Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lymphocytosis: Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell SeparationHypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Cladribine: An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).ChlorobenzenesAntigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymphocytes, Null: A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.

Incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi's sarcoma in the Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1988-1996. Groupe d'Epidemiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine. (1/4884)

OBJECTIVE: To assess secular trends of the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) between 1988 and 1996 in the Aquitaine Cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1)-infected subjects (southwestern France). METHODS: Adults of both sexes of all HIV-transmission categories were included. We distinguished between incident and prevalent KS and in case of multiple acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses between initial or subsequent KS. Only incident KS were considered for annual incidence rate calculation. RESULTS: Overall, 21.2% (356/1678) of homosexuals and 1.9% (58/3030) of the other patients were diagnosed with KS over time. Although there was a sharp decrease in 1996 for initial KS, the annual incidence rate of KS was stable over time in the overall cohort as well as in homosexuals (4.3% per year on the average for KS as an initial AIDS-defining illness and 2.1% per year for subsequent KS in homosexuals). The median CD4+ cell count at the time of diagnosis of KS was 56 per mm3 (78 for initial KS, 14 for subsequent KS), with no significant variation over time. CONCLUSION: In the Aquitaine Cohort, the annual incidence of KS has remained stable between 1988 and 1995 with a recent decline in 1996, only for initial KS, while case management of HIV-infected subjects changed drastically.  (+info)

HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (2/4884)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

Cervicovaginal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. (3/4884)

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with precancerous cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions commonly seen among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV). We characterized HPV infection in a large cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for cervicovaginal HPV infection in HIV-positive women. METHODS: HIV-positive (n = 1778) and HIV-negative (n = 500) women were tested at enrollment for the presence of HPV DNA in a cervicovaginal lavage specimen. Blood samples were tested for HIV antibody status, level of CD4-positive T cells, and HIV RNA load (copies/mL). An interview detailing risk factors was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with HIV-negative women, HIV-positive women with a CD4+ cell count of less than 200/mm3 were at the highest risk of HPV infection, regardless of HIV RNA load (odds ratio [OR] = 10.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.32-14.04), followed by women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load greater than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 5.78; 95% CI = 4.17-8.08) and women with a CD4+ count greater than 200/mm3 and an HIV RNA load less than 20,000 copies/mL (OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 2.36-4.12), after adjustment for other factors. Other risk factors among HIV-positive women included racial/ethnic background (African-American versus Caucasian, OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.19-2.28), current smoking (yes versus no; OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.20-1.99), and younger age (age < 30 years versus > or = 40 years; OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.23-2.49). CONCLUSIONS: Although the strongest risk factors of HPV infection among HIV-positive women were indicators of more advanced HIV-related disease, other factors commonly found in studies of HIV-negative women, including racial/ethnic background, current smoking, and age, were important in HIV-positive women as well.  (+info)

Idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia disclosed by the onset of empyema thoracis. (4/4884)

A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in December 1996 due to empyema thoracis. A laboratory examination revealed lymphocytopenia and CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (<300 cells/ microl). No evidence for a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was found. No malignant, hematological or autoimmune disease was detected. We thus diagnosed this case as being idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL). During his hospital treatment, he was affected with cytomegaloviral retinitis and cured by therapy. His subsequent treatment went well without a recurrence of severe infection although a low CD4+ T lymphocyte count continued after the recovery from empyema thoracis.  (+info)

Carriage of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus RNA is associated with a slower immunologic, virologic, and clinical progression of human immunodeficiency virus disease in coinfected persons. (5/4884)

The prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C) infection is high in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. However, the long-term consequences of coinfection are unknown. HIV-positive persons with a well-defined duration of infection were screened on the basis of their GBV-C/hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA status and studied. GBV-C/HGV viremia was observed in 23, who carried the virus over a mean of 7.7 years. All parameters (survival, CDC stage B/C, HIV RNA load, CD4 T cell count) showed significant differences in terms of the cumulative progression rate between persons positive and negative for GBV-C/HGV RNA. When GBV-C/HGV RNA-positive and -unexposed subjects were matched by age, sex, baseline HIV RNA load, and baseline CD4 T cell count, HIV disease progression appeared worse in GBV-C/HGV RNA-negative subjects. The carriage of GBV-C/HGV RNA is associated with a slower progression of HIV disease in coinfected persons.  (+info)

Outcome and predictors of failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy: one-year follow-up of a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons. (6/4884)

The outcome and predictors of virologic treatment failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were determined for 271 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected protease inhibitor-naive persons. During a follow-up of 48 weeks after the initiation of HAART, 6.3% of patients experienced at least one new AIDS-defining event, and 3.0% died. Virologic treatment failure occurred in 40% (indinavir, 27%; ritonavir, 30%; saquinavir, 59%; ritonavir plus saquinavir, 32%; chi2, P=.001). Risk factors for treatment failure were baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA (odds ratio [OR], 1.70 per log10 copies increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA), baseline CD4 cell count (OR, 1. 35 per 100 CD4 cells/mm3 decrease), and use of saquinavir versus other protease inhibitors (OR, 3.21). During the first year of treatment, 53% of all patients changed (part of) their original HAART regimen at least once. This was significantly more frequent for regimens containing saquinavir (62%; 27% for virologic failure) or ritonavir (64%; 55% for intolerance) as single protease inhibitor.  (+info)

Characterization of viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy: relationships to host factors, cellular restoration, and virologic end points. (7/4884)

Biphasic plasma viral decays were modeled in 48 patients treated with ritonavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. Estimated first- and second-phase decay rates were d1 as 0.47/day and d2 as 0.04/day. Interpatient differences in both decay rates were significant. The d1 was directly correlated with baseline CD4+, CD4+CD28+, and CD8+CD28+ T lymphocyte counts (P<.05) and inversely correlated with baseline virus load (P=.044) and the magnitude of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte recovery (P<.01). The d2 was directly correlated with baseline percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes (P=.023), the CD8+CD38+ cell number (P=.024), and the level of IgG that binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 (P=.02). Viral decay rates were not predictive of treatment failure or durability of viral suppression. These exploratory findings are consistent with a model in which immunologic factors contribute to elimination of HIV-infected cells and suggest a dynamic interplay between regulation of HIV expression and lymphocyte activation and recovery.  (+info)

Treatment with amprenavir alone or amprenavir with zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 347 Study Team. (8/4884)

Amprenavir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and good in vitro activity. Ninety-two lamivudine- and protease inhibitor-naive individuals with >/=50 CD4 cells/mm3 and >/=5000 HIV RNA copies/mL were assigned amprenavir (1200 mg) alone or with zidovudine (300 mg) plus lamivudine (150 mg), all given every 12 h. After a median follow-up of 88 days, the findings of a planned interim review resulted in termination of the amprenavir monotherapy arm. Among 85 subjects with confirmed plasma HIV RNA determination, 15 of 42 monotherapy versus 1 of 43 triple-therapy subjects had an HIV RNA increase above baseline or 1 log10 above nadir (P=.0001). For subjects taking triple therapy at 24 weeks, the median decrease in HIV RNA was 2.04 log10 copies/mL, and 17 (63%) of 27 evaluable subjects had <500 HIV RNA copies/mL. Treatment with amprenavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine together reduced the levels of HIV RNA significantly more than did amprenavir monotherapy.  (+info)

*HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

CD4 lymphocyte counts have also been related to greater rates of brain tissue loss. Current factors, such as plasma HIV RNA, ... 1981), "Effects of nadir CD4 count and duration of human immunodeficiency virus infection on brain volumes in highly active ... Cerebral brain volume is associated with factors related to duration of the disease and CD4 nadir; patients with a longer ... The severity of neurocognitive impairment is associated with nadir CD4, suggesting that earlier treatment to prevent ...

*Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS

... and CD4 lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected persons with tuberculosis in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire". Lancet. 345 (8950): 607-610. ... If undiagnosed or left untreated, HIV usually progresses to AIDS, defined as possessing a CD4+ lymphocyte count under 200 cells ... Gjerset, G.F.; Pike, M.C.; Mosley, J.W.; Hassett, J.; Fletcher, M.A.; Donegan, E.; Parker, J.W.; Counts, R.B.; Zhou, Y.; et al ... Hassett, J.; Gjerset, G.F.; Mosley, J.W.; Fletcher, M.A.; Donegan, E.; Parker, J.W.; Counts, R.B.; Aledort, L.M.; Lee, H.; et ...

*Pathophysiology

When the CD4 lymphocyte count falls below 200 cells/ml of blood, the HIV host has progressed to AIDS, a condition characterized ... "Dissecting How CD4 T Cells Are Lost During HIV Infection". Cell Host Microbe. 19: 280-91. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2016.02.012. PMC ...

*Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis

Activated CD4(+)/CD25(+) T-lymphocyte counts correlated negatively with serum concentrations of IP-10/CXCL10, whereas CD4(+)/ ... HLA-DR(+) T lymphocyte counts correlated positively with serum concentrations of the counterregulatory IL-1 receptor antagonist ... Flares are accompanied by increased serum levels of activated T lymphocyte chemokines (IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9), G-CSF and ...

*Pathophysiology of HIV/AIDS

When the CD4 lymphocyte count falls below 200 cells/ml of blood, the HIV host has progressed to AIDS, a condition characterized ... These findings cast CD4 T-cell death during HIV infection in a different light. Rather than the virus playing a major role, it ... "Dissecting How CD4 T Cells Are Lost During HIV Infection". Cell Host Microbe. 19: 280-91. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2016.02.012. PMC ... CD4 T-cell depletion and chronic inflammation are the two signature events that drive HIV pathogenesis and progression to AIDS ...

