemokine ligand-20 after cellular ... ligand binding, and signaling". Biochemistry. 41 (26): 8332-41. doi:10.1021/bi025855y. PMID 12081481.. ... activation without changes in CCR6 expression or ligand binding". J. Immunol. 168 (10): 4871-80. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.168.10. ...
Receptor Fas-ligand (FasL) je schopný viazať sa na Fas-receptory cieľových buniek a tak spustiť kaskádu reakcii vedúcu ku ... Ďalší dôležitý signál je sprostredkovaný väzbou CD40L Th1 buniek na CD40 makrofágov. Takto stimulované makrofágy produkujú ... úlohu dvojica receptorov CD40L-CD40, ktoré po naviazaní aktivujú produkciu IL-1 a IL-12, ktoré následne stimulujú CD8+ T- ... hlavne pomocou CD40L viažuceho CD40 a ICOS viažuceho ICOS-L) [8]. ...
Peitsch MC, Jongeneel CV (February 1993). "A 3-D model for the CD40 ligand predicts that it is a compact trimer similar to the ... Suda T, Takahashi T, Golstein P, Nagata S (December 1993). "Molecular cloning and expression of the Fas ligand, a novel member ... "Molecular characterization of murine and human OX40/OX40 ligand systems: identification of a human OX40 ligand as the HTLV-1- ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... LAG3's main ligand is MHC class II, to which it binds with higher affinity than CD4.[14] The protein negatively regulates ... Fibrinogen-like protein1 FGL1, a liver-secreted protein, is another (major) LAG3 functional ligand independent of MHC-II. [19] ...
CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 2003). "Expression of the EGF-TM7 receptor CD97 and its ligand CD55 (DAF) in multiple sclerosis". J. Neuroimmunol. 132 (1-2): ... "The seven-span transmembrane receptor CD97 has a cellular ligand (CD55, DAF)". J. Exp. Med. 184 (3): 1185-9. PMC 2192782. PMID ...
CD40 (Teneliksimab, Toralizumab) • CD62L/L-selektin (Aselizumab) • CD80 (Galiksimab) • CD147/Basigin (Gavilimomab) • CD154 ( ... TNF (ligand) superfamilija. *4-1BB ligand. *Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija. *FAS ligand ...
Type I IFN receptor forms a ternary complex, composed of its two subunits IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, and a type I IFN ligand. Ligand ... ligand-induced changes to internalization and trafficking of the receptor[8] and currently unappreciated differences to ligand- ... Each subunit of IFNAR contains an N-terminal ligand binding domain (with two or four fibronectin type II-like subdomains, for ... Structural analysis of type I IFN receptor with different type I IFN ligand subtypes revealed a similar binding site for the ...
1l5g: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE EXTRACELLULAR SEGMENT OF INTEGRIN AVB3 IN COMPLEX WITH AN ARG-GLY-ASP LIGAND ... 1tye: Structural basis for allostery in integrins and binding of ligand-mimetic therapeutics to the platelet receptor for ... "Identification of a talin-binding site in the integrin beta(3) subunit distinct from the NPLY regulatory motif of post-ligand ...
In the field of cell biology, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), is a protein functioning as a ligand that induces ... Bucur O, Ray S, Bucur MC, Almasan A (May 2006). "APO2 ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in ... Application of engineered ligands that have variable affinity for different death (DR4 and DR5) and decoy receptors (DCR1 and ... TRAIL has also been designated CD253 (cluster of differentiation 253) and TNFSF10 (tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, ...
CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... 2003). „Expression of the EGF-TM7 receptor CD97 and its ligand CD55 (DAF) in multiple sclerosis". J. Neuroimmunol. 132 (1-2): ... Hamann J, Vogel B, van Schijndel GM, van Lier RA (1997). „The seven-span transmembrane receptor CD97 has a cellular ligand ( ...
LigandsEdit. Activating ligandsEdit. Standard prostanoids have the following relative efficacies as receptor ligands in binding ... CD40, and MHC class II molecules) that are critical for developing adaptive immune responses. IL receptor-activated bone marrow ... Inhibiting ligandsEdit. Several synthetic compounds bind to, but do not activate, IP and thereby inhibit its activation by the ... Zhang Z, Austin SC, Smyth EM (September 2001). "Glycosylation of the human prostacyclin receptor: role in ligand binding and ...
4-1BB ligand • Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija • FAS ligand • Limfotoksin • OX40L • RANKL • TRAIL ... CD40 (Teneliksimab, Toralizumab) • CD62L/L-selektin (Aselizumab) • CD80 (Galiksimab) • CD147/Basigin (Gavilimomab) • CD154 ( ...
Ligands[edit]. Activating ligands[edit]. The following standard prostaglandins have the following relative affinities and ... Inhibiting ligands[edit]. The following compounds are selective receptor antagonists of and thereby inhibit the activation of ... Ligands that activate DP2 stimulate the in vitro chemotaxis (i.e. directed migration) of leukocytes active in mediating ... G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as DP2 are integral membrane proteins that, when bound by their cognate ligands (or, ...
Hazen SL (June 2008). "Oxidized phospholipids as endogenous pattern recognition ligands in innate immunity". J. Biol. Chem. 283 ...
CD40 • CD41 • CD42 (a, b, c, d) • CD43 • CD44 • CD45 • CD46 • CD47 • CD48 • CD49 (a, b, c, d, e, f) • CD50 ... Još jedan ligand za neuropiline je VEGF, faktor rasta koji učestvuje u regulaciji angiogeneze. ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
Kimberley F.C., Screaton G.R. Following a TRAIL: update on a ligand and its five receptors. (англ.) // Cell Res. (англ.)русск. ... Dörr J., Bechmann I., Waiczies S., et al. Lack of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand but presence of its ... Koyama S., Koike N., Adachi S. Expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors in gastric ... Identification and molecular cloning of two novel receptors for the cytotoxic ligand TRAIL. (англ.) // J. Biol. Chem. : journal ...
Hyper IgM syndrome: X-linked disorder that causes a deficiency in the production of CD40 ligand on activated T-cells. This ...
Aust G., Sittig D., Becherer L., Anderegg U., Schütz A., Lamesch P., Schmücking E. The role of CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13 in ... activation by their ligands, CXCL10 and CXCL13, significantly induces alkaline phosphatase and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase ...
C. Van Kooten and J. Banchereau, "CD40-CD40 ligand: a multifunctional receptor-ligand pair," Advances in Immunology, vol. 61, ... The Role of CD40/CD40 Ligand Interactions in Bone Marrow Granulopoiesis. Irene Mavroudi1,2 and Helen A. Papadaki1 ... D. H. Wagner, R. D. Stout, and J. Suttles, "Role of the CD40-CD40 ligand interaction in CD4+ T cell contact-dependent ... I. Mavroudi, V. Papadaki, K. Pyrovolaki, P. Katonis, A. G. Eliopoulos, and H. A. Papadaki, "The CD40/CD40 ligand interactions ...
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Induces Release of Soluble CD40 Ligand. Lisa Nannizzi-Alaimo, Mark H. Rubenstein, Veronica L. Alves, Gil ... Cardiopulmonary Bypass Induces Release of Soluble CD40 Ligand. Lisa Nannizzi-Alaimo, Mark H. Rubenstein, Veronica L. Alves, Gil ... Cardiopulmonary Bypass Induces Release of Soluble CD40 Ligand. Lisa Nannizzi-Alaimo, Mark H. Rubenstein, Veronica L. Alves, Gil ...
CD40 ligand dysregulation in HIV infection: HIV glycoprotein 120 inhibits signaling cascades upstream of CD40 ligand ... CD40 ligand dysregulation in HIV infection: HIV glycoprotein 120 inhibits signaling cascades upstream of CD40 ligand ... Cooperation of TNF family members CD40 ligand, receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand, and TNF-alpha in the activation of ... Recombinant CD40 ligand therapy has significant antitumor effects on CD40-positive ovarian tumor xenografts grown in SCID mice ...
