ColombiaBlood Banks: Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Leukapheresis: The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Tetanus ToxoidHIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral: A group of malignant lymphomas thought to derive from peripheral T-lymphocytes in lymph nodes and other nonlymphoid sites. They include a broad spectrum of lymphocyte morphology, but in all instances express T-cell markers admixed with epithelioid histiocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Although markedly similar to large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, LARGE-CELL, IMMUNOBLASTIC), this group's unique features warrant separate treatment.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous: A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Coccidia: A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.Cryptosporidium parvum: A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Urea Cycle Disorders, Inborn: Rare congenital metabolism disorders of the urea cycle. The disorders are due to mutations that result in complete (neonatal onset) or partial (childhood or adult onset) inactivity of an enzyme, involved in the urea cycle. Neonatal onset results in clinical features that include irritability, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, NEONATAL HYPOTONIA; RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS; HYPERAMMONEMIA; coma, and death. Survivors of the neonatal onset and childhood/adult onset disorders share common risks for ENCEPHALOPATHIES, METABOLIC, INBORN; and RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS due to HYPERAMMONEMIA.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Artificial Cells: Chemically synthesized structures which functionally resemble natural cells.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.

Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. (1/17664)

A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4(+) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of HIV-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. Thymectomy before HIV-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4(+) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (2/17664)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (3/17664)

The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections.  (+info)

Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. (4/17664)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas/FasL) system in the inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: Frozen muscle sections obtained from 7 patients with polymyositis (PM), 4 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), and 3 controls were studied by immunochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by DNA electrophoresis and in situ labeling using the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Fas was detected on muscle fibers and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNC) in 6 PM patients and 2 DM patients. FasL was expressed mainly on CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells, and on macrophages surrounding Fas-positive muscles in 4 PM patients and 1 DM patient. In 3 of the 5 patients with FasL-positive MNC, the TUNEL method showed that both invaded myonuclei and MNC underwent apoptosis. Chromosomal DNA from the muscle tissue of these patients showed ladder formation. CONCLUSION: Fas/FasL is involved in muscle cell apoptosis in at least 2 of the inflammatory myopathies, PM and DM. Although CD8+-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be the main mechanism of muscle injury in PM, our data suggest that CD4+ T cells also directly cause muscle cell damage.  (+info)

Expanded tumor-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to human cancers induced by secondary anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activation. (5/17664)

Generation of tumor-reactive T cells in large numbers ex vivo is a requisite step in the adoptive immunotherapy of patients. We examined the immune responses of T cells derived from tumor vaccine-primed lymph nodes activated with anti-CD3 alone and with an anti-CD3/anti-CD28 combination. Nylon wool-purified CD3+ cells were isolated from vaccine-primed lymph nodes obtained from melanoma, renal cell, and head and neck cancer patients. In the absence of antigen-presenting cells, activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 greatly enhanced subsequent T-cell expansion in interleukin 2 (>100-fold), compared to anti-CD3 alone. CD4+ T cells were preferentially stimulated. In four of eight patients, we found evidence of CD4+ cellular responses to autologous tumors by cytokine release assays. Positively selected CD4+ cells activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 released greater amounts of cytokine (IFN-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in response to autologous tumors compared to cells activated by anti-CD3 alone. The CD4+ reactivity was MHC class II restricted and appeared to be associated with the expression of class II molecules on the vaccinating tumor cells. The CD4+ T-cell responses to class II-restricted tumor-associated antigens in patients with renal cell cancers represent unique findings.  (+info)

Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. (6/17664)

Chlamydia infections are epidemiologically linked to human heart disease. A peptide from the murine heart muscle-specific alpha myosin heavy chain that has sequence homology to the 60-kilodalton cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis was shown to induce autoimmune inflammatory heart disease in mice. Injection of the homologous Chlamydia peptides into mice also induced perivascular inflammation, fibrotic changes, and blood vessel occlusion in the heart, as well as triggering T and B cell reactivity to the homologous endogenous heart muscle-specific peptide. Chlamydia DNA functioned as an adjuvant in the triggering of peptide-induced inflammatory heart disease. Infection with C. trachomatis led to the production of autoantibodies to heart muscle-specific epitopes. Thus, Chlamydia-mediated heart disease is induced by antigenic mimicry of a heart muscle-specific protein.  (+info)

T-cell expression of the human GATA-3 gene is regulated by a non-lineage-specific silencer. (7/17664)

The GATA-3 transcription factor is required for development of the T-cell lineage and Th2 cytokine gene expression in CD4 T-cells. We have mapped the DNase-I-hypersensitive (HS) regions of the human GATA-3 gene in T-cells and non-T-cells and studied their transcriptional activities. HS I-III, located 5' from the transcriptional initiation site, were found in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, whereas HS IV-VII, located 3' from the transcriptional start site, were exclusively observed in T-cells. Among these hypersensitive sites, two transcriptional control elements were found, one in the first intron of the GATA-3 gene and the other between 8.3 and 5.9 kilobases 5' from the GATA-3 transcriptional initiation site. The first intron acted as a strong transcriptional activator in a position-dependent manner and with no cell-type specificity. The upstream regulatory element could confer T-cell specificity to the GATA-3 promoter activity, and analysis of this region revealed a 707-base pair silencer that drastically inhibited GATA-3 promoter activity in non-T-cells. Two CAGGTG E-boxes, located at the 5'- and 3'-ends of the silencer, were necessary for this silencer activity. The 3'-CAGGTG E-box could bind USF proteins, the ubiquitous repressor ZEB, or the basic helix-loop-helix proteins E2A and HEB, and we showed that a competition between ZEB and E2A/HEB proteins is involved in the silencer activity.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional characterization of CD8(+) T cell clones specific for a mouse cytomegalovirus epitope. (8/17664)

A series of CD8(+) T cell clones, specific for the IE1 epitope YPHFMPTNL, of the immediate-early protein 1 of the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) were generated in order to determine their protective activity against this infection and correlate their phenotypic markers with antiviral activity. We found that the adoptive transfer of three of these anti-MCMV CD8(+) T cell clones into irradiated naive mice resulted in protection against challenge, while another CD8(+) T cell clone, of the same specificity, failed to confer protection. The clones that conferred protection against lethal challenge reduced greatly viral replication in the lung and other organs of the mice. Using one of the protective anti-MCMV CD8(+) T cell clones we found that in order to be fully protective the cells had to be transferred to recipient mice no later than 1 day after MCMV challenge. The adoptive transfer of these CD8(+) T cell clones also protected CD4(+) T-cell-depleted mice. Phenotypic characterization of the anti-MCMV clones revealed that the nonprotective clone expressed very low levels of CD8 molecules and produced only small amounts of TNF-alpha upon antigenic stimulation. Most importantly, our current study demonstrates that this MHC class I-restricted IE1 epitope of MCMV is efficiently presented to CD8(+) T cell clones in vivo and further strengthens the possibility of the potential use of CD8(+) T cell clones as immunotherapeutic tools against cytomegalovirus-induced disease.  (+info)

*Nc/Nga mice model

This infiltrate consists mainly of CD4 positive T lymphocytes with less CD8 positive lymphocytes and macrophages. Infiltration ... All these genes or their products more precisely are involved in T lymphocytes development. Derm1 region is conserved on human ...

*Xanthogranulomatous inflammation

Many T lymphocytes were identified by these authors positive to CD4 and CD8. Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a ... The foam cells of monocyte/macrophage origin are positive for KP1, HAM56, CD11b and CD68 as pointed out by Nakashiro et al. in ... Under microscope, the cellular infiltrate includes neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, erythrocytes, hemosiderin-laden ...

*HAVCR2

CD4-positive T helper lymphocytes can be divided into several types (including types 1 (Th1) and 2 (Th2)) on the basis of their ... HAVCR2 expression is up regulated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in lung, gastric, head and neck cancer, schwannoma, ... and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3). TIM3, an immune checkpoint, is a Th1-specific cell surface protein that ...

*List of MeSH codes (A11)

... cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569.200.400 - t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569. ... cd8-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569.220.200 - t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.569.500 - t ... b-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.550.500 - t-lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.562 - b-lymphocytes MeSH ... lymphocyte subsets MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.622 - lymphocytes, null MeSH A11.118.637.555.567.650 - lymphocytes, tumor- ...

*Autoimmune pancreatitis

... or CD8-positive lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells, and exhibits interstitial fibrosis and acinar cell atrophy in later ... Histopathologic examination of the pancreas reveals a characteristic lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate of CD4- ... It has been proposed that a cytologic smear primarily composed of acini rich in chronic inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, plasma ... Histopathologic examination of the pancreas shows fibrotic changes with lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltrate. For diagnosis, ...

*List of MeSH codes (A15)

... cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569.200.400 --- t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569. ... t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567.569.200 --- cd4-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567.569.200.400 --- ... cd8-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567.569.220.200 --- t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic MeSH A15.145.229.637.555.567. ... t-lymphocytes, regulatory MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569.220 --- cd8-positive t-lymphocytes MeSH A15.382.490.555.567.569.220.200 ...

*Helper/suppressor ratio

CD4:CD8 ratio) is a basic laboratory test in which the percentage of CD3-positive lymphocytes in the blood positive for CD4 (T ... infection.The loss of CD4-positive cells to HIV infection can result in various distortions in the ratio, as in the initial ... One reason for abnormal results is the loss of CD4-positive cells to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) ... Normal values (95% confidence intervals) are approximately 30-60% CD4 and 10-30% CD8 depending on age (ratio 0.9 to 3.7 in ...

*Alfred Singer

He is best known for his work regarding lymphocyte development, particularly the differentiation of immature CD4+8+ (double ... positive) thymocytes into mature T cells. Singer's work is foundational in the understanding of T cells and MHC-restricted ... SInger A, Adoro S, Park JH: Lineage fate and intense debate: myths, models and mechanisms of CD4- versus CD8-lineage choice. ... models and mechanisms of CD4- versus CD8-lineage choice". Nature Reviews Immunology. 8 (10): 788-801. doi:10.1038/nri2416. ISSN ...

*Avian reovirus

The most activity was observed during the subacute phase with an increase in CD8 and CD4 lymphocytes. At this phase, clusters ... During the chronic phase, a high amount of CD4 T- cells and a few IgM-positive B-cells were observed. Immunosuppression ... Within the synovium collected, plasma cells and T-lymphocytes were the primary inflammatory cells present. During the acute- ... and T and B-lymphocytes were observed to determine its effects on cellular infiltrates during the development of reovirus ...

*Protein disulfide-isomerase

... has been found to be involved in the breaking of bonds on the HIV gp120 protein during HIV infection of CD4 positive cells, and ... is required for HIV infection of lymphocytes and monocytes. Some studies have shown it to be available for HIV infection on the ... surface of the cell clustered around the CD4 protein. Yet conflicting studies have shown that it is not available on the cell ...

*IRF1

... specifically decreased CD8-positive T cell and NK cell numbers and an increase in CD4-positive T cells. The mice also had an ... Homozygous mutant animals had abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytes, ...

*Hypereosinophilia

... e.g increased numbers of CD4 negative, CD7 positive T cells, CD3 negative, CD4 positive T cells, or CD3 positive, CD4 negative ... In on study of 16 lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia patients with the aberrant CD3 negative, CD41 positive immunophenotype, ... in T-cells or the proliferation of lymphocytes with the CD3 negative, CD41 positive immunophenotype may occur during the ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia is a disorder attributed to the expansion of a cytokine-producing, aberrant population of ...

*Human leukocyte antigen

These particular antigens stimulate the multiplication of T-helper cells (also called CD4 positive T cells), which in turn ... HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. ... A representative cellular assay is the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and used to determine the HLA class II types. The ... also called CD8 positive- or cytotoxic T-cells) that destroy cells. MHC class I proteins associate with β2-microglobulin, which ...

*HLA-DP

A few TCR variants that recognize these DQ/antigen complexes are on CD4 positive T-cells. These T-cells, called T-helper (Th) ... Alternatively, macrophages and other cytotoxic lymphocytes consume or destroy cells by apoptotic signaling and present self- ... and B-lymphocytes). Normally, these APC 'present' class II receptor/antigens to a great many T-cells, each with unique T-cell ...

*HLA-DQ

A few TCR variants that recognize these DQ/antigen complexes are on CD4 positive (CD4+) T-cells. These T-cells, called T-helper ... and B-lymphocytes). Normally, these APC 'present' class II receptor/antigens to a great many T-cells, each with unique T-cell ... Regional Evolution Many HLA DQ were under positive selection of 10,000s potentially 100,000s of years in some regions. As ... of Celiac Disease patients are positive for DQ2 or DQ8. Klitz W, Maiers M, Spellman S, et al. (October 2003). "New HLA ...

*Magnetic-activated cell sorting

This method is useful for isolation of a particular cell type, for instance CD4 lymphocytes. In negative selection the antibody ... With this method, the cells can be separated positively or negatively with respect to the particular antigen(s). In positive ...

*Thymocyte

... positive for both CD4 and CD8). The final stage in maturation is the single positive stage (positive for either CD4 or CD8). In ... Thymopoiesis is the process in the thymus by which thymocytes differentiate into mature T lymphocytes. The primary function of ... At this stage thymocytes upregulate both CD4 and CD8, becoming double positive cells. Double positive thymocytes that have a T ... Expression of both CD4 and CD8 makes them double positive, and matures into either CD4+ or CD8+ cells. Thymocytes are ...

*HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

... patients with a longer history of chronic HIV and higher CD4 nadir loss present with greater cerebral atrophy. CD4 lymphocyte ... A recent longitudinal study of a small representative cohort of HIV-positive patients on stable medication regiments suggests ... 1981), "Effects of nadir CD4 count and duration of human immunodeficiency virus infection on brain volumes in highly active ... Cerebral brain volume is associated with factors related to duration of the disease and CD4 nadir; ...

*VISTA (protein)

The increased VISTA levels correlated with an increase in immune activation and a decrease in CD4-positive T cells. There is an ... VISTA is produced at high levels in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T ... "Coinhibitory receptor PD-1H preferentially suppresses CD4⁺ T cell-mediated immunity". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 124 (5 ...

*T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

T-PLL has the immunophenotype of a mature (post-thymic) T-lymphocyte, and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T ... The immunophenotype CD4+/CD8- is present in 60% of cases, the CD4+/CD8+ immunophenotype is present in 25%, and the CD4-/CD8+ ... A high lymphocyte count (> 100 x 109/L) along with low amounts of red blood cells and platelets in the blood are common ... In the peripheral blood, T-PLL consists of medium-sized lymphocytes with single nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm with ...

*McDonald criteria

... and different lymphocyte subtypes, reacting to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD138. The sensitivity of McDonald criteria is low with ... In order to reduce false positives, McDonald et al. propose that their criteria should be applied only after any other disease ... ", "dissemination" and a "positive MRI", etc. Later they were revised again in 2010. McDonald's criteria are the standard ...

*HLA-DPB1

1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1991). "Positive correlation between oligonucleotide typing and T-cell recognition of HLA-DP molecules". Immunogenetics. 34 (1 ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ...

*Thymic nurse cell

Also, almost 90% of all thymocytes extracted from the female TNCs were found to be double positives (CD4+CD8+), whereas no such ... "The importance of the nurse cells and regulatory cells in the control of T lymphocyte responses." BioMed research international ... al., 2010) triple positive T cells, αβTCRlowCD4+CD8+ within the spaces formed by the interlocking of the membrane. Some of ... found in their study that one-fourth of the nurse cells isolated from mice were double-positives for K5 and K8, while the rest ...

*ZAP70

CLL that is positive for the marker ZAP-70 has an average survival of 8 years. CLL that is negative for ZAP-70 has an average ... T lymphocytes are activated by engagement of the T cell receptor with processed antigen fragments presented by professional ... Thome M, Duplay P, Guttinger M, Acuto O (June 1995). "Syk and ZAP-70 mediate recruitment of p56lck/CD4 to the activated T cell ... Upon this activation, the TCR co-receptor CD4 or CD8 binds to the MHC, activating the co-receptor associated tyrosine kinase ...

*Lymphoma

Lymphocyte-rich Lymphocyte depleted or not depleted Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma Immunodeficiency-associated ... creating Pautrier microabscesseses CD4 5-year survival 75% Localized or more generalized skin symptoms, generally indolent, in ... aggressive Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with chronic inflammation Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL of the elderly ... Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). The name often refers to just ...