*List of MeSH codes (G09)

... lymphocyte count MeSH G09.188.250.161.595.500.150 --- cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH G09.188.250.161.595.500.150.160 --- cd4-cd8 ... blood cell count MeSH G09.188.250.161.330 --- erythrocyte count MeSH G09.188.250.161.330.725 --- reticulocyte count MeSH ... ratio MeSH G09.188.250.161.700 --- platelet count MeSH G09.188.250.272 --- blood viscosity MeSH G09.188.250.313 --- blood ... G09.188.250.161.595 --- leukocyte count MeSH G09.188.250.161.595.500 --- ...

*List of MeSH codes (G04)

... lymphocyte count MeSH G04.335.130.107.595.500.150 --- cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH G04.335.130.107.595.500.150.160 --- cd4-cd8 ... blood cell count MeSH G04.335.130.107.330 --- erythrocyte count MeSH G04.335.130.107.330.725 --- reticulocyte count MeSH ... b-lymphocyte MeSH G04.610.626.320.501 --- gene rearrangement, b-lymphocyte, heavy chain MeSH G04.610.626.320.501.450 --- ... ratio MeSH G04.335.130.107.740 --- platelet count MeSH G04.335.130.870 --- sperm count MeSH G04.335.134.220 --- cell division ...

*List of MeSH codes (E01)

... lymphocyte count MeSH E01.450.375.107.595.500.150 --- cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH E01.450.375.107.595.500.150.160 --- cd4-cd8 ... blood cell count MeSH E01.450.375.107.330 --- erythrocyte count MeSH E01.450.375.107.330.725 --- reticulocyte count MeSH ... platelet count MeSH E01.450.375.750 --- schilling test MeSH E01.450.495.100 --- basophil degranulation test MeSH E01.450. ... lymphocyte culture test, mixed MeSH E01.450.495.400 --- immune adherence reaction MeSH E01.450.495.410 --- immunoassay MeSH ...

*Cytomegalovirus retinitis

CD4 < 50 cells/mL, 0- 35% possibility of CMV retinitis) BUN CD8+ T-lymphocyte count CMV DNA capture ( polymerase chain reaction ... The diagnosis of CMV retinitis can be done via the following: Ophthalmic screening frequency is based on CD4 count,( ... PCR) test) DNA PCR ( ocular fluids) Viral load Complete blood count In terms of the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis, ...

*Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection

The risk of MAC is inversely related to the patient's CD4 count, and increases significantly when the CD4 count decreases below ... Some age adjustment is necessary when clinicians interpret CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts in children less than 2 years of age. ... Blood cultures are not routinely recommended for asymptomatic persons, even for those who have CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts less ... Disseminated MAC characteristically affects people with advanced HIV disease and peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts less than ...

*Cryptococcosis

... in persons with CD4 counts lower than 100 cells/mcL. Cryptococcal antigen screen and preemptive treatment with fluconazole is ... "Routine cryptococcal antigen screening for HIV-infected patients with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts--time to implement in South ... Rajasingham, R; Boulware, DR (Dec 2012). "Reconsidering cryptococcal antigen screening in the U.S. among persons with CD4 ... The World Health Organization recommends cryptococcal antigen screening in HIV-infected persons entering care with CD4. < or = ...

*Hypereosinophilia

This increase in blood eosinophil count is often associated with abnormal T-lymphocyte clones (e.g increased numbers of CD4 ... Elevations in blood eosinophil counts can be transient, sustained, recurrent, or cyclical. Eosinophil counts in human blood ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia is a disorder attributed to the expansion of a cytokine-producing, aberrant population of ... Similar to lymphocyte=variant hypereosinophilia, the increased levels of blood eosinophils in Gleich's syndrome is thought to ...

*Apoptosis

HIV's cytotoxic activity toward CD4+ lymphocytes is classified as AIDS once a given patient's CD4+ cell count falls below 200. ... HIV proteins decrease the amount of CD4 glycoprotein marker present on the cell membrane. Released viral particles and proteins ... In a healthy individual, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes is in balance with the cells generated by the bone marrow; however, in ... It can be interpreted by counting, measuring, and analyzing the cells of the Sub/G1 cell population. When HeLA cells are ...

*CD154

In the macrophage, the primary signal for activation is IFN-γ from Th1 type CD4 T cells. The secondary signal is CD40L on the T ... While CD40L was originally described on T lymphocytes, its expression has since been found on a wide variety of cells, ... Noelle contested Lederman's patent, but the challenge (called an interference) was rejected on all counts CD40 ligand is ... "T-BAM/CD40-L on helper T lymphocytes augments lymphokine-induced B cell Ig isotype switch recombination and rescues B cells ...

*Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia

CD4(+) T cells and therefore proposed, at least in many patients, a subtype of lymphocyte-variant hypereosiophilia. Biopsies of ... an eosinophil blood count of 7,150 per microliter (normal 60%) eosinophil CFUs when incubated with bone marrow cells taken from ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophila, also termed lymphocyte variant eosinophilia, is a rare disorder in which eosinophilia or ... is caused by aberrant population of lymphocytes. These aberrant lymphocytes function abnormally by stimulating the ...

*Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia

CD4 cell count less than 300 cells per microliter, or Less than 20% of T lymphocytes are CD4+ Lack of laboratory evidence of ... UpToDate article on "Techniques and interpretation of measurement of the CD4 cell count in HIV-infected patients", by John G. ... Alternative explanations for the low CD4 counts include conditions such as blood cancers (aleukemia), treatment with ... Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare medical syndrome in which the body has too few CD4+ T lymphocytes, which are a ...

*T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

A high lymphocyte count (> 100 x 109/L) along with low amounts of red blood cells and platelets in the blood are common ... The immunophenotype CD4+/CD8- is present in 60% of cases, the CD4+/CD8+ immunophenotype is present in 25%, and the CD4-/CD8+ ... T-PLL has the immunophenotype of a mature (post-thymic) T-lymphocyte, and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T ... In the peripheral blood, T-PLL consists of medium-sized lymphocytes with single nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm with ...

*Helper/suppressor ratio

CD4:CD8 ratio) is a basic laboratory test in which the percentage of CD3-positive lymphocytes in the blood positive for CD4 (T ... helper cells) and CD8 (a class of regulatory T cells) are counted and compared. Normal values (95% confidence intervals) are ... The T-Lymphocyte Helper/Suppressor Profile (Helper/Suppressor ratio, T4:T8 ratio, ... "The CD4:CD8 ratio is associated with markers of age-associated disease in virally suppressed HIV-infected patients with ...

*Human herpesvirus 7

... low lymphocyte counts, and febrile seizures, though most often no symptoms present at all. There are indications that HHV-7 can ... To enter CD4+ T cells, HHV-7, unlike HHV-6, uses CD4 and possibly some cell-surface glyoproteins to enter CD4+ T cells. About a ... HHV-7 was first isolated in 1990 from CD4+ T cells taken from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Both HHV-6B and HHV-7, as well as ... Lusso, P; Secchiero, P; Crowley, RW; Garzino-Demo, A; Berneman, ZN; Gallo, RC (1994). "CD4 is a critical component of the ...

*Interleukin 21

Dose-limiting toxicities included low lymphocyte, neutrophil, and thrombocyte count as well as hepatotoxicity. According to the ... It has also been shown that HIV-specific CD4 T cells from "HIV controllers" (rare individuals who don't progress to AIDS by ... "Interleukin 21 and its receptor are involved in NK cell expansion and regulation of lymphocyte function". Nature. 408 (6808): ... induced alpha-diacylglycerol kinase activation is an essential step in IL-2-mediated lymphocyte proliferation". J. Biol. Chem. ...

*Opportunistic infection

A patient's risk level for developing an opportunistic infection is approximated using the patient's CD4 T-cell count and ... caused by Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated with Lymphocyte T-Cell ...

*Hodgkin's lymphoma

10.5 g/dl Lymphocyte count < 600/µl or < 8% Male Albumin < 4.0 g/dl White blood count ≥ 15,000/µl Other studies have reported ... to many other lymphomas associated with HIV infection it occurs most commonly in patients with higher CD4 T cell counts. ... Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma, which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte ... Although Hodgkin's is now frequently grouped with other B-cell malignancies, some T-cell markers (such as CD2 and CD4) are ...

*Dock8

Laboratory manifestations include progressive lymphopenia that primarily affects CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets, reduced B cell and ... This disorder is considered a combined immunodeficiency because it includes both decreased lymphocyte numbers and defective ... NK cell counts in some patients, eosinophilia, and immunoglobulin abnormalities. Antibody responses to vaccines are frequently ... lymphocyte function. It can also be classified as a type of autosomal recessive hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome. ...

*Hematopoietic stem cell

The SLAM (Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule) family is a group of more than 10 molecules whose genes are located mostly ... This sense of the term is different from colony-forming units of microbes, which is a cell counting unit.) There are various ... the lesser the self-renewal ability and the more of some of the markers like CD4 and CD135): LT-HSC: CD34−, CD38−, SCA-1+, ... With regard to morphology, hematopoietic stem cells resemble lymphocytes. They are non-adherent, and rounded, with a rounded ...

*Peter Duesberg

260-9. Vermund S, Hoover D, Chen K (1993). "CD4+ counts in seronegative homosexual men. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study". N ... Des Jarlais D, Friedman S, Marmor M, Mildvan D, Yancovitz S, Sotheran J, Wenston J, Beatrice S (1993). "CD4 lymphocytopenia ... 2008). "Recreational drug use and T lymphocyte subpopulations in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected men". Drug Alcohol Depend. 94 ...