View our 50 CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 products for your research including CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Primary Antibodies, Proteins and Enzymes ... Recombinant Human CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 (Histidine-tagged) A New rh CD40 Ligand is Now Available! ~10 fold better activity; HEK293 ... Recombinant Human CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 (aa 108-261) Protein A New rh CD40 Ligand is Available! ~1000 fold better activity; HEK293 ... CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5: Products. CD40 Ligand, also known as TNFSF5, CD154, TRAP, and gp39, is a trimeric protein that is expressed ...
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für CD40 Ligand Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale CD40 Ligand Antikörper für viele Methoden. ...
Its ligand, CD40 ligand (CD40L), is a member of the TNF family and expressed mainly on activated T cells. CD40-CD40L ... because of the dysfunctional gene of CD40 ligand (CD40L) of the patients. Unlike CD40, CD40L is not usually expressed on B ... CD40 ligand is a critical effector of Epstein-Barr virus in host cell survival and transformation. Ken-Ichi Imadome, Masaki ... CD40 ligand is a critical effector of Epstein-Barr virus in host cell survival and transformation ...
Requirement for CD40 Ligand in Costimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis ... Requirement for CD40 Ligand in Costimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis ... Requirement for CD40 Ligand in Costimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis ... Requirement for CD40 Ligand in Costimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis ...
The antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand.. Ruedl C1, Bachmann MF, Kopf M. ... we show here that high-dose antigen induced Th1 development by up-regulation of CD40 ligand (CD40L), whereas low-dose antigen ... CD40-CD40L interaction was essential for IL-12 production by DC. In the absence, de novo IL-4 production by T cells and ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Human anti-Human, DyLight 405, Clone: hu5c8 ( ... CD154, CD154 antigen, CD40 antigen ligand, CD40 ligand, CD40-L, CD40LIGM, gp39, hCD40L, HIGM1, T-B cell-activating molecule, T- ... CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 in Human samples. It is validated for Western ... CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Human anti-Human, DyLight 405, Clone: hu5c8 (Ruplizumab), Novus Biologicals ...
Selected quality suppliers for anti-CD40 Ligand antibodies. ... Order monoclonal and polyclonal CD40 Ligand antibodies for many ... CD40 ligand (TNF superfamily, member 5, hyper-IgM syndrome) , CD40 ligand , TNF superfamily member 5 , CD40 antigen ligand , ... Top referenced anti-CD40 Ligand Antibodies. Show all anti-CD40 Ligand (CD40LG) Antibodies with Pubmed References. * Mouse ( ... Human CD40 Ligand (CD40LG) interaction partners * the CD40 (show CD40 Antibodies) rs1883832 T allele acts as a risk factor for ...
Compare CD40 Ligand ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order CD40 Ligand ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. ... CD40 ligand (TNF superfamily, member 5, hyper-IgM syndrome) , CD40 ligand , TNF superfamily member 5 , CD40 antigen ligand , ... CD40 Ligand ELISA Kits 49 CD40 Ligand (CD40LG) ELISA Kits from 16 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. ...
Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) has been suggested as a key mediator between inflammation and atherosclerosis, and the CD40-CD40L ... Serum Levels of Platelet Released CD40 Ligand Are Increased in Early Onset Occlusive Carotid Artery Disease. József Balla,1 ...
CD40 Ligand) Mouse anti-Cynomolgus Monkey, Human, FITC, Clone: 24-31, 25 Tests; FITC. ... CD40 Ligand (CD40-L), or CD154, is a membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T cells. The ... CD40 Ligand has been shown to induce cytokine production and tumoricidal activity in peripheral blood monocytes. It also co- ... CD154 (CD40 Ligand) Mouse anti-Cynomolgus Monkey, Human, FITC, Clone: 24-31, eBioscience ...
We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses that express the ligand for CD40 and have shown that the growth of these ... In this paper, we also describe our attempts to analyse the CD40 ligand-mediated antiviral activity by studying the clearance ... T cell help is delivered as two signals to the B cell, one of which is via CD40 and the other can be through receptors for any ... Cd40 Ligand Has Potent Antiviral Activity Ruby, J. ; Bluethmann, H. ; Aguet, M. ; Ramshaw, I. A. ...
... to measure CD40 Ligand with a 96-well strip plate that is pre-coated with mouse monoclonal antibody specific for CD40 Ligand. ... The BioGems Human CD40 Ligand Pre-Coated ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is a solid phase immunoassay specially ... The membrane-anCHOred CD40-Ligand is expressed almost exclusively on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Failure to express CD40L ... The detection antibody is a biotinylated goat polyclonal antibody specific for CD40 Ligand. The kit is analytically validated ...
... this invention provides isolated human and murine CD40-L polypeptides that bind to the extracellular binding region of a CD40 ... disclosed are methods of simulating hybridoma cells to increase monoclonal antibody production by administering a CD40 ligand ... vectors and transformed host cells useful in providing CD40-L polypeptides. More particularly, ... a ligand for CD40 was unknown. Accordingly, there is a need in the art to identify and characterize a CD40 ligand (CD40-L). ...
Plasma soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is mainly generated by cleavage of CD40L from the surface of activated platelets, and ... "Soluble CD40 Ligand in Aspirin-Treated Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization." PLoS ONE 10 (8): e0134599. doi:10.1371/ ...
CD40 ligand is expressed and functional on activated neonatal T cells.. J B Splawski, J Nishioka, Y Nishioka and P E Lipsky ... CD40 ligand is expressed and functional on activated neonatal T cells. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Deficient CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression by neonatal T cells has been proposed to explain the diminished Ig production by ... Anti-CD3 activation of neonatal T cells resulted in the expression of CD40L demonstrated with specific mAb or a soluble CD40.G1 ...
The ligand for the CD40 antigen is a 39-kilodalton protein, gp39, expressed on the surface of activated CD4+ T cells and is ... Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis with an antibody to gp39, the ligand for CD40 ... Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis with an antibody to gp39, the ligand for CD40 ... Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis with an antibody to gp39, the ligand for CD40 ...
The CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is a key event in the initiation of an adaptive immune response, and as such the ... CD40 ligand-dependent T cell activation: requirement of B7-CD28 signaling through CD40. Science 273: 1862. ... CD40 Ligand Blockade Induces CD4+ T Cell Tolerance and Linked Suppression. Karen Honey, Stephen P. Cobbold and Herman Waldmann ... CD40 Ligand Blockade Induces CD4+ T Cell Tolerance and Linked Suppression Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Jetzt diesen anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper bestellen. , Produkt ABIN4260972 ... Hamster Monoklonal CD40 Ligand Antikörper für BP, FACS, Neut. ... anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper (CD40LG) (PerCP) CD40 Ligand ... Produktdetails anti-CD40 Ligand Antikörper Handhabung Anwendungsinformationen Antigendetails zurück nach oben Produktdetails ... Target Details CD40 Ligand Handhabung Anwendungsinformationen zurück nach oben Target Details CD40 Ligand Anzeigen Verstecken ...
CD40 Ligand) Monoclonal (24-31), eBioscience™, Catalog # 17-1548-42. Tested in Flow Cytometry (Flow) applications. This ... CD40 antigen ligand; CD40 ligand; CD40 ligand, membrane form; CD40 ligand, soluble form; CD40-L; H-CD-40-L; M-CD-40-L; RP23- ... CD40 Ligand (CD40-L), or CD154, is a membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T cells. The ... CD40 Ligand) Monoclonal Antibody (24-31), APC, eBioscience™. The following product was used in this experiment: CD154 (CD40 ...
Expansion or elimination of B cells in vivo: dual roles for CD40- and Fas (CD95)-ligands modulated by the B cell antigen ... CD40-and Fas-ligands (CD40L and FasL), whose effects are switched by signals from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Foreign ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibody (TRAP1.3.6) [PerCP]. Validated: Flow. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse. 100% ... Additional CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Products. CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 NBP1-42527PCP * CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibodies ... Home » CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 » CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibodies » CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Antibody (TRAP1.3.6) [PerCP] ... Blogs on CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5. There are no specific blogs for CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5, but you can read our latest blog posts. ...
ELISA kit for human CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 (Cat#DCDL40). 10.1 pg/mL detection sensitivity. View CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 ELISA kit ... CD154 antigen; CD154; CD40 antigen ligand; CD40 Ligand; CD40L; CD40-L; CD40LG; CD40LIGM; gp39; hCD40L; HIGM1; T-B cell- ... The Quantikine Human CD40 Ligand Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed to measure human CD40 Ligand in cell ... Background: CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5. CD40 Ligand, also known as TNFSF5, CD154, TRAP, and gp39, is a trimeric protein that is ...
