White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

Incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi's sarcoma in the Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1988-1996. Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine. (1/4884)

OBJECTIVE: To assess secular trends of the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) between 1988 and 1996 in the Aquitaine Cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1)-infected subjects (southwestern France). METHODS: Adults of both sexes of all HIV-transmission categories were included. We distinguished between incident and prevalent KS and in case of multiple acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses between initial or subsequent KS. Only incident KS were considered for annual incidence rate calculation. RESULTS: Overall, 21.2% (356/1678) of homosexuals and 1.9% (58/3030) of the other patients were diagnosed with KS over time. Although there was a sharp decrease in 1996 for initial KS, the annual incidence rate of KS was stable over time in the overall cohort as well as in homosexuals (4.3% per year on the average for KS as an initial AIDS-defining illness and 2.1% per year for subsequent KS in homosexuals). The median CD4+ cell count at the time of diagnosis of KS was 56 per mm3 (78 for initial KS, 14 for subsequent KS), with no significant variation over time. CONCLUSION: In the Aquitaine Cohort, the annual incidence of KS has remained stable between 1988 and 1995 with a recent decline in 1996, only for initial KS, while case management of HIV-infected subjects changed drastically.  (+info)

HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (2/4884)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. (3/4884)

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with precancerous cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions commonly seen among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). We characterized HPV infection in a large cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for cervicovaginal HPV infection in HIV-positive women. METHODS: HIV-positive (n = 1778) and HIV-negative (n = 500) women were tested at enrollment for the presence of HPV DNA in a cervicovaginal lavage specimen. Blood samples were tested for HIV antibody status, level of CD4-positive T cells, and HIV RNA load (copies/mL). An interview detailing risk factors was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women with a CD4+ cell count of less than 200/mm3 were at the highest risk of HPV infection, regardless of HIV RNA load (odds ratio [OR] = 10.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.32-14.04), followed by women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load greater than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 5.78; 95% CI = 4.17-8.08) and women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load less than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 2.36-4.12), after adjustment for other factors. Other risk factors among HIV-positive women included racial/ethnic background (African-American versus Caucasian, OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.19-2.28), current smoking (yes versus no; OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.20-1.99), and younger age (age < 30 years versus > or = 40 years; OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.23-2.49). CONCLUSIONS: Although the strongest risk factors of HPV infection among HIV-positive women were indicators of more advanced HIV-related disease, other factors commonly found in studies of HIV-negative women, including racial/ethnic background, current smoking, and age, were important in HIV-positive women as well.  (+info)

Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia disclosed by the onset of empyema thoracis. (4/4884)

A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in December 1996 due to empyema thoracis. A laboratory examination revealed lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (<300 cells/ microl). No evidence for a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was found. No malignant, hematological or autoimmune disease was detected. We thus diagnosed this case as being idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL). During his hospital treatment, he was affected with cytomegaloviral retinitis and cured by therapy. His subsequent treatment went well without a recurrence of severe infection although a low CD4+ T lymphocyte count continued after the recovery from empyema thoracis.  (+info)

Carriage of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus RNA is associated with a slower immunologic, virologic, and clinical progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease in coinfected persons. (5/4884)

The prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. However, the long-term consequences of coinfection are unknown. HIV-positive persons with a well-defined duration of infection were screened on the basis of their GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA status and studied. GBV-C/HGV viremia was observed in 23, who carried the virus over a mean of 7.7 years. All parameters (survival, CDC stage B/C, HIV RNA load, CD4 T cell count) showed significant differences in terms of the cumulative progression rate between persons positive and negative for GBV-C/HGV RNA. When GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive and -unexposed subjects were matched by age, sex, baseline HIV RNA load, and baseline CD4 T cell count, HIV disease progression appeared worse in GBV-C/HGV RNA-negative subjects. The carriage of GBV-C/HGV RNA is associated with a slower progression of HIV disease in coinfected persons.  (+info)

Outcome and predictors of failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy: one-year follow-up of a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons. (6/4884)

The outcome and predictors of virologic treatment failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were determined for 271 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected protease inhibitor-naive persons. During a follow-up of 48 weeks after the initiation of HAART, 6.3% of patients experienced at least one new AIDS-defining event, and 3.0% died. Virologic treatment failure occurred in 40% (indinavir, 27%; ritonavir, 30%; saquinavir, 59%; ritonavir plus saquinavir, 32%; chi2, P=.001). Risk factors for treatment failure were baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA (odds ratio [OR], 1.70 per log10 copies increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA), baseline CD4 cell count (OR, 1. 35 per 100 CD4 cells/mm3 decrease), and use of saquinavir versus other protease inhibitors (OR, 3.21). During the first year of treatment, 53% of all patients changed (part of) their original HAART regimen at least once. This was significantly more frequent for regimens containing saquinavir (62%; 27% for virologic failure) or ritonavir (64%; 55% for intolerance) as single protease inhibitor.  (+info)

Characterization of viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy: relationships to host factors, cellular restoration, and virologic end points. (7/4884)

Biphasic plasma viral decays were modeled in 48 patients treated with ritonavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. Estimated first- and second-phase decay rates were d1 as 0.47/day and d2 as 0.04/day. Interpatient differences in both decay rates were significant. The d1 was directly correlated with baseline CD4+, CD4+CD28+, and CD8+CD28+ T lymphocyte counts (P<.05) and inversely correlated with baseline virus load (P=.044) and the magnitude of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte recovery (P<.01). The d2 was directly correlated with baseline percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes (P=.023), the CD8+CD38+ cell number (P=.024), and the level of IgG that binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 (P=.02). Viral decay rates were not predictive of treatment failure or durability of viral suppression. These exploratory findings are consistent with a model in which immunologic factors contribute to elimination of HIV-infected cells and suggest a dynamic interplay between regulation of HIV expression and lymphocyte activation and recovery.  (+info)

Treatment with amprenavir alone or amprenavir with zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 347 Study Team. (8/4884)

Amprenavir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and good in vitro activity. Ninety-two lamivudine- and protease inhibitor-naive individuals with >/=50 CD4 cells/mm3 and >/=5000 HIV RNA copies/mL were assigned amprenavir (1200 mg) alone or with zidovudine (300 mg) plus lamivudine (150 mg), all given every 12 h. After a median follow-up of 88 days, the findings of a planned interim review resulted in termination of the amprenavir monotherapy arm. Among 85 subjects with confirmed plasma HIV RNA determination, 15 of 42 monotherapy versus 1 of 43 triple-therapy subjects had an HIV RNA increase above baseline or 1 log10 above nadir (P=.0001). For subjects taking triple therapy at 24 weeks, the median decrease in HIV RNA was 2.04 log10 copies/mL, and 17 (63%) of 27 evaluable subjects had <500 HIV RNA copies/mL. Treatment with amprenavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine together reduced the levels of HIV RNA significantly more than did amprenavir monotherapy.  (+info)