*White blood cell

Defined as total lymphocyte count below 1.0x109/L, the cells most commonly affected are CD4+ T cells. Like neutropenia, ... T cells: CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... and thus the WBC count is an important subset of the complete blood count. The normal white cell count is usually between 4 × ... TLC- (Total leucocyte count): Normal TLC in an adult person is 6000-8000WBC/mm^3 of blood. DLC- (Differential leucocyte count ...
Centre for Microbiology Research, Research Care and Training Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute-FACES, Kisumu, Nyanza Kenya. Supported by the U.S. Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through cooperative agreement (#1U2GPS001913) from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Global HIV/AIDS. The findings and conclusions in this letter are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the CDC.. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.. ...
This study confirms that ART delivery through a national programme in a resource-constrained setting can be effective. Most of the patients in the study showed a good clinical response to therapy, as indicated by significant weight gain and improvement in CD4 count. Around 82% of them had reached an advanced stage of illness (World Health Organization stage 3 or 4) at presentation, highlighting the need for early diagnosis and treatment. The overall mortality rate in our study was higher than reported from other developed and developing countries.10,11 Nevertheless, the post-90-day mortality rate was similar to the rate observed in another study.10. In line with previous studies, we found no significant association between TB and mortality.5,12 In a study from Uganda, TB was associated with increased mortality only in HIV patients with a CD4 count > 200 cells/µl.12 It may be that TB facilitates HIV viral replication to a greater extent in the earlier stages of HIV infection than during advanced ...
A paper published today in PLoS Medicine using CASCADE data has shown that there is no need to take into consideration the CD4 slope prior to the start of HIV therapy when deciding whether to initiate therapy.. The CASCADE Collaboration, is a large collaborative study of 25 cohorts of HIV patients with known date of seroconversion. Wolbers et al considered whether there was any evidence of an association between pre-therapy CD4 slope and the primary outcome (a first new AIDS-defining event or death).. A total of 2,820 HIV-positive patients initiating cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) were included in the study; the average pre-cART CD4 cell decline among them was 61 cells/ml/year. Of these, 255 experienced a new AIDS-related event or died after starting cART but the researchers found no evidence for an association between the primary outcome and the pre-cART CD4 slope or between survival and this slope. In addition, the rate of CD4 cell count decline was not significantly associated with ...
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CD4+ Cell Count Declines Slowly, But Steadily, in Elite HIV Controllers, Small Study Finds, at TheBody.com, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
Implementation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines, which emphasize maximal and durable suppression of viral load for the majority of individuals infected with HIV, has resulted in a substantial decline in morbidity and mortality. However, many asymptomatic patients are not at immediate risk of serious opportunistic diseases, the effectiveness of ART wanes over time due to HIV drug resistance, and there are short- and long-term toxicities of treatment. This motivates a comparison of two strategies: one which conserves treatments by deferring their use while the risk of opportunistic disease is low and one which aims for sustained virologic suppression, irrespective of disease risk.. In this large, long-term trial, patients will be randomly assigned to either the drug conservation (DC) or viral suppression (VS) group. Patients will be enrolled over a 3-year period and followed for an average of 7.5 years. The DC group will stop or defer ART until CD4 cell count declines to below 250 ...
A CD4+ count is a blood test to determine how well the immune system is working in people who have been diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ cells are a type of white blood cell. White blood cells are important in fighting infections. CD4+ cells are also called T-lymphocytes, T-cells, or T-helper cells.. HIV infects CD4+ cells. The number of CD4+ cells helps determine whether other infections (opportunistic infections) may occur. The pattern of CD4+ counts over time is more important than any single CD4+ value because the values can change from day to day. The CD4+ pattern over time shows the effect of the virus on the immune system. In people infected with HIV who are not getting treated, CD4+ counts generally decrease as HIV progresses. A low CD4+ count usually indicates a weakened immune system and a higher chance of getting opportunistic infections.. ...
Cell-associated HIV-1 unspliced to multiply spliced RNA ratio at 12 weeks ART correlates with markers of immune activation and apoptosis and predicts the CD4+ T cell count at 96 weeks ...
from Jules: As I said before I went to the microphone and mentioned we just spent 7 yrs and $30 millions dollars to evaluate IL-2 to find no clinical benefit and perhaps toxicities so how will they proceed. In response Levy and a representative from the company said they plan to design a study using different parameters, outcomes - that is shorter-term outcomes, and that IL-7 is different than IL-2. Well see what the FDA says ...
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Although this appears to be a big difference it is not. Different laboratories using different testing methods can account for this...
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We have developed a model to determine whether asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals who have a rapid CD4 cell decline are a subgroup who might benefit from early antiretroviral therapy. Data were obtained from a subgroup of participants in the Concorde and EACG020 trials, two randomized, double-blind, comparative trials of immediate (IMM) versus deferred (DEF) zidovudine therapy in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. The subgroup comprised 297 patients (IMM = 154, DEF = 143) who had at least one CD4 cell count before and after randomization. The median CD4 cell count at randomization was 491 x 10(6)/L, and the median follow-up was 61 months. The rate of CD4 decline before and after randomization was estimated using multi-level linear regression analysis, and patients were stratified into quartiles according to the rate of CD4 cell decline before randomization. Outcome measures were the development of AIDS, a 50% drop in CD4 count from the baseline, and death. A Cox proportional hazards model was
Methods: In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and the other was HIV-1-negative; 54% of the subjects were from Africa, and 50% of infected partners were men. HIV-1-infected subjects with CD4 counts between 350 and 550 cells per cubic millimeter were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive antiretroviral therapy either immediately (early therapy) or after a decline in the CD4 count or the onset of HIV-1-related symptoms (delayed therapy). The primary prevention end point was linked HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1-negative partners. The primary clinical end point was the earliest occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis, severe bacterial infection, a World Health Organization stage 4 event, or death ...
The majority of HIV-infected subjects with virologic suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have a marked increase in CD4+ T-cell counts over the first year on treatment. However, a portion of these individuals show a suboptimal immune response and remain at an elevated risk for disease progression. The use of the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc (MVC) is associated with enhanced CD4+ T-cell recovery in subjects who initiate ART. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5256 studied the effect of ART intensification with MVC on CD4+ T-cell counts in subjects with suboptimal CD4 recovery despite sustained virologic suppression. Eligible subjects added MVC to their ART regimen, and continued MVC for 24 weeks. At week 24, subjects discontinued MVC and were followed for an additional 24 weeks off MVC.. Subjects were seen through week 48 for clinical and laboratory evaluations, including plasma HIV-1 RNA, CD4+ T-cell count, and safety laboratories. Subjects had 2 baseline visits prior to starting MVC. Study ...
The incidence of AIDS was higher in patients with a current CD4 count of 500-749 cells/µL compared to 750-999 cells/µL, but did not decrease further at higher CD4 levels. Results were similar in those virologically suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy, suggesting immune reconstitution is incomplete until CD4 |750/µL Mocroft, A.; Furrer, H. J.; Miro, J. M.; Reiss, P.; Mussini, C.; Kirk, O.; Abgrall, S.; Ayayi, S.; Bartmeyer, B.; Braun, D.; Castagna, A.; dArminio Monforte, A.; Gazzard, B.; Gutierrez, F.; Hurtado, I.; Jansen, K.; Meyer, L.; Muñoz, P.; Obel, N.; Soler-Palacin, P.; Papadopoulos, A.; Raffi, F.; Ramos, J. T.; Rockstroh, J. K.; Salmon, D.; Torti, C.; Warszawski, J.; de Wit, S.; Zangerle, R.; Fabre-Colin, C.; Kjaer, J.; Chene, G.; Grarup, J.; Lundgren, J. D.; Mocroft, Amanda; Furrer, Hansjakob; Miro, Jose M.; Reiss, Peter; Mussini, Cristina; Kirk, Ole; Abgrall, Sophie; Ayayi, Sylvie; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Braun, Dominique; Castagna, Antonella; dArminio Monforte, Antonella;
HIVandHepatitis.com. CD4 cell count and CD4 cell percentage are key markers for determining disease progression and risk for opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients.. These markers are of greatest use in treating the asymptomatic patient, in whom disease stage is more difficult to assess clinically and for whom laboratory measurements serve as guidelines for the initiation of therapy and opportunistic-infection prophylaxis.. However, providers in resource-constrained settings may not have access to this laboratory measurement or its cost may be prohibitive, resulting in the need for an alternative, surrogate marker. Given the decreasing costs and increased availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the developing world, this is an issue of critical and increasing importance.. A number of previous studies indicate that the total lymphocyte count (TLC) may be useful as a surrogate marker of immune status in certain settings. However, controversy regarding the utility of the TLC ...
VL was more likely to be detectable if participants had OIs in the prior three months compared to when they did not (OR=4.0 (95% CI=1.9-8.6)). The CD4+ T cell counts declined 24.1 cells/µL per three months in intervals where the participants had OIs compared to an increase of 21.3 cells/µL per three months in intervals where they did not have OIs (adjusted difference in the rate of CD4+ T cell count change of 61.7 cells/µL per three months (95% CI=13.7-109.7), P value=0.012). The rate of CD4+ T cell count increase was 25.6 cells/µL per three months (95% CI=11.6-39.6) higher for females compared to males (p value ...
Results More than half (54.9%, 485/883) of all HIV positive patients presented with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3. 20.7% (183/883) reported with CD4 count less than 50 cell/mm3, 9.5% (84/883) with CD4 count of less than 100 cells/mm3, 24.7% (218/883) with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3, 16.0% (141/883) with CD4 count of less than 350 cells/mm3, 10.3% (91/883) with CD4 count of less than 500. Less than a quarter (18.8%, 116/883) of patients came with CD4 count of 500 cells/mm3 or more. 70.9% came with CD4 count of less than 350 cells/mm3.. ...
We applied Cox regression analysis to investigate the association between response to IFN-RBV and the development of new AIDS-defining conditions, non-liver-related death, and non-liver-related non-AIDS-related death. When we adjusted for age, sex, HIV transmission category, nadir CD4+ cell count, cART, HIV-RNA level below the limit of detection, and liver fibrosis, we found that the adjusted hazard ratio of each of these clinical endpoints was higher for non-responders than for responders, although it reached statistical significance only for non-liver-related death and non-liver-related non-AIDS-related death (Table 4). We carried out 2 sensitivity analyses. In the first, we excluded those patients with recurrent pneumonia as a new AIDS-defining condition and those who died of bacterial pneumonia. In the second, we did not exclude patients with recurrent pneumonia as a new AIDS-defining condition or those who died of bacterial pneumonia, although we did censor their follow-up until these ...
Background Life expectancy has increased for newly diagnosed HIV patients since the inception of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), but there remains a need to better understand the characteristics of long-term survival in HIV-positive patients. We examined long-term survival in HIV-positive patients receiving cART in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD), to describe changes in mortality compared to the general population and to develop longer-term survival models. Methods Data were examined from 2,675 HIV-positive participants in AHOD who started cART. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by age, sex and calendar year across prognostic characteristics using Australian Bureau of Statistics national data as reference. SMRs were examined by years of duration of cART by CD4 and similarly by viral load. Survival was analysed using Cox-proportional hazards and parametric survival models. Results The overall SMR for all-cause mortality was 3.5 (95% CI: 3.0-4.0). SMRs