... on activated T cells binding to CD40 on B cells is of critical importance for Ig heavy-chain switching and rescue of B cells ... CD40 ligand (CD40L) on activated T cells binding to CD40 on B cells is of critical importance for Ig heavy-chain switching and ... CD40 ligand and its role in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome Immunol Today. 1993 Nov;14(11):559-64. doi: 10.1016/0167-5699(93)90188- ... we discuss how basic and clinical immunology have combined to provide major insights into the function of CD40 in T-B cell ...
In this study, we determined the effect of TLR4 signaling on the CD40-activated B10 cell competency. The results demonstrated ... Lipopolysaccharide Attenuates CD40 Ligand-Induced Regulatory B10 Cell Expansion and IL-10 Production in Mouse Splenocytes () ... Lin, M. , Lin, J. , Wang, Y. , Bonheur, N. , Kawai, T. , Wang, Z. and Han, X. (2015) Lipopolysaccharide Attenuates CD40 Ligand- ... Castigli, E., Young, F., Carossino, A.M., Alt, F.W. and Geha, R.S. (1996) CD40 Expression and Function in Murine B Cell ...
The CD40 Ligand stimulates B cell proliferation and secretion of all immunoglobulin isotypes in the presence of cytokines. CD40 ... CD40-L), or CD154, is a membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T cells. ... CD40 Ligand (CD40-L), or CD154, is a membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T cells. The ... CD40 Ligand has been shown to induce cytokine production and tumoricidal activity in peripheral blood monocytes. It also co- ...
CD40 Ligand is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the TNF family. CD40L is expressed predominantly on activated ... CD40 Ligand (CD40L) is a 261 amino acid type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the TNF family. CD40L is expressed ... CD40, is expressed on B lymphocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells and thymic epithelium. CD40L-CD40 interaction stimulates B cell ... Soluble CD40L can bind its receptor, CD40, in monomeric, dimeric and trimeric forms, though the trimeric form of soluble CD40L ...
Plasma levels of soluble CD40 ligand were determined by ELISA. Baseline levels of soluble CD40 ligand were higher among ... The binding of CD40 ligand with its receptor CD40 mediates many inflammatory responses important in atherosclerosis. A wide ... Objective- The CD40/CD40 ligand pathway mediates inflammatory processes important in atherogenesis and the formation of the ... Evidence from animal studies supports the importance of CD40 ligand because inhibition of CD40 signaling in atherosclerosis- ...
  • Monocytes are activated in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and can contribute to bone marrow failure through CD40-CD40L interactions with T helper cells," Leukemia , vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 2411-2419, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • however, it hardly transformed X-linked hyper IgM syndrome B cells, because of the dysfunctional gene of CD40 ligand (CD40L) of the patients. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike CD40, CD40L is not usually expressed on B cells. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that EBV infection induces CD40L/CD40 signaling in host cells, which appears to play an essential role in its persistent infection and malignancies of lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Its ligand, CD40 ligand (CD40L), is a member of the TNF family and expressed mainly on activated T cells. (pnas.org)
  • CD40-CD40L interaction is crucial to B cells for their proliferation, survival, Ig istotype switching, and germinal center reaction upon stimulation by activated T cells ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mice null for CD40 or CD40L had severe defects not only in their Ig isotype switching, but also in germinal center formation and establishment of B cell memory ( 4 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • That we had very few LCLs from XHIM B cells upon EBV infection led us to investigate whether CD40L and CD40 play a role in EBV infection and/or subsequent B cell transformation. (pnas.org)
  • For CD40L blocking, CD40Ig, a fusion protein of mouse CD40 (amino acids 1-193) and the Fc region of mouse IgG 2a , was used. (pnas.org)
  • Using co-cultures of dendritic cells (DC) and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4+ T cells obtained from RAG-2)(-/-) DO11.10 mice, we show here that high-dose antigen induced Th1 development by up-regulation of CD40 ligand (CD40L), whereas low-dose antigen stimulation failed to induce CD40L and promoted Th2 development. (nih.gov)
  • CD40-CD40L interaction was essential for IL-12 production by DC. (nih.gov)
  • Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) has been suggested as a key mediator between inflammation and atherosclerosis, and the CD40-CD40L interaction has a role in atherosclerotic lesion progression. (hindawi.com)
  • Description: The 24-31 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD154, a 39 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein also known as gp39 and CD40 ligand (CD40L). (fishersci.com)
  • Plasma soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is mainly generated by cleavage of CD40L from the surface of activated platelets, and therefore considered a platelet activation marker. (harvard.edu)
  • Deficient CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression by neonatal T cells has been proposed to explain the diminished Ig production by newborns. (jimmunol.org)
  • Anti-CD3 activation of neonatal T cells resulted in the expression of CD40L demonstrated with specific mAb or a soluble CD40.G1 construct. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD40L expressed by neonatal T cells was functionally active, since neonatal T cell-dependent production of IgG4 and IgE was inhibited by a soluble CD40.G1 construct. (jimmunol.org)
  • The CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is a key event in the initiation of an adaptive immune response, and as such the therapeutic value of CD40L blockade has been studied in many experimental models of tissue transplantation and autoimmune disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • We investigated whether other nonlytic mAbs are able to induce transplantation tolerance, and the experiments documented here describe studies performed using an anti-CD40 ligand (CD40L) 3 mAb. (jimmunol.org)
  • The interaction of CD40 with CD40L has been reported to be pivotal for the induction of both the humoral and cellular immune response (reviewed in Ref. 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In vivo studies using a blocking anti-CD40L mAb ( 13 ), CD40 or CD40L deficient mice ( 14 , 15 ) demonstrated a role for CD40-CD40L interactions in the generation of both the primary and secondary response to thymus-dependent Ags, in class switching to an Ag-specific IgG1 response, and in development of germinal centers. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, the Ab and CTL response to Ag can be enhanced in CD40L-deficient mice by administration of activating CD40 mAb ( 16 ) and in wild-type mice by administration of a plasmid-encoding trimeric CD40L ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This B cell fate decision is determined by the concerted action of two surface proteins on activated T cells, CD40-and Fas-ligands (CD40L and FasL), whose effects are switched by signals from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). (nih.gov)
  • CD40 ligand (CD40L) on activated T cells binding to CD40 on B cells is of critical importance for Ig heavy-chain switching and rescue of B cells from apoptosis after somatic mutation in the germinal centre. (nih.gov)
  • CD40 Ligand (CD40L) is a 261 amino acid type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the TNF family. (cellsciences.com)
  • Soluble CD40L can bind its receptor, CD40, in monomeric, dimeric and trimeric forms, though the trimeric form of soluble CD40L has the most potent biological activity. (cellsciences.com)
  • Interactions between CD40 and its ligand, CD154 (CD40L, gp39), have been shown to play a central role in the regulation of humoral immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The first signal is provided by the cytokines IL-4 or IL-13, and the second signal is delivered by the interaction between the B cell antigen CD40 and its ligand (CD40L) which is expressed on activated T cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results indicate that superantigens induce CD40L expression in T cells and cause isotype switching in B cells which is mediated by CD40L-CD40 interaction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interaction between CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40L) is involved in both cognate and innate immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • Blockade of CD40-CD40L interactions reduces severity of renal injury in murine lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that CD40-CD40L could contribute to renal injury in models that are not antibody-dependent, and that anti-CD40L could diminish inflammation and fibrosis in murine adriamycin nephropathy. (nih.gov)
  • Blockade of CD40-CD40L interaction protects against renal structural and functional injury in this murine model of chronic proteinuric renal disease. (nih.gov)
  • However, T cell-derived as well as recombinant CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), an inflammatory mediator recently localized in atheroma, induced de novo synthesis of stromelysin-3. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, stromelysin-3 mRNA and protein colocalized with CD40L and CD40 within atheroma. (rupress.org)
  • In accordance with the in situ and in vitro data obtained with human material, interruption of the CD40-CD40L signaling pathway in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient hyperlipidemic mice substantially decreased expression of the enzyme within atherosclerotic plaques. (rupress.org)
  • These observations establish the expression of the unusual matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 in human atherosclerotic lesions and implicate CD40-CD40L signaling in its regulation, thus providing a possible new pathway that triggers complications within atherosclerotic lesions. (rupress.org)
  • CD40 ligand (CD40L) plays important roles in regulation of immune responses, including T cell-dependent activation of B cells and cytokine production by monocytes and dendritic cells. (ovid.com)
  • The role of CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) in atherothrombosis is now widely accepted. (onlinejacc.org)