*GNLY

2003). "CD8 T cell-mediated killing of Cryptococcus neoformans requires granulysin and is dependent on CD4 T cells and IL-15". ... Granulysin is present in cytolytic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. Granulysin is made ... Recombinant 9 kD granulysin is broadly cytolytic against tumors and microbes, including gram positive and gram negative ... Donlon TA, Krensky AM, Clayberger C (1990). "Localization of the human T lymphocyte activation gene 519 (D2S69E) to chromosome ...
Signaling through CD27 plays a role in T cell activation and memory. However, it is currently unknown how this costimulatory receptor influences CD4 effector T (Teff) cells in inflamed tissues. In the current study, we used a murine model of inducible self-antigen expression in the epidermis to elucidate the functional role of CD27 on autoreactive Teff cells. Expression of CD27 on Ag-specific Teff cells resulted in enhanced skin inflammation when compared with CD27-deficient Teff cells. CD27 signaling promoted the accumulation of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells in skin draining lymph nodes in a cell-intrinsic fashion. Surprisingly, this costimulatory pathway had minimal effect on early T cell activation and proliferation. Instead, signaling through CD27 resulted in the progressive survival of Teff cells during the autoimmune response. Using BH3 profiling to assess mitochondrial cell priming, we found that CD27-deficient cells were equally as sensitive as CD27-sufficient cells to mitochondrial ...
Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells inhibits HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Purified CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25− T cells (2 × 106/mouse) were adoptively transferred into WT B6 mice 24 h before HSV infection, and the immune response was measured on days 7 and 28 p.i. (A) On days 7 and 28 p.i., spleen cells were incubated with gB498-505, and CD8/IFN-γ production was measured by intracellular staining. The number shown in each plot is the mean percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells obtained from four mice per group. (B) The resulting decrease in IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in B6 mice after adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells were also measured by a standard ELISPOT assay. On days 7 and 28 post HSV infection, spleen cells were analyzed for the number of IFN-γ-secreting CD8+ T cells in response to SSIEFARL peptide. The error bars represent the mean ± SD of four different mice in the same group. *P , 0.05 compared with HSV-infected B6 mice receiving no adoptive transfer. Without ...
Peripheral T cells, in absence of a thymus (4, 25) or when transferred to T cell-deficient hosts (5, 7, 26), are capable of considerable expansion. The sequential transfer of a T cell population into successive hosts has shown that one T cell can generate up to 1015 cells (7). This indicates that in a normal mouse, peripheral T cell division is limited by mechanisms that probably include resource competition and complex cell interactions (9). We studied the role of T cell interactions in the control of the number of peripheral CD4+ T cells. In particular, we investigated if CD25+CD4+ T cells, which exert regulatory functions (27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32), could also govern peripheral CD4+ T cell homeostasis.. IL-2Rα−/− mutant mice are reported as a paradigm for perturbed lymphocyte homeostasis (10). The lack of the IL-2Rα was believed to impair AICD in vivo (10), to modify the balance between clonal expansion and cell death, resulting in the deregulation of both the size and content of the ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) stimulates both activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate. IL-2 signals through an identical receptor complex and promotes the same dose-dependent phosphorylation of the canonical transcription factor STAT5 in both cell types. Despite this, CD8+ T cells enter the S phase earlier and proliferate to a greater extent than do CD4+ T cells in response to IL-2. We identified distinct IL-2 signaling dynamics in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In IL-2-stimulated CD8+ T cells, STAT5 phosphorylation increased rapidly and was sustained for 6 hours. In contrast, CD4+ T cells had a biphasic response, with maxima at 15 min and 2 to 4 hours after stimulation. Both cell types required vesicular trafficking, but only CD4+ T cells required new protein synthesis to maintain high phosphorylation of STAT5. Two subunits of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ, were twice as abundant in CD8+ T cells than in CD4+ T cells. Reduction of IL-2Rβ abundance by 50% was sufficient to convert CD8+ T cells to ...
The CD8αβ coreceptor influences CD8 T cell recognition and responses in anti-tumor and -viral immunity. The ancestor to the human and chimpanzee CD8β gene acquired two additional exons absent in the mouse that lead to the expression of multiple isoforms (M1-M4) as a result of alternative splicing. In humans these isoforms differ in their cytoplasmic tails and in their expression pattern. The M-1 isoform is predominant in naïve T cells whereas M-4 is predominant in effector memory T cells. To study functional differences we are co-transducing CD8α, each CD8β isoform, and MHCI restricted NY-ESO-1 specific TCR into human CD4+ T cells and measuring cytokine production after activation. We have found differences in induction of cytokine producing cells such as the MIP-1β chemokine with different isoforms. The M-4 isoform cytoplasmic tail has unique sorting motifs that regulate its cell surface expression and it is modified by phosphorylation after activation. The cytoplasmic tail of M-4 could ...
CD4+ T cells play a major role in adaptive immune responses to intracellular and extracellular microbes by regulating the functions of B cells, CD8+ T cells, an...
Changes of CD8/HLADR+ T cells during a period of seven years HAART ( ± SD,/ μL). Patient numbers: Effective group (A) (n = 25), Ineffective group (B) (n = 18)
But does Rove really think Palin will jump in, thats shes effectively in pre-campaign mode? Sure, shes acting like a candidate, but shes done that a lot already. Think back to the bus tour. What she craves is not so much political office but attention (and an enhancement to her celebrity status, and, of course, money), and she gets a ton of attention by tantalizing us with a possible presidential run. Its an old story by now, and we shouldnt be taken in by it. Palin can appear to be on the campaign trail, can go to Iowa and steal the spotlight, and can offer herself as GOP kingmaker -- for Perry, one would think, who gives her a way out, as she has said all along that she wouldnt run if someone else suitable were to run instead, and the two are very much on the same page. That doesnt mean shes running, just that shes being herself ...
The authors have demonstrated compartment differences between T cell immunity in the bronchoalveolar space and the periphery. These include a predominant presence of effector memory T cells and regulatory CD4+ T cells in BAL, and a higher percentage frequency of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells against influenza virus, S pneumoniae and M tuberculosis in BAL compared to peripheral blood. Our data has also demonstrated that HIV-infected individuals have impaired pulmonary CD4+ T cell immunity, which is characterised by lower proportions of total CD4+ T cells and impaired antigen-specific BAL CD4+ T cell response to influenza virus and M tuberculosis antigens.. Consistent with previous observations,21 we noticed that BAL CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly of effector memory phenotype irrespective of HIV status, while peripheral blood T cell phenotypes were distributed among naive, central memory, effector memory and terminal effector. Effector memory T cells migrate to the lung following antigen ...
Interleukin (IL)-4 is considered to be essential for T helper (Th)2 cell development, yet in areas of primary T cell activation, CD4+ cells are its only source. This implies that other signals must drive the initial expression of IL-4 production. The role of CD28 co-stimulation in Th2 subset development has been described. However, in mice deficient for CD28, Th2 responses are diminished, but not abrogated. Cytokines produced within the lymphoid tissue, e.g. IL-7, may be important in the primary activation of naive CD4+ cells. We have found that human naive CD4+ cells purified from umbilical cord blood express the IL-7 receptor and respond vigorously to IL-7 during primary stimulation. Naive CD4+ cells grown in IL-4, in the presence or absence of IL-2, fail to produce Th2 cytokines upon restimulation. In contrast, IL-7 induces development of a population of T cells that produce large amounts of IL-4. Growth in IL-7 also increases IL-2-induced production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 production. IL
T cell dysfunction in the presence of ongoing antigen exposure is a cardinal feature of chronic viral infections with persistent high viremia, including HIV-1. Although interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been implicated as an important mediator of this T cell dysfunction, the regulation of IL-10 production in chronic HIV-1 infection remains poorly understood. We demonstrated that IL-10 is elevated in the plasma of individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection and that blockade of IL-10 signaling results in a restoration of HIV-1-specific CD4 T cell proliferation, gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion, and, to a lesser extent, IL-2 production. Whereas IL-10 blockade leads to restoration of IFN-γ secretion by HIV-1-specific CD4 T cells in all categories of subjects investigated, significant enhancement of IL-2 production and improved proliferation of CD4 T helper cells are restricted to viremic individuals. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this IL-10 is produced primarily by CD14(+) monocytes, but ...
It has been reported that a growing and heterogeneous group of regulatory cell modulate immune response. In particular, regulation of CD8+ T lymphocyte effector functions is critical for tissue homeostasis and immune tolerance control. Here, we report that the co-expression of CD3 and CD56 molecules identify a novel human regulatory T cell population exerting suppressive activity on proliferation, cytotoxicity and IFN- production of TCR-activated human CD8+ T lymphocytes. Regulatory functions of human circulating CD3+CD56+ T lymphocytes require cell-to-cell contact and are exerted in both autologous and allogeneic conditions. Of note, CD3+CD56+ T cells are reduced and functionally impaired in children affected by Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), at disease onset. Conversely the frequency of this cell subset is increased in patients with prostate cancer. Taken together, our findings reveal that freshly isolated human CD3+CD56+ cells specifically control activation of human CD8+ T lymphocytes. ...
We measured the frequency of clonally expanded and persistent T cells recognizing the immunodominant MBPp8599 epitope in subjects with typical relapsing remitting MS. Single T cells expressing mRNA transcripts encoding TCR-α and -β chains found in T cell clones previously isolated from these subjects recognizing the MBPp85-99 epitope were examined. In contrast to frequencies of 1 in 105 to 106 as measured by LDA, estimates of the T cell frequencies expressing TCR chain transcripts associated with MBPp8599 recognition were as high as 1 in 300.. In retrospect, the high frequencies of MBPp85-99-reactive T cells with presumed chronic stimulation is perhaps not surprising. Subjects with HTLV-I and HIV infection have high frequencies of virus reactive T cells as measured ex vivo in peripheral blood using direct cytotoxicity assays (25- 27). In contrast, the LDA analysis of CTL frequencies in HIV-infected patients which requires T cell expansion leads to an 100-fold underestimate of CTL effector ...
Mark, there has been a number of discussions on this list regarding RA/RO... Im not going to rehash those discussions, since I dont want to bore everyone else. Go to the archives and read over the material -- it includes references. But once again, CD45RA+ cells are BOTH naive AND memory. You CANNOT use RA and/or RO to identify naive T cells without an additional marker such as CD62L, CD11a, CD27. As for Double-positive, it depends on how you define positive. Bright (true) RA+RO+ double positives are very rare in peripheral blood but common in active tissues (like tonsil). Cells positive for one and dull for the other are normal resting memory T cells. There are no double-negative cells that are viable. Percentages in the peripheral blood are meaningless for the simple reason that RA+ cells are a heterogeneous mixture of naive & memory. Especially the CD8s, where anywhere between 20 and 80% of RA+ cells can be memory. (In CD4, most (95%) are naive; however, in many disease states ...
The total number of T cells present in the antigen-specific pool at the site of priming is determined by three cell-intrinsic parameters: the proportion of T cells entering into the proliferating pool, their cycle activity, and their survival. In accordance with published data (2), we found that CD28 increased cell cycle entry as well as activity. Early studies also report that CD28 promotes the survival of activated T cells (3). From measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation at different time points after TCR stimulation, it was concluded that this prosurvival effect came into play at a late time point and in fact sustained the proliferative response. However, we demonstrate that CD28−/− T cells die in much higher frequency than wild-type T cells when making the transition from G1 to S for the first time. CD28 strongly promotes cell survival at this point, thus greatly increasing the proportion of cells taking part in further divisions. The prosurvival effect of CD28 has been attributed to ...
Systemic CD4+ T Cell Loss Resulting from Intravaginal HIV-1 Infection in Humanized BLT Mice(A) Comparison of the levels of CD4+ or CD8+ human T cells in the ind
T cells play pivotal roles in shaping host immune responses in infectious diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. The activation of T cells requires immune and growth factor-derived signals. However, alterations in nutrients and metabolic signals tune T cell responses by impinging upon T cell fates and immune functions. In this review, we summarize how key nutrients, including glucose, amino acids and lipids, and their sensors and transporters shape T cell responses. We also briefly discuss regulation of T cell responses by oxygen and energy sensing mechanisms.
A major challenge in the HIV field has been to understand why the strength of virus-specific CD8 T cell responses has no relationship to viral load, and yet CD8 depletion studies indicate that these cells are critical for immune control. And a major challenge in the field of immunology in general has been the rapid translation of advances in murine models to humans. In late 2005, through a telephone conversation with Rafi Ahmed, we became aware of yet unpublished data in the mouse model of chronic infection. His laboratory had shown that in mice persistently infected with LCMV, T cells up-regulate a surface molecule termed PD-1, for programmed death-1, a negative immunoregulatory molecule that turned off CD8 T cell function. The potential parallels with HIV were immediately obvious to us-perhaps persistent exposure to HIV was having a similar impact on CD8 T cell function in humans, and perhaps similar immune regulation was rendering CD4 T cells exhausted as well.. We immediately formed a ...
Several immune cell subtypes were analyzed in HPV16-associated cancers by Chantal Duurland, PhD (Leiden University Medical Center) and colleagues. HPV+ patients have increased survival compared to HPV- patients, thus the role of the immune response to these cancers should be better elucidated. High levels of CD4+CD161+ infiltrating T cells have been found in HPV+ tumors; therefore, the authors used a multi-level approach to understanding the importance of this unique subset of CD4+ T cells in the HPV+ tumor microenvironment. The authors also described a population of CD14-CD33-CD163+ cells, which were identified as dendritic cells (DCs). This subset of DCs was found to associate with strong T cell infiltrates and improved patient survival, similar to CD4+CD161+ T cells. Thus, there was an effort to understand the crosstalk of these two immune subsets in HPV+ disease. Further analyses demonstrated that activated CD163+ DCs generated higher levels of both IL-12 and IL-18 compared to their CD163- ...
CD160 is an Ig-like glycoprotein expressed by the majority of circulating natural killer cells and γδ T cells. Whether CD160 could regulate CD8+
ECIA™ Intracellular cytokine staining assay is utilized to detect the antigen-specific T cell responses, immunogenic analysis, epitope discovery at a single cell level for both clinical studies and scientific researches.
Depending on the receptors on the surface of the macrophage, a T cell can distinguish the hepatitis virus from that of flu, without ever having seen before. T cells that belong to this category are called "naive T cells." Naive T cells are the fresh troops, the virgin field of battle, called to intervene when we get sick we contract a new disease or a new infection. There are even T cells can recognize antigens produced in artificial laboratory that the human body has never encountered in millions of years of evolution. The type of T cell that recognizes the antigen is called the CD4 cell (also called CD4 helper T-cell or lymphocyte), one of the same name situated on its surface called receptors, in fact, CD4 receptor. Although not usually the cells that kill the invader, CD4 cells are the most important of the entire immune system. This is because their main function is to send signals that direct and mobilize other "troops" into battle. We should think of T-helper cells as troop commanders or ...
CD248 (endosialin) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is dynamically expressed on pericytes and fibroblasts during tissue development, tumour neovascularization and inflammation. Its role in tissue remodelling is associated with increased stromal cell proliferation and migration. We show that CD248 is also uniquely expressed by human, but not mouse (C57BL/6), CD8(+) naive T cells. CD248 is found only on CD8(+) CCR7(+) CD11a(low) naive T cells and on CD8 single-positive T cells in the thymus. Transfection of the CD248 negative T-cell line MOLT-4 with CD248 cDNA surprisingly reduced cell proliferation. Knock-down of CD248 on naive CD8 T cells increased cell proliferation. These data demonstrate opposing functions for CD248 on haematopoietic (CD8(+)) versus stromal cells and suggests that CD248 helps to maintain naive CD8(+) human T cells in a quiescent state.
The primary goal of this study was to resolve the uncertainty about whether HESNs make T cell responses to HIV-1. We compared the frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cell responses over time between HESN and HUSN groups in a powered, blind study with independent data analysis. In these donors, no T cell responses were detectable without culture, except, notably, in an HESN participant who was homozygous for CCR5Δ32 and therefore genetically resistant to HIV-1 infection (18, 46). Using the more sensitive cultured ELISpot assay, T cell responses were found in both HESNs and HUSNs. Significant differences were found in the frequencies of T cell responses over time, with HESNs more likely to have positive T cell responses than HUSNs. HESNs more often maintained HIV-1-specific T cell responses across visits than HUSNs. Also, among positive responders, T cell responses were of significantly higher magnitude in HESNs than in HUSNs. Given that the cultured ELISpot assay expands antigen-specific cells ...
BACKGROUND: High levels of ex vivo CD4 T-cell death and the accumulation of highly differentiated and/or immunosenescent T cells have been associated with poor CD4 T-cell recovery in treated HIV-infected individuals. However, the relationship between cell death and T-cell differentiation is still unclear. METHODS: We have analyzed cell death, immunosenescence and differentiation parameters in HAART-treated subjects (VL |50 copies/mL for more than 2 years) with CD4 T-cell count |350 cells/μL (immunodiscordant, n = 23) or |400 cells/μL (immunoconcordant, n = 33). We included 11 healthy individuals as reference. RESULTS: As expected, suboptimal CD4 T-cell recovery was associated with low frequencies of naïve cells, high frequencies of transitional and effector memory cells and a subsequent low ratio of central/transitional memory cells in the CD4 compartment. These alterations correlated with spontaneous CD4 T-cell death. A deeper analysis of cell death in CD4 T-cell subsets showed increased cell death
BACKGROUND: The relative immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins for CD8+ and CD4+ cell responses has not been defined. METHODS: HIV-1-specific T cell responses were evaluated in 65 chronically HIV-1-infected untreated subjects by interferon- gamma flow cytometry with peptides spanning the clade C consensus sequence. RESULTS: The magnitude of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses correlated significantly with CD4+ cell responses, but the percentage of CD8+ T cells directed against HIV-1 (median, 2.76%) was always greater than that of CD4+ cells (median, 0.24%). Although CD8+ T cell responses were equally distributed among Gag, Pol, and the regulatory and accessory proteins, Gag was the dominant target for CD4+ cell responses. There was no consistent relationship between virus-specific CD8+ or CD4+ cell response and viral load. However, the median viral load in subjects in whom Gag was the dominant CD8+ T cell target was significantly lower than that in subjects in whom non
The mechanisms underlying the regulation of immune activation and immune exhaustion of T cells are unclear. Tregs have been investigated in HIV-1-infected subjects with conflicting results. Our data suggest that exhausted T cells are not only associated with hyperactivated T cells but also with reduced numbers of Tregs. When we determined the CD4+CD25bright FoxP3+ Treg population in proportion to CD4+CD25bright FoxP3 negative non-Treg activated CD4 T cells, we noted that the proportions were altered in favor of the non-Treg-activated CD4 T cells in HIV-positive subjects. In this analysis, however, the changes observed in Treg frequency could have simply been a consequence of changes in activated CD4+ T-cell frequency. On the other hand, the percentage of Tregs in the total CD4+ T-cell population of the viremic patients was also significantly lower as compared with aviremic patients and to healthy controls. As activated CD8 T cells were also clearly higher in viremic patients, this provides ...
The peripheral naive T-cell pool is generally thought to consist of a subpopulation of recent thymic emigrants (RTE) and a subpopulation of mature naive (MN) T cells with different dynamics. Thymus transplantation and adoptive transfer studies in mice have provided contradicting results, with some studies suggesting that RTE are relatively short-lived cells, while another study suggested that RTE have a survival advantage. We here estimate the death rates of RTE and MN T cells by performing both thymus transplantations and deuterium labeling experiments in mice of at least 12 weeks old, an age at which the size of the T-cell pool has stabilized. For CD4+ T cells, we found the total loss rate from the RTE compartment (by death and maturation) to be 4-fold faster than that of MN T cells. We estimate the death rate of CD4+ RTE to be 0.046 per day, which is 3-fold faster than the total loss rate from the MN T-cell compartment. For CD8+ T cells, we found no evidence for kinetic differences between RTE and MN
Autoreactive CD8 T cells play a central role in the destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells that leads to type 1 diabetes, yet the key features of this immune-mediated process remain poorly defined. In this study, we combined high-definition polychromatic flow cytometry with ultrasensitive peptide-human leukocyte antigen class I tetramer staining to quantify and characterize β-cell-specific CD8 T cell populations in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes and healthy control subjects. Remarkably, we found that β-cell-specific CD8 T cell frequencies in peripheral blood were similar between subject groups. In contrast to healthy control subjects, however, patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes displayed hallmarks of antigen-driven expansion uniquely within the β-cell-specific CD8 T cell compartment. Molecular analysis of selected β-cell-specific CD8 T cell populations further revealed highly skewed oligoclonal T cell receptor repertoires comprising exclusively private clonotypes. ...
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is an inflammatory cytokine whose role in autoimmune diseases has not been fully elucidated. Th17 cells have been shown to play critical roles in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models. In this study, we demonstrate that blockade of IL-15 signaling by TMβ-1 mAb treatment aggravated EAE severity. The key mechanism was not NK-cell depletion but depletion of CD8+ CD122+ T cells. Adoptive transfer of exogenous CD8+ CD122+ T cells to TMβ-1-treated mice rescued animals from severe disease. Moreover, transfer of pre-activated CD8+CD122+ T cells prevented EAE development and significantly reduced IL-17 secretion. Naïve effector CD4+ CD25- T cells cultured with either CD8+CD122+ T cells from wild-type mice or IL-15 transgenic mice displayed lower frequencies of IL-17A production with lower amounts of IL-17 in the supernatants when compared with production by effector CD4+ CD25- T cells cultured alone. Addition of a neutralizing antibody to IL-10 led to recovery ...
Hyperactivation of T cells, particularly of CD8(+) T cells, is a hallmark of chronic HIV 1 (HIV-1) infection. Little is known about the antigenic specificities and the mechanisms by which HIV-1 causes activation of CD8(+) T cells during chronic infection. We report that CD8(+) T cells were activated during in vivo HIV-1 replication irrespective of their Ag specificity. Cytokines present during untreated HIV-1 infection, most prominently IL-15, triggered proliferation and expression of activation markers in CD8(+) T cells, but not CD4(+) T cells, in the absence of TCR stimulation. Moreover, LPS or HIV-1-activated dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated CD8(+) T cells in an IL-15-dependent but Ag-independent manner, and IL-15 expression was highly increased in DCs isolated from viremic HIV-1 patients, suggesting that CD8(+) T cells are activated by inflammatory cytokines in untreated HIV-1 patients independent of Ag specificity. This finding contrasts with CD4(+) T cells whose in vivo activation seems ...
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) induces differentiation of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, primarily through its ability to prime T cells for high interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production. We now report that the presence of IL-12 during the first several days of in vitro clonal expansion in limiting dilution cultures of polyclonally stimulated human peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells also induces stable priming for high IL-10 production. This effect was demonstrated with T cells from both healthy donors and HIV+ patients. Priming for IL-4 production, which requires IL-4, was maximum in cultures containing both IL-12 and IL-4. IL-4 modestly inhibited the IL-12-induced priming for IFN-gamma, but almost completely suppressed the priming for IL-10 production. A proportion of the clones generated from memory CD45RO+ cells, but not those generated from naive CD45RO- CD4+ T cells, produced some combinations of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-4 even in the absence of IL-12 and IL-4, suggesting in vivo cytokine priming; ...
The function of CD8 cells in the human body is to kill infected target cells, such as HIV infected cells. Recent data suggest that intravenous administration of HIV-specific CD8 cells is safe, augments host immunity, and mediates a dramatic reduction in circulating HIV-infected CD4 cells. However, the observed antiviral effects are transient, and HIV infected CD4 cells re-emerge as the number of self CD8 cells declines. Augmenting CD8 cell response to HIV by immunotherapy with CD8 cells may be a useful addition to drug therapy if the infused CD8 cells can survive long-term in vivo. Administration of interleukin-2 (also known as aldesleukin or IL-2), a naturally occurring cytokine, has been proposed as a way to maintain the number of CD8 cells. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of immunotherapy with HIV-specific CD8 cells in HIV infected patients. Additionally, this study will determine if aldesleukin injections improve the persistence of self CD8 transplants and the duration of ...
The function of CD8 cells in the human body is to kill infected target cells, such as HIV infected cells. Recent data suggest that intravenous administration of HIV-specific CD8 cells is safe, augments host immunity, and mediates a dramatic reduction in circulating HIV-infected CD4 cells. However, the observed antiviral effects are transient, and HIV infected CD4 cells re-emerge as the number of self CD8 cells declines. Augmenting CD8 cell response to HIV by immunotherapy with CD8 cells may be a useful addition to drug therapy if the infused CD8 cells can survive long-term in vivo. Administration of interleukin-2 (also known as aldesleukin or IL-2), a naturally occurring cytokine, has been proposed as a way to maintain the number of CD8 cells. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of immunotherapy with HIV-specific CD8 cells in HIV infected patients. Additionally, this study will determine if aldesleukin injections improve the persistence of self CD8 transplants and the duration of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Counter-regulation of regulatory T cells by autoreactive CD8 + T cells in rheumatoid arthritis. AU - Cammarata, Ilenia. AU - Martire, Carmela. AU - Citro, Alessandra. AU - Raimondo, Domenico. AU - Fruci, Doriana. AU - Melaiu, Ombretta. AU - DOria, Valentina. AU - Carone, Chiara. AU - Peruzzi, Giovanna. AU - Cerboni, Cristina. AU - Santoni, Angela. AU - Sidney, John. AU - Sette, Alessandro. AU - Paroli, Marino. AU - Caccavale, Rosalba. AU - Milanetti, Edoardo. AU - Riminucci, Mara. AU - Timperi, Eleonora. AU - Piconese, Silvia. AU - Manzo, Antonio. AU - Montecucco, Carlomaurizio. AU - Scrivo, Rossana. AU - Valesini, Guido. AU - Cariani, Elisabetta. AU - Barnaba, Vincenzo. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - The mechanisms whereby autoreactive T cells escape peripheral tolerance establishing thus autoimmune diseases in humans remain an unresolved question. Here, we demonstrate that autoreactive polyfunctional CD8 + T cells recognizing self-antigens (i.e., vimentin, actin ...
CD8hiCD57+ T cells have previously been described as effector memory T cells with minimal expansion capacity and high susceptibility to activation-induced cell death. In contrast, we demonstrate here that CD8hiCD57+ T cells are capable of rapid expansion using multiple techniques including [3H]thymidine uptake, flow cytometric bead-based enumeration and standard haemocytometer counting. Previous reports can be explained by marked inhibition of activation-induced expansion and increased 7-amino-actinomycin D uptake by CD8hiCD57+ T cells following treatment with CFSE, a dye previously used to measure their proliferation, combined with specific media requirements for the growth of this cell subset. The ability of CD8hiCD57+ T cells to further differentiate is highlighted by a distinct cytokine profile late after activation that includes the unexpected release of high levels of interleukin 5. These data indicate that CD8hiCD57+ T cells should not be considered as "end-stage" effector T cells ...