Centre for Microbiology Research, Research Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute-FACES, Kisumu, Nyanza Kenya. Supported by the U.S. Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through cooperative agreement (#1U2GPS001913) from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Global HIV/AIDS. The findings and conclusions in this letter are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the CDC.. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.. ...
This study confirms that ART delivery through a national programme in a resource-constrained setting can be effective. Most of the patients in the study showed a good clinical response to therapy, as indicated by significant weight gain and improvement in CD4 count. Around 82% of them had reached an advanced stage of illness (World Health Organization stage 3 or 4) at presentation, highlighting the need for early diagnosis and treatment. The overall mortality rate in our study was higher than reported from other developed and developing countries.10,11 Nevertheless, the post-90-day mortality rate was similar to the rate observed in another study.10. In line with previous studies, we found no significant association between TB and mortality.5,12 In a study from Uganda, TB was associated with increased mortality only in HIV patients with a CD4 count > 200 cells/µl.12 It may be that TB facilitates HIV viral replication to a greater extent in the earlier stages of HIV infection than during advanced ...
A paper published today in PLoS Medicine using CASCADE data has shown that there is no need to take into consideration the CD4 slope prior to the start of HIV therapy when deciding whether to initiate therapy.. The CASCADE Collaboration, is a large collaborative study of 25 cohorts of HIV patients with known date of seroconversion. Wolbers et al considered whether there was any evidence of an association between pre-therapy CD4 slope and the primary outcome (a first new AIDS-defining event or death).. A total of 2,820 HIV-positive patients initiating cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) were included in the study; the average pre-cART CD4 cell decline among them was 61 cells/ml/year. Of these, 255 experienced a new AIDS-related event or died after starting cART but the researchers found no evidence for an association between the primary outcome and the pre-cART CD4 slope or between survival and this slope. In addition, the rate of CD4 cell count decline was not significantly associated with ...
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CD4+ Cell Count Declines Slowly, But Steadily, in Elite HIV Controllers, Small Study Finds, at TheBody.com, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
Implementation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines, which emphasize maximal and durable suppression of viral load for the majority of individuals infected with HIV, has resulted in a substantial decline in morbidity and mortality. However, many asymptomatic patients are not at immediate risk of serious opportunistic diseases, the effectiveness of ART wanes over time due to HIV drug resistance, and there are short- and long-term toxicities of treatment. This motivates a comparison of two strategies: one which conserves treatments by deferring their use while the risk of opportunistic disease is low and one which aims for sustained virologic suppression, irrespective of disease risk.. In this large, long-term trial, patients will be randomly assigned to either the drug conservation (DC) or viral suppression (VS) group. Patients will be enrolled over a 3-year period and followed for an average of 7.5 years. The DC group will stop or defer ART until CD4 cell count declines to below 250 ...
A CD4+ count is a blood test to determine how well the immune system is working in people who have been diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ cells are a type of white blood cell. White blood cells are important in fighting infections. CD4+ cells are also called T-lymphocytes, T-cells, or T-helper cells.. HIV infects CD4+ cells. The number of CD4+ cells helps determine whether other infections (opportunistic infections) may occur. The pattern of CD4+ counts over time is more important than any single CD4+ value because the values can change from day to day. The CD4+ pattern over time shows the effect of the virus on the immune system. In people infected with HIV who are not getting treated, CD4+ counts generally decrease as HIV progresses. A low CD4+ count usually indicates a weakened immune system and a higher chance of getting opportunistic infections.. ...
Cell-associated HIV-1 unspliced to multiply spliced RNA ratio at 12 weeks ART correlates with markers of immune activation and apoptosis and predicts the CD4+ T cell count at 96 weeks ...
from Jules: As I said before I went to the microphone and mentioned we just spent 7 yrs and $30 millions dollars to evaluate IL-2 to find no clinical benefit and perhaps toxicities so how will they proceed. In response Levy and a representative from the company said they plan to design a study using different parameters, outcomes - that is shorter-term outcomes, and that IL-7 is different than IL-2. Well see what the FDA says ...
CyFlow™ モノクローナル抗体・試薬 再生医療、がんや免疫研究の臨床応用に適したヒト用抗体を中心にご用意しています。
Although this appears to be a big difference it is not. Different laboratories using different testing methods can account for this...
CyFlow™ モノクローナル抗体・試薬 再生医療、がんや免疫研究の臨床応用に適したヒト用抗体を中心にご用意しています。
Financial Specialist - Royalties planning at CD Projekt - Our Finance team is looking for an energetic and independent person who wants to develop in royalties planning.
We have developed a model to determine whether asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals who have a rapid CD4 cell decline are a subgroup who might benefit from early antiretroviral therapy. Data were obtained from a subgroup of participants in the Concorde and EACG020 trials, two randomized, double-blind, comparative trials of immediate (IMM) versus deferred (DEF) zidovudine therapy in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. The subgroup comprised 297 patients (IMM = 154, DEF = 143) who had at least one CD4 cell count before and after randomization. The median CD4 cell count at randomization was 491 x 10(6)/L, and the median follow-up was 61 months. The rate of CD4 decline before and after randomization was estimated using multi-level linear regression analysis, and patients were stratified into quartiles according to the rate of CD4 cell decline before randomization. Outcome measures were the development of AIDS, a 50% drop in CD4 count from the baseline, and death. A Cox proportional hazards model was
Methods: In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and the other was HIV-1-negative; 54% of the subjects were from Africa, and 50% of infected partners were men. HIV-1-infected subjects with CD4 counts between 350 and 550 cells per cubic millimeter were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive antiretroviral therapy either immediately (early therapy) or after a decline in the CD4 count or the onset of HIV-1-related symptoms (delayed therapy). The primary prevention end point was linked HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1-negative partners. The primary clinical end point was the earliest occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis, severe bacterial infection, a World Health Organization stage 4 event, or death ...
The majority of HIV-infected subjects with virologic suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have a marked increase in CD4+ T-cell counts over the first year on treatment. However, a portion of these individuals show a suboptimal immune response and remain at an elevated risk for disease progression. The use of the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc (MVC) is associated with enhanced CD4+ T-cell recovery in subjects who initiate ART. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5256 studied the effect of ART intensification with MVC on CD4+ T-cell counts in subjects with suboptimal CD4 recovery despite sustained virologic suppression. Eligible subjects added MVC to their ART regimen, and continued MVC for 24 weeks. At week 24, subjects discontinued MVC and were followed for an additional 24 weeks off MVC.. Subjects were seen through week 48 for clinical and laboratory evaluations, including plasma HIV-1 RNA, CD4+ T-cell count, and safety laboratories. Subjects had 2 baseline visits prior to starting MVC. Study ...
The incidence of AIDS was higher in patients with a current CD4 count of 500-749 cells/µL compared to 750-999 cells/µL, but did not decrease further at higher CD4 levels. Results were similar in those virologically suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy, suggesting immune reconstitution is incomplete until CD4 |750/µL Mocroft, A.; Furrer, H. J.; Miro, J. M.; Reiss, P.; Mussini, C.; Kirk, O.; Abgrall, S.; Ayayi, S.; Bartmeyer, B.; Braun, D.; Castagna, A.; dArminio Monforte, A.; Gazzard, B.; Gutierrez, F.; Hurtado, I.; Jansen, K.; Meyer, L.; Muñoz, P.; Obel, N.; Soler-Palacin, P.; Papadopoulos, A.; Raffi, F.; Ramos, J. T.; Rockstroh, J. K.; Salmon, D.; Torti, C.; Warszawski, J.; de Wit, S.; Zangerle, R.; Fabre-Colin, C.; Kjaer, J.; Chene, G.; Grarup, J.; Lundgren, J. D.; Mocroft, Amanda; Furrer, Hansjakob; Miro, Jose M.; Reiss, Peter; Mussini, Cristina; Kirk, Ole; Abgrall, Sophie; Ayayi, Sylvie; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Braun, Dominique; Castagna, Antonella; dArminio Monforte, Antonella;
HIVandHepatitis.com. CD4 cell count and CD4 cell percentage are key markers for determining disease progression and risk for opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients.. These markers are of greatest use in treating the asymptomatic patient, in whom disease stage is more difficult to assess clinically and for whom laboratory measurements serve as guidelines for the initiation of therapy and opportunistic-infection prophylaxis.. However, providers in resource-constrained settings may not have access to this laboratory measurement or its cost may be prohibitive, resulting in the need for an alternative, surrogate marker. Given the decreasing costs and increased availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the developing world, this is an issue of critical and increasing importance.. A number of previous studies indicate that the total lymphocyte count (TLC) may be useful as a surrogate marker of immune status in certain settings. However, controversy regarding the utility of the TLC ...
VL was more likely to be detectable if participants had OIs in the prior three months compared to when they did not (OR=4.0 (95% CI=1.9-8.6)). The CD4+ T cell counts declined 24.1 cells/µL per three months in intervals where the participants had OIs compared to an increase of 21.3 cells/µL per three months in intervals where they did not have OIs (adjusted difference in the rate of CD4+ T cell count change of 61.7 cells/µL per three months (95% CI=13.7-109.7), P value=0.012). The rate of CD4+ T cell count increase was 25.6 cells/µL per three months (95% CI=11.6-39.6) higher for females compared to males (p value ...
Results More than half (54.9%, 485/883) of all HIV positive patients presented with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3. 20.7% (183/883) reported with CD4 count less than 50 cell/mm3, 9.5% (84/883) with CD4 count of less than 100 cells/mm3, 24.7% (218/883) with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3, 16.0% (141/883) with CD4 count of less than 350 cells/mm3, 10.3% (91/883) with CD4 count of less than 500. Less than a quarter (18.8%, 116/883) of patients came with CD4 count of 500 cells/mm3 or more. 70.9% came with CD4 count of less than 350 cells/mm3.. ...
We applied Cox regression analysis to investigate the association between response to IFN-RBV and the development of new AIDS-defining conditions, non-liver-related death, and non-liver-related non-AIDS-related death. When we adjusted for age, sex, HIV transmission category, nadir CD4+ cell count, cART, HIV-RNA level below the limit of detection, and liver fibrosis, we found that the adjusted hazard ratio of each of these clinical endpoints was higher for non-responders than for responders, although it reached statistical significance only for non-liver-related death and non-liver-related non-AIDS-related death (Table 4). We carried out 2 sensitivity analyses. In the first, we excluded those patients with recurrent pneumonia as a new AIDS-defining condition and those who died of bacterial pneumonia. In the second, we did not exclude patients with recurrent pneumonia as a new AIDS-defining condition or those who died of bacterial pneumonia, although we did censor their follow-up until these ...