  • However, the exact mechanisms linking the CD40/CD40L system and the soluble form of CD40 ligand (sCD40L) with atherothrombosis are currently a topic of intensive research. (onlinejacc.org)
  • CD40/CD40L may participate in the development of coronary atherosclerosis and the triggering of acute coronary syndromes, while sCD40L seems to have a prognostic role not only in subjects with advanced atherosclerosis but also in the general population. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Although conventional cardiovascular medication such as antiplatelet therapy, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and many others have been shown to reduce both sCD40L and cardiovascular risk, it is still unclear whether specific treatments targeting the CD40/CD40L system will prove to be beneficial against atherothrombosis in the near future. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Over the recent years, it has been well established that interactions between CD40 and its immunomodulating ligand (CD40L), expressed in a variety of cell types including platelets, vascular wall cells, and immune cells, are actively involved in atherogenetic and thrombotic mechanisms and may serve as a link between inflammation, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis ( 2 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Despite the initial suggestion that CD40 exists as a dimer that is being trimerized after CD40L binding, recent studies described CD40 as a constitutional trimer complex on cell surface ( Fig. 1 )( 3 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • The CD40 ligand (CD40L) protein is a type II membrane protein with an intracellular amino terminus and an external carboxy terminus. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Aspects of the CD8 + -T-cell response are substantially modified in mice that lack B cells, CD4 + T cells, or the CD40 ligand (CD40L). (asm.org)
  • The study show presence of activation of the CD40-CD40L system and elevated level of P-selectin in women with pre-eclampsia - whether mild or sever types. (uwi.edu)
  • To address this issue, we examined virus-specific T- and B-cell responses in CD40 ligand-deficient (CD40L-/-) mice following infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). (asm.org)
  • SEATTLE - Immunex Corporation (Nasdaq: IMNX) announced today that it has launched a Phase II trial of the investigational agent CD40 Ligand (CD40L) in the most common form of kidney cancer, renal cell carcinoma. (bio-medicine.org)
  • CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) - CD40 ligand or CD40L is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the TNF superfamily. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • CD40 ligand (CD40L) and GITR ligand (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein ligand [GITRL]) are tumor necrosis factor superfamily molecules that can be used as vaccine adjuvants. (asm.org)
  • One of the most immunologically important TNFSF proteins is CD40 ligand (CD40L, also called CD154 or TNFSF5) ( 26 ), which is important for activating dendritic cells to induce CD8 + T-cell responses ( 4 , 27 , 29 , 32 ), especially CD8 + T-cell memory responses ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The CD40/CD40L system, a key regulator and amplifier of immune reactivity, is activated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mucosa. (bmj.com)
  • 3- 5 This pathway has also been implicated in IBD pathogenesis, as suggested by the increased number of CD40 and CD40L bearing cells in the circulation and actively inflamed mucosa of CD and UC patients 6- 8 and the beneficial effect of blocking the CD40/CD40L pathway in animal models of experimental colitis. (bmj.com)
  • Roser-Page, Susanne;Vikulina, Tatyana;Yu, Kanglun;McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E;Weitzmann, M Neale 2018-03-07 00:00:00 Abstract Objective Immunosuppressive biologics are used in the management of RA and additional immunomodulators are under investigation including modulators of the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) costimulation pathway. (deepdyve.com)
  • Introduction The CD40 ligand (CD40L) T cell costimulation pathway is presently under investigation as an immunomodulatory target for amelioration of inflammatory conditions such as RA [1, 2]. (deepdyve.com)
  • CD40-CD40L interactions mediate many cell-mediated immune responses and T cell-mediated effector functions that are required for proper functioning of the host defence system [3]. (deepdyve.com)
  • Following initial T cell activation, CD40L is transiently upregulated on T cells and associates with its cognate receptor CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (deepdyve.com)
  • Mechanistically, our data suggest a putative model whereby CD40L neutralization promotes increased CD4+ T cell differentiation into Tregs, a population that produces CTLA-4, which in turn promotes production of the bone anabolic ligand, Wnt-10b by CD8+ T cells, stimulating bone formation. (deepdyve.com)
  • In order to determine their biological potential, these antibody fragments have been analysed for their ability to promote B-cell activation, rescue from apoptosis and to block the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction. (lu.se)
  • Thus scFv were generated that induced B-cell proliferation, rescued B cells from apoptosis and blocked the CD40-CD40L interaction to different extents. (lu.se)
  • This cytotoxicity was associated with novel, OK432-induced up-regulation of CD40L on the cell surface of OK-DC, and was absolutely dependent on expression of CD40 on the tumor targets. (hud.ac.uk)
  • These data demonstrate that maturation of human DC with OK432, an adjuvant suitable for clinical use, induces direct tumor cell killing by DC, and describes a novel CD40/CD40L-mediated mechanism for specific DC antitumor cytotoxicity. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Recombinant human soluble CD40 ligand is a 16.3 kDa protein containing 149 amino acid residues comprising the receptor binding TNF-like domain of CD40L. (reliatech.de)
  • Initially, a role for the interaction between CD40, expressed on B cells, and gp39 (CD40L), expressed on activated T cells, has been defined in humoral immunity. (begellhouse.com)
  • CD40-CD40L interaction is an essential signal for B cell proliferation, expression of activation markers, immunoglobulin production, and isotype switching. (begellhouse.com)
  • CD40-CD40L interaction is also required for formation of B memory cells and germinal centers, and signaling through CD40 prevents apoptosis of germinal center B cells. (begellhouse.com)
  • More recent evidence indicates an expansion of the role of the CD40-CD40L axis in cellular interactions beyond antibody formation. (begellhouse.com)
  • Induced expression of CD40 on monocytes can lead to CD40L-activated monocyte effector mechanisms. (begellhouse.com)
  • In addition, CD40-CD40L interactions are crucially involved in development of autoimmune disease in a number of animal models. (begellhouse.com)
  • CD40-CD40L interactions also impact on growth regulation of certain carcinomas. (begellhouse.com)
  • Finally, the CD40-CD40L axis is involved in thymic selection. (begellhouse.com)
  • Following is a comprehensive overview of CD40L-CD40 interactions in physiological and pathogenic cellular responses and a discussion of the therapeutic ramifications of these interactions. (begellhouse.com)
  • Increasing evidence shows that CD40-CD40L interaction plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here we describe AKNA, a human AT-hook protein that directly binds the A/T-rich regulatory elements of the promoters of CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40L) and coordinately regulates their expression. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • CD40-CD40L interaction activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathways in insulinoma NIT-1 cells, and inhibitors of either pathway suppress cytokine/chemokine production in islets. (elsevier.com)
  • CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is required for the generation of antibody responses to T-dependent antigens as well as for the development of germinal centers and memory B cells. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • The role of the CD40-CD40L interaction in the induction of antigen-specific. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • Using CD40- and CD40L-deficient mice together with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus as viral model antigens, this study corroborates earlier findings that no lg isotype switching of virus-specific antibodies was measurable upon infection of CD40- or CD40L-deficient mice. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, in vivo induction of virus-specific CD4+ T cells measured by proliferation and cytokine secretion of primed virus-specific Th cells in vitro was not crucially dependent on the CD40-CD40L interaction. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • Thus, CD40-CD40L interaction plays a crucial role in T-B interactions for Th-dependent activation of B cells but not, or to a much lesser extent, in T cell activation, antigen-specific Th cell responses in vitro, and for interleukin-mediated Th cell effector functions in vivo. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • The signalling pathway CD40/CD40L (CD40 ligand) plays an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. (mendeley.com)
  • In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AngII increases CD40/CD40L activity in vascular cells and that ROS (reactive oxygen species) are part of the signalling cascade that controls CD40/CD40L expression. (mendeley.com)
  • Increased CD40 expression led to enhanced activity of the pathway, as AngII-treated cells stimulated with recombinant CD40L released higher amounts of IL-8 and had increased COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2) expression. (mendeley.com)
  • We conclude that AngII stimulation of vascular cells leads to a ROS-dependent increase in CD40/CD40L signalling pathway activity. (mendeley.com)