The occurrence of massive CD4+ T cell depletion is one of the most prominent characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection during acute phase, resulting in unrestorable destruction to the immune system. The infected host undergoes an asymptomatic period lasting several years with low viral load and ostensibly healthy status, which is presumably due to virus-specific adaptive immune responses. In the absence of therapy, an overwhelming majority of cases develop to AIDS within 8-10 years of latent infection. In this review, we discuss the roles in AIDS pathogenesis played by massive CD4+ T lymphocytes depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) during acute infection and abnormal immune activation emerging in the later part of chronic phase.

In the absence of foreign antigen, peripheral naive T cells continuously recirculate between different lymphoid organs, in which they interact frequently and shortly with self. We and others have shown that such interactions are required for the long-term survival of naïve T cells. In addition, these TCR/MHC interactions and the resulting associated signaling increase quantitatively T-cell responsiveness towards foreign antigens and influence their function and/or differentiation into effector or memory cells in response to stimulation. Our project is based on our recent data showing that peripheral ab and gd T cells can be subdivided into various subsets according to Ly-6C expression. Interestingly, in CD4 ab T cells, Ly-6C expression inversely correlates with the ability of these cells to interact with self, defining Ly-6C as a new sensor of T cell self-reactivity. In parallel, we are exploring the regulation of T-cell self-reactivity in the context of cancer. Indeed, T cells specific for ...
Multiple viral and host factors determine the variability in HIV-1 disease progression [17, 23-26]. Cellular tropism and receptor/co-receptor usage for viral entry are major factors influencing HIV pathogenesis. Despite extensive research, the exact mechanism of how those factors contribute to the gradual loss of CD4 T cells is still enigmatic. Bystander CD4 T cell death plays a major contribution towards AIDS progression. A recent report has revealed a mechanism for HIV-induced CD4 T cell depletion, which involves abortive non-productive HIV infection in resting CD4 T cells, followed by IFI16 activation and caspase-1 dependent pyroptosis [27-29]. Besides the abortive RT products in non-productively infected resting cells, several HIV-1 proteins have also been reported to contribute to the depletion of bystander (uninfected and non-productively infected) CD4 T cells, including the Env [4, 5, 17, 19], Vpr [30], Nef [31, 32] and Tat [33]. The Env protein is of specific interest in mediating AIDS ...
T cell responses play an important role in the outcome of HBV and HCV infection, e.g. viral elimination versus persistence. However, multiple mechanisms can lead to the failure of the virus-specific T cell response. These mechanisms include primary T cell failure, T cell exhaustion, the emergence of viral escape mutants, as well as T cell dysfunction. Furthermore, genetic factors such as the individual HLA allele background play an important role in the outcome of infection. Once viral persistence has been established, HBV or HCV infection can progress to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis with an enhanced risk for HCC. Tumor-specific T cells (e.g. AFP-specific T cells) are thought to contribute to cancer control.. The focus of our group is the identification and characterization of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during acute and chronic HBV and HCV infection with a special focus on intrahepatic T cell responses as well as the mechanisms of viral persistence (e.g., viral escape, T cell ...
In the present study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which CD8+ T cells contribute to atherogenesis through modulation of medullar monopoiesis and circulating Ly6Chi monocyte levels, thereby indirectly controlling macrophage accumulation within lesions.. Previous studies addressing the role of CD8+ T cells in atherogenesis have mostly used genetically engineered mouse models of CD8+ T-cell deficiency with contradictory results,17,18 which may be because of compensatory mechanisms in these mice. We circumvented this hurdle by treating Ldlr−/− mice with an anti-CD8α monoclonal antibody, which efficiently depleted CD8+ T cells while not altering DCs levels, including CD8α+ DCs, and functionality of splenic CD11c+ DCs, as well as leaving CD4+ T cell numbers, activation and polarization untouched, thus confirming the specificity of our depletion strategy.. CD8+ T-cell depletion with the anti-CD8α antibody entailed a significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic ...
The human brain is an important site of HIV replication and persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Direct evaluation of HIV infection in the brains of otherwise healthy individuals is not feasible; therefore, we performed a large-scale study of bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice as an in vivo model to study HIV infection in the brain. Human immune cells, including CD4+ T cells and macrophages, were present throughout the BLT mouse brain. HIV DNA, HIV RNA, and/or p24+ cells were observed in the brains of HIV-infected animals, regardless of the HIV isolate used. HIV infection resulted in decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells, increased numbers of CD8+ T cells, and a decreased CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in the brain. Using humanized T cell-only mice (ToM), we demonstrated that T cells establish and maintain HIV infection of the brain in the complete absence of human myeloid cells. HIV infection of ToM resulted in CD4+ T cell depletion and a reduced CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio. ART ...
The human brain is an important site of HIV replication and persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Direct evaluation of HIV infection in the brains of otherwise healthy individuals is not feasible; therefore, we performed a large-scale study of bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice as an in vivo model to study HIV infection in the brain. Human immune cells, including CD4+ T cells and macrophages, were present throughout the BLT mouse brain. HIV DNA, HIV RNA, and/or p24+ cells were observed in the brains of HIV-infected animals, regardless of the HIV isolate used. HIV infection resulted in decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells, increased numbers of CD8+ T cells, and a decreased CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in the brain. Using humanized T cell-only mice (ToM), we demonstrated that T cells establish and maintain HIV infection of the brain in the complete absence of human myeloid cells. HIV infection of ToM resulted in CD4+ T cell depletion and a reduced CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio. ART ...
T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases are characterized by the expansion of T cell clones that recognize immunodominant epitopes on the target antigen. As a consequence, for a given autoimmune disorder, pathogenic T cell clones express T cell receptor
Type 1 diabetes is associated with T\cell responses to \cell antigens such as GAD65. a potentially autoreactive repertoire. Without depleting CD25+ cells, GAD113C132 and GAD265C284 responses were significantly stronger in subjects with diabetes. Although nearly every individual responded to at least one GAD65 epitope, most were seen in less than half of the subjects tested, suggesting that multiple epitopes are recommended for TSPAN9 immune monitoring. biotinylation, class II monomers were loaded with either peptide pools or individual peptides by incubating for 48?hr at 37 with 25\fold molar excess of peptide (total) in phosphate buffer, pH 60 in the presence of 02% culture growth using CD25 microbeads (Miltenyi Biotec) as previously described to remove regulatory T cells and increase the magnitude of responses.19 In a second set of experiments, responses were evaluated without removing CD25+ cells. CD4+ T cells (or CD4+?CD25 T cells) were seeded in 48\well plates at 25??106?cells/well in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - IL-15 regulates susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to HIV infection. AU - Manganaro, Lara. AU - Hong, Patrick. AU - Hernandez, Matthew M.. AU - Argyle, Dionne. AU - Mulder, Lubbertus C.F.. AU - Potla, Uma. AU - Diaz-Griffero, Felipe. AU - Lee, Benhur. AU - Fernandez-Sesma, Ana. AU - Simon, Viviana. PY - 2018/10/9. Y1 - 2018/10/9. N2 - HIV integrates into the host genome to create a persistent viral reservoir. Stimulation of CD4+ memory T lymphocytes with common γc-chain cytokines renders these cells more susceptible to HIV infection, making them a key component of the reservoir itself. IL-15 is up-regulated during primary HIV infection, a time when the HIV reservoir established. Therefore, we investigated the molecular and cellular impact of IL-15 on CD4+ T-cell infection. We found that IL-15 stimulation induces SAM domain and HD domaincontaining protein 1 (SAMHD1) phosphorylation due to cell cycle entry, relieving an early block to infection. Perturbation of the pathways downstream ...
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes. Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases. During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of ...
Blockade of IL-10 signalling clears chronic viral and bacterial infections. Immunization together with blockade of IL-10 signalling or relatively low level of IL-10 further enhances viral and bacterial clearance. IL-10 functions through binding to interleukin 10 receptor (IL- 10R). Here we showed that peptides P1 and P2 with the hydrophobic and hydrophilic pattern of the IL10R-binding helix in IL-10 could bind with either IL-10R1 or IL-10, and inhibit inflammatory signals with long duration and negligible cytotoxicity in vitro. Furthermore, P2 can enhance antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice induced by the vaccine based on a long peptide of protein E7 in a human papillomavirus type 16; ;
Purpose: NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a tumor specific antigen of the Cancer/Testis group, is presently viewed as an important model antigen for the development of generic anti-cancer vaccines. The ESO119-143 region is immunodominant following immunization with a recombinant ESO vaccine. In this study, we have generate DRB1*0101/ESO119-143 tetramers and used them to assess CD4 T cell responses in vaccinated patients expressing DR1. Experimental design: We generated tetramers of DRB1*0101 incorporating peptide ESO119-143 using a previously described strategy. We assessed ESO119-143 specific CD4 T cells in peptide-stimulated post-vaccine cultures using the tetramers. We isolated DR1/ESO119-143 tetramer+ cells by cell sorting and characterized them functionally. We assessed vaccine-induced CD4+ DR1/ESO119-143 tetramer+ T cells ex vivo and characterized them phenotypically. Results: Staining of cultures from vaccinated patients with DR1/ESO119-143 tetramers identified vaccine-induced CD4 T cells. Tetramer+ cells ...
HIV also specifically infects a certain class of immune cells known as CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells are called this due to the presence of a cell surface receptor called CD4. These cells can differentiate into all different subtypes of CD4+ T cells called T helper cells, or Th cells, whose name describes their function: they "help" other immune cells mount responses to pathogens. CD4+ T cells and all of their progeny are crucial for providing immunity to all sorts of infections, pathogens, and the like. HIV comes into play and infects the CD4+ T cells. It creates a chain reaction, infecting, spreading, and slowly killing all the CD4+ T cells in the body. In simple terms: HIV is slowly knocking out an entire branch of the immune system. Any further immune function that would need a CD4+ cell to work wont be able to work once the CD4+ T cells are gone. Figure 2 lays this out in a graph showing CD4+ T cells in blue, viral RNA copies in read, and time in weeks on the x-axis. It is possible to see ...
Two nice reviews by Jinfang Zhu and Bill Paul that, once again, highlight the fantastic plasticity of the CD4 T cell differentiation.. The first review is a general. summary on the various subsets of effector CD4 T cells while the second is focussed on the. development and maintenance of Th2 CD4 T cells ...
Takeru Yoshimura, Atsunobu Takeda, Shinjiro Hamano, Yoshiyuki Miyazaki, Ichiko Kinjyo, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Akihiko Yoshimura, Hiroki Yoshida
from Jules: As I said before I went to the microphone and mentioned we just spent 7 yrs and $30 millions dollars to evaluate IL-2 to find no clinical benefit and perhaps toxicities so how will they proceed. In response Levy and a representative from the company said they plan to design a study using different parameters, outcomes - that is shorter-term outcomes, and that IL-7 is different than IL-2. Well see what the FDA says ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Nabila Seddiki, Laura Cook, Denise C Hsu, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Kai Brown, Yin Xu, Stephen J Kerr, David A Cooper, C Mee Ling Munier, Sarah Pett, Jintanat Ananworanich, John Zaunders, Anthony D Kelleher].
Transcription is a dynamic process influenced by the cellular environment: healthy, transformed, and otherwise. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles reflect the collective impact of pathways modulating cell function under different conditions. In this review we focus on the transcriptional pathways that control tumor infiltrating CD8+ T cell (TIL) function. Simultaneous restraint of overlapping inhibitory pathways may confer TIL resistance to multiple mechanisms of suppression traditionally referred to as exhaustion, tolerance, or anergy. Although decades of work have laid a solid foundation of altered transcriptional networks underlying various subsets of hypofunctional or
This gene encodes a subunit of the heterodimeric cytokine interleukin 23 (IL23). IL23 is composed of this protein and the p40 subunit of interleukin 12 (IL12B). The receptor of IL23 is formed by the beta 1 subunit of IL12 (IL12RB1) and an IL23 specific subunit, IL23R. Both IL23 and IL12 can activate the transcription activator STAT4, and stimulate the production of interferon-gamma (IFNG). In contrast to IL12, which acts mainly on naive CD4(+) T cells, IL23 preferentially acts on memory CD4(+) T cells ...
In this R01 renewal application, we propose to continue our work examining the role of T cell function in the control of acute and chronic HIV infection, for th...
Das等比较了2型T辅助细胞(Th2),自然杀伤T细胞(NKT)和CD8+T细胞对变应性气道炎症的作用。经基因敲除的转基因小鼠不具备CD4+T细胞,使用这种小鼠制作卵清蛋白致敏模型并给予卵清蛋白进行激发,结果显示小鼠肺中未发现嗜酸性粒细胞浸润和粘液增多。但是,与野生型小鼠相比,NKT和CD8+T细胞缺失的转基因小鼠仍可经卵清蛋白诱导产生变应性气道炎症。因此,文章作者认为:NKT ...
0065]Following incubation of the APCs with effector T lymphocytes obtained from a mammal immunized against the pathogen, the inventive method comprises screening for an immune response from the effector T lymphocytes. The immune response can be any suitable effector T lymphocyte immune response known in the art, including, but not limited to, cytokine secretion, effector T cell cytotoxicity, and immune activation of effector T cells. Preferably, the inventive method comprises screening for secretion by the effector T lymphocytes. In this regard, cytokine secretion from an effector T lymphocyte contacting an APC indicates that the effector T lymphocyte recognizes the antigen produced and displayed by the APC. Furthermore, it is well known in the art that effector T lymphocytes, such as effector helper T effector lymphocytes, secrete cytokines upon antigen recognition which promote different activities. In this regard, inflammatory or Th1 CD4 T cells produce interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon gamma ...
The ligands and inhibitory receptors that regulate T cell effector functions are mostly overexpressed on tumor-infiltrating immune cells or on tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, targeting these ligands and receptors is relatively specific to tumors compared to normal tissues. It is within these tumor microenvironments that immune effector cells acquire inhibitory receptors, resulting in T cell dysfunction. Soluble molecules include cytokines with immunosuppressive activity, such as IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and IL-27, which regulate immune responses to tumor cells and induce T cell dysfunction within the tumor microenvironment [99-102]. The IL-10 pathway has been intensively studied for its role in T cell dysfunction in chronic viral infections and cancer [99, 100]. IL‑10 promotes T cell exhaustion, and IL‑10 blockade reverses T cell dysfunction during chronic viral infections [99]. Co-blockade of both IL-10 and the PD1 reverses CD8+ T cell exhaustion and ...
Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are characterised by persistently activated CD4 T cells which circulate from the synovial tissues into the lymph nodes where they encounter multiple contacts with bystander cells including resting CD4 T cells. The authors have recently shown that activated T cells induce the proliferation and production of cytokines with immunoregulatory potential from resting CD4 T cells by homotypic T cell interaction. Since the compromised function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) results in the development of autoimmune diseases, the authors investigated the function of these T cells resulting from the interaction of activated T cells and resting CD4 T cells and the mechanism mediating this novel cellular interaction. Resting CD4 T cells were co-cultured with fixed activated T cells and analysed for their phenotype, cytokine secretion profile and immunoregulatory capacity.. T cells induced upon homotypic T cell interaction expressed CD25, reduced levels of CD127, ...