HIV infection requires lifelong treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the earlier years of combination ART, although effective in managing HIV disease progression, ART was very toxic and poorly tolerated. Monitoring the impact of ART including updates to treatment, adherence, impact on HIV disease progression and overall mortality was critical to the understanding of HIV disease progression, and for providing guidance to the management and treatment of HIV patients. Even in the current era of highly tolerable and highly effective ART, ongoing monitoring remains important. AHOD is the largest, and longest running, data source in Australia monitoring the uptake and impact of HIV treatment.. ...
OBJECTIVE:: Inadequate CD4 cell count recovery despite full HIV RNA control occurs in 30% of HAART-treated HIV-infected patients. A better understanding of the relationship between T-cell dynamics and the HIV intracellular reservoir in HIV-infected patients failing to recover CD4 cell count following long-term HAART, is required. METHODS:: In a cross-sectional study T-cell turnover and homeostatic parameters featuring discordant responses were investigated in 27 immunologic non-responders (INR; CD4 count, ,/= 200 cells/mul; HIV RNA, ,/= 50 copies/ml), 15 virological non-responders (VNR; CD4 count, ,/= 350 cells/mul; HIV RNA, ,/= 10 000) and 22 full responders (FR; CD4 count, ,/= 500 cells/mul; HIV RNA, ,/= 50 copies/ml). RESULTS:: INR displayed significantly higher activated CD38CD8 than FR (P , 0.05) and was comparable to VNR (P , 0.05). As compared with VNR and FR, INR displayed the highest level of proliferating Ki67CD4 and apoptotic CD4 cells (P , 0.05). VNR presented lower proliferation and ...
A retrospective cohort study was performed to examine the extent and clinical significance of misclassification associated with using the current United States AIDS case defining category of an initial CD4 count | or = 200 cells x 10(6)/l (| or = 200) compared with a definition requiring two consecutive counts below this level. The main outcomes examined were the probability of subsequent CD4 counts | 200 x 10(6)/l (| 200) and progression times to AIDS and death. Of the 2025 predominantly male homosexual HIV-positive patients attending two hospital based HIV clinics with initial CD4 cell counts | or = 200, 1524 (75%) subsequently had consecutive counts | or = 200, but only half did so at the next CD4 count. Ten per cent had either no further or only non-consecutive counts | or = 200, and 15% had only one CD4 count available for analysis. The cumulative proportion of patients with a CD4 count | 200 at one year after a first count of | or = 200 was about twice (39%) that observed among the subgroup with
When an HIV positive individuals T-cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter, he has progressed to stage 3 HIV and has AIDS, advises AIDS.gov. HIV positive individuals are also diagnosed...
To develop a decision criterion for earlier ART initiation now, we examined 2 potential policy scenarios (ART initiation at CD4 counts ,0.350 × 109 cells/L vs. ,0.250 × 109 cells/L) over the next 5 years and their associated clinical and economic outcomes (Figure 1). These outcomes excluded any long-term benefits, detriments, or costs potentially associated with either decision beyond the 5-year horizon. Although the calculated outcomes included ART-related toxicities, they also excluded any excess toxicity that might be associated with earlier ART beyond the 5-year horizon. If ART is initiated at a CD4 count less than 0.350 × 109 cells/L, the trial may demonstrate in 5 years that a 0.350 × 109 cells/L initiation threshold provides a benefit (probability P) or that it produces equivalent outcomes to a 0.250 × 109 cells/L threshold (probability 1 − P). In the latter case, the associated costs of a 0.350 × 109 cells/L initiation threshold include not only those of earlier initiation but ...
I am a 35 years old HIV positive man and my CD4 count was 350 few months back. Then it increased to 510 within 3 months. |b|Is there any way of the CD4 increasing to 510 with in 3 months?|/b| Again after another three months it was 540. I took a herbal medicine when the CD4 count was at 350 and it was only for the first 3 months. But the doctors could not believe this and they are saying that this could be due to a diet change and at the same time they didnt want to show me my real results and hide the paper when I asked for it. To my knowledge, HIV cannot be cured, and even if I am cured the doctors will do more research on me. I know for sure that if I have HIV then there is no way CD4 can increase consistently. Please tell how did my CD4 count increase?
Evolution of CD4 T cell counts in 24 patients before and under prednisolone. Mean ± SE of CD4 T cell counts before (open circles) and under prednisolone (fille
A case-control study was conducted in 412 HIV-infected patients starting cART with CD4 T-cell count ,200 cells/μL and successful viral control for two years. CD4 count increase below 200 cells/μL after two years on cART was used to define INR (immunological non-responder) patients. Polymorphisms in CXCL12, CCL5 and CCR2 genes were genotyped using sequenoms MassARRAY platform.. ...
The level of CD4 cells in peripheral blood is a prime criterion for diagnosing AIDS (in the United States in particular) and for monitoring antiretroviral treatment. However, these applications of CD4 counts stem from the initial and unhappy coincidence that when
File lib/spec/mocks/error_generator.rb, line 79 def count_message(count) return at least #{pretty_print(count.abs)} if count , 0 return pretty_print(count) end ...
The longest-term data on Isentress to date, presented at IDSA, show better virologic (viral load) and immunologic (T-cell count) results than Sustiva, out ...
Count the number of cells that contain TRUE FALSE or one of the two This lets you count the logical values in a range in Excel Sections Count Cells that Contain TRUE Count Cells that Contain FALSE Cou ...
I have three questions related to Mixing Tee Geometry:1) What is Cell Count? Is no of elements or no of elements + no of nodes? And also where do I get the …
More good news: In one month this medicine has increased his t cell count more than in several months of the other drugs he was on. It also brought his viral load down amazingly fast too. Last drugs he was one took 2-3 months to get up over 300 and Atripla got him to 365 in one month! That much closer to the 600-700 that I think they are aiming for! Where he will feel almost human again! Im ready and I know he is past ready ...
Can anyone help, I want to count the number of cells in 2 columns that match 2 sets of criteria. Basically I have a list of activities with dates next
Use the SUMPRODUCT function in Excel to count the number of cells in selected ranges that meet multiple criteria. Updated to include Excel 2019.
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OBJECTIVES: Current British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines recommend that all patients with a CD4 count ,350 cells/μL are offered highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We identified risk factors for delayed initiation of HAART following a CD4 count ,350 cells/μL.METHODS: All adults under follow-up in 2008 who had a first confirmed CD4 count ,350 cells/μL from 2004 to 2008, who had not initiated treatment and who had ,6 months of follow-up were included in the study. Characteristics at the time of the low CD4 cell count and over follow-up were compared to identify factors associated with delayed HAART uptake. Analyses used proportional hazards regression with fixed (sex/risk group, age, ethnicity, AIDS, baseline CD4 cell count and calendar year) and time-updated (frequency of CD4 cell count measurement, proportion of CD4 counts ,350 cells/μL, latest CD4 cell count, CD4 percentage and viral load) covariates.RESULTS: Of 4871 patients with a confirmed low CD4 cell count, 436 (8.9%) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trend of CD4+ cell counts at diagnosis and initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). T2 - Korea HIV/AIDS cohort study, 1992-2015. AU - Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. AU - Kim, Min Jung. AU - Chang, Hyun Ha. AU - Kim, Sang Il. AU - Kim, Youn Jeong. AU - Park, Dae Won. AU - Kang, Chun. AU - Kee, Mee Kyung. AU - Choi, Ju yeon. AU - Kim, Soo Min. AU - Choi, Bo Youl. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. AU - Kim, June Myung. AU - Choi, JunYong. AU - Choi, Young Hwa. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Kim, Shin Woo. AU - Kim, Min Ja. AU - Sohn, Jang Wook. AU - Yoon, Young Kyung. AU - Woo, Jun Hee. AU - Kim, Youn Jeong. AU - Choi, Won Suk. AU - Wie, Seong Heon. AU - Hur, Ji An. AU - Kim, Min Jung. AU - Lee, Sang Ah. AU - Song, Joon Young. AU - Eom, Joong Shik. AU - Lee, Jin Seo. AU - Park, So Yeon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Baek, Ji Hyeon. AU - Choi, Hee Jung. AU - Choi, Jun Yong. AU - Ku, Nam Su. AU - Kim, Hyo Youl. AU - Choi, Young Hwa. AU - Lee, Eun Jung. AU - Kim, Tae ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increases in CD4+ T-cell count at antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive illicit drug users during a treatment-as-prevention initiative in Canada. AU - Tran, Mimi. AU - Wood, Evan. AU - Kerr, Thomas. AU - Patterson, Sophie. AU - Bangsberg, David. AU - Dong, Huiru. AU - Guillemi, Silvia. AU - Montaner, Julio S.G.. AU - Milloy, M. J.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Background: Although treatment-as-prevention (TasP) efforts are a new cornerstone of efforts to respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, their effects among people who use drugs (PWUD) have not been fully evaluated. This study characterizes temporal trends in CD4+ T-cell (CD4) count at ART initiation and rates of virological response among HIV-positive PWUD during a TasP initiative. Methods: We used data on individuals initiating ART within a prospective cohort of PWUD linked to comprehensive clinical records. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between CD4 count prior to ART ...
CD4(+) lymphocyte count and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA level are useful for determining when to initiate antiretroviral therapy but are not used widely in developing countries due to the high cost. Heat-denatured protein 24 (p24) antigen is an inexpensive assay that predicts disease progression among persons with advanced disease but has not been assessed among persons with early-stage disease. Plasma levels of heat-denatured p24 antigen were quantified in baseline study-visit specimens obtained from injection drug users enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-1 infection. Of the 494 study participants (median initial CD4(+) lymphocyte count, 518 lymphocytes/mm(3)), 90 (18%) progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome within 5 years. p24 antigen level correlated with both CD4(+) lymphocyte count (r=-0.34; P,.0001) and HIV-1 RNA level (r=0.55; P,.0001). p24 antigen level ,5 pg/mL predicted disease progression, comparable with that of cutoff CD4(+) lymphocyte count ...
ClinicalTrials.gov summary of Safety, Tolerability, Drug Interactions, and Antiviral Activity of Rilpivirine in Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Children Less Than 12 Years of Age
ContextPlasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA level predicts HIV disease progression, but the extent to which it explains the variability in rate of CD4
Alison Abraham, Ph.D., discusses her study of whether vitamin D levels at initiation of antiretroviral therapy are associated with the post-initiation ...
For the VA Cooperative Study Group on AIDS* For author affiliations and current author addresses, see end of text. *For a listing of additional members of the VA Cooperative Study Group on AIDS, see Appendix. Acknowledgment: The authors thank David Wolfberg for manuscript preparation. Grant Support: In part by the Medical Research Service of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and Glaxo-Wellcome, Inc. Requests for Reprints: William A. OBrien, MS, MD, Infectious Disease Division, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555-0835. Current Author Addresses: Dr. OBrien: Infectious Disease Division, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555-0835 ...
Ahroom Youk, Mercer University College of Pharmacy The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) reports an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients who defer antiretroviral therapy (ART) until CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4) cell counts are less than 350 cells/mm3. They explain that this is due to the direct correlation of the pre-treatment…
The patients, 80% of whom were male and 60% white, came from the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) cohort and were followed for a mean of three years. A low CD4 cell count was consistently associated with an increased risk of the three health problems being examined. In the investigators initial univariate analysis the factors associated with peripheral neuropathy were a baseline viral load above 35,000 copies/ml; a baseline CD4 cell count below 200 cells/mm3, and older age. Factors associated with anaemia were female gender, black race, a baseline CD4 cell count below 200 cells/mm3 and haemoglobin below 14.4g/dl. And the factors associated with new kidney problems were older age, black and Hispanic race, a baseline CD4 cell count below 200 cells/mm3 and baseline creatinine clearance below 108.9ml/min. Incidence rates for each of the health problems being examined were also consistently higher amongst patients who started anti-HIV therapy with a CD4 cell count below 200 cells/mm3 than in patients ...