  • Although the identity of the surface molecules involved in this process remains elusive, CD40 and its ligand CD40L are thought to be implicated, considering that they are expressed at the inflammatory site. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD154 , also called CD40 ligand or CD40L , is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells [5] and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In total CD40L has three binding partners: CD40, α5β1 integrin and αIIbβ3. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40L plays a central role in costimulation and regulation of the immune response via T cell priming and activation of CD40-expressing immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secondary signal is CD40L on the T cell, which binds CD40 on the macrophage cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • If an activated T FH cell recognizes the peptide presented by the B cell, the CD40L on the T cell binds to the B cell's CD40, causing B cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40:CD40L interactions in X-linked and non-X-linked hyper-IgM syndromes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This dissertation presents my studies investigating the delivery of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) from helper T lymphocytes to antigen-presenting B lymphocytes. (ohsu.edu)
  • CD40L is a type two transmembrane TNF superfamily cytokine made by T cells that engages CD40 on antigen-presenting cells, including B cells, initiating downstream signaling resulting in B cell proliferation, differentiation, and antibody formation. (ohsu.edu)
  • To examine the prevalence, clinical associations and pathogenic roles of autoantibodies to CD40 ligand (CD40L) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of anti-CD40L antibodies on the CD40L-CD40 interaction was evaluated by observing CD40L-induced IκB activation in CD40-expressing fibroblasts. (elsevier.com)
  • 1992) previously reported kinetics of expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) on activated peripheral T cells, implicating the CD40-CD40L interaction as a candidate for the initiator of IL-1 induction in monocytes. (etsu.edu)
  • In summary, these results indicate that contact-dependent T cell-monocyte interactions, alone, can activate inflammatory cytokine production by resting monocytes and that a critical component of this interaction is the CD40-CD40L signaling event. (etsu.edu)
  • We hypothesized that combining low-dose FK506 with anti-CD40 Ligand (anti-CD40L mAb) would enhance regeneration through peripheral nerve allografts while preserving immune unresponsiveness. (wustl.edu)
  • The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Les concentrations sériques de sCD40L circulant et d'interleukine 10 circulante ont été analysées à l'aide de la méthode immuno-enzymatique chez 30 patients positifs pour le VHC avec un CHC, chez 30 patients patients positifs pour le VHC avec une cirrhose du foie, et chez 30 volontaires d'âge correspondant en bonne santé avec des anticorps anti-VHC négatifs servant de groupe témoin. (who.int)
  • We were surprised to read the article by Blake et al 1 on the relationship of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and lipid accumulation in carotid atheroma. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, the simultaneous incubation of monocytes with IL-10 and TNF-α or soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) resulted in the generation of CD83-positive DCs, induction of nuclear localized RelB, and inhibition of IL-10R up-regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To examine the relationship between ultra-endurance exercise in trained athletes and levels of sCD40L and its natural ligand sCD40. (bmj.com)
  • The most sensitive marker was share of sCD40L while the highest specificity was the expression of CD40 on monocytes. (uwi.edu)
  • Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) are inflammation markers and have been poorly described in infectious disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • sCD40L activated Mac-1 in neutrophils and enhanced neutrophil-platelet interactions in wild-type neutrophils, but failed to elicit such responses in CD40-deficient neutrophils. (elsevier.com)
  • sCD40L strongly stimulated the focal clustering of Mac-1 (CD11b) and the colocalization of Mac-1 with PKCζ in wild-type neutrophils, but had minimal effect in CD40-deficient neutrophils. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, sCD40L strongly stimulates neutrophil oxidative burst via CD40-dependent activation of PI3K/NF-KB, but independent of Mac-1 and PKCζ. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which sCD40L/CD40 pathway contributes to inflammation and vascular diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that the inflammatory mediator soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is elevated in both the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively impaired infected individuals compared to their non-impaired infected counterparts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: The role of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • The inflammatory receptor CD40 is expressed on human adipocytes: contribution to crosstalk between lymphocytes and adipocytes," Diabetologia , vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1152-1163, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • CD40 is a membrane-bound protein of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and is expressed on many cell types including B cells. (pnas.org)
  • CD40, a member of the TNF receptor family, is a cell surface protein expressed on B cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, thymic epithelial cells and, at low levels, on T cells. (peprotech.com)
  • More particularly, this invention provides isolated human and murine CD40-L polypeptides that bind to the extracellular binding region of a CD40 receptor. (google.com.au)
  • Expansion or elimination of B cells in vivo: dual roles for CD40- and Fas (CD95)-ligands modulated by the B cell antigen receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Recent evidence suggests that this ligand-receptor pair also plays an important role in the induction of cell-mediated immune responses, including those directed against viral pathogens, intracellular parasites, and alloantigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • OspA-CD40 dyad: ligand-receptor interaction in the translocation of neuroinvasive Borrelia across the blood-brain barrier. (prohealth.com)
  • CD40 is a type I transmembrane protein receptor and a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, and its gene is located in chromosome 20 (q12-q13.2) ( 2 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • The CD40 protein, which is a type I transmembrane receptor, exists in trimers, and this trimerization is crucial for its activation. (onlinejacc.org)
  • B-cell receptor signaling and CD40 ligand-independent T cell help cooperate in Helicobacter-induced MALT lymphomagenesis. (harvard.edu)
  • Another immunostimulatory TNFSF molecule is glucocorticoid-induced TNF family-related receptor (GITR) ligand (GITRL, also called TNFSF18), which is the activator of GITR. (asm.org)
  • 1, 2 The complex interplay of immune-non-immune cell interactions that sustains inflammatory processes is mediated by multiple receptor-ligand systems, among which the CD40/CD40 ligand (L) pathway is increasingly recognised as playing an essential role in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. (bmj.com)
  • CD40 Ligand binds and activates the CD40 receptor on antigen-presenting cells. (cellgs.com)
  • It is also found in plasma as a soluble protein, sCD40-L. As a consequence of CD40-L binding to its receptor (CD40), several inflammatory processes are initiated. (myriadrbm.com)
  • During B-lymphocyte differentiation, AKNA is mainly expressed by germinal centre B lymphocytes, a stage in which receptor and ligand interactions are crucial for B-lymphocyte maturation. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Our findings show that an AT-hook molecule can coordinately regulate the expression of a key receptor and its ligand, and point towards a molecular mechanism that explains homotypic cell interactions. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • We recently discovered that CD40, a member of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, is expressed in pancreatic β-cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, ligation of CD40 receptor upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1, associated with inflammation, at both transcriptional and translational levels. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results in vitro indicate that the CD40 receptor expressed by β-cells could be activated in vivo, inducing proinflammatory responses contributing to early islet graft loss after transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • It binds to its receptor, CD40, on the surface of antigen-presenting cells to induce activation and enhance the expression of B7 molecules to promote T cell expansion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first type is the T cell receptor/MHC-mediated signal and the second type results from the binding of costimulatory/accessory receptor ligand pairs, which bidirectionally deliver signals to the T cells and antigen-presenting cells to confer functional activity ( 2 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • CD40 ligand attaches like a key in a lock to its receptor protein, CD40, which is located on the surface of immune system cells known as B cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In order for B cells to mature into the cells that produce antibodies of a different class, the CD40 receptor must interact with CD40 ligand. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If CD40 ligand does not attach to its receptor on B cells, these cells cannot produce IgG, IgA, or IgE antibodies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • AT-hook transcription factor AKNA is reported to coordinately regulate the expression of this receptor and its ligand, which may be important for homotypic cell interactions. (genecards.org)
  • The interaction of this receptor and its ligand is found to be necessary for amyloid-beta-induced microglial activation, and thus is thought to be an early event in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. (genecards.org)
  • CD40 Ligand, also known as TNFSF5, CD154, TRAP, and gp39, is a trimeric protein that is expressed in transmembrane and soluble forms. (rndsystems.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping CD40 Ligand Proteins (122) and CD40 Ligand Kits (111) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The ligand for the CD40 antigen is a 39-kilodalton protein, gp39, expressed on the surface of activated CD4+ T cells and is essential for thymus-dependent humoral immunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recombinant mouse CD40 Ligand is a non-glycosylated protein, containing the 149 C-terminal amino acids. (cellsciences.com)