T cell exhaustion is a major factor in failed pathogen clearance during chronic viral infections. Immunoregulatory pathways, such as PD-1 and IL-10, are upregulated upon this ongoing antigen exposure and contribute to loss of proliferation, reduced cytolytic function, and impaired cytokine production by CD4 and CD8 T cells. In the murine model of LCMV infection, administration of blocking antibodies against these two pathways augmented T cell responses. However, there is currently no in vitro assay to measure the impact of such blockade on cytokine secretion in cells from human samples. Our protocol and experimental approach enable us to accurately and efficiently quantify the restoration of cytokine production by HIV-specific CD4 T cells from HIV infected subjects. Here, we depict an in vitro experimental design that enables measurements of cytokine secretion by HIV-specific CD4 T cells and their impact on other cell subsets. CD8 T cells were depleted from whole blood and remaining PBMCs were ...
It is generally accepted that activated memory CD4+ T cells are the predominant targets for HIV infection (5, 12). However, it remains unclear what other sources of infected cells exist, what factors lead to their infection, and to what extent these cells contribute to the total pool of infected cells. Understanding which T-cell subsets contain HIV in vivo could establish a mechanistic framework to explain the loss of CD4+ T cells and the inability of the HIV-specific immune response to control HIV replication. Here, we examined in vivo HIV infection of multiple highly purified and stringently defined T-cell subsets by quantifying viral DNA without further in vitro manipulations. The major findings to emerge from these studies are that central memory CD4+ T cells contain the highest frequency of viral DNA; terminally differentiated effector memory CD57+ CD4+ T cells contain, on average, 10 times fewer copies of viral DNA than central memory CD4+ T cells; memory CD8+ T cells rarely contain viral ...
Understanding the lineage differentiation of memory T cells is a central question in immunology. We investigated this issue by analysing the expression of the chemokine receptor CCR7, which defines distinct subsets of naive and memory T lymphocytes with different homing and effector capacities and antiviral immune responses to HIV and cytomegalovirus. Ex vivo analysis of the expression of CD45RA and CCR7 antigens, together with in vitro analysis of the cell-division capacity of different memory CD8+ T-cell populations, identified four subsets of HIV- and CMV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, and indicated the following lineage differentiation pattern: CD45RA+ CCR7+ --| CD45RA- CCR7+ --| CD45RA- CCR7- --| CD45RA+ CCR7-. Here we demonstrate through analysis of cell division (predominantly restricted to the CCR7+ CD8+ T-cell subsets) that the differentiation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells is a two-step process characterized initially by a phase of proliferation largely restricted to the CCR7+ CD8+ cell
Despite strong evidence supporting a pathway of human T cell differentiation characterized by changes in the expression of CCR7, CD28, CD27 and CD62L, few studies have addressed the mechanisms of pathway regulation. Cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA)-positive skin-homing CD8(+) T cells expressed significantly elevated levels of activation markers compared with CLA(-) CD8(+) T cells in individuals (n = 27) with cutaneous atopic disease. Despite such an activated phenotype, CLA(+) T cells expressed significantly higher levels of CCR7 than a CLA(-) T cell subset. Interleukin (IL)-4 was found to dramatically promote CCR7 expression by antigen-specific CD8(+) cells. Furthermore, skin-homing CD8(+) T cells from individuals with severe disease produced significantly less IL-10 than those derived from mildly affected atopic subjects. Thus in a T-helper 2 dominated disease, tissue-specific CD8(+) T cells show altered CCR7 expression and cytokine production, which may contribute to continued lymph node
Although adoptive immunotherapy with CD8+ CTL is providing clinically relevant results against EBV-driven malignancies, the effector role of CD4+ T cells has been poorly investigated. We addressed this issue in a lymphoblastoid cell line-induced mouse model of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) by comparing the therapeutic efficacy of EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines upon adoptive transfer. CD4+ T cells disclosed a long-lasting and stronger proliferative potential than CD8+ T cells, had a similar activation and differentiation marker profile, efficiently killed their targets in a MHC class II-restricted manner, and displayed a lytic machinery comparable to that of cognate CD8+ T cells. A detailed analysis of Ag specificity revealed that CD4+ T cells potentially target EBV early lytic cycle proteins. Nonetheless, when assessed for the relative therapeutic impact after in vivo transfer, CD4+ T cells showed a reduced activity compared with the CD8+ CTL counterpart. This ...
Looking for online definition of Cd8-positive t-lymphocytes in the Medical Dictionary? Cd8-positive t-lymphocytes explanation free. What is Cd8-positive t-lymphocytes? Meaning of Cd8-positive t-lymphocytes medical term. What does Cd8-positive t-lymphocytes mean?
Polyfunctional CD4 or CD8 T cells are proposed to represent a correlate of immune control for persistent viruses as well as for vaccine mediated protection against infection. A well-suited methodology to study complex functional phenotypes of antiviral T cells is the combined staining of intracellular cytokines and phenotypic marker expression using polychromatic flow cytometry. In this study we analyzed the effect of an overnight resting period at 37°C on the quantity and functionality of HIV-1, EBV, CMV, HBV and HCV specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in a cohort of 21 individuals. We quantified total antigen specific T cells by multimer staining and used 10-color intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) to determine IFNγ, TNFα, IL2 and MIP1β production. After an overnight resting significantly higher numbers of functionally active T cells were detectable by ICS for all tested antigen specificities, whereas the total number of antigen specific T cells determined by multimer staining remained
The immune system relies on homeostatic mechanisms in order to adapt to the changing requirements encountered during steady-state existence and activation by antigen. For T cells, this involves maintenance of a diverse repertoire of naive cells, rapid elimination of effector cells after pathogen clearance, and long-term survival of memory cells. The reduction of T-cell counts by either cytotoxic drugs, irradiation, or certain viruses is known to lead to lymphopenia-induced proliferation and restoration of normal T-cell levels. Such expansion is governed by the interaction of TCR with self-peptide/MHC (p/MHC) molecules plus contact with cytokines, especially IL-7. These same ligands, i.e. p/MHC molecules and IL-7, maintain naive T lymphocytes as resting cells under steady-state T-cell-sufficient conditions. Unlike naive cells, typical
Immune aging may underlie various aging-related disorders, including diminished resistance to infection, chronic inflammatory disorders, and autoimmunity. PD-1+ and CD153+ CD44high CD4+ T cells with features of cellular senescence, termed senescence-associated T (SA-T) cells, increasingly accumulate with age and may play a role in the immune aging phenotype. In this article, we demonstrate that, compared with young mice, the aged mouse environment is highly permissive for spontaneous proliferation of transferred naive CD4+ T cells, and it drives their transition to PD-1+ and CD153+ CD44high CD4+ T cells after extensive cell divisions. CD4+ T cells with essentially the same features as SA-T cells in aged mice are also generated from naive CD4+ T cells after extensive cell divisions under severe T-lymphopenic conditions by gamma irradiation or in developmental T cell defect, often in association with spontaneous germinal centers, as seen in aged mice. The increase in SA-T cells is significantly enhanced
Although many studies have examined the kinetics of the CD4 T-cell responses at the population level during Mtb infection, the phenotypic heterogeneity of the CD4 T-cell population had not been investigated in depth. Our studies have focused on two phenotypic markers commonly associated with exhaustion or terminal differentiation in peripheral T cells, PD-1 and KLRG1. We have shown that effector CD4 T cells identified by these markers do not exhibit characteristics of exhausted T cells. Both PD-1- and KLRG1-expressing cells proliferated during infection and produced cytokines, although the two subsets exhibited differing capacities for these functions. Instead, PD-1 and KLRG1 expression define functionally distinct subsets of effector CD4 T cells. PD-1 expression identifies activated effector cells that exhibit a higher proliferative capacity than the KLRG1-expressing cells, but a lower capacity for cytokine production. In contrast, KLRG1-expressing T cells produce cytokines with a higher ...
Whether memory T lymphocytes are derived directly from effector T cells or via a separately controlled pathway has long been debated. Here we present evidence that, after adoptive transfer, a large fraction of in vitro-derived effector CD4+ T cells have the potential to become memory T cells and that this transition can occur without further division. This data supports a linear pathway from effector to memory cells and suggests that most properties of memory cells are predetermined during effector generation. We suggest, therefore, that evaluation of vaccine efficacy in the induction of memory CD4+ T cells should focus on the effector stage.
In type 1 diabetes, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells with specificity for β cell autoantigens are found in the pancreatic islets, where they are implicated in the destruction of insulin-secreting β cells. In contrast, the disease relevance of β cell-reactive CD8+ T cells that are detectable in the circulation, and their relationship to β cell function, are not known. Here, we tracked multiple, circulating β cell-reactive CD8+ T cell subsets and measured β cell function longitudinally for 2 years, starting immediately after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. We found that change in β cell-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 was positively correlated with C-peptide change in subjects below 12 years of age. Autoreactive CD57+ effector memory CD8+ T cells bore the signature of enhanced effector function (higher expression of granzyme B, killer-specific protein of 37 kDa, and CD16, and reduced expression of CD28) compared with their CD57- counterparts, and network association modeling ...
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKCθ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve CD8 T cells, and sustaining memory CD8+ T cells in the aftermath of an acute infection. Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells.[34][35][36] The ...
The migration of effector or memory T cells to the graft is a critical event in the rejection of transplanted organs. The prevailing view is that the key steps involved in T cell migration - integrin-mediated firm adhesion followed by transendothelial migration - are dependent on the activation of Gαi-coupled chemokine receptors on T cells. In contrast to this view, we demonstrated in vivo that cognate antigen was necessary for the firm adhesion and transendothelial migration of CD8+ effector T cells specific to graft antigens and that both steps occurred independent of Gαi signaling. Presentation of cognate antigen by either graft endothelial cells or bone marrow-derived APCs that extend into the capillary lumen was sufficient for T cell migration. The adhesion and transmigration of antigen-nonspecific (bystander) effector T cells, on the other hand, remained dependent on Gαi, but required the presence of antigen-specific effector T cells. These findings underscore the primary role of ...
Studies using the 4.1 TCR transgenic system found thymic or peripheral deletion as well as anergy and ignorance do not contribute to CD4 T-cell tolerance induction in NOR mice (13). Similarly, we found the frequency and proliferative capacity of BDC2.5-like CD4 T-cells was comparable in NOD and NOR mice. The fact that NOR CD4 T-cells induced type 1 diabetes in some NOD.CD4null recipients revealed the retention of at least minimal pathogenic activity. On the other hand, NOR T-cells are more susceptible than those from NOD mice to activation-induced cell death (AICD) (34). Therefore, abortive activation followed by AICD may limit the effector function of NOR diabetogenic CD4 T-cells. Another nonmutually exclusive possibility is that diabetogenic CD4 T-cells are more efficiently suppressed in NOR than NOD mice. However, we found no difference in the frequency or in vitro suppressive function between NOD and NOR Tregs. These results suggested that Treg function and the sensitivity of effector ...
T helper cells (also known as effector T cells or Th cells) are a sub-group of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell or leukocyte) that play an important role in establishing and maximizing the capabilities of the immune system. .   they have no cytotoxic or phagocytic activity; they cannot kill infected host (also known as somatic) cells or pathogens, Th cells are involved in activating and directing other immune cells, and are particularly important in the immune system .  Mature Th cells are believed to always express the surface protein CD4. T cells expressing CD4 are also known as CD4+ T cells. .  Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, or CTLs) destroy virally infected cells and tumor cells, and are also implicated in transplant rejection. These cells are also known as CD8+ T cells (associated with MHC class I), since they express the CD8 glycoprotein at their surface. Through SLOB[ clarification needed] interaction with T regulatory CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells, these cells can be ...
BackgroundCD8+ T cells impact control of viral infections by direct elimination of infected cells and secretion of a number of soluble factors. In HIV-1 infection, persistent HIV-1 specific IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cell responses are detected in the setting of disease progression, consistent with functional impairment in vivo. Recent data suggest that impaired maturation, as defined by the lineage markers CD45RA and CCR7, may contribute to a lack of immune control by these responses.Methodology/Principal FindingsWe investigated the maturation phenotype of epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses directed against HIV-1 in 42 chronically infected, untreated individuals, 22 of whom were
CD4 and CD8 T cells are constantly exposed to inflammatory signals that influence diverse functional outcomes during infections and certain autoimmune disorders. One of the signals controlling CD4 and CD8 T cell functions is the inflammatory cytokine IL-12. Previous studies have focused on how IL-12 regulates CD4 and CD8 T cell functions when present during or after the activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). However, based on murine studies, we have only recently begun to appreciate that exposure to inflammatory signals, driven in part by IL-12, could alter how CD4 and CD8 T cells respond to TCR stimulation. Although intriguing, these studies have left several questions unanswered. Does IL-12 similarly regulate the function of human T cells? If so, what is the exact molecular mechanism by which IL-12 mediates these effects? To address these critical questions, we examined how IL-12 pretreatment altered human CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to subsequent TCR stimulation. In CHAPTER III, we examined how
Liberal R, Grant CR, Holder BS, Ma Y, Mieli-Vergani G, Vergani D, Longhi MSet al., 2012, The impaired immune regulation of autoimmune hepatitis is linked to a defective galectin-9/tim-3 pathway., Hepatology, Vol: 56, Pages: 677-686 UNLABELLED: In autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), liver-damaging CD4 T cell responses are associated with defective CD4(pos) CD25(pos) regulatory T cells (T-regs). Galectin-9 (Gal9), a β-galactosidase-binding protein expressed by T-regs, is key to their function, inhibiting T helper 1 immune responses by binding T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) on CD4 effector cells. We investigated whether impaired immunoregulation in AIH results from reduced expression of Gal9 in T-regs and/or Tim-3 on CD4 effector cells. Circulating Gal9(pos) CD4(pos) CD25(pos) and Tim-3(pos) CD4(pos) CD25(neg) T cell phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry in 75 AIH patients. To evaluate whether Tim-3 expression renders CD4(pos) CD25(neg) T cells amenable to T-reg control, purified ...
Io of 10:1 induced a population of CD4hiCD25+ regulatory T cells . The CD4hiCD25+ T cells were alloantigen specific CD45RO+CCR72CD62L+ memory T cells and