The value of HIV-RNA quantification as a prognostic marker has long been established [6, 51, 52]. An approximately inverse relationship to the CD4+ T-cell count and survival time has been observed in around 80% of patients [53, 54]. Higher HIV-RNA levels are associated with more rapid decline of CD4+ T-cells, assisting prediction of the rate of CD4 count decline and disease progression. However, once the CD4 count is very low (,50-100 cells/mm3), the disease progression risk is so great that HIV-RNA levels add little prognostic information [25, 54-56]. The correlation between CD4 count and disease progression seen clearly in Table 1 has already been described [10]. Further highlighting the risk of AIDS in those with CD4 counts of 200-350 cell/mm3 (the current threshold for ART initiation), a four-fold risk increase can be seen between those with a HIV-RNA of 3000 copies/mL and those with ≥300 000 copies/mL, even within the same age bracket. Additionally, there is a considerable increase in ...
Of the 20 965 HIV patients registered into care between 1996 and 2014 in the Netherlands, 73% presented delayed, 53% presented late and 35% had advanced HIV disease. Percentages of presenting late in the course of HIV infection were particularly high among heterosexual males, IDU, patients from sub-Saharan Africa, South-East Asia or Surinam, patients age 50 and older, and patients diagnosed in hospitals. In addition, certain regions in the Netherlands were associated with a higher risk for late presentation. Risk factors associated with advanced disease were highly similar in this study population, but groups are also overlapping.. One of the strengths of our study is the large number of patients included from a non-selective nationwide, longitudinal cohort, which made it possible to study regional differences as well as time trends over a 17-year period. Also, the quality of the data is high: for 97% of the eligible patients CD4 counts at diagnosis or first entry into care and information on ...
The mortality in patients with persistent low CD4 count despite several years of HAART with sustained viral suppression is poorly documented. We aimed to identify predictors for inadequate CD4 cell recovery and estimate mortality in patients with low CD4 count but otherwise successful HAART. In a nationwide cohort of HIV patients we identified all individuals who started HAART before 1 January 2005 with CD4 cell count ≤ 200 cells/μL and experienced three years with sustained viral suppression. Patients were categorized according to CD4 cell count after the three years suppressed period (≤ 200 cells/μL; immunological non-responders (INRs), |200 cells/μL; immunological responders (IRs)). We used logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimated risk factors and mortality for INRs compared to IRs. We identified 55 INRs and 236 IRs. In adjusted analysis age | 40 years and | one year from first CD4 cell count ≤ 200 cells/μL to start of the virologically suppressed period were associated
mortality was compared according to CD4 cell count at HAART initiation among adult patients in 18 cohorts in the United States and Europe. In this analysis, deferringHAARTuntil CD4 cell count reached 251-350 cells/ml was associated with a 28% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4-57] higher rate of AIDS and death compared with starting when CD4 cell count was 351-450 cells/ml, but initiating HAART at CD4 cell counts higher than 351-450 cells/ml conferred no significant benefit. The authors concluded that 350 cells/ml should be the ...
Journal compilation © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Cytokines in milk like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) have been shown to induce oral tolerance in experimental animal studies. However, human studies are less consistent with these findings. The primary objective of this review was to conduct a systematic review of published studies on the association between TGF-β identified in human milk and immunological outcomes in infancy and early childhood. Human prospective clinical studies were identified through MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, Biological Abstracts and Scopus. Selection criteria included: well described populations of mothers and infants, time of milk sampling, immunological outcome measures and analytical methods of TGF-β determination. We considered a wide range of immunological outcomes in infancy and early childhood, such as wheeze, atopy, eczema and the immunoglobulin switch. Twelve human studies were included in the review and 67% showed a positive association with TGF-β1 or ...
Background. It is unclear if CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis have improved over a 10-year period of expanded HIV testing in the USA. Methods. We studied HOPS participants diagnosed with HIV infection ≤6 months prior to entry into care during 2000-2009. We assessed the correlates of CD4 count ...
As expected, women had lower baseline viral loads and higher baseline CD4-cell counts than men. However, these differences disappeared within 2 years among individuals who had not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART). The proportion of patients who started ART during the study period was similar between men and women (69% and 64%), as was the proportion who achieved virologic suppression within 6 months of ART initiation (81% and 77%). However, rates of ART initiation differed significantly by race and geographic location: Nonwhite men and women were less likely to start ART than white men, who were, in turn, less likely to start ART than white women. Patients from the South were less likely to start ART than those from other regions ...
Objective. To assess clinical progression and inflammatory markers among women stopping or continuing antiretroviral therapy (ART) after pregnancy. Methods. ART-naïve women with CD4+ lymphocyte counts ,350 cells/uL initiating ART during pregnancy had clinical events and laboratory markers compared over one year postpartum between those stopping (n = 59) or continuing (n = 147) ART. Results. Slopes in CD4 count and HIV RNA did not differ between groups overall and in subsets of ZDV or combination therapy. The hazard ratio (HR) of a new class B event was 2.09 (95% CI 0.79-5.58) among women stopping ART, 1.24 (0.31-4.95) in those stopping ZDV, and 2.93 (0.64-13.36) among those stopping combination therapy. Women stopping ART had increased immune activation. No significant differences were seen in C-reactive protein, lipids, leptin, or interleukin-6. Conclusions. While changes in CD4 and HIV RNA levels over one year were similar between women stopping or continuing ART postpartum, higher immune ...
When they occur among people living with HIV, certain cancers and opportunistic infections are considered by health authorities as AIDS-defining events, or ADEs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recognizes 27 ADEs, from pneumonia to tuberculosis to cervical cancer to wasting syndrome. When a death is
HIV reproduces continuously in the body from the first day of infection. A person may experience severe flu-like symptoms during this initial stage of infection which can last 2-4 weeks. A persons immune system attacks HIV soon after infection and at first is able to clear a large amount of virus from the body every 24 hours. However, for each virus particle cleared, at least one new one is created. The bodys initial, vigorous anti-HIV response creates a temporary equilibrium between immune cells and the virus that may last for months or years.. After the initial infection, a person typically will show no outward signs of illness for a number of years. Over time, however, the virus gains the upper hand. The amount of HIV in the body (viral load) increases and the CD4 T cell count declines.. The immune system cannot work properly under constant attack from HIV. Eventually, the virus overwhelms the defenses of the immune system, which then can no longer ward off other illness-causing infections, ...
CSF cell count - MedHelps CSF cell count Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for CSF cell count. Find CSF cell count information, treatments for CSF cell count and CSF cell count symptoms.
A subset of CD8+ T cell epitopes within HIV-1 are consistently targeted early after infection. This could explain some of the protective effect of certain HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 disease progression.
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The article is about low lymphocyte count in the body and the associated conditions. Lymphocytes help us to fight against infections hence their
HIV-infected patients with a history of alcohol problems, who are receiving HAART, have greater HIV progression than those who do not drink.
A large team of international researchers has found 30 percent of HIV positive individuals in nearly a dozen countries delay starting life-saving drugs.
What are cells in the milk? What is a cell count? How do cells influence the milk and how do you reduce a high cell count? Get you answers here.
Allimax products helps in case of high cell counts in milk. Go to allimax.nl/en to find out more about Allimaxproducts or high cell counts in milk!
Once you get the cell numbers in the first square, you go to the second (the one on the top right) and do the same thing. Remember, if you counted the cells on the top and right sides but not the ones on the bottom and left sides of the first square, then you must do the same thing with the second one. Keep counting squares until you have enough cells for your count to be statistically significant (big word! well basically, if you did another cell count, the difference between both counts would not be very big). It is recommended that you count at least 100 cells, so that should give you an idea of how many small squares you should count. Keep the counting symmetric (i.e., if you are going to count three small squares per big square, count the top left, bottom right and middle small squares in a big square). Also, if you are not using the app (they are saved for you while you count!), remember to note down your counts every time you finish with a square and reset your tally counter to zero, OR ...
I was wondering how much a lymphocyte count fluctuates with age? My recent % was 18.4 and ten years ago right before endometrial surgery it was 41%. My absolute counts both times were normal as are all...
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We can apply the COUNTA formula to count the number of all cells with value or data in the specified range in Excel.. Select a blank cell you will put the counting result, enter the formula =COUNTA(A1:F16) (A1:F16 is the specified range where you will count the total number of cells with data) into it and press the Enter key.. ...
Femto3D-AcoustoOptic microscope is the first fast, 3D, two-photon microscope on the market. The microscope is capable of scanning neuronal, dendritic, and other neuropil activities about one million faster as compared to previous realizations within a large (about cubic millimeter) scanning volume with preserved two-photon resolution.
Femto3D-AcoustoOptic microscope is the first fast, 3D, two-photon microscope on the market. The microscope is capable of scanning neuronal, dendritic, and other neuropil activities about one million faster as compared to previous realizations within a large (about cubic millimeter) scanning volume with preserved two-photon resolution.
Count Geophysics Limited is an independent geoscience consultancy, hydrocarbon-related geological and geophysical interpretation.
i want to know how i would show the number of booked rooms each day over a given period. $datein=2005-02-05; $dateout=2005-02-09; i tried array_count_values but didnt work. MY Database table room: +---+--------------+---------------+
Title: Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Giuseppe Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63,00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, metabolic syndome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk of HIVinfected patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines. ...
Objective: To determine whether opportunistic oral infections associated to HIV infection (OOI-HIV) are found in HIV+/AIDS patients with immune reconstitution related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods. From among 1100 HIV+/AIDS patients (Service of Internal Medicine, Carlos Haya Hospital, Malaga, Spain) subjected to review of the oral cavity between January 1996 and May 2007, we identified those examined in 1996 and which were again examined between 1997 and 2007, and were moreover receiving HAART. The following data were collected: age, gender, form of contagion, antiretroviral therapy at the time of review, number of CD4+ lymphocytes/ml, and viral load (from 1997 onwards). We identified those subjects with an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes/ml associated to HAART, and classified them as subjects with quantitative evidence of immune reconstitution (QEIR). Among these individuals with QEIR we moreover identified those with undetectable viral loads (QEIR+VL), and ...
To identify virological and immunological correlates of microbial-specific immune reconstitution in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, Candida- and tetanus-specific lymphocyte proliferation was measured in 165 children initiating a new highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. During the study, the proportions of children with immunity to Candida and tetanus increased from 53% to 66% and 19% to 22%, respectively. Tetanus immunity was associated with an HIV load ⩽400 RNA copies/mL and with Candida immunity. At the end of the study, 23% of the patients with baseline negative lymphocyte proliferation had tetanus immunity, and 65% had Candida immunity. Reconstitution of tetanus immunity correlated with lower end-of-study HIV loads and activated CD8+ cell percentages and higher baseline and in-study CD4+ cell percentages, but not with a gain of CD4+ cells. Reconstitution of Candida immunity showed similar trends. In conclusion, children with advanced ...