  • Using protein-protein interaction assays we found that CD40 of BMECs and OspA of Borrelia are the primary molecules in transient tethering of Borrelia to endothelium. (prohealth.com)
  • Likewise, development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in myelin basic protein (MBP)-TCR-transgenic mice is also blocked when these animals lack CD40 ligand ( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • The CD40 protein consists of 4 cysteine-rich domains, and every domain is divided into 2 cysteine modules (A1, A2, B1, B2). (onlinejacc.org)
  • CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) pipeline Target constitutes close to 18 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The latest report CD40 Ligand - Pipeline Review, H2 2, outlays comprehensive information on the CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Das vom CD40LG Gen kodierte Protein ist der Ligand des CD40 auf den T-Lyphozyten. (moldiag.com)
  • CD40 Ligand is a co-stimulator of activated T cell proliferation and inflammatory protein production. (cellgs.com)
  • The product contains the polyhedrin protein co-crystalized with Human CD40 Ligand. (cellgs.com)
  • Differential modulation of CXCR4 and CD40 protein levels by skin sensitizers and irritants in the FSDC cell line. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There are 9 CD40 Ligand protein produced in house with high quality which are covering various species. (sinobiological.com)
  • Among these CD40 Ligand proteins, there are 4 Human CD40 Ligand protein, 2 Canine CD40 Ligand protein, 1 Mouse CD40 Ligand protein, 1 Rat CD40 Ligand protein, 1 Rhesus CD40 Ligand protein. (sinobiological.com)
  • All these CD40 Ligand protein are expressed by different host cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • The Recombinant Human CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 (aa 108-261) Protein is derived from E. coli. (fishersci.co.uk)
  • The Recombinant Human CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 (aa 108-261) Protein has been validated for the following applications: Bioactivity. (fishersci.co.uk)
  • AngII (50-200 nmol/l) induced an early and sustained increase in CD40 mRNA and protein expression in CASMCs, which was blocked by treatment with antioxidants. (mendeley.com)
  • However, WT→CD40−/− chimeras demonstrated reduced renal monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and IFN-inducible protein 10 mRNA levels and minimal T cell and macrophage influx and were protected from renal injury. (asnjournals.org)
  • It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CD40LG gene provides instructions for making a protein called CD40 ligand, which is found on the surface of immune system cells known as T cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These mutations lead to the production of an abnormal CD40 ligand or prevent production of this protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CD40 (CD40 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Experiments suggested that signaling through CD40 may utilize a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) mediated pathway but not a protein kinase C mediated pathway and studies using THP-1, a premonocytic cell line, indicated that the transcription factor, NF-$\kappa$B, was activated through anti-CD40 signaling. (etsu.edu)
  • Cluster of differentiation 40, CD40 is a costimulatory protein found on antigen-presenting cells and is required for their activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40 (protein) has been shown to interact with TRAF2, TRAF3, TRAF6, TRAF5 and TTRAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of gp39-CD40 interactions in autoimmune disease was investigated in vivo with the use of an antibody that blocks their interactions (anti-gp39). (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, interference with gp39-CD40 interactions may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of autoimmune disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that plasma levels of soluble CD40 ligand are elevated in patients with evidence of a lipid pool on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of carotid stenoses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Plasma levels of soluble CD40 ligand were determined by ELISA. (harvard.edu)
  • Plasma levels of soluble CD40 ligand may predict patients with features of high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. (harvard.edu)
  • These data provide novel insight into the mechanism through which elevated levels of soluble CD40 ligand may reflect cardiovascular risk in humans and illustrate the potential value of interfacing high-resolution MRI with studies of vascular inflammation. (harvard.edu)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 626 CD40 Ligand (CD40LG) Antibodies from 36 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • 49 CD40 Ligand (CD40LG) ELISA Kits from 16 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Die kopplung des CD40 auf den B-Lymphozyten mit dem CD40LG ist für eine reife Immunantwort insbesondere dem Klassenwechsel unerlässlich. (moldiag.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40LG) genes in the susceptibility and phenotype expression of systemic sclerosis (SSc). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CD40 (rs1883832, rs4810485, rs1535045) and CD40LG (rs3092952, rs3092920) were genotyped by using a predesigned TaqMan allele-discrimination assay technology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No evidence of association between CD40 and CD40LG genes variants and susceptibility to SSc was observed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results do not suggest an important role of CD40 and CD40LG gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to or clinical expression of SSc. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its ligand, CD40LG (CD154), is expressed mainly on the surface of CD4 + T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CD40-CD40LG pathway has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taking into account these considerations, we aimed to investigate the potential association of CD40 and CD40LG genes polymorphism with SSc. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects CD40 Ligand/TNFSF5 in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • The BioGems Human CD40 Ligand Pre-Coated ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is a solid phase immunoassay specially designed to measure CD40 Ligand with a 96-well strip plate that is pre-coated with mouse monoclonal antibody specific for CD40 Ligand. (peprotech.com)
  • Also disclosed are methods of simulating hybridoma cells to increase monoclonal antibody production by administering a CD40 ligand polypeptide that stimulates B cell proliferation. (google.com.au)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: CD154 (CD40 Ligand) Monoclonal Antibody (24-31), APC, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 17-1548-42, RRID AB_1582215. (thermofisher.com)
  • This defect in DC migration after hapten sensitization was associated with defective CHS responses and decreased cutaneous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production and was corrected by injecting recombinant TNF-α or an agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody. (rupress.org)
  • The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of chimeric (Ch5c8) and humanized (Hu5c8) 5c8, a monoclonal antibody that binds CD154 (CD40 ligand), thus blocking the interaction between CD40 and CD154, were investigated in cynomolgus monkeys. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The monoclonal antibody 5c8 blocks the CD40 and CD154 interaction, producing consistent and substantive reduction in antibody formation after administration of tetanus toxoid, which can be characterized with PK/PD modeling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • article{c58957be-5df1-4efc-b433-f02e50dc2d3f, abstract = {CD40 plays a central regulatory role in the immune system and antibodies able to modulate CD40 signalling may consequently have a potential in immunotherapy, in particular for treatment of lymphomas and autoimmune disease like multiple sclerosis. (lu.se)
  • The detection antibody is a biotinylated goat polyclonal antibody specific for CD40 Ligand. (peprotech.com)
  • As a first step to achieve this goal, we describe the selection and characterization of a novel set of fully human anti-CD40 antibody fragments (scFv) from a phage display library (n-CoDeR). (lu.se)
  • CD40 Ligand stimulates B cell proliferation, immunoglobulin class switching, and antibody secretion. (cellgs.com)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Regulation of CD40 and CD40 ligand by the AT-hook transcription factor AKNA. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • CD40 plays a central regulatory role in the immune system and antibodies able to modulate CD40 signalling may consequently have a potential in immunotherapy, in particular for treatment of lymphomas and autoimmune disease like multiple sclerosis. (lu.se)
  • There are number of completed and ongoing clinical trials where agonistic anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies are employed to activate an anti-tumor T cell response via activation of dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40 ligation induces Apo-1/Fas expression on human B lymphocytes and facilitates apoptosis through the Apo-1/Fas pathway," Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 182, no. 5, pp. 1557-1565, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • CD154 interaction with CD40 transduces signals for T-dependent B-cell activation and induces B cell cycle entry. (fishersci.com)
  • The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces CD40 ligand expression and modulates IgE isotype switching. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CD40 ligand neutralization induces Tregs and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 production leading to T cell Wnt-10b production and bone formation. (deepdyve.com)
  • CD40 Ligand also induces cytokine production and tumoricidal activity in peripheral blood monocytes. (cellgs.com)