Background Life expectancy has increased for newly diagnosed HIV patients since the inception of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), but there remains a need to better understand the characteristics of long-term survival in HIV-positive patients. We examined long-term survival in HIV-positive patients receiving cART in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD), to describe changes in mortality compared to the general population and to develop longer-term survival models. Methods Data were examined from 2,675 HIV-positive participants in AHOD who started cART. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by age, sex and calendar year across prognostic characteristics using Australian Bureau of Statistics national data as reference. SMRs were examined by years of duration of cART by CD4 and similarly by viral load. Survival was analysed using Cox-proportional hazards and parametric survival models. Results The overall SMR for all-cause mortality was 3.5 (95% CI: 3.0-4.0). SMRs
HIV infection requires lifelong treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the earlier years of combination ART, although effective in managing HIV disease progression, ART was very toxic and poorly tolerated. Monitoring the impact of ART including updates to treatment, adherence, impact on HIV disease progression and overall mortality was critical to the understanding of HIV disease progression, and for providing guidance to the management and treatment of HIV patients. Even in the current era of highly tolerable and highly effective ART, ongoing monitoring remains important. AHOD is the largest, and longest running, data source in Australia monitoring the uptake and impact of HIV treatment.. ...
OBJECTIVE:: Inadequate CD4 cell count recovery despite full HIV RNA control occurs in 30% of HAART-treated HIV-infected patients. A better understanding of the relationship between T-cell dynamics and the HIV intracellular reservoir in HIV-infected patients failing to recover CD4 cell count following long-term HAART, is required. METHODS:: In a cross-sectional study T-cell turnover and homeostatic parameters featuring discordant responses were investigated in 27 immunologic non-responders (INR; CD4 count, ,/= 200 cells/mul; HIV RNA, ,/= 50 copies/ml), 15 virological non-responders (VNR; CD4 count, ,/= 350 cells/mul; HIV RNA, ,/= 10 000) and 22 full responders (FR; CD4 count, ,/= 500 cells/mul; HIV RNA, ,/= 50 copies/ml). RESULTS:: INR displayed significantly higher activated CD38CD8 than FR (P , 0.05) and was comparable to VNR (P , 0.05). As compared with VNR and FR, INR displayed the highest level of proliferating Ki67CD4 and apoptotic CD4 cells (P , 0.05). VNR presented lower proliferation and ...
A retrospective cohort study was performed to examine the extent and clinical significance of misclassification associated with using the current United States AIDS case defining category of an initial CD4 count | or = 200 cells x 10(6)/l (| or = 200) compared with a definition requiring two consecutive counts below this level. The main outcomes examined were the probability of subsequent CD4 counts | 200 x 10(6)/l (| 200) and progression times to AIDS and death. Of the 2025 predominantly male homosexual HIV-positive patients attending two hospital based HIV clinics with initial CD4 cell counts | or = 200, 1524 (75%) subsequently had consecutive counts | or = 200, but only half did so at the next CD4 count. Ten per cent had either no further or only non-consecutive counts | or = 200, and 15% had only one CD4 count available for analysis. The cumulative proportion of patients with a CD4 count | 200 at one year after a first count of | or = 200 was about twice (39%) that observed among the subgroup with
Malawi offers antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive adults who are clinically classified as being in WHO clinical stage III or IV without universal CD4 testing. This study was conducted among such adults attending a rural district hospital HIV/AIDS clinic (a) to determine the proportion who have CD4 counts ,or=350 cells/microl, (b) to identify risk factors associated with such CD4 counts and (c) to assess the validity and predictive values of possible clinical markers for CD4 counts ,or=350 cells/microl. A CD4 count ,or=350 cells/microl was found in 36 (9%) of 401 individuals who are thus at risk of being placed prematurely on ART. A body mass index (BMI) ,22 kg/m(2), the absence of an active WHO indicator disease at the time of presentation for ART, and a total lymphocyte count ,1,200 cells/microl were significantly associated with such a CD4 count. The first two of these variables could serve as clinical markers for selecting subgroups of patients who should undergo CD4 testing. ...
When an HIV positive individuals T-cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter, he has progressed to stage 3 HIV and has AIDS, advises AIDS.gov. HIV positive individuals are also diagnosed...
To develop a decision criterion for earlier ART initiation now, we examined 2 potential policy scenarios (ART initiation at CD4 counts ,0.350 × 109 cells/L vs. ,0.250 × 109 cells/L) over the next 5 years and their associated clinical and economic outcomes (Figure 1). These outcomes excluded any long-term benefits, detriments, or costs potentially associated with either decision beyond the 5-year horizon. Although the calculated outcomes included ART-related toxicities, they also excluded any excess toxicity that might be associated with earlier ART beyond the 5-year horizon. If ART is initiated at a CD4 count less than 0.350 × 109 cells/L, the trial may demonstrate in 5 years that a 0.350 × 109 cells/L initiation threshold provides a benefit (probability P) or that it produces equivalent outcomes to a 0.250 × 109 cells/L threshold (probability 1 − P). In the latter case, the associated costs of a 0.350 × 109 cells/L initiation threshold include not only those of earlier initiation but ...
I am a 35 years old HIV positive man and my CD4 count was 350 few months back. Then it increased to 510 within 3 months. |b|Is there any way of the CD4 increasing to 510 with in 3 months?|/b| Again after another three months it was 540. I took a herbal medicine when the CD4 count was at 350 and it was only for the first 3 months. But the doctors could not believe this and they are saying that this could be due to a diet change and at the same time they didnt want to show me my real results and hide the paper when I asked for it. To my knowledge, HIV cannot be cured, and even if I am cured the doctors will do more research on me. I know for sure that if I have HIV then there is no way CD4 can increase consistently. Please tell how did my CD4 count increase?
HIV infects and destroys CD4+ T cells leading to a compromised immune system. In a double-blinded study, a group of HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/mm|sup|3|/sup| were given either an empty liposomal supplement or a liposomal glutathione (L-GSH) supplement to take ov …
Evolution of CD4 T cell counts in 24 patients before and under prednisolone. Mean ± SE of CD4 T cell counts before (open circles) and under prednisolone (fille
Diabetic Complications: Players Stretch to Achieve Complete Cure as Patient Count Increases Globally - Press Release by MarketResearchReports.biz
Maggiolo reported the interim findings of a treatment interruption study called BASTA. [1]. Patients durably suppressed to HIV-RNA ,50 copies/mL with stable CD4 ,800 cells/mm3 were randomised (2:1) to either interrupt or to continue their ongoing treatment. Therapy was to be restarted if CD4 count ,400 cells/mm3. Of 114 patients enrolled, 76 stopped therapy while 38 continued it.. At roughly 20 months, about 25% of patients assigned continuous therapy had stopped therapy, presumably due to fatigue or toxicity. Multivariate analysis found that only the CD4 nadir value predicted CD4 cell decline (P, 0.001). For those whose lowest CD4 count was ,200 cells/mm3, the median time to restarting therapy was 6.9 months. For those with a T-cell nadir of 200-350 cells/mm3 therapy was restarted in a median of 14.1 months, and 17.8 months for those with a nadir of 350-500 cells/mm3. No patient with a CD4 count nadir of ,500 had to restart treatment.. This adds to the findings of previous clinic cohort ...
A case-control study was conducted in 412 HIV-infected patients starting cART with CD4 T-cell count ,200 cells/μL and successful viral control for two years. CD4 count increase below 200 cells/μL after two years on cART was used to define INR (immunological non-responder) patients. Polymorphisms in CXCL12, CCL5 and CCR2 genes were genotyped using sequenoms MassARRAY platform.. ...
Ver, HIV-1 loads appeared lower and T cell counts higher overall in patients with stable A3H proteins in comparison to those with unstable proteins, suggesting
Online conversion from Cubic Millimeter (mm³, Metric) to Culeus (hose) (Ancient Roman Measure (Liquid And Dry)). Historical Volume Units Converter.
Design and Weighting Methods for a Nationally Representative Sample of HIV-infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States-Medical Monitoring Project
The level of CD4 cells in peripheral blood is a prime criterion for diagnosing AIDS (in the United States in particular) and for monitoring antiretroviral treatment. However, these applications of CD4 counts stem from the initial and unhappy coincidence that when
File lib/spec/mocks/error_generator.rb, line 79 def count_message(count) return at least #{pretty_print(count.abs)} if count , 0 return pretty_print(count) end ...
The longest-term data on Isentress to date, presented at IDSA, show better virologic (viral load) and immunologic (T-cell count) results than Sustiva, out ...
Count the number of cells that contain TRUE FALSE or one of the two This lets you count the logical values in a range in Excel Sections Count Cells that Contain TRUE Count Cells that Contain FALSE Cou ...
I have three questions related to Mixing Tee Geometry:1) What is Cell Count? Is no of elements or no of elements + no of nodes? And also where do I get the …
BioTek Instruments today introduced a new kit that can help researchers quickly obtain high-quality cell count results by automating the often tedious and error-prone process of mammalian cell counting.
More good news: In one month this medicine has increased his t cell count more than in several months of the other drugs he was on. It also brought his viral load down amazingly fast too. Last drugs he was one took 2-3 months to get up over 300 and Atripla got him to 365 in one month! That much closer to the 600-700 that I think they are aiming for! Where he will feel almost human again! Im ready and I know he is past ready ...
Delivers natural support to the immune system Increases white blood and T-cell count Improves the immune system as a stimulant and regulator
Tip: In the formula =countif($C:$C, $A1), A1 is the first cell of the column you want to count differences, column C is the another column you want to compare with.. Method 2 Select Same & Different Cells. If you have Kutools for Excel installed, you can use its Select Same & Different Cells utility to quickly count the differences by cells or rows between two columns with 3 steps. ...
321102 I am trying to count all devices by model on sheet1 (FY13 4th QTR Meter Reads) into cell B524. The range is D2:D519. Where I run into trouble is when I filter the data by Campus, I only want excel to count the number of devices for the model listed (A524) and place it into B524 for the visible rows. The current formula Im using is: =SUMPRODUCT(SUBTOTAL(3,OFFSET(D2:D519,ROW(D2:D519)-MIN(ROW(D2:D519)),,1))*D2:D519=A524)
Can anyone help, I want to count the number of cells in 2 columns that match 2 sets of criteria. Basically I have a list of activities with dates next
Use the SUMPRODUCT function in Excel to count the number of cells in selected ranges that meet multiple criteria. Updated to include Excel 2019.
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T-CD4 + lymphocyte count and the occurrence of clinical events. The progressive decline in T-CD4 + lymphocyte counts is ... It is therefore recommended that reductions greater than 25% in T-CD4 + lymphocyte counts are suspected of immunological ... in absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, with no clinical significance. ... There is also circadian variation of CD4 levels and therefore it is recommended that the sample for the test be obtained in the ...
CD4 lymphocyte counts have also been related to greater rates of brain tissue loss. Current factors, such as plasma HIV RNA, ... February 2010). "Effects of nadir CD4 count and duration of human immunodeficiency virus infection on brain volumes in the ... Cerebral brain volume is associated with factors related to duration of the disease and CD4 nadir; patients with a longer ... The severity of neurocognitive impairment is associated with nadir CD4, suggesting that earlier treatment to prevent ...
CD4 < 50 cells/mL, 0- 35% possibility of CMV retinitis) BUN CD8+ T-lymphocyte count CMV DNA capture ( polymerase chain reaction ... The diagnosis of CMV retinitis can be done via the following: Ophthalmic screening frequency is based on CD4 count,( ... PCR) test) DNA PCR ( ocular fluids) Viral load Complete blood count In terms of the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis, ...
When the CD4 lymphocyte count falls below 200 cells/ml of blood, the HIV host has progressed to AIDS, a condition characterized ... Doitsh, G; Greene, WC (2016). "Dissecting How CD4 T Cells Are Lost During HIV Infection". Cell Host Microbe. 19: 280-91. doi: ...