Objective:To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland.Design:Retrospective molecular epidemiology analysis of all newly HIV-diagnosed individuals between 2008 and 2010.Methods:Phylogenet
Background. Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation, intestinal damage, and inflammation in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PLHIV with suppressed plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy and age and demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals participating in the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort and, where appropriate, age-matched blood bank donors (BBD). Results. People living with HIV, HIV-negative individuals, and BBD had comparable percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes. Expression of CD163, CD32, CD64, HLA-DR, CD38, CD40, CD86, CD91, CD11c, and CX3CR1 on monocytes did not differ between PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals, but it differed significantly from ...
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In addition to contributing to declines in the incidence of several opportunistic infections, HAART is affecting the incidences of several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies. 1
The intermediate to high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas are now one of three malignant AIDS defining conditions. The others being Kaposis sarcoma and cervical carcinoma. While co-infection with oncogenic agents including the human herpes 8 or Epstein-Barr virus offer targets in preventive treatment strategies for these AIDS defining lymphomas (ADL), administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy leading to immune reconstitution permits use of standard or even high-dose cytotoxic drug regimens with curative intent. It is not certain whether this should be done concomitantly or sequentially. Additional benefit may derive from infusional or high-dose chemotherapy regimens depending on the histological subtype while use of monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab or immunohaematopoietic stem cell transplantation needs to be further evaluated within controlled studies. Socio-economic considerations have an impact especially in resource limited settings while availability of tools for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Experience of pain among women with advanced HIV disease. AU - Richardson, Jean L.. AU - Heikes, Bonnie. AU - Karim, Roksanna. AU - Weber, Kathleen. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Young, Mary. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - We evaluated pain frequency and severity in 339 women enrolled in the Womens Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Among these, 63% were 39 years of age or younger, 17% were white, 54% African American, and 29% Hispanic; 32% did not complete high school; 58% had a CD4 less than 200; 65% had clinical AIDS; 60% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); and 32% had a viral load of 50,000 or more. Data were collected between 1996 and 1998. Within the past 6 months 190 (56%) women experienced pain 6 or more days and 168 (50%) women indicated pain severity scores of 4 or 5 (5-point scale). Pain frequency and pain severity were not associated with age, education, ethnicity, current therapy, or location of the WIHS site. Pain frequency and severity were related ...
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
OBJECTIVES: No randomized controlled trials have yet reported an individual patient benefit of initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at CD4 counts , 350 cells/muL. It is hypothesized that earlier initiation of cART in asymptomatic and otherwise healthy individuals may lead to poorer adherence and subsequently higher rates of resistance development. METHODS: In a large cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we investigated the emergence of new resistance mutations upon virological treatment failure according to the CD4 count at the initiation of cART. RESULTS: Of 7918 included individuals, 6514 (82.3%), 996 (12.6%) and 408 (5.2%) started cART with a CD4 count ...
Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people with advanced HIV infection) in Sub-Saharan Africa (all income levels) was reported at 63.45 % in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Sub-Saharan Africa (all income levels) - Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people with advanced HIV infection) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on February of 2020.
Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people with advanced HIV infection) in Saudi Arabia was reported at 60 % in 2016, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Saudi Arabia - Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people with advanced HIV infection) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on February of 2020.
While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment <3 months at ART initiation, we measured the CD4 response at 6 months on ART. Of the 274 patients without TB at ART initiation, 65% were female with median CD4 count of 213 cells/mm3. Among the 14 (5.1%) patients who developed
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BACKGROUND As the search for reliable clinical indicators for management of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in resource-poor settings continues, mucocutaneous disorders of HIV should be considered among key clinical indicators for prediction of underlying immune status, disease progression, and possible complications of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Africa. OBJECTIVE To identify and correlate mucocutaneous disorders to CD4-positive cell count and total lymphocyte count in HIV/AIDS patients of southeast Nigeria. METHODOLOGY Data were collected through interview-administered survey followed by clinical and dermatological examination of recruited patients and controls. RESULT Mean CD4 cell count of HIV/AIDS patients was 303.81 cells/mm(3) and was significantly lower to the control group - 807.3 cells/mm(3) (z = 10.089 and P | 0.005). In comparison with the CD4 cell count of asymptomatic HIV-positive patients (mean 433.6 cells/mm(3)), CD4 cell count
Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) initiates a slowly progressive degenerative disease of the immune system termed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The primary...
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors associated with use of HIV specialist care by women, and to determine whether medical indications for therapy validate lower rates of antiretroviral use in women not using HIV specialty care. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the 1998 interview from the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) cohort. METHODS: Data from 273 HIV-infected women in the HERS were analyzed by multiple logistic regression to calculate predictors of the use of HIV specialist care providers.
Background When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected patients is a difficult clinical decision. Actually, it is still a matter of discussion whether early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during primary HIV infection may influence the dynamics of the viral rebound, in case of therapy interruption, and overall the main disease course. Methods In…
Forty per cent of HIV-infected children die before they reach their first year of life, mainly in the first 6 months. Data from the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) study indicate that even when infants appear well and their CD4 counts are > 25% there is a 75% increased risk of mortality when antiretroviral therapy (ART) is deferred until threshold CD4 depletion occurs or clinical criteria are met. Even after starting ART, young infants have excess mortality within the first year of life. Every effort should therefore be made to identify HIV-infected infants as early as possible so that ART can be initiated without delay.
In HIV-infected people who develop active tuberculosis (TB), levels of HIV in the bloodstream increase five- to 160-fold, according to investigators at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The new findings, which build on previous work at NIAID and elsewhere, help explain why HIV-infected people with active TB have a poorer prognosis than HIV-infected people without TB.. Delia Goletti, M.D., Ph.D., of the NIAID Laboratory of Immunoregulation (LIR) and her colleagues report their findings in the Aug. 1 Journal of Immunology.. Recent research has demonstrated that high levels of HIV in the blood correlate with an increased risk that an HIV-infected person will develop AIDS or die," says LIR Chief and NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "Our new findings that active TB disease boosts HIV levels in the blood underscore the importance of diagnosing and effectively treating tuberculosis in HIV-infected people.". In addition, adds Dr. Goletti, "These results highlight ...
This illustrated leaflet gives basic information on undetectable HIV viral load.. If your viral load result is undetectable, there is only a little HIV in the body. The aim of HIV treatment is to have an undetectable viral load: this means that your HIV is being kept under control.. If you have had an undetectable viral load for at least six months, and you continue to take your treatment as prescribed, there is no risk of passing HIV on during sex. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on albuminuria in HIV-infected persons. T2 - Results from a randomized trial. AU - Gupta, Samir K.. AU - Parker, Robert A.. AU - Robbins, Gregory K.. AU - Dubé, Michael P.. PY - 2005/10/1. Y1 - 2005/10/1. N2 - Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those containing protease inhibitors (PIs), are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Albuminuria is a known independent predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease and may potentially increase in patients receiving PIs. Alternatively, albuminuria may improve with HAART as a result of treating renal parenchymal HIV infection. Longitudinal studies have not been performed previously addressing the effects of HAART on albuminuria. Methods. We evaluated the effects of HAART on albumin to creatinine ratios (ACRs) during the initial 64 weeks of therapy in 68 previously ...
To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. Observational prospective cohort. HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurobehavioral effects in HIV-Positive individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Gaborone, Botswana. AU - Lawler, Kathy. AU - Jeremiah, Kealeboga. AU - Mosepele, Mosepele. AU - Ratcliffe, Sarah J.. AU - Cherry, Catherine. AU - Seloilwe, Esther. AU - Steenhoff, Andrew P.. PY - 2011/2/18. Y1 - 2011/2/18. N2 - Objective: To explore the prevalence and features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDS) in Botswana, a sub-Saharan country at the center of the HIV epidemic. Design and Methods: A cross sectional study of 60 HIV-positive individuals, all receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 80 demographically matched HIV-seronegative control subjects. We administered a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and structured psychiatric interview. The lowest 10th percentile of results achieved by control subjects was used to define the lower limit of normal performance on cognitive measures. Subjects who scored abnormal on ...
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
Access and well-modulated use of antiretroviral agents (ARVs) in North America dates as early as 1990 with the initial guidelines recommended zidovudine monotherapy, just 4 years after FDA approved the drug. Continued review of emerging data, led to the recommendation of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in 1998. Clear documentation of access and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource limited settings was first observed in 2002 after the World Health Organization (WHO) issued guidelines for resource limited settings, and included key ARVs into the WHO essential drug list. Delayed access to ART heavily impacted the initial control of the HIV epidemic in resource limited settings, but even with improved access to ART, differences in the management of HIV still exist; including timing for ART initiation and HIV/ART monitoring strategies. Access to key HIV/ART monitoring tools including viral load testing is limited in low resource settings, leading to gaps in HIV/ART ...
Viral suppression at the time of immunisation is the most important determinant of long-term response to yellow fever vaccination among people with HIV, Swiss investigators report in Clinical Infectious Diseases. Every person with an undetectable viral load at the time of first yellow fever vaccination continued to have a protective response ten years after vaccination, they found.. "Persons infected with HIV demonstrated good short-term immune response to YFV [yellow fever vaccination], which decreased to 75% ten years p.v. [post vaccination," comment the authors. "The long-term immune response of patients with HIV RNA suppressed at vaccination remained unimpaired for up to ten years.". The investigators believe their findings have implications for vaccination strategies, writing: "HIV-infected patients mount a long-standing protective immune response to YFV up to at least ten years if they are vaccinated while remaining on successful cART [combination antiretroviral therapy]…until further ...

AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Genesis HealthCare System - Zanesville, OhioAIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Genesis HealthCare System - Zanesville, Ohio

The number of CD4 lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. ... Complete blood count (CBC): A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following: *The number of red ... Lymph (clear fluid) and lymphocytes travel through the lymph vessels and into the lymph nodes where the lymphocytes destroy ... Lymph: Colorless, watery fluid that carries white blood cells called lymphocytes through the lymph system. Lymphocytes protect ...
more infohttps://www.genesishcs.org/patients-visitors/health-library/healthwise-document-viewer/?id=ncicdr0000257993

AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Forrest HealthAIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Forrest Health

The number of CD4 lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. ... Complete blood count (CBC): A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following: *The number of red ... Lymph (clear fluid) and lymphocytes travel through the lymph vessels and into the lymph nodes where the lymphocytes destroy ... Lymph: Colorless, watery fluid that carries white blood cells called lymphocytes through the lymph system. Lymphocytes protect ...
more infohttps://www.forresthealth.org/health-library/healthwise-document-viewer/?id=ncicdr0000257993

CD4 Lymphocyte Count: MedlinePlus Medical TestCD4 Lymphocyte Count: MedlinePlus Medical Test

A CD4 count measures the number of CD4 cells in your blood. Its used to check the immune system function in people with HIV. ... Other names: CD4 lymphocyte count, CD4+ count, T4 count, T-helper cell count, CD4 percent ... What is a CD4 count?. A CD4 count is a test that measures the number of CD4 cells in your blood. CD4 cells, also known as T ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/cd4-lymphocyte-count/ CD4 Lymphocyte Count. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/cd4-lymphocyte-count/

CD4 Lymphocyte Count | Profiles RNSCD4 Lymphocyte Count | Profiles RNS

"CD4 Lymphocyte Count" by people in this website by year, and whether "CD4 Lymphocyte Count" was a major or minor topic of these ... "CD4 Lymphocyte Count" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... CD4 Lymphocyte Count*CD4 Lymphocyte Count. *Lymphocyte Count, CD4. *CD4 Lymphocyte Counts ... Below are the most recent publications written about "CD4 Lymphocyte Count" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/111734

A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Cimetidine on CD4 Lymphocyte Counts in HIV Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govA Study to Evaluate the Effect of Cimetidine on CD4 Lymphocyte Counts in HIV Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Cimetidine on CD4 Lymphocyte Counts in HIV Infection. The safety and scientific validity of ... A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Cimetidine on CD4 Lymphocyte Counts in HIV Infection. ... To observe time-associated trends at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 in the change of CD4 counts for patients taking cimetidine for the ... To determine the change in CD4 count after 4 and 8 weeks in HIV-infected patients treated with cimetidine compared to placebo. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00002092

P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District...P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District...

... with CD4 count of less than 100 cells/mm3, 24.7% (218/883) with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3, 16.0% (141/883) with CD4 ... Less than a quarter (18.8%, 116/883) of patients came with CD4 count of 500 cells/mm3 or more. 70.9% came with CD4 count of ... of all HIV positive patients presented with CD4 count of less than 250 cells/mm3. 20.7% (183/883) reported with CD4 count less ... P2.146 CD4 Lymphocytes Count At First Presentation of HIV Positive Patients Accessing Antiretroviral Therapy At a District ...
more infohttp://sti.bmj.com/content/89/Suppl_1/A132.3

Protocol of Determining the Effect of Selenium Supplementation on CD4 + T Lymphocyte Count in HIV/AIDS Patients: A Randomized...Protocol of Determining the Effect of Selenium Supplementation on CD4 + T Lymphocyte Count in HIV/AIDS Patients: A Randomized...

For evaluating the trend of CD4 + T cells changes, the absolute count of CD4 + T lymphocyte will be measured every 3 months in ... The administration of antiretroviral therapy is recently proposed for all patients with CD4 + T cell count of ≤ 350/μlit in ... the patients who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria includes doing some lab tests to determine the absolute count of CD4 ... T lymphocyte and the plasma levels of Se. The incidence of opportunistic infection will be assessed during the monthly visits ...
more infohttps://file.scirp.org/Html/16393.html

CD-4 T Lymphocyte-Counting Microchip | MIT Deshpande CenterCD-4 T Lymphocyte-Counting Microchip | MIT Deshpande Center

... low-cost counting device to monitor CD-4 T lymphocytes in patients and deliver immediate results in the field. This project is ... point-of-care device utilizing a microchip to analyze a finger-stick blood-drop sample to produce a CD-4 count in less than a ... CD-4 T Lymphocyte-Counting Microchip. Utkan Demirci and Martha Gray 2007 , Healthcare More than 35 million HIV-infected people ... low-cost counting device to monitor CD-4 T lymphocytes in patients and deliver immediate results in the field. This project is ...
more infohttp://deshpande.mit.edu/portfolio/project/cd-4-t-lymphocyte-counting-microchip

Evaluation of a Low-Cost Strategy for Enumerating CD4 Lymphocyte Absolute Count and Percentage Using the FACSCalibur Flow...Evaluation of a Low-Cost Strategy for Enumerating CD4 Lymphocyte Absolute Count and Percentage Using the FACSCalibur Flow...