  • Confirmation of the role of CD40/CD154 interactions in tumor immunity was provided by the overt tumor susceptibility in CD40-deficient mice as compared to that in CD40 +/+ mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this case, wild-type but not CD40-deficient mice could be readily protected against live TS/A tumor challenge by preimmunization with TS/A admixed with C. parvum . (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest a critical role for CD40/CD154 interactions in the induction of cellular immunity by tumor vaccines and may have important implications for future approaches to cell-based cancer therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We therefore analyzed the effects of different activation stimuli including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and CD40 ligation on IL-10 mediated inhibition of DC development and stimulatory capacity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of receptors whose ligand (CD154) is found mainly on membranes of activated mononuclear cells. (bgu.ac.il)
  • According to studies in human and mouse species it is apparent that both CD40 ligand and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) are members of a novel family of cytokines, referred to as the TNF - superfamily. (cgiar.org)
  • Consistent with its widespread expression on normal cells, CD40 is also expressed on a wide range of tumor cells, including non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphomas, myeloma and some carcinomas including nasopharynx, bladder, cervix, kidney and ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through its binding to CD40 on antigen presenting cells including B cells, monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells, CD154 serves a crucial function in T-APC cognate interaction. (fishersci.com)
  • CD40 Ligand is a membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen that is expressed on the surface of T cells, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, platelets, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. (cellgs.com)
  • CD40 ligation counteracts Fas-induced apoptosis of human dendritic cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CD40 is constitutively expressed by antigen presenting cells, including dendritic cells, B cells and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective- The CD40/CD40 ligand pathway mediates inflammatory processes important in atherogenesis and the formation of the intraplaque lipid pool. (ahajournals.org)
  • The CD40/CD40 ligand pathway mediates inflammatory processes important in atherogenesis and the formation of the intraplaque lipid pool. (harvard.edu)
  • The aim of this work was to assess the presence of inflammatory and thrombotic response during pre-eclampsia by demonstrating CD40-CD40 ligand and P-selectin in pre-eclamptic pregnant women. (uwi.edu)
  • Following transfusion, blood products can induce an inflammatory reaction - by activating CD40-positive cells - associated with the occurrence of acute lung injury and other potential serious complications [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hyperexpression of CD40 ligand (CD154) in inflammatory bowel disease and its contribution to pathogenic cytokine production. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CD40 ligand on activated platelets triggers an inflammatory reaction of endothelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It binds to CD40 on antigen presenting cells, platelets, and endothelial and epithelial cells, leading to enhanced B cell activation and T cell dependent humoral immune responses. (rndsystems.com)
  • The ligand is expressed on a range of cell types including B cells, granulocytes, macrophages and platelets. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Our results show that TNF-α or CD40 ligation can antagonize the IL-10-mediated inhibition on DC function, suggesting that depending on activation stimuli, the presence of IL-10 does not necessarily result in T-cell anergy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Upon stimulation with bacterial products, cytokines, or CD40 ligation, DCs undergo characteristic modulations of the phenotype, antigen-presenting function, and the ability to migrate to the secondary lymphoid organs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ligation of CD40 expressed by macrophages leads to upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, MHC class II, and B7-2 ( 6 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated in vitro the presence of CD40 on human peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC) and have also shown that CD40 ligation synergizes with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) to up-regulate CC chemokine secretion from these cells. (bgu.ac.il)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CD40 ligation in leukocyte recruitment during peritonitis. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Furthermore, only the neuroinvasive Borrelia and its recombinant OspA activated CD40-dependent pathway in BMECs and induced expression of integrins essential for stationary adhesion. (prohealth.com)
  • These results suggest that platelet-endothelial interactions critically contribute to activation of the CD40 pathway in IBD. (bmj.com)
  • TRAP1.3.6 binds to CD154 at an epitope distinct from the CD40 binding site. (novusbio.com)
  • OspA of neuroinvasive Borrelia, but not of non-neuroinvasive strain, binds CD40. (prohealth.com)
  • CD40 Ligand has been shown to induce cytokine production and tumoricidal activity in peripheral blood monocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • CD40 ligand is expressed on activated T cells and interacts with CD40 on B cells and monocytes. (asm.org)
  • In addition, a monoclonal anti-CD40 IgM (BL-C4) induced resting monocytes to synthesize IL-1. (etsu.edu)
  • Experiments demonstrated that crosslinking the CD40 molecules on monocytes was critical for IL-1 induction. (etsu.edu)
  • Tm$\sp{\rm A}$ but not Tm$\sp{\rm R}$ also up-regulated cell surface expression of adhesion/costimulatory molecules on monocytes including CD40, ICAM-1, and LFA-3. (etsu.edu)
  • Barnhart, Ford, Bhushan, Song, Covey: A polymorphic CD40 ligand (CD154) molecule mediates CD40-dependent signalling but interferes with the ability of soluble CD40 to functionally block CD154:CD40 interactions. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The costimulatory molecule CD40 ligand, encoded by TNFSF5 and located at Xq26.3, is a promising positional candidate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Since CD40 ligand-transfected cells alone did not induce IL-1 but Tm$\sp{\rm A}$ did, it was considered that an additional costimulatory cell surface molecule was required. (etsu.edu)
  • CD40 molecule is a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses that express the ligand for CD40 and have shown that the growth of these viruses is dramatically controlled in vivo, even in mice that lack T or B cells. (epfl.ch)
  • In this paper, we also describe our attempts to analyse the CD40 ligand-mediated antiviral activity by studying the clearance of these viruses in mice that are deficient in important antiviral mechanisms. (epfl.ch)
  • CD40 was weakly expressed in tubules of normal mice but was expressed in tubules, interstitium, and glomeruli of mice with adriamycin nephropathy in a time-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • We analyzed the DC status of CD40 ligand −/− mice using a contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model system that enables multiple functions of DCs to be assessed in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry of skin sections revealed no differences in terms of numbers and morphology of dendritic epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) in unsensitized CD40 ligand −/− mice as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. (rupress.org)
  • However, after contact sensitization of CD40 ligand −/− mice, LCs failed to migrate out of the skin and substantially fewer DCs accumulated in draining lymph nodes (DLNs). (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, Ag-specific responses are intact in MBP-TCR CD40 ligand −/− T cells in vitro, and the inability to induce EAE in these mice is corrected by reconstituting them with B7.1-transgenic APCs. (rupress.org)
  • CD40 ligand-deficient mice generate a normal primary cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response but a defective humoral response to a viral infection. (asm.org)
  • Pharmacological suppression of CD40 ligand signalling in healthy mice causes a bone anabolic response. (deepdyve.com)
  • Regression of atherosclerosis plaques in apolipoprotein E-/- mice after lentivirus-mediated RNA interference of CD40. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CD40−/− mice do not develop immunity in response to sheep globulin and thus fail to develop effector responses or significant GN. (asnjournals.org)
  • The role of CD40 expression by renal cells was assessed by comparing GN in WT→CD40−/− chimeras (absent renal but intact bone marrow CD40) and sham chimeric mice (WT→WT). (asnjournals.org)
  • Early evidence for these effects were that in CD40 or CD154 deficient mice, there is little class switching or germinal centre formation, and immune responses are severely inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods Peritonitis was induced in mice by bacterial inoculation, CD40 levels were analyzed on PMC by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Results In mice inoculated by Staphylococcus epidermidis or Escherichia coli , CD40 in PMC increased twofold at 24 hours and CD154 was induced and reached a peak at 48 hours. (bgu.ac.il)
  • CD40/CD154 is one such costimulatory pair whose regulatory role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses has been clearly defined ( 3 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The CD40 signal enhances effector functions in concert with the production of soluble factors and other costimulatory signals. (asnjournals.org)
  • Cloning of the human homologue of the murine flt3 ligand: a growth factor early hematopoietic progenitor cells," Blood , vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 2795-2801, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • The role of CD40 in the development of GN was assessed in murine experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane GN. (asnjournals.org)
  • The CD40-TRAF6 axis controls affinity maturation and the generation of long-lived plasma cells," Nature Immunology , vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 451-456, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Increased recruitment of hematopoietic progenitor cells underlies the ex vivo expansion potential of FLT3 ligand," Blood , vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 2260-2272, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, chronic active EBV infection of peripheral T cells, implicated in T cell malignancies, was associated with ectopic expression of CD40, and, in Jurkat T cells, EBV infection induced CD40 expression. (pnas.org)