039 and p=0.006, Erlotinib respectively). At week 12, the TB IRIS group trended toward greater HLADR+ CD38+ CD8+ T cell counts than the Other IRIS group (p=0.072), and exhibited significantly greater counts than the No IRIS group (p=0.007) (Figure 3C). In contrast, CD8+ T cells expressing only HLADR were increased by HAART in both their relative frequency (Figure 3A) and absolute counts (Figure 3D). Figure 3 Frequencies and absolute counts of activated CD8 T cell subsets. A) Frequencies of activated CD8 T cell subsets according to CD38 and HLADR expression during follow up. The numbers in each quadrant correspond to the mean of all patients�� percentage … Figure 4 Expansion of activated naive CD8 T cells during TB IRIS.. Zebra plots of CD8+ T cell maturation subpopulations according to CCR7 and CD45RA expression (see Methods) in a week 8 sample from a TB IRIS patient (A), and of week 8 sample from an Other IRIS … No differences between groups in the absolute counts of CD38+ HLADR- or ...
In the present study, we re-established an experimental system for cellular and molecular studies on the induced resistance to HIV-1 infection in CD4 + T cells as first reported by Levine et al. [27]. This cellular system includes two methods most commonly used to activate and expand CD4 + T cells in vitro. Incubation with PHA/IL-2 induces proliferating CD4 + T cells which are highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection and highly permissive for the subsequent viral replication, whereas co-stimulation with CD3/CD28 reverses the intrinsic susceptibility in these cells and renders them with resistance to HIV-1 infection and un-permissiveness for viral replication. Thus, these two extremely polarized statuses of activated CD4 + T cells, with the un-stimulated resting cells (susceptible to the infection but not permissive for the rapid viral replication) as control in the middle of the "spectrum of permissiveness", constitute a highly insightful system in the search for host factors responsible for HIV-1 ...
Adoptive transfer of T cell receptor-engineered (TCR-engineered) T cells is a promising approach in cancer therapy but needs improvement for more effective treatment of solid tumors. While most clinical approaches have focused on CD8+ T cells, the importance of CD4+ T cells in mediating tumor regression has become apparent. Regarding shared (self) tumor antigens, it is unclear whether the human CD4+ T cell repertoire has been shaped by tolerance mechanisms and lacks highly functional TCRs suitable for therapy. Here, TCRs against the tumor-associated antigen NY-ESO-1 were isolated either from human CD4+ T cells or from mice that express a diverse human TCR repertoire with HLA-DRA/DRB1*0401 restriction and are NY-ESO-1 negative. NY-ESO-1-reactive TCRs from the mice showed superior recognition of tumor cells and higher functional activity compared with TCRs from humans. We identified a candidate TCR, TCR-3598_2, which was expressed in CD4+ T cells and caused tumor regression in combination with ...
Flow cytometry was used to assess peripheral blood mononuclear cells for IL-7-induced proliferation, CD25 expression, and signaling (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation and Akt phosphorylation) in CD4 T cells. Freshly isolated cells were characterized by expression of IL-7Rα (CD127) among CD4 T-cell maturation subsets by flow cytometry and sorted CD3 T cells were assessed for expression of IFN-α and interferon stimulated genes (2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase-1 and myxovirus resistance A protein) by quantitative real-time PCR. Responses to IFN-α were assessed by induction of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 phosphorylation and inhibition of IL-7-induced CD4 T-cell proliferation.. RESULTS ...
Purpose: NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a tumor-specific antigen of the cancer/testis group, is presently viewed as an important model antigen for the development of generic anticancer vaccines. The ESO119-143 region is immunodominant following immunization with a recombinant ESO vaccine. In this study, we generated DRB1*0101/ESO119-143 tetramers and used them to assess CD4 T-cell responses in vaccinated patients expressing DRB1*0101 (DR1).. Experimental Design: We generated tetramers of DRB1*0101 incorporating peptide ESO119-143 using a previously described strategy. We assessed ESO119-143-specific CD4 T cells in peptide-stimulated postvaccine cultures using the tetramers. We isolated DR1/ESO119-143 tetramer+ cells by cell sorting and characterized them functionally. We assessed vaccine-induced CD4+ DR1/ESO119-143 tetramer+ T cells ex vivo and characterized them phenotypically.. Results: Staining of cultures from vaccinated patients with DR1/ESO119-143 tetramers identified vaccine-induced CD4 T cells. ...
Type 1 diabetes development in the NOD mouse model is widely reported to be dependent on high-level production by autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells of IFNγ, generally considered a pro-inflammatory cytokine. However, IFNγ can also participate in tolerance induction pathways, indicating it is not solely pro-inflammatory. This study addresses how IFNγ can suppress activation of diabetogenic CD8+ T-cells. CD8+ T-cells transgenically expressing the diabetogenic AI4 T-cell receptor (TCR) adoptively transferred disease to otherwise unmanipulated NOD.IFNγnull, but not standard NOD mice. AI4 T-cells only underwent vigorous intra-splenic proliferation in NOD.IFNγnull recipients. Disease protective IFNγ could be derived from any lymphocyte source and suppressed diabetogenic CD8+ T-cell responses both directly and through an intermediary non-lymphoid cell population. Suppression was not dependent on regulatory T-cells, but was associated with increased inhibitory STAT1 to STAT4 expression levels in ...
ALPS panel uses antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45, alpha beta TCR, CD25, CD27, HLA-DR, CD19, CD5, CD27, and B220 to create a panel that quantifies double negative T cells, CD27+ B cells, and CD25 and HLA-DR expression on T cells to rank the likelihood of ALPS. Test Code: ALPS Panel by Flow. ...
Monkey IFN-gamma - IL-10 FluoroSpot Kit (2-plate). The dual-color cytokine FluoroSpot assay is a modification of the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSPOT (ELISPOT) assay and is designed to detect double cytokine-secreting T cells at the single cell level. The assay is based on the use of fluorescent- instead of enzymatic-labeled conjugates. Previous attempts to develop an immunoenzymatic dual-color ELISPOT assay were less successful because of problematic interpretation of mixed color spots. The dual-color FluoroSpot assay, however, provides good discrimination between single and double cytokine-secreting cells and is particularly suited to detect T cell subpopulations with a characteristic cytokine profile. The sensitivity of the assay lends itself to measure very low frequencies of cytokine-secreting T cells (1/300,000).
Health,Effector T cells (Teff cells) are involved in activating and directing...The authors show that when cancer develops in mouse skin cells Tregs ......,Combination,therapy,with,a,monocloncal,antibody,and,a,vaccine,leads,to,tumor,rejection,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
IL-10 is generally considered an immune suppressive cytokine and is often cited as one of the molecules responsible for the immune-suppressive environment in tumors. In contrast to this widely held believe, and confirming earlier studies (11-13), we show here that IL-10 induces potent antitumor responses. This antitumor activity required the presence of CD8+ T cells and IL-10 increased the cytotoxic activity of these cells. We show here, for the first time, that in vivo treatment with IL-10 directly induces specific activation and expansion of tumor-resident CD8+ T cells. In human tumors, the number and the activity of intratumoral CD8+ T cells correlates with an improved prognosis for patients with cancer (25). High frequency of tumor-specific T cells in the blood, as can be achieved with cancer vaccines, does not necessarily correlate with improved prognosis (26, 27). Restricted migration of T cells into the tumor can explain why vaccine induced increases in tumor-specific T cells have not ...
Rodney Phillips and colleagues from the University of Oxford developed a highly sensitive technique to visualize, quantify, and track the HIV-specific CD4+ T cell population in patients with early-stage HIV infection who were given a short, fixed course of antiretroviral therapy. They found that return of viral replication after cessation of treatment does not destroy this important T cell population - their numbers were in fact comparable to the numbers observed during therapy. Furthermore, the turnover of these virus-specific cells was increased and the CD4+ T cells were prompted to mature into what are known as effector cells, capable of exerting an immune function that helps coordinate other cells of the immune system to eliminate the virus ...
Clinical investigations into the presence and extent of antigen-specific T cell immunity are becoming more relevant at present. Therefore the necessity for antigen-specific functional CD4 T cell assays in routine diagnostic clinical laboratories is real. Recently, a whole blood technique involving flow cytometry and detection CD25 and CD134 (OX40) expression on the surface of activated CD4+ T cells (OX40 assay) was demonstrated to be highly accurate. The results obtained were concordant with those obtained from more traditional methods of antigen-specific T cell detection. Several studies have validated the preclinical use of this method against virus (e.g., CMV, EBV, HCV, HIV) or bacteria (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis), which can also be used to evaluate general immunocompentence against mitogens.. Act-T4 Cell™ kit is intended to be used after incubating whole blood during 44-48 hours in a culture medium with the antigens/mitogens of interest. The use of a positive control (mitogens such ...
The human immune system is a remarkable collaboration of different types of cells, working together to protect our bodies from bacterial, parasitic, fungal or viral infections, and against the growth of tumors. The process starts when antigens, special markers on the surface of a cell, identify another cell as non-self, and signal the cellular warriors of the immune system to kill the invader. Leading this attack will be the T cells, lymphocytes from the thymus. It is well established that the key to T cell activation is the molecular signal coming off antigen-presenting cell surfaces. This signal must be enhanced and sustained long enough for the T cells to commit to mounting an immune response, and then must be cut off in time to avoid antigen-induced cell suicide or apoptosis of the T cells ...
The test evaluates and monitors T-lymphocyte helper cells (CD4) and inducer T-cells. T-lymphocyte helper cells (such as CD4 cells) play a critical role in orchestrating the response to infections. After activation of the immune response, T-lymphocyte suppressor cells (such as CD8) deactivate the immune cells fighting t
Interleukin 2 signaling is required for CD4(+) regulatory T cell function.: Mice deficient in interleukin (IL)-2 production or the IL-2 receptor alpha or beta c
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We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells are required to optimally expand viral-specific memory CD8+ CTL responses using a human dendritic cell-T cell-based coculture system. OX40 (CD134), a 50-kDa transmembrane protein of the TNFR family, is expressed primarily on activated CD4+ T cells. In murine models, the OX40/OX40L pathway has been shown to play a critical costimulatory role in dendritic cell/T cell interactions that may be important in promoting long-lived CD4+ T cells, which subsequently can help CD8+ T cell responses. The current study examined whether OX40 ligation on ex vivo CD4+ T cells can enhance their ability to help virus-specific CTL responses in HIV-1-infected and -uninfected individuals. OX40 ligation of CD4+ T cells by human OX40L-IgG1 enhanced the ex vivo expansion of HIV-1-specific and EBV-specific CTL from HIV-1-infected and -uninfected individuals, respectively. The mechanism whereby OX40 ligation enhanced help of CTL was independent of the induction of cytokines such ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HTLV-2 tax immortalizes human CD4+ memory T lymphocytes by oncogenic activation and dysregulation of autophagy. AU - Ren, Tong. AU - Dong, Wen. AU - Takahashi, Yoshinori. AU - Xiang, Di. AU - Yuan, Yunsheng. AU - Liu, Xin. AU - Loughran, Thomas P.. AU - Sun, Shao Cong. AU - Wang, Hong-Gang. AU - Cheng, Hua. PY - 2012/10/5. Y1 - 2012/10/5. N2 - Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1 and -2) are two closely related retroviruses with the former causing adult T cell leukemia. HTLV-2 infection is prevalent among intravenous drug users, and the viral genome encodes the viral transactivator Tax, which is highly homologous to the transforming protein Tax from HTLV-1. However, the link between HTLV-2 infection and leukemia has not been established. In the present study, we evaluated the activity of HTLV-2 Tax in promoting aberrant proliferation of human CD4 T lymphocytes. Tax2 efficiently immortalized CD4+ memory T lymphocytes with a CD3/TCRαβ/CD4/CD25/CD45RO/CD69 ...
In comparison to murine dendritic cells (DCs), less is known about the function of human DCs in tissues. Here, we analyzed, by using lung tissues from humans and humanized mice, the role of human CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs in determining the type of CD8(+) T cell immunity generated to live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. We found that both lung DC subsets acquired influenza antigens in vivo and expanded specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in vitro. However, lung-tissue-resident CD1c(+) DCs, but not CD141(+) DCs, were able to drive CD103 expression on CD8(+) T cells and promoted CD8(+) T cell accumulation in lung epithelia in vitro and in vivo. CD1c(+) DCs induction of CD103 expression was dependent on membrane-bound cytokine TGF-β1. Thus, CD1c(+) and CD141(+) DCs generate CD8(+) T cells with different properties, and CD1c(+) DCs specialize in the regulation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells. Immunity 2013 Apr 18; 38(4):818-30.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Murine thymic stromal lymphopoietin promotes the differentiation of regulatory T cells from thymic CD4+CD8-CD25- naïve cells in a dendritic cell-independent manner. AU - Lee, June Yong. AU - Lim, Yu Mi. AU - Park, Min Jung. AU - Min, So Youn. AU - Cho, Mi La. AU - Sung, Young Chul. AU - Park, Se-Ho. AU - Kim, Ho Youn. AU - Cho, Young Gyu. PY - 2008/2/1. Y1 - 2008/2/1. N2 - Human thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) activates dendritic cells (DCs), which promote the proliferation and differentiation of CD4+ T cells. However, murine TSLP (mTSLP) can act directly on CD4+ T cells and bring about their differentiation. We studied the role of mTSLP in the generation of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells from thymocytes. mTSLP promoted the differentiation of CD4+ single-positive thymocytes into CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells. Although we cannot exclude an effect of TSLP mediated through DCs due to co-stimulatory effects, mTSLP appears to act directly on thymocytes. T-cell receptor and TSLP receptor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association between immune recovery uveitis and a diverse intraocular cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T cell response. AU - Mutimer, Helen P.. AU - Akatsuka, Yoshiki. AU - Manley, Thomas. AU - Chuang, Elaine L.. AU - Boeckh, Michael. AU - Harrington, Robert. AU - Jones, Thomas. AU - Riddell, Stanley R.. PY - 2002/9/1. Y1 - 2002/9/1. N2 - Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes serious infection in individuals with deficient T cell immunity. In acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the retina is a major site of progressive infection, despite the availability of therapy that targets CMV. The administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy to suppress human immunodeficiency virus frequently results in resolution of CMV retinitis, but this may be complicated by ocular inflammation termed "immune recovery uveitis" (IRU). To provide insight into the pathogenesis of IRU, the phenotype and specificity of intraocular T cells in a single patient were analyzed. The T cell infiltrate consisted ...
Lyme Borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi that is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. Both B cell-mediated humoral immunity and T cell immunity develop during natural Borrelia infection. However, compared with humoral immunity, the T cell response to Borrelia infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, a novel T cell-based assay was developed and validated for the sensitive detection of antigen-specific T cell response to B. burgdorferi. Using interferon-g as a biomarker, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunospot method (iSpot Lyme™) to detect Borrelia antigen-specific effector/memory T cells that were activated in vivo by exposing them to recombinant Borrelia antigens ex vivo. To test this new method as a potential laboratory diagnostic tool, we performed a clinical study with a cohort of Borrelia positive patients and healthy controls. We demonstrated that the iSpot Lyme assay has a significantly higher specificity and