Activated CD4(+)/CD25(+) T-lymphocyte counts correlated negatively with serum concentrations of IP-10/CXCL10, whereas CD4(+)/ ... HLA-DR(+) T lymphocyte counts correlated positively with serum concentrations of the counterregulatory IL-1 receptor antagonist ... Flares are accompanied by increased serum levels of activated T lymphocyte chemokines (IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9), G-CSF and ...
"CD4 Count". www.aids.gov. Retrieved 2015-04-30. Said EA, Dupuy FP, Trautmann L, Zhang Y, Shi Y, El-Far M, et al. (April 2010 ... Huang W, Berube J, McNamara M, Saksena S, O'Gorman M (2020). "Lymphocyte Subset Counts in COVID-19 Patients: A Meta-Analysis". ... In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) B cell, natural killer cell, and total lymphocyte counts decline, but both CD4+ and CD8+ ... CD4 T cell depleted to the cell count of less than 200cell/μL in blood during AIDS allows various pathogens to escape T cell ...
This increase in blood eosinophil count is often associated with abnormal T-lymphocyte clones (e.g. increased numbers of CD4 ... Diagnosis is by complete blood count (CBC). However, in some cases, a more accurate absolute eosinophil count may be needed. ... Elevations in blood eosinophil counts can be transient, sustained, recurrent, or cyclical. Eosinophil counts in human blood ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia is a disorder attributed to the expansion of a cytokine-producing, aberrant population of ...
The risk of MAC is inversely related to the patient's CD4 count and increases significantly when the CD4 count decreases below ... Some age adjustment is necessary when clinicians interpret CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in children less than 2 years of age. ... Blood cultures are not routinely recommended for asymptomatic persons, even for those who have CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts less ... Disseminated MAC (DMAC) characteristically affects people with advanced HIV disease and peripheral CD4 cell counts less than 50 ...
A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as the percentage of lymphocytes ... the CD4+ subgroup of T lymphocytes). Without the key defense that these T cells provide, the body becomes susceptible to ... leukemias are found through an abnormally raised lymphocyte count in an otherwise normal person). A high lymphocyte count with ... The effects of other viruses or lymphocyte disorders can also often be estimated by counting the numbers of lymphocytes present ...
Lymphocytes and disease[change , change source]. When white blood cells are counted, the lymphocyte count is the percentage of ... The extent of HIV progression is found by measuring the percentage of CD4+ T cells in the patient's blood. The effects of other ... All lymphocytes come from a common basic lymphocyte cell before differentiating into their distinct lymphocyte types. ... Lymphocytes can be divided into three main types: *large granular lymphocytes: these are part of the innate immune system, and ...
... in persons with CD4 counts lower than 100 cells/mcL. Cryptococcal antigen screen and preemptive treatment with fluconazole is ... "Routine cryptococcal antigen screening for HIV-infected patients with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts-time to implement in South ... Rajasingham, R; Boulware, DR (Dec 2012). "Reconsidering cryptococcal antigen screening in the U.S. among persons with CD4 ... The World Health Organization recommends cryptococcal antigen screening in HIV-infected persons entering care with CD4. < or = ...
HIV's cytotoxic activity toward CD4+ lymphocytes is classified as AIDS once a given patient's CD4+ cell count falls below 200.[ ... HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 glycoprotein marker present on the cell membrane. ... It can be interpreted by counting, measuring, and analyzing the cells of the Sub/G1 cell population.[91] When HeLA cells are ... In a healthy individual, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes is in balance with the cells generated by the bone marrow; however, in ...
A high lymphocyte count (> 100 x 109/L) along with low amounts of red blood cells and platelets in the blood are common ... The immunophenotype CD4+/CD8- is present in 60% of cases, the CD4+/CD8+ immunophenotype is present in 25%, and the CD4-/CD8+ ... T-PLL has the immunophenotype of a mature (post-thymic) T-lymphocyte, and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T ... In the peripheral blood, T-PLL consists of medium-sized lymphocytes with single nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm with ...
... lymphocyte count MeSH G09. - cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH G09. - cd4-cd8 ratio ... blood cell count MeSH G09. - erythrocyte count MeSH G09. - reticulocyte count MeSH G09.188. ... MeSH G09. - platelet count MeSH G09.188.250.272 - blood viscosity MeSH G09.188.250.313 - blood volume MeSH ... 250.161.595 - leukocyte count MeSH G09. - ...
... lymphocyte count MeSH E01.450.375.107.595.500.150 - cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH E01.450.375.107.595.500.150.160 - cd4-cd8 ratio ... blood cell count MeSH E01.450.375.107.330 - erythrocyte count MeSH E01.450.375.107.330.725 - reticulocyte count MeSH E01.450. ... platelet count MeSH E01.450.375.750 - schilling test MeSH E01.450.495.100 - basophil degranulation test MeSH E01.450.495.150 - ... lymphocyte culture test, mixed MeSH E01.450.495.400 - immune adherence reaction MeSH E01.450.495.410 - immunoassay MeSH E01.450 ...
CD4(+) T cells; this involvement of the latter cell types supports the notion that Gleich's syndrome is a subtype of lymphocyte ... an eosinophil blood count of 7,150 per microliter (normal 60%) eosinophil CFUs when incubated with bone marrow cells taken from ... is caused by an aberrant population of lymphocytes. These aberrant lymphocytes function abnormally by stimulating the ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophila, is a rare disorder in which eosinophilia or hypereosinophilia (i.e. a large or extremely ...
CD4 cell count less than 300 cells per microliter, or Less than 20% of T lymphocytes are CD4+ Lack of laboratory evidence of ... UpToDate article on "Techniques and interpretation of measurement of the CD4 cell count in HIV-infected patients", by John G. ... Alternative explanations for the low CD4 counts include conditions such as blood cancers (aleukemia), treatment with ... Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare medical syndrome in which the body has too few CD4+ T lymphocytes, which are a ...
In the macrophage, the primary signal for activation is IFN-γ from Th1 type CD4 T cells. The secondary signal is CD40L on the T ... While CD40L was originally described on T lymphocytes, its expression has since been found on a wide variety of cells, ... Noelle contested Lederman's patent, but the challenge (called an interference) was rejected on all counts CD40 ligand (CD154) ... "T-BAM/CD40-L on helper T lymphocytes augments lymphokine-induced B cell Ig isotype switch recombination and rescues B cells ...
... low lymphocyte counts, and febrile seizures, though most often no symptoms present at all. There are indications that HHV-7 can ... To enter CD4+ T cells, HHV-7, unlike HHV-6, uses CD4 and possibly some cell-surface glyoproteins to enter CD4+ T cells. About a ... HHV-7 was first isolated in 1990 from CD4+ T cells taken from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Both HHV-6B and HHV-7, as well as ... Lusso, P; Secchiero, P; Crowley, RW; Garzino-Demo, A; Berneman, ZN; Gallo, RC (1994). "CD4 is a critical component of the ...
... lymphocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.595.500.150 - cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.595.500.150.160 - cd4-cd8 ... cell count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107 - blood cell count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.330 - erythrocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195. ... 107.330.725 - reticulocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.595 - leukocyte count MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.595.500 - ... ratio MeSH E05.200.500.195.107.740 - platelet count MeSH E05.200.500.195.870 - sperm count MeSH E05.200.500.251 - cell ...
The severity of illness is greater the lower the CD4 count. A CD4 count less than 200 is a diagnosis of Acquired ... principally the CD4+ T-Helper lymphocytes. As well as lymphocytes, CD4 receptors are also present on the surface of macrophages ... and probably many other sites.The normal CD4 count is 500-1500 therefore patient's with HIV have a CD4 count less than 500. ...
Dose-limiting toxicities included low lymphocyte, neutrophil, and thrombocyte count as well as hepatotoxicity. According to the ... It has also been shown that HIV-specific CD4 T cells from "HIV controllers" (rare individuals who don't progress to AIDS by ... CD4(+) T Cells Represent Peripheral Tfh Cells with Antigen-Dependent Helper Functions". Immunity. 44 (1): 167-178. doi:10.1016/ ... "Interleukin 21 and its receptor are involved in NK cell expansion and regulation of lymphocyte function". Nature. 408 (6808): ...
... in ZDV-naive patients with CD4 cell counts of 50-500 cell/mm 3. XI International Conference on AIDS, Vancouver, July 1996, LB.B ... "Large volume lymphocyte transfer as immune-enhancing therapy in a set of monozygotic twins". IX International Conference on ... "Effects of Administration of Antibody to Human Alpha-Fetoprotein in Persons Seropositive for HIV-1 on CD4+ Cell Count and Viral ... Zidovudine (ZDV) in p24 antigenemic, HIV-1 infected patients with less than 500 CD4 cells/mm3." 2nd National Conference of ...
A patient's risk level for developing an opportunistic infection is approximated using the patient's CD4 T-cell count and ... caused by feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated with lymphocyte T-cell ... Doitsh G, Greene WC (March 2016). "Dissecting How CD4 T Cells Are Lost During HIV Infection". Cell Host & Microbe. 19 (3): 280- ...
Laboratory manifestations include progressive lymphopenia that primarily affects CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets, reduced B cell and ... This disorder is considered a combined immunodeficiency because it includes both decreased lymphocyte numbers and defective ... NK cell counts in some patients, eosinophilia, and immunoglobulin abnormalities. Antibody responses to vaccines are frequently ... lymphocyte function. It can also be classified as a type of autosomal recessive hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome. ...
... flow cytometry is the gold standard for obtaining CD4 counts, but flow cytometry is a complicated technique that is not ... Measuring the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes in a person's blood is an accurate way to determine if a person has HIV and to track ...
260-9. Vermund S, Hoover D, Chen K (1993). "CD4+ counts in seronegative homosexual men. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study". N ... Des Jarlais D, Friedman S, Marmor M, Mildvan D, Yancovitz S, Sotheran J, Wenston J, Beatrice S (1993). "CD4 lymphocytopenia ... 2008). "Recreational drug use and T lymphocyte subpopulations in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected men". Drug Alcohol Depend. 94 ...
Defined as total lymphocyte count below 1.0x109/L, the cells most commonly affected are CD4+ T cells. Like neutropenia, ... CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors and CD4 ... Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ...
... expansion of HSC and their progeny is sufficient to normalize the blood cell counts and re-initiate the immune system. The ... This is due to a therapeutic immune reaction of the grafted donor T lymphocytes against the diseased bone marrow of the ... during which neither showed traces of HIV in their blood plasma and purified CD4 T cells using a sensitive culture method (less ...
T cells (T lymphocytes) - T lymphocyte proliferation assay - T lymphocytes - T suppressor cells - T4 cell - T4 cells (T-helper ... CD4 (T4) or CD4 + cells - CDC National Prevention Information Network (CDC-NPIN) - cell lines - cell-mediated immunity (CMI) - ... complete blood count (CBC) - computed tomography scan (C-T scan) - concomitant drugs - condyloma - condyloma acuminatum - ... B-cell lymphoma - B cells - B lymphocytes (B cells) - bactericidal - bacteriostatic - bacterium - baculovirus - baseline - ...
Defined as total lymphocyte count below 1.0x109/L, the cells most commonly affected are CD4+ T cells. Like neutropenia, ... CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors and CD4 ... Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ...
B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes). Cytogenetic testing on the marrow samples can help classify disease and predict how aggressive ... White blood cell count at diagnosis of greater than 30,000 (B-ALL) or 100,000 (T-ALL) is associated with worse outcomes ... CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8 - + TdT + + CytogeneticsEdit. Cytogenetic analysis has shown different proportions and frequencies ... on the cell surface can help differentiate malignant lymphocyte cells from reactive lymphocytes, white blood cells that are ...