  • CD40 Ligand (CD40-L), or CD154, is a membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T cells. (fishersci.com)
  • Signaling though CD40 plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells, and is critical for immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching. (peprotech.com)
  • There is disclosed a polypeptide (CD40-L) and DNA sequences, vectors and transformed host cells useful in providing CD40-L polypeptides. (google.com.au)
  • CD40 ligand is expressed and functional on activated neonatal T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • The clinical relevance of CD40-CD40 ligand interactions is highlighted in the life-threatening manifestations of Hyper IgM syndrome (HIM), where accumulation of IgM and the inability of B cells to isotype switch has been attributed to mutated CD40 ligand on helper T cells ( 5 )( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, naive T cells from CD40 ligand −/− animals display normal polyclonal as well as Ag-specific responses ( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • This raises the possibility that the immunological abnormalities seen as a result of mutated CD40 or CD40 ligand are in fact due to defective upstream events in the initiation of acquired immunity, i.e., during the presentation of Ag and priming of naive T cells. (rupress.org)
  • 1-3 doses of an interleukin-2 immunotoxin directed to the CD25 antigen (denileukin diftitox, ONTAK) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients, followed by six subcutaneous (SC) injections of autologous leukemic cells modified ex vivo to secrete human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) and to express human CD40 ligand (hCD40L). (knowcancer.com)
  • CD40 expression in nonhematopoietic cells is generally associated with inflammation. (elsevier.com)
  • Interactions between CD40 ligand and CD40 are involved in the development of humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, as well as the activation of macrophages, which are the primary host and effector cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD40 is constitutively expressed on endothelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, virus-specific Th cells primed in a CD40-deficient environment, adoptively transferred into CD40-competent recipients, were able to mediate lg isotype switch. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • LOAd armed with CD40 ligand (LOAd700) was constructed from the ICOVIR system by changing the virus shaft and knob to that of serotype 35 to broaden virus binding and entry into cells (pending patent EP14163704). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human CASMCs (coronary artery smooth muscle cells) in culture exposed to IL (interleukin)-1beta or TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) had increased superoxide generation and enhanced CD40 expression, detected by EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) and immunoblotting respectively. (mendeley.com)
  • In conclusion, the expression of CD40 by nonimmune renal cells plays a major role in Th1 effector responses by inducing Th1 chemokine production. (asnjournals.org)
  • [6] On T FH cells, CD154 promotes B cell maturation and function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface and therefore facilitating cell-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD40 ligand is also necessary for T cells to interact with other cells of the immune system, and it plays a key role in T cell differentiation (the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions). (medlineplus.gov)
  • CD154-CD40 cross-linking is a central event in antigen presentation, B-cell activation, and regulation of cytokine and chemokine secretion from various types of cells. (bgu.ac.il)
  • It is not known what role CD40 ligand plays in the generation of immune responses to viral infection. (asm.org)
  • The CD40-CD40 ligand interaction is crucial to the development of T dependent immune responses. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Variants of the CD40 ligand gene are not associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africa. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this review, we discuss how basic and clinical immunology have combined to provide major insights into the function of CD40 in T-B cell collaboration. (nih.gov)
  • c Dr. Carol Folt The Role of CD40 and Its Ligand in Transplant Tolerance A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology and Immunology by Lamis Z. Jarvinen DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire January 9, 2004 Examining CO!Jllllittee: Dr. Willi9J1l. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Enhanced plasma soluble CD40 ligand levels in essential hypertensive patients with blunted nocturnal blood pressure decrease. (cngb.org)
  • The CD40 Ligand stimulates B cell proliferation and secretion of all immunoglobulin isotypes in the presence of cytokines. (fishersci.com)
  • The efficacy of CD40 ligand blockade in discordant pig-to-rat islet xenotransplantation is correlated with an immunosuppressive effect of immunoglobulin. (diva-portal.org)
  • The antigen dose determines T helper subset development by regulation of CD40 ligand. (nih.gov)
  • Novel Molecular Mechanism of Regulation of CD40 Ligand by the Transcription Factor GLI2. (unh.edu)
  • T cell help is delivered as two signals to the B cell, one of which is via CD40 and the other can be through receptors for any of a variety of soluble cytokines. (epfl.ch)
  • The Quantikine Human CD40 Ligand Immunoassay is a 4.5 hour solid-phase ELISA designed to measure human CD40 Ligand in cell culture supernates, serum, and plasma. (rndsystems.com)
  • These CD40 Ligand proteins are produced with different tags, such as His Tag, Fc Tag. (sinobiological.com)
  • CD40 ligand is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes but is also found in a soluble form. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the macrophage expresses more CD40 and TNF receptors on its surface, which helps increase the level of activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional and pathologic markers of disease severity, cellular components of interstitial inflammation, and the degree of CD40 expression were assessed. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, cellular immunity has been shown to be impaired when CD40-CD40 ligand interactions are disrupted ( 5 ), though the precise mechanisms remain unclear. (rupress.org)
  • The in vivo function of a noncanonical TRAF2-binding domain in the C-terminus of CD40 in driving B-cell growth and differentiation," Blood , vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 193-200, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Whereas CD40-CD40 ligand interactions are important for various dendritic cell (DC) functions in vitro, their in vivo relevance is unknown. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in vivo regulate the migration of antigen-bearing DCs from the skin to DLNs via TNF-α production and play a vital role in the initiation of acquired T cell-mediated immunity. (rupress.org)
  • One of the most dramatic influences on DCs is provided by CD40 stimulation in vitro ( 3 )( 4 ), raising the possibility that in vivo, some DC functions might be dependent on CD40-CD40 ligand interactions. (rupress.org)
  • Blocking CD40-CD40 ligand interplay dramatically prolongs cardiac and skin allograft survival and inhibits T cell-proliferative responses both in vitro and in vivo ( 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • In conclusion, this panel of human anti-CD40 scFv fragments displays a number of distinct properties, which may constitute a valuable source when evaluating candidates for in vivo trials. (lu.se)
  • Statins, glitazones, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and clopidogrel have been demonstrated to effectively reduce CD40-L levels both in vitro and in vivo. (myriadrbm.com)
  • TRAP1.3.6 recognises the human CD154 cell surface antigen, a 32kD glycoprotein also known as CD40 ligand. (novusbio.com)
  • It contains E. coli -expressed recombinant human CD40 Ligand and has been shown to accurately quantitate the recombinant factor. (rndsystems.com)
  • Results obtained using natural human CD40 Ligand showed linear curves that were parallel to the standard curves obtained using the Quantikine kit standards. (rndsystems.com)
  • These results indicate that this kit can be used to determine relative mass values for naturally occurring human CD40 Ligand. (rndsystems.com)
  • Activity of Human CD40-Ligand, premium grade (red line) was compared to another commercially available product (black line). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Human CD40 Ligand has a predicted Mw of 16.3 kDa. (cellgs.com)
  • Human CD40 Ligand is fully biologically active when compared to standard. (cellgs.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated the potential proinflammatory role of CD40 in human and nonhuman primate islets. (elsevier.com)
  • 2 A crystal structure of an extracellular fragment of human CD40 ligand. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The extracellular region of CD40 is cysteine-rich (consisting of 20 residues). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Crystal structure of the extracellular domain of mouse RANK ligand at 2.2-A resolution. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • DeKruyff, Gieni, Umetsu: Antigen-driven but not lipopolysaccharide-driven IL-12 production in macrophages requires triggering of CD40. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The role of CD40 and its ligand in transplant tolerance. (dartmouth.edu)
  • CD40/CD154 signaling plays a key role in initiating Th1 responses and may direct Th1 effector responses. (asnjournals.org)
  • CD40 is expressed in nephritic glomeruli, suggesting a potential role for intrarenal CD40-CD154 interactions in injurious effector responses. (asnjournals.org)
  • Conclusion Our data suggest that CD40 plays a significant role in the process of the mononuclear infiltration during peritonitis. (bgu.ac.il)
  • CD40 is also expressed on B cell precursors in the bone marrow, and there is some evidence that CD40-CD154 interactions may play a role in the control of B cell haematopoiesis. (wikipedia.org)