Immunoelectron-microscopic study of CD4- and CD8- positive lymphocytes from healthy donors seropositive for human T...Immunoelectron-microscopic study of CD4- and CD8- positive lymphocytes from healthy donors seropositive for human T...

In order to determine the fine structural differences and labeling by immunoferritin particles of CD4-positive (CD4+) and CD8 ... Immunoelectron-microscopic study of CD4- and CD8- positive lymphocytes from healthy donors seropositive for human T- ... In order to determine the fine structural differences and labeling by immunoferritin particles of CD4-positive (CD4+) and CD8 ... Sera of eight donors were all positive on the particle agglutination (PA) test, but only of the four of the eight were positive ...
more infohttp://www.alliedacademies.org/abstract/immunoelectronmicroscopic-study-of-cd4-and-cd8-positive-lymphocytes-from-healthy-donors-seropositive-for-human-tlymphotropic-virus-723.html

CD4-Positive and CD8-Positive Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Contribute to Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Responses | Clinical...CD4-Positive and CD8-Positive Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Contribute to Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Responses | Clinical...

CD4-Positive and CD8-Positive Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Contribute to Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Responses. Mayumi ... CD4-Positive and CD8-Positive Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Contribute to Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Responses ... CD4-Positive and CD8-Positive Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Contribute to Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Responses ... CD4-Positive and CD8-Positive Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Contribute to Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Responses ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/6/4/494

P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District...P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District...

P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District ... P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District ... The study determined the CD4 lymphocytes count levels of HIV positive patient at first presentation at STI/HIV Clinic at ... of all HIV positive patients presented with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3. 20.7% (183/883) reported with CD4 count less ...
more infohttp://sti.bmj.com/content/89/Suppl_1/A132.3

Percentages of CD4+CD8+ Double-positive T Lymphocytes in the Peripheral Blood of Adults from a Blood Bank in Bogot , Colombia ...Percentages of CD4+CD8+ Double-positive T Lymphocytes in the Peripheral Blood of Adults from a Blood Bank in Bogot , Colombia ...

Percentages of CD4+CD8+ Double-positive T Lymphocytes in the Peripheral Blood of Adults from a Blood Bank in Bogot , Colombia. ... Percentages of CD4+CD8+ Double-positive T Lymphocytes in the Peripheral Blood of Adults from a Blood Bank in Bogot , Colombia. ... Keywords: Flow cytometry, Lymphocyte, Lymphocyte subpopulation, T lymphocytes. Kolombiya Bogota Kan Bankas Yeti kin Periferik ... Objective: CD4+CD8+ double-positive T-cells (DPTs) have been classified as a separate T-cell subpopulation, with two main ...
more infohttp://tjh.com.tr/jvi.aspx?pdir=tjh&plng=eng&un=TJH-83479&look4=

Immunoelectron-microscopic study of CD4- and CD8- positive lymphocytes from healthy donors seropositive for human T...Immunoelectron-microscopic study of CD4- and CD8- positive lymphocytes from healthy donors seropositive for human T...

title = "Immunoelectron-microscopic study of CD4- and CD8- positive lymphocytes from healthy donors seropositive for human T- ... T1 - Immunoelectron-microscopic study of CD4- and CD8- positive lymphocytes from healthy donors seropositive for human T- ... Immunoelectron-microscopic study of CD4- and CD8- positive lymphocytes from healthy donors seropositive for human T- ... Immunoelectron-microscopic study of CD4- and CD8- positive lymphocytes from healthy donors seropositive for human T- ...
more infohttps://okayama.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/immunoelectron-microscopic-study-of-cd4-and-cd8-positive-lymphocy

T-lymphocyte Infiltration in Visceral Adipose Tissue | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular BiologyT-lymphocyte Infiltration in Visceral Adipose Tissue | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

Immunohistochemical staining for CD4-positive lymphocytes. (B, high power view). D and E, Lack of CD8-positive lymphocytes in ... These lymphocytes are mainly CD4-positive lymphocytes which express proinflammatory TH1-cytokines like IFNγ and orchestrate the ... Most macrophages were HLA-DR-positive, reflecting activation through IFNγ, a cytokine released from CD4-positive lymphocytes. ... Human Adipose Tissue Contains CD4-Positive Lymphocytes. To further characterize the lymphocyte population in human adipose ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/28/7/1304.long

TNK cells (NKG2D+ CD8+ or CD4+ T ... preview & related info | MendeleyTNK cells (NKG2D+ CD8+ or CD4+ T ... preview & related info | Mendeley

CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. *CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: immunology. *CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes ... Among these, the NKG2D molecule was identified as expressed by T lymphocytes, including most CD8+ cells and a minority of CD4+ ... Moreover, NKG2D and TCR triggering was also observed by peripheral blood derived T lymphocyte- or T cell clone-mediated tumor ... TNK cells (NKG2D+ CD8+ or CD4+ T lymphocytes) in the control of human tumors.. *Maccalli C ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/tnk-cells-nkg2d-cd8-cd4-t-lymphocytes-control-human-tumors-1/

Therapeutic Approaches to HAART-Induced Lipodystrophy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govTherapeutic Approaches to HAART-Induced Lipodystrophy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Blood CD4 positive lymphocyte count , 200/mm3. *Known liver disease due to causes other than nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00461552?order=497

Therapeutic Approaches to HAART-Induced Lipodystrophy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govTherapeutic Approaches to HAART-Induced Lipodystrophy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Blood CD4 positive lymphocyte count , 200/mm3. *Known liver disease due to causes other than nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00461552

Sorafenib Prevents Escape from Host Immunity in Liver Cirrhosis Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular CarcinomaSorafenib Prevents Escape from Host Immunity in Liver Cirrhosis Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

CD4-positive lymphocytes; lower left: no reaction to a different protein (control); lower right: CD4-positive and CD127- ... Analysis of CD4-Positive T Cell Subsets. Peripheral blood CD4-positive T cell subsets were analyzed after nonspecific ... in CD4-positive T cells. Upper left: IFN-γ-negative and IL-4-positive cells (Th2); lower right: IFN-γ-positive and IL-4- ... Figure 3: Comparison of the IFN-γ-positive and IL-4-negative (Th1) subset of CD4-positive T cells before and after treatment in ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2012/607851/

Health information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus DatabaseHealth information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus Database

2 result(s) search for keyword(s) CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes Add the result to your basket Refine your search Generate the ... Antiretroviral Therapy Highly Active CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes World Health Organization. Abstract: Objective:To describe ... Antiretroviral Therapy Highly Active CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes World Health Organization. Abstract: Objective:To describe ... HIV Seropositivity Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes Immunosuppression Viremia Rwanda - Kigali. ...
more infohttp://indexmedicus.afro.who.int/aim/opac_css/index.php?lvl=more_results&mode=keyword&user_query=CD4-Positive+T-Lymphocytes&tags=ok

The effects of altered exercise distribution on lymphocyte subpopulations.The effects of altered exercise distribution on lymphocyte subpopulations.