Mean CD4+ count at time of diagnosis is ~50/uL. In immunocompromised patients, prognosis is usually poor. In immunocompetent ... which affects the CD4+ lymphocyte population and the level of immunosuppression.[11] The optimal treatment plan for patients ... Extended survival has been seen, however, in a subgroup of AIDS patients with CD4 counts of more than 200 and no concurrent ...
Most people develop side effects.[4] Common side effects include low white blood cell counts, loss of appetite, vomiting, hair ... Elimination of T regulatory cells (CD4+CD25+ T cells) in naive and tumor-bearing hosts ... "Immunosuppressive effect of cyclophosphamide on white blood cells and lymphocyte subpopulations from peripheral blood of Balb/c ...
HIV's cytotoxic activity toward CD4+ lymphocytes is classified as AIDS once a given patient's CD4+ cell count falls below 200.[ ... HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 glycoprotein marker present on the cell membrane. ... It can be interpreted by counting, measuring, and analyzing the cells of the Sub/G1 cell population.[100] When HeLA cells are ... In a healthy individual, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes is in balance with the cells generated by the bone marrow; however, in ...
Within the lymphocyte pool, cladribine targets B cells more than T cells. Both HCL and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia are ... After treatment, people with MS are monitored with regular blood tests, looking specifically at the white cell count and liver ... As a purine analogue, it is taken up into rapidly proliferating cells like lymphocytes to be incorporated into DNA synthesis. ... As a purine analog, it is a synthetic chemotherapy agent that targets lymphocytes and selectively suppresses the immune system ...
"CD4 Count". www.aids.gov. Retrieved 2015-04-30.. *^ Said E.A.; Dupuy F.P.; Trautmann L.; Zhang Y.; Shi Y.; El-Far M.; Hill B.J ... These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... Mature Th cells express the surface protein CD4 and are referred to as CD4+ T cells. Such CD4+ T cells are generally treated as ... CD4+ T cells have TCRs with an affinity for Class II MHC, and CD4 is involved in determining MHC affinity during maturation in ...
This protein is common to all HIV variants as it is the attachment point for B lymphocytes and subsequent compromising of the ... A cellular receptor, generally CCR5 or CXCR4 is required in order for HIV entry into CD4 cells. Cells of individuals homozygous ... with one animal showing complete suppression of viral replication and preservation of CD4+ T cell count (no virus detected ... HIV binds to immune cell surface receptors, including CD 4 and CXCR4 or CD4 and CCR5. The binding causes conformation changes ...
These cells are also known as CD4+ T cells as they express the CD4 on their surfaces. Helper T cells become activated when they ... A T cell is a type of lymphocyte which develops in the thymus gland and plays a central role in the immune response. T cells ... induction of T cell exhaustion can be beneficial for transplantation it also carries disadvantages among which can be counted ... Double-positive cells (CD4+/CD8+) that interact well with MHC class II molecules will eventually become CD4+ cells, whereas ...
... contrast to many other lymphomas associated with HIV infection it occurs most commonly in people with higher CD4 T cell counts ... Lymphocyte-rich. Is a rare subtype, show many features which may cause diagnostic confusion with nodular lymphocyte predominant ... Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphomaEdit. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is another subtype ... White blood count ≥ 15,000/µl. Other studies have reported the following to be the most important adverse prognostic factors: ...
It is recommended to start HAART if a person has HIV and has a CD4 cell count of less than or equal to 350 cells/mm3. This ... Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 (in green) budding from cultured lymphocyte. Multiple round bumps on cell surface ... CD4 cells are necessary to help protect the body from infections and cancer.[20] Since the HIV virus destroys CD4 cells, it ... In general, HAART prevents the HIV from multiplying and destroying CD4 cells. ...
Counting these areas and multiplying by the dilution factor allowed him to calculate the number of viruses in the original ... This is because its surface protein, gp120, specifically interacts with the CD4 molecule - a chemokine receptor - which is most ... Klein E, Kis LL, Klein G. Epstein-Barr virus infection in humans: from harmless to life endangering virus-lymphocyte ... that are generally considered necessary to count as life. Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have ...
A lymphocyte count is usually part of a peripheral complete blood cell count and is expressed as the percentage of lymphocytes ... the CD4+ subgroup of T lymphocytes). Without the key defense that these T cells provide, the body becomes susceptible to ... leukemias are found through an abnormally raised lymphocyte count in an otherwise normal person). A high lymphocyte count with ... The effects of other viruses or lymphocyte disorders can also often be estimated by counting the numbers of lymphocytes present ...
Ang anumang kurso ng sakit ng isang partikular na indibiwal maaaring may malaking pagkakaiba. CD4+ T cell count (cells per µL) ... Electron micrograp ng HIV-1 (sa berde) na umuusbong mula sa kulturadong lymphocyte. Ang maraming mga bilog na bukol sa ibabaw ... na CD4 ng gp120 sa CD4. Kapag ang gp120 ay nakabigkis na sa protinang CD4, ang envelope complex ay sumasailalim sa isang ... Ang HIV ay maaaring humawa sa iba't ibang uri ng mga selulang immuno gaya ng CD4+ na mga selulang T, macrophage, at microglial ...
Some leukemia patients do not have high white blood cell counts visible during a regular blood count. This less-common ... An increase in the rate of lymphocyte production[49]. Treatment approach[edit]. For most people with CLL, it is incurable by ... CD4. *CD8). By. development/. marker. *TdT+: ALL (Precursor T acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma) ... For an aleukemic patient, the white blood cell counts in the bloodstream can be normal or low. Aleukemia can occur in any of ...
... who maintain a CD4 count greater than 500 without antiretroviral therapy with a detectable viral load. Many of these patients ... percentage of long-term nonprogressors have been shown to have inherited mutations of the CCR5 receptor of T cell lymphocytes. ... and have CD4+ counts within the normal range. Most people with HIV not on medication have viral loads which are much higher. It ...
Small resting lymphocytes mixed with variable number of large activated cells. Lymph nodes are diffusely effaced[1] CD5, ... Flow cytometry is a diagnostic tool in order to count/visualize the amount of lymphatic cells in the body. T cells, B cells and ... CD4. *CD8). By. development/. marker. *TdT+: ALL (Precursor T acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma) ... Lymphoid leukemias are a group of leukemias affecting circulating lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. The lymphocytic ...
... and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells.[13] When CD4+ T cell numbers ... A generalized graph of the relationship between HIV copies (viral load) and CD4 counts over the average course of untreated HIV ... The first step in fusion involves the high-affinity attachment of the CD4 binding domains of gp120 to CD4. Once gp120 is bound ... The nef protein (p27) down-regulates CD4 (the major viral receptor), as well as the MHC class I and class II molecules.[39][40] ...
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated ... These cells are also known as CD4+ T cells because they express the CD4 glycoprotein on their surfaces. Helper T cells become ... induction of T cell exhaustion can be beneficial for transplantation it also carries disadvantages among which can be counted ... Double-positive cells (CD4+/CD8+) that interact well with MHC class II molecules will eventually become CD4+ cells, whereas ...
... to many other lymphomas associated with HIV infection it occurs most commonly in patients with higher CD4 T cell counts. ... Lymphocyte-rich. Is a rare subtype, show many features which may cause diagnostic confusion with nodular lymphocyte predominant ... White blood count ≥ 15,000/µl. Other studies have reported the following to be the most important adverse prognostic factors: ... Lymphocyte depleted. Is a rare subtype, composed of large numbers of often pleomorphic RS cells with only few reactive ...
A CD4 count measures the number of CD4 cells in your blood. Its used to check the immune system function in people with HIV. ... Other names: CD4 lymphocyte count, CD4+ count, T4 count, T-helper cell count, CD4 percent ... What is a CD4 count?. A CD4 count is a test that measures the number of CD4 cells in your blood. CD4 cells, also known as T ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/cd4-lymphocyte-count/ CD4 Lymphocyte Count. ...
Evaluation of a Low-Cost Strategy for Enumerating CD4 Lymphocyte Absolute Count and Percentage Using the FACSCalibur Flow ... D. Barnett, B. Walker, A. Landay, and T. N. Denny, "CD4 immunophenotyping in HIV infection," Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. ... T. Peter, A. Badrichani, E. Wu et al., "Challenges in implementing CD4 testing in resource-limited settings," Cytometry B, vol ... "Cost savings by reagent reduction in flow cytometry-based CD4+ T cell counts: an approach to improve accessibility for HIV ...
A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Cimetidine on CD4 Lymphocyte Counts in HIV Infection. The safety and scientific validity of ... A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Cimetidine on CD4 Lymphocyte Counts in HIV Infection. ... To observe time-associated trends at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 in the change of CD4 counts for patients taking cimetidine for the ... To determine the change in CD4 count after 4 and 8 weeks in HIV-infected patients treated with cimetidine compared to placebo. ...
"CD4 Lymphocyte Count" by people in this website by year, and whether "CD4 Lymphocyte Count" was a major or minor topic of these ... "CD4 Lymphocyte Count" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... CD4 Lymphocyte Count*CD4 Lymphocyte Count. *Lymphocyte Count, CD4. *CD4 Lymphocyte Counts ... Below are the most recent publications written about "CD4 Lymphocyte Count" by people in Profiles. ...
HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any ... U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected ... U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected ... A clinical decision-support system with interactive alerts improved CD4 cell count in HIV Annals of Internal Medicine; 158 (8): ...
... total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts during the menstrual cycle in healthy female undergraduate students in Port Harcourt, ... Changes in total and differential white cell counts, ... counts, total lymphocyte count [TLC] and CD4 cell count during ... Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts during the menstrual cycle in healthy ... Keywords: CD4 cell count, Total lymphocyte count, Menstrual cycle, White blood cells ...
... with CD4 count of less than 100 cells/mm3, 24.7% (218/883) with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3, 16.0% (141/883) with CD4 ... Less than a quarter (18.8%, 116/883) of patients came with CD4 count of 500 cells/mm3 or more. 70.9% came with CD4 count of ... of all HIV positive patients presented with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3. 20.7% (183/883) reported with CD4 count less ... P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District ...
Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate Marker of CD4 Count in Monitoring HIV Infected Individuals: A Prospective Study EC17- ... Introduction: CD4 cell count has been proposed to be substituted by Absolute lymphocyte count in monitoring HIV infected ... To assess the clinical utility of the Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) to serve as a surrogate marker for predicting a CD4 count ... revealed good correlation between ALC and CD4 cell counts but ALC cut-off of 1200 was not a surrogate marker for CD4 cell count ...
For evaluating the trend of CD4 + T cells changes, the absolute count of CD4 + T lymphocyte will be measured every 3 months in ... The administration of antiretroviral therapy is recently proposed for all patients with CD4 + T cell count of ≤ 350/μlit in ... the patients who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria includes doing some lab tests to determine the absolute count of CD4 ... T lymphocyte and the plasma levels of Se. The incidence of opportunistic infection will be assessed during the monthly visits ...
... does hiv affect overall lymphocyte count, with a wealth of fact sheets, expert advice, community perspective, the latest news/ ... The CD4 percentage is the percentage of CD4 cells in the total lymphocyte count. The normal range is 28-58%. Why Do You Use CD4 ... CD4 counts and total lymphocyte count?. From what I have read here, I imagine that if one person tests positive for HIV,the ... Although HIVaffects the CD4 lymphocyte count, the CD8 count will increase in reaction to HIV infection and the rest of the ...