Evaluation of a Low-Cost Strategy for Enumerating CD4 Lymphocyte Absolute Count and Percentage Using the FACSCalibur Flow ... D. Barnett, B. Walker, A. Landay, and T. N. Denny, "CD4 immunophenotyping in HIV infection," Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. ... T. Peter, A. Badrichani, E. Wu et al., "Challenges in implementing CD4 testing in resource-limited settings," Cytometry B, vol ... "Cost savings by reagent reduction in flow cytometry-based CD4+ T cell counts: an approach to improve accessibility for HIV ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/494698/ref/

U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected...U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected...

HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any ... U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected ... U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected ... A clinical decision-support system with interactive alerts improved CD4 cell count in HIV Annals of Internal Medicine; 158 (8): ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/1355684/u-s-trends-antiretroviral-therapy-use-hiv-rna-plasma-viral

JCDR -
        Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate Marker of CD4 Count in Monitoring HIV Infected Individuals: A...JCDR - Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate Marker of CD4 Count in Monitoring HIV Infected Individuals: A...

Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate Marker of CD4 Count in Monitoring HIV Infected Individuals: A Prospective Study EC17- ... Introduction: CD4 cell count has been proposed to be substituted by Absolute lymphocyte count in monitoring HIV infected ... To assess the clinical utility of the Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) to serve as a surrogate marker for predicting a CD4 count ... revealed good correlation between ALC and CD4 cell counts but ALC cut-off of 1200 was not a surrogate marker for CD4 cell count ...
more infohttps://www.jcdr.net/article_abstract.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2016&volume=10&issue=5&page=EC17&issn=0973-709x&id=7765

Derivation and validation of an accurate estimation of CD4 counts from the absolute lymphocyte count in virologically...Derivation and validation of an accurate estimation of CD4 counts from the absolute lymphocyte count in virologically...

Methods: Using a baseline CD4 percent, CD4 counts were estimated from subsequent absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) measured by ... Home » Derivation and validation of an accurate estimation of CD4 counts from the absolute lymphocyte count in virologically ... Derivation and validation of an accurate estimation of CD4 counts from the absolute lymphocyte count in virologically ... CD4 counts underestimated by more than 25 %, and 4.5 % overestimated. The CD4 count was increasingly underestimated with time ...
more infohttp://edc-connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/109228972/derivation-validation-accurate-estimation-cd4-counts-from-absolute-lymphocyte-count-virologically-suppressed-immunologically-reconstituted-hiv-infected-adults

Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts during the menstrual cycle in healthy...Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts during the menstrual cycle in healthy...

... total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts during the menstrual cycle in healthy female undergraduate students in Port Harcourt, ... Changes in total and differential white cell counts, ... counts, total lymphocyte count [TLC] and CD4 cell count during ... Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts during the menstrual cycle in healthy ... Keywords: CD4 cell count, Total lymphocyte count, Menstrual cycle, White blood cells ...
more infohttps://www.ajol.info/index.php/phmedj/article/view/73992

Does Hiv Affect Overall Lymphocyte Count - The BodyDoes Hiv Affect Overall Lymphocyte Count - The Body

... does hiv affect overall lymphocyte count, with a wealth of fact sheets, expert advice, community perspective, the latest news/ ... The CD4 percentage is the percentage of CD4 cells in the total lymphocyte count. The normal range is 28-58%. Why Do You Use CD4 ... CD4 counts and total lymphocyte count?. From what I have read here, I imagine that if one person tests positive for HIV,the ... Although HIVaffects the CD4 lymphocyte count, the CD8 count will increase in reaction to HIV infection and the rest of the ...
more infohttps://www.thebody.com/h/does-hiv-affect-overall-lymphocyte-count

Changes in Plasma HIV RNA Levels and CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Predict Both Response to Antiretroviral Therapy and Therapeutic...Changes in Plasma HIV RNA Levels and CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Predict Both Response to Antiretroviral Therapy and Therapeutic...

To assess the association of changes in plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA level and CD4+ lymphocyte count with ... The independent relation between plasma HIV RNA level and CD4+ lymphocyte count over time and clinical outcome suggests that ... Changes in Plasma HIV RNA Levels and CD4+ Lymphocyte Counts Predict Both Response to Antiretroviral Therapy and Therapeutic ... The CD4+ lymphocyte count is one such surrogate, but it is relatively weak. ...
more infohttps://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/710607/changes-plasma-hiv-rna-levels-cd4-lymphocyte-counts-predict-both

Association between CD4+ Lymphocyte Count and Left Ventricular Diastolic
Function and Geometry in Newly Diagnosed Highly...Association between CD4+ Lymphocyte Count and Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Geometry in Newly Diagnosed Highly...

Correlation of CD4+lymphocyte count with clinical and echocardiograghic parameters. A correlation study of CD4+ lymphocyte ... CD4 count ,200 cells/μl) were 1.68 times more likely to develop diastolic dysfunction than cases without AIDS (CD4 count ,200 ... There was an insignificant negative correlation between CD4 + count and IVRT (R=- 0.0086, P=0.393). Subjects with CD4 + count , ... there was an insignificant negative correlation between CD4 + count and LVMI (R=- 0.303, P=0.816). Subjects with CD4 + count, ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/association-between-cd4-lymphocyte-count-and-left-ventricular-diastolicfunction-and-geometry-in-newly-diagnosed-highly-active-anti-2329-9517-1000295.php?aid=94131

Publications | AIDS Clinical Trials GroupPublications | AIDS Clinical Trials Group

CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Markowitz M, Vaida F, C Hare B, et al. "The virologic and immunologic effects of cyclosporine as an ...
more infohttps://actgnetwork.org/pubmed_publications?s=keyword&o=asc&f%5Bauthor%5D=136

Publications | AIDS Clinical Trials GroupPublications | AIDS Clinical Trials Group

CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Sax PE, Sloan CE, Schackman BR, et al. "Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with acute aids-related ...
more infohttps://actgnetwork.org/pubmed_publications?f%5Btg%5D=E&f%5Bauthor%5D=464&s=keyword&o=asc

May 2004 - Volume 12 - Issue 3 : Infectious Diseases in Clinical PracticeMay 2004 - Volume 12 - Issue 3 : Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice

When to Begin Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy? Evidence Supporting Initiation of Therapy at CD4 Lymphocyte Counts ... CD4 T-Lymphocyte Recovery in Individuals With Advanced HIV-1 Infection Receiving Potent Antiretroviral Therapy for 4 Years: The ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/infectdis/toc/2004/05000

STIs and HIV Flashcards by Jennifer Bullous | BrainscapeSTIs and HIV Flashcards by Jennifer Bullous | Brainscape

CD4 lymphocyte count (3 monthly). Viral load (indication of viral replication and long term prognosis). ... HIV molecule has surface glycoprotein gp120 that binds to CD4 molecules on lymphocytes. -On entering the cell, the RNA/RT ... 3. Category B: Early symptomatic HIV infection associated with increased viral load, fall in CD4 coutn and development of ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/stis-and-hiv-3582929/packs/5425022

Effect of HAART on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive south-Indian individuals - A follow up study<...Effect of "HAART" on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive south-Indian individuals - A follow up study<...

Shahapur, P. R., Bairy, I., & Shivananda, P. G. (2005). Effect of "HAART" on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive south ... Shahapur, Praveen R. ; Bairy, Indira ; Shivananda, P. G. / Effect of "HAART" on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive ... Shahapur, PR, Bairy, I & Shivananda, PG 2005, Effect of "HAART" on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive south-Indian ... Effect of "HAART" on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive south-Indian individuals - A follow up study. Indian Journal ...
more infohttps://manipal.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/effect-of-haart-on-cd4-t-lymphocyte-counts-in-hiv-seropositive-so

Combination antiretroviral therapy and th... & related info | MendeleyCombination antiretroviral therapy and th... & related info | Mendeley

CD4 Lymphocyte Count. *Combination. *Drug Therapy. *Female. *Follow-Up Studies. *HIV Infections/*complications/drug therapy ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/combination-antiretroviral-therapy-risk-myocardial-infarction-43/
  • The study determined the CD4 lymphocytes count levels of HIV positive patient at first presentation at STI/HIV Clinic at Suntreso Government Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion: The present study confirms previous reports of significant physiological variations in the leukocyte counts during the phases of the normal menstrual cycle. (ajol.info)
  • Shahapur, PR , Bairy, I & Shivananda, PG 2005, ' Effect of "HAART" on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in HIV seropositive south-Indian individuals - A follow up study ', Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology , vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 270-272. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the quality of CD4count laboratory performance using in-house Proficiency testing panels that perform routineCD4 counts in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013/14. (who.int)
  • In-house prepared fresh whole blood samples both with "normal" and "low" CD4 values were sent to participating laboratories. (who.int)
  • Accelerating CD-4 counting in resource-limited settings has the potential to dramatically improve standards of HIV care while reducing costs of treatment. (mit.edu)
  • Overall 83.3 % of CD4 estimates were within 25 % of the actual values, with 12.1 % CD4 counts underestimated by more than 25 %, and 4.5 % overestimated. (ebscohost.com)
  • You will probably be tested again every few months to see if your counts have changed since your first test. (medlineplus.gov)