... lymphocyte subpopulations and plasma cortisol concentration in peripheral blood were assessed in 19 healthy subjects. The ... The effects of exercise distribution on lymphocyte count, ... CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes. ... The effects of exercise distribution on lymphocyte count, lymphocyte subpopulations and plasma cortisol concentration in ... CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. The S2 variables statistically significant from B were: total lymphocyte count (P , 0.01), CD3+ T- ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/effects-altered-exercise-distribution-lymphocyte/8789587.html

CXCR5 | Cancer Genetics WebCXCR5 | Cancer Genetics Web

T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer. *Receptors, Chemokine. *CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. *TNF. *Cell Movement ... Intratumoral CD4(+)PD-1(high) T cells have a TFH cell phenotype, express CXCR5, secrete IL-21 and are BCL-6 positive with no ... Functionally, CD4(+)PD-1(high) T cells actively supported B-cell growth, while CD4(+)PD-1(low) T cells displayed a reduced ... The goal of our study was to functionally characterize intratumoral CD4(pos) T cells. We showed that CXCR5(hi)ICOS(hi)CD4(pos) ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/CXCR5.htm

Helper T-cell subsets: phenotype, function and the role of lymphokines in regulating their development.Helper T-cell subsets: phenotype, function and the role of lymphokines in regulating their development.

CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Lymphocyte Activation. Lymphokines / immunology*. T- ... 19744686 - Selective infection of cd4+ effector memory t lymphocytes leads to preferential depleti.... 7535476 - Antigen- ... generally IL-2R-positive cells. These cells have upregulated many adhesion molecule systems [e.g., Pgp-1, LFA-1 and ICAM-1 ( ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Helper-T-cell-subsets-phenotype/1684776.html

Two-Stage Tuberculin (PPD) Skin Testing in Individuals With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection - Full Text View -...Two-Stage Tuberculin (PPD) Skin Testing in Individuals With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection - Full Text View -...

... to determine the relationship between the booster phenomenon and CD4-positive lymphocyte cell counts; to detect any ... Patients with a positive skin test (defined as an induration, or small hard knot, of 5 mm or greater forming beneath the skin) ... History of documented positive PPD skin test.. *History of tuberculosis or who are presently receiving chemoprophylaxis or ... attainment of a positive response to a second tuberculin purified protein derivative skin test when the first skin test was ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00000955

Effect of Rosiglitazone Treatment on Plaque Inflammation and Collagen Content in Nondiabetic Patients | Arteriosclerosis,...Effect of Rosiglitazone Treatment on Plaque Inflammation and Collagen Content in Nondiabetic Patients | Arteriosclerosis,...

Representative sections of shoulder regions stained for CD4-positive lymphocytes and CD68-positive macrophages are shown from ... CD4-positive lymphocytes are major effectors of the inflammatory response in the vessel wall through their capacity to release ... This may be attributable to a reduction of IFN-γ release from CD4-positive lymphocytes by TZDs because IFN-γ, on the one hand, ... Given the nodal role of CD4-positive lymphocytes in vessel wall inflammation, we next examined the expression of HLA-DR, a ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/26/4/845

SciELO - Public Health - Effect of a healthcare gender gap on progression of HIV/AIDS defined by clinical-biological criteria...SciELO - Public Health - Effect of a healthcare gender gap on progression of HIV/AIDS defined by clinical-biological criteria...

The virus replicates continuously into CD4-positive lymphocytes, thereby causing their depletion. Since these cells are a ... Prognostic value of HIV-1 RNA, CD4 cell count, and CD4 cell count slope for progression to AIDS and death in untreated HIV-1 ... Furthermore, the association log-linear model was suitable for CD4 (deviance=8.71, df=5, p=0.121) showing that the CD4 is ... CD4 and VL were assayed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively.7,8 Other biochemical probes had been performed using ...
more infohttps://scielosp.org/article/gs/2010.v24n3/204-208/en/

Association Between Specific Adipose Tissue CD4+ T-cell Populations and Insulin Resistance in Obese Individuals - PubMedAssociation Between Specific Adipose Tissue CD4+ T-cell Populations and Insulin Resistance in Obese Individuals - PubMed

CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology *. Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Adipose tissue gene expression of CD4+ (A), CCL5 (B), and IL-7 (C) in lean, MNO, and MAO participants. Adipose tissue messenger ... Adipose tissue gene expression of CD4 + ( A ), CCL5 ( B ), and IL-7 ( C ) in... ... Obesity heats up adipose tissue lymphocytes. ORourke RW, Lumeng CN. ORourke RW, et al. Gastroenterology. 2013 Aug;145(2):282- ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23597726/

The Central Residues of a T Cell Receptor Sequence Motif Are Key Determinants of Autoantigen Recognition in Murine Experimental...The Central Residues of a T Cell Receptor Sequence Motif Are Key Determinants of Autoantigen Recognition in Murine Experimental...

CD4(+) T cells. These T cells recognize the immunodominant N-terminal nonapeptide of myelin basic protein (MBP1-9) associated ... CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... CD4(+) T cells. These T cells recognize the immunodominant N-terminal nonapeptide of myelin basic protein (MBP1-9) associated ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15593303/

Broad, high-magnitude and multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by a DNA and modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine...Broad, high-magnitude and multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by a DNA and modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine...

CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes (immunology) *CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes (immunology) *Disease Outbreaks ... Together, our data show that a combination of DNA and MVA immunization induced robust, durable, multifunctional CD4(+) and CD8 ... balanced CD4(+) and CD8(+) responses, which produced both IFN-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2, including IL-2-only responses not ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed19141458.do

Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cell subsets of progressive or regressive tumors induce suppressive or protective immune responses...Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cell subsets of progressive or regressive tumors induce suppressive or protective immune responses...

CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes (immunology) *CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes (immunology) *Cell Line, Tumor ... Our data showed that P815 tumors contained CD4+ 8+ and CD4- 8- TID815 subsets, whereas P198 tumors contained CD4+ 8+ and CD4+ 8 ... Transfer of CD4+ Tr1 cells obtained from CD4- 8- TID815-immunized wild-type, but not IL-10(-/-) mice, into CD4+ 8+ TID815 ... whereas CD4- 8- TID815 secrete a marked level of transforming growth factor-beta. Vaccination of mice with P815 tumor lysate- ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed15930318.do

NR1H2 Antibody (monoclonal) (M04) - Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant NR1H2.  WB, IF, E - Buy...NR1H2 Antibody (monoclonal) (M04) - Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full length recombinant NR1H2. WB, IF, E - Buy...

PMID 20628086.LXR activation inhibits chemokine-induced CD4-positive lymphocyte migration. Walcher D, et al. Basic Res Cardiol ... extracts and whole cell lysates for use in combination with our antibodies as Western Blotting or Immunoprecipitation positive ...
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Human Non-neutralizing HIV-1 Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies Limit the Number of Founder
         Viruses during SHIV Mucosal...Human Non-neutralizing HIV-1 Envelope Monoclonal Antibodies Limit the Number of Founder Viruses during SHIV Mucosal...

CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. dc.subject. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. dc.subject. HIV-1. ... infection while the positive control antibody CH22 IgG1 prevented infection in 4 of 6 animals. Enumeration of transmitted/ ...
more infohttps://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/10436?show=full

Apolipoprotein E-Mediated Immune Regulation in Sepsis | The Journal of ImmunologyApolipoprotein E-Mediated Immune Regulation in Sepsis | The Journal of Immunology

Early changes of CD4-positive lymphocytes and NK cells in patients with severe Gram-negative sepsis. Crit. Care 10: R166. ... B-D, Splenic lymphocytes (B) and hepatic lymphocytes (C) from rats subjected to CLP had more CD8+ T cell populations than did ... Preparation of lymphocytes. Intrahepatic lymphocytes were isolated as described by Dao et al. (17). In brief, rats were ... In patients with sepsis, the subpopulation of lymphocytes changes considerably (18). NKT cells, a subset of T lymphocytes, have ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/181/2/1399.long
  • Our data showed that P815 tumors contained CD4+ 8+ and CD4- 8- TID815 subsets, whereas P198 tumors contained CD4+ 8+ and CD4+ 8- TID198 subsets. (curehunter.com)
  • Further investigation of these differences is needed using other types of markers, such as those for chemokine receptors, and other methods to clearly determine the differences between the two types of lymphocytes in fine structure and how these relate to their functions. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Baseline Age, sex, CD4 count and viral load were extracted from the patient's database. (who.int)
  • The number of oocysts in all samples was small, independent of CD4 + T lymphocyte count, HIV plasma viral load, and presence of diarrhea. (scielo.br)
  • The objectives of this study were to assess the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in HIV-infected individuals and its relationship with diarrhea, rural or urban zone origin, CD4 + and CD8 + T cell counts, HIV plasmatic viral load, and antiretroviral treatment. (scielo.br)
  • Patients without determined HIV plasmatic viral load or CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocyte counts at least three months before or after feces sampling were excluded. (scielo.br)
  • Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to E6 and E7 were previously shown to be more commonly detectable in human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-positive women without squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIL) than in HPV-16-positive women with SIL (M. Nakagawa, D. P. Stites, S. Farhat, J. R. Sisler, B. Moss, F. Kong, A. B. Moscicki, and J. M. Palefsky, J. Infect. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that both CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes contribute to HPV-16 E6- and E7-specific CTL responses although their relative contributions vary from individual to individual. (asm.org)
  • Together, our data show that a combination of DNA and MVA immunization induced robust, durable, multifunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) responses in baboons targeting multiple HIV epitopes that may home to mucosal sites. (curehunter.com)
  • Vaccination of mice with P815 tumor lysate-pulsed CD4+ 8+ TID815 or TID198 and CD4+ 8- TID198 induced IFN-gamma-secreting Th1 and effective CTL responses leading to protective immunity against P815 tumor , whereas CD4- 8- TID815 stimulated IL-10-expressing Tr1 responses leading to immune suppression. (curehunter.com)
  • The newly identified fourth CD4+ 8+ TID815 or TID198 subset and the CD4+ 8- TID198 all express high levels of IFN-gamma and interleukin (IL)-6, whereas CD4- 8- TID815 secrete a marked level of transforming growth factor-beta . (curehunter.com)
  • However 2 weeks of overload training followed by 2 weeks of active recovery (baseline) training may induce an increase in the lymphocyte count. (biomedsearch.com)
  • High viremia was associated with advanced clinical stages, but was inversely related to CD4 count. (scielosp.org)
  • Using an integrative approach, high viremia was critically linked to clinical and lymphocyte impairment. (scielosp.org)
  • La viremia alta está asociada con estadios clínicos avanzados, pero está inversamente relacionada con el de CD4. (scielosp.org)
  • The study determined the CD4 lymphocytes count levels of HIV positive patient at first presentation at STI/HIV Clinic at Suntreso Government Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. (bmj.com)
  • However following both S1 and S2 (baseline training) there was a significant increase in total lymphocyte count, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Immunoelectron-microscopic study of CD4- and CD8- positive lymphocytes from healthy donors seropositive for human T-lymphotropic virus type I . Biomedical Research (India) , 18 (2), 83-88. (elsevier.com)
  • 7B2 IgG1 or A32 IgG1, each containing mutations to enhance Fc function, was administered passively to rhesus macaques but afforded no protection against productive clinical infection while the positive control antibody CH22 IgG1 prevented infection in 4 of 6 animals. (duke.edu)
  • Sera of eight donors were all positive on the particle agglutination (PA) test, but only of the four of the eight were positive on the immunofluorescence (IF) test. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Sera with high titer on the PA test, e. g., above 26, were likely to be positive on the IF test, as well. (alliedacademies.org)