... low-cost counting device to monitor CD-4 T lymphocytes in patients and deliver immediate results in the field. This project is ... point-of-care device utilizing a microchip to analyze a finger-stick blood-drop sample to produce a CD-4 count in less than a ... CD-4 T Lymphocyte-Counting Microchip. Utkan Demirci and Martha Gray 2007 , Healthcare More than 35 million HIV-infected people ... low-cost counting device to monitor CD-4 T lymphocytes in patients and deliver immediate results in the field. This project is ...
Erratum: Evaluation of a low-cost method, the guava easyCD4 assay, to enumerate CD4-positive lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected ... Erratum: Evaluation of a low-cost method, the guava easyCD4 assay, to enumerate CD4-positive lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected ... title = "Erratum: Evaluation of a low-cost method, the guava easyCD4 assay, to enumerate CD4-positive lymphocyte counts in HIV- ... T2 - Evaluation of a low-cost method, the guava easyCD4 assay, to enumerate CD4-positive lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected ...
Evaluating Total Lymphocyte Counts and Other Hematological Parameters as a Substitute for CD4 Counts in the Management of HIV ...
... antiviral therapy is often initiated when the absolute CD4 count drops below 500 cells/µL. When the absolute CD4 count drops ... Absolute CD4:CD8 Ratio. Resultable. N. ratio. XX.XX. 54218-3. 0095619. Lymphocyte Subset Panel 3 Information. Resultable. N. ... When the absolute CD4 count drops below 100 cells/µL, prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex is recommended.. For ... The CD4 cells are Helper T-cells expressing both CD3 and CD4. The CD8 cells are Cytotoxic T-cells expressing both CD3 and CD8. ...
When to Begin Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy? Evidence Supporting Initiation of Therapy at CD4 Lymphocyte Counts ... CD4 T-Lymphocyte Recovery in Individuals With Advanced HIV-1 Infection Receiving Potent Antiretroviral Therapy for 4 Years: The ...
CD4 count less than 300 cells/mmL on 2 consecutive samples.. Uninfected by HIV as determined by ELISA with confirmatory Western ... Evaluation of HIV-Negative Patients With Low CD4+ T Lymphocyte Counts. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... CD4+ T lymphocytes play an important role in immune function, and low counts may leave people susceptible to unusual infections ... Examples of such diseases would be any acute, severe medical illness that had not resolved when CD4 cell counts were obtained; ...
CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Understanding Genetics. *What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? ... deficient human lymphocytes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Dec;126(6):1226-33.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2010.07.029. Citation on ...
absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte count and changes in these counts; *assessment of adherence to medications; *remaining treatment ... complete blood count, chemistry profile, including serum transaminases and lipid profile (AII); *CD4+ T lymphocyte count (AI); ... T cell counts of 0--49 cells/mm3; 12.5% among those with CD4+ T cell counts of 50--99 cells/mm3; 9.3% among those with CD4+ T ... among those with CD4+ T cell counts of 200--349 cells/mm3; and 3.4% among those with CD4+ T ell counts of 350 cells/mm3 or ...
A high CD4 or CD8 ratio would indicate that the disease is progressing slowly or that the infection is... ... CD4 and CD8 are the cells most commonly infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. ... What causes a high lymphocyte count?. A: A high lymphocyte count, also referred to as lymphocytosis, can be caused by acute ... What is a normal CD4 count range?. A: In adults, normal CD4 counts range from 500 to 1,200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood ...
CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Anti-HIV Agents. Viral Load. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... patients undergo physical assessments and efficacy evaluations which include plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements and CD4 cell counts ... A clinical diagnosis of AIDS, excluding CD4+ cell counts less than 200/mm3. ...
... cross-sectional VL measures and time-updated CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in ART-treated patients, suggesting cumulative HIV ... CD4 Lymphocyte Count * Female * HIV Infections / drug therapy* * HIV Infections / mortality* * Humans ... cross-sectional VL measures and time-updated CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in ART-treated patients, suggesting cumulative HIV ...
CD4 Lymphocyte Count * Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced * Cost-Benefit Analysis * Counseling * Female ... Methods: The USPSTF reviewed new evidence on the effectiveness of treatments in HIV-infected persons with CD4 counts greater ...
CD4 counts are most often used, along with an HIV viral load, to evaluate the immune system of a person diagnosed with a human ... Formal name: CD4 Lymphocyte Count; CD4 Percent. Related tests: HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24); HIV Viral Load; HIV ... CD4 counts that rise and/or stabilize over time may indicate that the person is responding to treatment. If someones CD4 count ... In general, a normal CD4 count means that the persons immune system is not yet affected by HIV infection. A low CD4 count ...
CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Indinavir. RNA, Viral. Anti-HIV Agents. Viral Load. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... in addition to background therapy on disease progression or death in patients with CD4+ cell counts between 200 and 500 cells/ ... Versus Deferred Indinavir in Addition to Background Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Patients With CD4+ Cell Counts ...
CD4 Lymphocyte Count. *Combination. *Drug Therapy. *Female. *Follow-Up Studies. *HIV Infections/*complications/drug therapy ...
CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. Anti-HIV Agents. Viral Load. abacavir. ... Viral load , 100,000 copies/ml and CD4 cells , 15% of total lymphocyte count despite at least 4 weeks of therapy with ...
Understanding my white boold count. Mar 22, 2008. Estimating CD4 count/percentage from Lymphocytes/Leukocytes percentage. Mar ... low CD4 count-med related?. Apr 17, 2004. Twice, huge differences between labs/T cells and Abs Lymphs a week apart. Apr 11, ... lymphocyte count in the early weeks of contracting HIV (week 5 to 7). Jul 24, 2016. ... I need help figuring out my white blood cell count and lymphocyte differential. Jul 27, 2003. ...
Immunological response to HAART was considered if CD4 lymphocyte counts were ,0·2 × 109/l or there was an increase in CD4 ... However, in that trial only five (8%) patients had a CD4 lymphocyte count below 0·05 × 109/l (Spina et al, 2007) versus 16 (20 ... In the CDE and rituximab study (Spina et al, 2005) (in which the number of patients with a CD4 lymphocyte count below 0·05 × 10 ... 2%). However, even in moderately immunosuppressed patients (i.e. those with CD4 lymphocyte count ,0·1 × 109/l) no significant ...
  • CD4 cells, also known as T cells, are white blood cells that fight infection and play an important role in your immune system . (medlineplus.gov)
  • CD4 T-cell levels are a criterion for categorizing HIV-related clinical conditions by the CDC's classification system for HIV infection. (aruplab.com)
  • During HIV infection, antiviral therapy is often initiated when the absolute CD4 count drops below 500 cells/µL. (aruplab.com)
  • Patients 8 years of age and older with CD4+ T cell counts below 300 cells/mm3 who test negative for HIV infection by standard blood tests may be eligible for this study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • CD4 counts are most often used, along with an HIV viral load , to evaluate the immune system of a person diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to monitor effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART or ARV), also called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (labtestsonline.org)
  • CD4 cells are types of white blood cells called T lymphocytes or T cells that fight infection and play an important role in immune system function. (labtestsonline.org)
  • HIV kills CD4 cells, so if an HIV infection is not treated, the number of CD4 cells will decrease as HIV infection progresses. (labtestsonline.org)
  • A CD4 count is usually ordered along with an HIV viral load when a person is first diagnosed with HIV infection as part of a baseline measurement. (labtestsonline.org)
  • A high CD4 or CD8 ratio would indicate that the disease is progressing slowly or that the infection is recent and the immune system is still strong. (reference.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention has classified HIV infection by the CD4 count and the opportunistic diseases that the client has experienced. (informit.com)
  • In the clinical course of HIV infection, CD4 + count decreases with disease progression and it has been considered to be correlated with LV dysfunction in the disease process. (omicsonline.org)
  • corrected ] Antibiotic prophylaxis should be used to prevent toxoplasmosis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infection at CD4 + cell counts below 100 and below 50 cells per mm 3 , respectively. (aafp.org)
  • The most overt pathological effect of HIV infection is the reduction in number and the effectiveness of CD4 + T-lymphocytes. (tulane.edu)
  • Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes ih HIV-1 infection. (slideshare.net)
  • It will also allow assessment of the levels of CD4 cell number at which vulnerability to opportunistic infection recur. (knowcancer.com)
  • Monitoring lymphocyte counts in a patient with HIV infection is one way to assess the degree of immunosuppression and the risk of developing opportunistic infections. (healthcentral.com)
  • HIV infection is characterised by CD4+ lymphocyte depletion manifested through the loss of the immune response capacity. (scirp.org)
  • Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and CD4+T cell counts among suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases seeking healthcare at TB clinics in Mombasa County, Kenya. (scirp.org)
  • There was a significant relationship between CD4/ESR and HIV infection. (scirp.org)
  • Objective: CD4 count is the mainstay criteria for initiation of HAART (Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy) and assessment of disease progression in HIV patients. (manipal.edu)
  • In this study, patients with moderately advanced HIV disease who have already received 52 weeks of either HAART or HAART plus IL-2 are vaccinated with Remune and a control recall immunogen, tetanus toxoid (TT), to evaluate whether these patients can develop new CD4 T-cell and CD8 T-cell responses to HIV-related antigens. (nih.gov)
  • Despite prolonged treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), infectious HIV-1 continues to replicate and to reside latently in resting memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes, creating a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in plasma viral load and CD4 + lymphocyte count during and after HAART. (nih.gov)
  • 3 ] Higher CD4-positive T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts in the HAART era have been associated with a shift in histologic diagnoses. (cancer.gov)
  • She has never done cd4 count neither has she taken any antiretroviral drug but she has been to the hospital on several occasions in crisis and lab results have always indicated a total wbc of. (thebody.com)
  • Lastly, the indications for antiretroviral therapy include symptomatic patients or those with AIDS, and pre-AIDS patients with CD4 + cell counts of 200 to 350 cells per mm 3 or HIV RNA above 55,000 to 100,000 copies per mL. (aafp.org)
  • These results suggest that moving CD4+ count above 500 following antiretroviral therapy initiation is associated with a decreased risk of hepatocarcinoma, regardless of the duration of HIV-induced immunodeficiency. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The initial CD4+ lymphocyte increases during the weeks after initiating antiretroviral therapy may mostly represent cell redistribution, with increases in total CD4+ lymphocyte number evident within weeks. (slideshare.net)
  • Prolonged follow-up will define durability of the antiretroviral response and the experience with opportunistic conditions, neurologic diseases, and survival, especially in those whose CD4 counts drop below 50 cells/mm3. (knowcancer.com)
  • The added value of a CD4 count to identify patients eligible for highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults in Cambodia. (nih.gov)
  • Of 2652 patients, 66% were male, 6% received antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the median CD4 lymphocyte count was 131 cells/microL. (jove.com)
  • The independent relation between plasma HIV RNA level and CD4+ lymphocyte count over time and clinical outcome suggests that the measurement of plasma HIV RNA level, in addition to the CD4+ lymphocyte count, has a role in guiding the management of antiretroviral therapy. (annals.org)
  • After the institution of antiretroviral treatment, basically three aspects of the evolution can characterize failure or therapeutic success: the evolution of viral load, T-CD4 + lymphocyte count and the occurrence of clinical events. (wikipedia.org)
  • For these patients, a low CD4 count is good, and means the medicine is working. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To determine the change in CD4 count after 4 and 8 weeks in HIV-infected patients treated with cimetidine compared to placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To observe time-associated trends at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 in the change of CD4 counts for patients taking cimetidine for the full 16 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cohen CJ, Hellinger JA, Day J, Salitsky N, Shevitz A, Zackin R, DeGruttola V. Lack of effect of cimetidine on lymphocyte subsets in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Results More than half (54.9%, 485/883) of all HIV positive patients presented with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3. (bmj.com)
  • Less than a quarter (18.8%, 116/883) of patients came with CD4 count of 500 cells/mm3 or more. (bmj.com)
  • The World Health Organization has stated that there is an urgent need for a handheld, reliable, low-cost counting device to monitor CD-4 T lymphocytes in patients and deliver immediate results in the field. (mit.edu)
  • This study will evaluate HIV-negative patients with unusually low levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) to learn more about the clinical symptoms, cause, immunology, and biology of this problem. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At specified time points, patients undergo physical assessments and efficacy evaluations which include plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements and CD4 cell counts. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Viremia copy-years predicted all-cause mortality independent of traditional, cross-sectional VL measures and time-updated CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in ART-treated patients, suggesting cumulative HIV replication causes harm independent of its effect on the degree of immunodeficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Eighty-one patients were enrolled, 57 in stages III or IV, International Prognostic Index (IPI) 0 or 1 ( n = 26), 2 ( n = 19), 3 ( n = 20) and 4 or 5 ( n = 16), and median CD4 lymphocyte count of 0·158 × 10 9 /l. (wiley.com)
  • Methods: A total of 455 EDTA blood samples from HIV-infected patients were analyzed for their ALC, CD4 counts and CD4 percentages, over a period of 6 months, from January 2015 to June 2015 in Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. (manipal.edu)
  • Patients were assumed to start ARVs when their CD4 cell count was less than 350 and continue on them indefinitely. (health.gov.au)
  • Remune has been reported to increase lymphocyte proliferative responses to HIV antigens in patients with high CD4 cell counts. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with HIV should be monitored for CD4 + lymphocyte and HIV RNA levels every three to six months. (aafp.org)
  • Patients who develop a drop in CD4 count below 50 cells/mm3 on 2 measurements at least 4 weeks apart are offered open-label azithromycin. (knowcancer.com)
  • AS PER AMENDMENT 06/24/98: Patients remain on open-label azithromycin regardless of subsequent CD4 counts. (knowcancer.com)
  • Patients undergo regular clinical and laboratory evaluations that include physical examinations, CD4 counts, and viral load. (knowcancer.com)
  • Patients undergo clinical and laboratory evaluations every 16 weeks for 160 weeks that include physical examinations, CD4 counts, and viral load as well as neuropsychologic and cardiovascular assessments. (knowcancer.com)
  • The haemoglobin count dropped by more than 20 g/l from baseline in 95 (61%) patients. (bmj.com)
  • Subsets of peripheral blood lymphocytes were analysed in 31 patients. (bmj.com)
  • Our data suggest that, in settings with limited access to CD4 count testing, it might be useful to target this test to patients in WHO stage 3 whose staging is based on weight loss alone, to avoid unnecessary treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Most patients in these series had either mixed cellularity or lymphocyte-depleted HL, expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated proteins in Reed-Sternberg cells, B symptoms, and a median CD4 lymphocyte count of 300/dL or lower. (cancer.gov)
  • 2 Give 2 doses at least 28 days apart to patients with CD4 count ≥200 cells/µL for ≥6mos with no evidence of immunity to MMR. (empr.com)
  • Approximately a fifth (21%) of patients had at least one neutrophil count below 0.75x10 9 /l, only 8% of individuals experienced a sustained fall in neutrophils below this level. (aidsmap.com)
  • Absolute lymphocyte count fell to below 0.5x10 9 /l in 107 patients, including 34 patients who also had nadir neutrophil counts below 0.75x10 9 /l. (aidsmap.com)
  • Adherence was assessed during each visit by pill count, and, through counselling, patients were motivated to adhere to therapy. (who.int)
  • Moreover, although these earlier studies measured certain T lymphocyte-mediated functions, they did not employ a direct measure of T helper cell function (which is considered to be the primary defect in AIDS patients). (google.com)
  • CD4 monitoring is not necessary for patients who have stable viral suppression. (choosingwisely.org)
  • 236 all studies showed that utilisation rose with lower CD4 cell counts with 20% more visits when the CD4 was less than 350. (health.gov.au)
  • 234 , 235 , 240 , 241 hospitalisation risk increased in all settings with lower CD4 cell counts. (health.gov.au)
  • Futhermore, lower CD4-cell counts were associated with increased parasite densities and increased risk of clinical malaria. (tulane.edu)
  • AIDS is diagnosed when your CD4 count is extremely low. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A clinical diagnosis of AIDS, excluding CD4+ cell counts less than 200/mm3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • According to epidemiological data, the risk of AIDS is low with higher CD4 cell counts 234 but people may be admitted with serious non-AIDS events. (health.gov.au)
  • Clients with AIDS are often leukopenic (a WBC below 3500 cells/mm 3 ) and usually lymphopenic (less than 1500 lymphocytes/mm 3 ). (informit.com)
  • O'Brien WA, Hartigan PM, Hamilton JD and the VA Cooperative Study Group on AIDS: Changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ lymphocyte counts and the risk of progression to AIDS. (duke.edu)
  • Diagnosis of AIDS is defined as being HIV-antibody positive and having CD4 + T-lymphocyte counts below 200 per mm 3 or less than 14% of the total lymphocytes. (tulane.edu)
  • To assess the association of changes in plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA level and CD4+ lymphocyte count with progression to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (annals.org)
  • Plasma HIV RNA levels or CD4+ lymphocyte counts over time were more strongly associated with progression to AIDS than were baseline levels or counts. (annals.org)
  • So far, the detection of an immune deficient state in HIV-infected individuals who are not yet diagnosed with AIDS has relied mainly on in vitro generated T lymphocyte responses to agents such as mitogens and lymphocytes from other donors. (google.com)
  • These stimuli activate not only the T lymphocyte population that is primarily affected by HIV (T4 cells), but also other T lymphocytes (T8 cells), which are not affected by HIV early in progression toward AIDS. (google.com)
  • This assay is designed for enumerating the absolute cell counts of lymphocyte subsets in lysed whole blood. (aruplab.com)
  • In multiple sclerosis, alemtuzumab immunomodulatory effects may include alteration in the number, proportions, and properties of some lymphocyte subsets following treatment. (drugs.com)
  • Lymphopenia and the depletion of T lymphocyte subsets may be associated with disease activity. (bmj.com)
  • Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra) should be initiated at CD4 + counts of less than 200 cells per mm 3 . (aafp.org)
  • Following intravenous SHIV-89.6P challenge, sham-vaccinated monkeys developed low-frequency CTL responses, low-titer NAb responses, rapid loss of CD4 + T lymphocytes, high-setpoint viral RNA levels, and significant clinical disease progression and death in half of the animals by day 168 postchallenge. (asm.org)
  • If too many CD4 cells are lost, your immune system will have trouble fighting off infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the absolute CD4 count drops below 200 cells/µL, therapeutic prophylaxis against PCP and other opportunistic infections may be initiated. (aruplab.com)
  • CD4+ T lymphocytes play an important role in immune function, and low counts may leave people susceptible to unusual infections. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • How do CD4 cells protect you from infections? (reference.com)
  • Baseline testing includes CD4 + T-lymphocyte cell counts and HIV viral RNA levels to assess HIV disease stage, and numerous studies to screen for opportunistic infections. (aafp.org)
  • Initial preventive interventions include patient education to reduce exposure to infections, treatment of comorbid conditions such as human papillomavirus-related dysplasia, and vaccinations such as for pneumococcus and hepatitis B. Prophylaxis against opportunistic pathogens is recommended when CD4 + cell counts fall below 200 cells per mm 3 . (aafp.org)
  • These effects on the various immune effector cells, and especially the CD4 + T-lymphocytes, lead to a general failure of cell-mediated immune responses, and thus, give rise to a range of opportunistic infections. (tulane.edu)
  • After the baseline, a CD4 count will usually be ordered at intervals over time, depending on a few different factors. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Methods: Using a baseline CD4 percent, CD4 counts were estimated from subsequent absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) measured by an automated FBC machine (CD4 estimate calculated by the ALC multiplied by the baseline CD4 percent). (ebscohost.com)
  • The CD4 count was increasingly underestimated with time from baseline, and the degree of underestimation correlated with baseline CD4 percent (p (ebscohost.com)
  • From the caseâ€"control study, baseline CD4 percent of ≥20, no illness requiring hospitalization and more than a year since starting or switch of anti-retroviral therapy were identified as significant predictors of inaccurate estimates. (ebscohost.com)
  • Conclusions: In virologically-suppressed and immune-reconstituted HIV-infected adults, the CD4 count can be accurately estimated from the ALC using a baseline CD4 percent for at least 2 years after measurement. (ebscohost.com)
  • The CD4+ lymphocyte (CD4) count (cells/µl) was estimated at baseline and at 6-month intervals during follow-up. (who.int)
  • These high levels of HIV replication fall abruptly with the development of an immune response to the virus, now thought to be mediated largely by the emergence of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes, rather than by development of neutralizing antibody. (slideshare.net)
  • 9. The method of claim 8 in which the antibody is anti-lymphocyte globulin. (google.com)
  • There is an emerging consensus that an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine must elicit both virus-specific neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • T-helper cells (CD4 + ) play a critical immune role by activating our B-cell antibody production in response to extracellular pathogens and activating our macrophages in response to intracellular pathogens. (lifeextension.com)
  • Making use of soluble major histocompatibility class I/peptide tetramers and peptide-specific killing assays to monitor CD8 + T-lymphocyte responses to a dominant SIV Gag epitope in genetically selected rhesus monkeys, a codon-optimized SIV gag DNA vaccine construct was shown to elicit a high-frequency SIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. (asm.org)
  • Since cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are critical for controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in infected individuals, candidate HIV-1 vaccines should elicit virus-specific CTL responses. (asm.org)
  • A number of recent studies have demonstrated the importance of virus-specific CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in controlling HIV-1 replication in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in rhesus monkeys ( 18 , 26 , 27 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • This test evaluates several important types of T-lymphocytes which are critical immune response, CD4 + , aka T helper cells, CD8 + , aka cytotoxic T cells (note: does not measure suppressor cells as the old terminology name seems to imply) and natural killer cells. (lifeextension.com)
  • Cytotoxic cells (CD8 + ), on the other hand, are specialized T cells which can recognize and directly kill cells that are damaged or infected with intracellular pathogens without CD4 + activation. (lifeextension.com)
  • Pathology utilisations followed a standard three monthly monitoring for people with a CD4 cell count greater than 500, with a proportion having a genotype resistance test in a year. (health.gov.au)
  • Measurements in CD4 and CD8 counts are considered low if they fall below 200 cells per cubic millimeter, though some doctors will begin preventive measures when counts fall below 350. (reference.com)
  • In contrast, the recombinant MVA-vaccinated monkeys demonstrated high-frequency secondary CTL responses, high-titer secondary SHIV-89.6-specific NAb responses, rapid emergence of SHIV-89.6P-specific NAb responses, partial preservation of CD4 + T lymphocytes, reduced setpoint viral RNA levels, and no evidence of clinical disease or mortality by day 168 postchallenge. (asm.org)
  • A CD4-CD8 ratio. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What is a high CD4/CD8 ratio? (reference.com)
  • The postoperative ratio of Th1/2 in CD4+T cells was decreased in both groups, but no significant difference was seen between the groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Initial haematological investigations included a complete blood count with differential count and clotting profile (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and international normalised ratio). (bmj.com)
  • The percentage and number of CD4+ (T4) and CD8+ (T8) count indicates the amount of suppressor cells as they compare to the helper cells. (informit.com)
  • The first letters indicate the number of helper cells [CD4], and the second letters indicate the number of suppressor cells [CD8]. (informit.com)
  • All T-helper cells express CD4 on their surface as well as many macrophages and monocytes and some B-lymphocytes. (tulane.edu)
  • After two years, if the viral load is undetectable, the CD4 count should be measured yearly if it is 300-500 cells/mm3. (choosingwisely.org)
  • Any patient who develops a drop in CD4 count below 50 cells/mm3 on 2 measurements at least 4 weeks apart is offered open-label azithromycin. (knowcancer.com)
  • Any patient who enters on Step 5 and develops a drop in CD4 below 50 cells/mm3 on 2 consecutive measurements at least 4 weeks apart is offered open-label azithromycin and enters Step 6. (knowcancer.com)
  • Whole blood is added to fluorochrome-labeled antibodies that bind specifically to cell surface antigens on lymphocytes. (aruplab.com)
  • Interestingly, in vitro studies indicate that CD4-cells stimulated with malarial antigens exhibit a 30-100-fold increase in viral load. (tulane.edu)
  • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on cryopreserved plasma samples, previously obtained CD4+ lymphocyte counts, and clinical events. (annals.org)
  • Variability related to the various motifs described above may result in oscillations of up to 25% in absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, with no clinical significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nodular perivascular infiltrate containing plasma cells, lymphocytes, and large atypical mononuclear cells in various stages of maturity is present. (medscape.com)
  • no significant differences were observed in the values of monocytes, basophils, TLC and CD4 cell count during the phases of the menstrual cycle. (ajol.info)
  • However, our results suggest that apparently TLC and CD4 cell count do not undergo a similar physiological variation. (ajol.info)
  • What Factors Influence a CD4 Cell Count? (thebody.com)
  • White Blood Cell Count and Med resistance. (thebody.com)
  • Medications for prophylaxis of herpes simplex virus, mycobacterium complex and pneumocystis pneumonia commenced when the CD4 cell count was low. (health.gov.au)
  • METHODS: HIV-infected adults included in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort with no history of cancer, ≥ 3 months of follow-up between 1998 and 2008, ≥ 1 CD4+ cell count (CD4+), and documented hepatitis virus status were eligible. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The magnitude and breadth of hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells depend on absolute CD4+ T-cell count in individuals coinfected with HIV-1. (harvard.edu)
  • Daily Undulating Periodization Is More Effective Than Nonperiodized Training on Maximal Strength, Aerobic Capacity, and TCD4+ Cell Count in People Living With HIV. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The mean CD4 cell count was 333.27 ± 150.59 cells/mm3 and it was higher in males (343.05 ± 149.33 cells/mm3) than females (325.93 ± 152.92 cells). (scirp.org)
  • at the relative percentages of CD4 and CD8+ cells in a blood sample. (thebody.com)
  • Order only CD4 counts and percentages rather than ordering other lymphocyte panels. (choosingwisely.org)
  • A CD4 count can help your health care provider find out if you are at risk for serious complications from HIV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "CD4 Lymphocyte Count" by people in this website by year, and whether "CD4 Lymphocyte Count" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. (ajol.info)
  • CD4 counts and total lymphocyte count? (thebody.com)
  • The CD4 percentage is the percentage of CD4 cells in the total lymphocyte count . (thebody.com)
  • Since CD4 cells are usually destroyed more rapidly than other types of lymphocytes and because absolute counts can vary from day to day, it is sometimes useful to look at the number of CD4 cells compared to the total lymphocyte count. (labtestsonline.org)
  • How CD4 and Total Lymphocyte Count are correlated? (thebody.com)
  • A total lymphocyte count as an extra criterion did not improve the accuracy. (nih.gov)
  • The ISF was determined by several important innate (total complement and lysozyme activity, neutrophil function) and adaptive immune parameters (lymphocytes, IgA and IgG, and response to the flu vaccine). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Several approaches to achieve immune reconstitution have been attempted, including allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and adoptive transfer of lymphocytes (Holland et al. (google.com)
  • Blood and skin tests are performed at Weeks 0, 8, 16, and 24 to measure immune response and lymphocyte proliferative responses. (nih.gov)
  • Immunologically important lymphocyte that is not thymus-dependent, is either short-lived and naive or long-lived and of memory phenotype, and resembles the bursa-derived lymphocyte of birds in that it is responsible for the production of immunoglobulins. (fpnotebook.com)
  • CD 4 lymphocyte counts and HIV-1 RNA levels of pregnant women were analyzed during two periods of pregnancy. (scielo.br)
  • The study determined the CD4 lymphocytes count levels of HIV positive patient at first presentation at STI/HIV Clinic at Suntreso Government Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. (bmj.com)
  • doing some lab tests to determine the absolute count of CD 4 + T lymphocyte and the plasma levels of Se. (scirp.org)
  • The measurement of CD4 T-cell levels has been used to establish decision points for initiating P. jirovecii prophylaxis, antiviral therapy and to monitor the efficacy of treatment. (aruplab.com)
  • The Public Health Service (PHS) has recommended that CD4 T-cell levels be monitored every 3 to 6 months in all HIV-infected persons. (aruplab.com)
  • There is also circadian variation of CD4 levels and therefore it is recommended that the sample for the test be obtained in the morning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, CD4 and CD8 counts decrease as the HIV disease progresses. (reference.com)
  • This is usually accompanied by a transient decrease in CD4+ lymphocyte count and a self-limited influenza-like illness. (slideshare.net)
  • Includes B cells (B lymphocytes, which produce circulating antibodies) and T cells (T lymphocytes, which are responsible for cell-mediated immunity). (aidsmap.com)
  • A CD4 count is used to check the health of the immune system in people infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). (medlineplus.gov)
  • and your health care provider keep track ofhow you are doing in the following areas: Immune System Status How HIV is affect ing your immune system If you need to start or switch HIV drugs Example of lab test: CD4 cell test (see. (thebody.com)
  • CD4 lymphocytes act as the 'on switch' for part of the immune system , so as the number of CD4 cells drops, damage to the immune system may progress. (healthcentral.com)
  • Both CD4 + and CD8 + cells are part of our adaptive immune system. (lifeextension.com)
  • Low CD4+ T-cells in the absence of known etiology has been called idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia, and a case definition was established by the CDC as a CD4 count less than 300 cells/mL on 2 consecutive samples in a patient uninfected by HIV and with no other disease or treatment that might provide a reasonable alternative explanation for CD4 lymphocytopenia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Utilisation data was derived for different health states from the literature and local data by four CD4 strata in HIV and by seven disease states in HCV. (health.gov.au)
  • Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia or seronegative hiv or others disease? (protocol-online.org)
  • CD4 results are given as a number of cells per cubic millimeter of blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A CD4 count is typically reported as an absolute level or count of cells (expressed as cells per cubic millimeter of blood). (labtestsonline.org)
  • In adults, normal CD4 counts range from 500 to 1,200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood, reports Lab Tests Online. (reference.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To correlate the prevalence of dermatological diseases among HIV-infected patient with CD4-lymphocyte count. (scielosp.org)
  • The preoperative CD4 count was 130 in one patient, and 200 to 499 in the other 4. (nih.gov)
  • because my cd4 percent is low(22% for many times) ,cd8 is high ,very low immunity but many times anti-hiv negative(combo),hiv rna is negative(roche cobas). (protocol-online.org)
  • Symptoms begin after the virus has successfully infected its specific target, T helper/CD4 cells, followed by bursting viraemia. (dermnetnz.org)
  • A high lymphocyte count, also referred to as lymphocytosis, can be caused by acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, cytomegalovirus (CMV. (reference.com)
  • For the first two years after treatment initiation, the CD4 count should be monitored every three to six months. (choosingwisely.org)
  • Independent risk factors were female sex, a history of depression and nadir (lowest-ever) lymphocyte count. (aidsmap.com)
  • For example, an individual's CD4 nadir is their lowest ever measured CD4 count. (aidsmap.com)
  • The severity of neurocognitive impairment is associated with nadir CD4, suggesting that earlier treatment to prevent immunosuppression due to HIV may help prevent HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • This CTL response was demonstrable in both peripheral blood and lymph node lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • CD4 and CD8 are the cells most commonly infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. (reference.com)
  • The progressive decline in T-CD4 + lymphocyte counts is characterized by immunologic failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absolute CD4 count is sufficient for routine HIV monitoring. (aruplab.com)
  • After incubation, lysing and fixation, absolute counts are enumerated utilizing an internal quantitation standard. (aruplab.com)
  • CD4 percentage adds additional prognostic information.Our study was aimed to find out if Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) could serve as a substitute marker for CD4 count and percentage. (manipal.edu)
  • There is no association between asymptomatic Candidal colonization on tongue and palate with decreasing CD4 T lymphocyte count statistically (P=0.3454, P=0.7279). (journalcra.com)
  • They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Objectives: To detect the prevalence of asymptomatic Candidal colonization among HIV positive and Healthy individuals and to investigate the relationship of asymptomatic Candidal colonization of oral cavity and CD4 T-lymphocyte count and to assess antifungal drug susceptibility for Candida species by Fluconazole and Voriconazole in vitro. (journalcra.com)
  • Asymptomatic oral Candidal colonization is not related to CD4 T- lymphocyte count. (journalcra.com)
  • CD4+ and CD8+T cells were analyzed using a BD FACS Count flow cytometer. (scirp.org)
  • Background: A simple method to estimate CD4 counts in stable, HIV infected virologically-suppressed and immune-reconstituted adults could save the expense of unnecessary formal testing. (ebscohost.com)
  • This schedule summarizes recommendations for routine administration of vaccines for HIV-infected adults based on CD4 count. (empr.com)