Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD164: A sialomucin protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It is a negative regulator of certain types of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Cell SeparationSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.T-Lymphocytopenia, Idiopathic CD4-Positive: Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Interleukin-7 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-7 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-7.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.NAD+ NucleosidaseSialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLClonal Anergy: Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck): This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that includes both inhibitory and stimulatory members.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.

Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. (1/810)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas/FasL) system in the inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: Frozen muscle sections obtained from 7 patients with polymyositis (PM), 4 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), and 3 controls were studied by immunochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by DNA electrophoresis and in situ labeling using the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Fas was detected on muscle fibers and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNC) in 6 PM patients and 2 DM patients. FasL was expressed mainly on CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells, and on macrophages surrounding Fas-positive muscles in 4 PM patients and 1 DM patient. In 3 of the 5 patients with FasL-positive MNC, the TUNEL method showed that both invaded myonuclei and MNC underwent apoptosis. Chromosomal DNA from the muscle tissue of these patients showed ladder formation. CONCLUSION: Fas/FasL is involved in muscle cell apoptosis in at least 2 of the inflammatory myopathies, PM and DM. Although CD8+-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be the main mechanism of muscle injury in PM, our data suggest that CD4+ T cells also directly cause muscle cell damage.  (+info)

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency impairs cellular immunity. (2/810)

Norepinephrine, released from sympathetic neurons, and epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, participate in a number of physiological processes including those that facilitate adaptation to stressful conditions. The thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes are richly innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and catecholamines are thought to modulate the immune response. However, the importance of this modulatory role in vivo remains uncertain. We addressed this question genetically by using mice that lack dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh-/- mice). dbh-/- mice cannot produce norepinephrine or epinephrine, but produce dopamine instead. When housed in specific pathogen-free conditions, dbh-/- mice had normal numbers of blood leukocytes, and normal T and B cell development and in vitro function. However, when challenged in vivo by infection with the intracellular pathogens Listeria monocytogenes or Mycobacterium tuberculosis, dbh-/- mice were more susceptible to infection, exhibited extreme thymic involution, and had impaired T cell function, including Th1 cytokine production. When immunized with trinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin, dbh-/- mice produced less Th1 cytokine-dependent-IgG2a antitrinitrophenyl antibody. These results indicate that physiological catecholamine production is not required for normal development of the immune system, but plays an important role in the modulation of T cell-mediated immunity to infection and immunization.  (+info)

HIV-1-specific CTL responses primed in vitro by blood-derived dendritic cells and Th1-biasing cytokines. (3/810)

Vaccine strategies designed to elicit strong cell-mediated immune responses to HIV Ags are likely to lead to protective immunity against HIV infection. Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent APCs capable of priming both MHC class I- and II-restricted, Ag-specific T cell responses. Utilizing a system in which cultured DC from HIV-seronegative donors were used as APC to present HIV-1 Ags to autologous T cells in vitro, the strength and specificity of primary HIV-specific CTL responses generated to exogenous HIV-1 Nef protein as well as intracellularly expressed nef transgene product were investigated. DC expressing the nef gene were able to stimulate Nef-specific CTL, with T cells from several donors recognizing more than one epitope restricted by a single HLA molecule. Primary Nef-specific CTL responses were also generated in vitro using DC pulsed with Nef protein. T cells primed with Nef-expressing DC (via protein or transgene) were able to lyse MHC class I-matched target cells pulsed with defined Nef epitope peptides as well as newly identified peptide epitopes. The addition of Th1-biasing cytokines IL-12 or IFN-alpha, during priming with Nef-expressing DC, enhanced the Nef-specific CTL responses generated using either Ag-loading approach. These results suggest that this in vitro vaccine model may be useful in identifying immunogenic epitopes as vaccine targets and in evaluating the effects of cytokines and other adjuvants on Ag-specific T cell induction. Successful approaches may provide information important to the development of prophylactic HIV vaccines and are envisioned to be readily translated into clinical DC-based therapeutic vaccines for HIV-1.  (+info)

Secretion of beta-chemokines by bronchoalveolar lavage cells during primary infection of macaques inoculated with attenuated nef-deleted or pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac251. (4/810)

Primary infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection represents a unique opportunity to investigate early lentivirus-host interactions. In order to gain insight into immunopathogenic events taking place in the lung during lentiviral infection, we analysed lymphocyte expansion in the lung and chemokine secretion by mononuclear cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BALMCs) during primary infection by a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic SIV. Two groups of cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a fully pathogenic isolate of SIVmac251 or with an attenuated, nef-deleted, molecular clone of SIVmac251. Spontaneous MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES production was assessed by ELISA in supernatants of short-term cultured BALMCs. Kinetics of haematological, virological and immunological parameters were investigated simultaneously. All 11 inoculated animals became infected. Monkeys inoculated with the nef-deleted SIV clone exhibited a significantly reduced plasma virus load and a less pronounced accumulation of lymphocytes in the lung compared to monkeys infected with the pathogenic SIVmac251 isolate. Compared to pre-infection levels, we observed an increase in the levels of RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta production in the two groups of monkeys, by the time of peak viraemia. Strikingly, a greater enhancement of RANTES and MIP-1alpha production was detected in monkeys infected with the attenuated virus. Given the potential influence of beta-chemokines on the immune response and virus replication, such results suggest that RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta could contribute to the singular features of the immune response elicited during infection of macaques with an attenuated SIV.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (5/810)

BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.  (+info)

Postthymic development of CD28-CD8+ T cell subset: age-associated expansion and shift from memory to naive phenotype. (6/810)

During human aging, one of the major changes in the T cell repertoire is a dramatic expansion of T cells with the atypical CD28-CD8+ phenotype. In this study, we show that this increase is a consequence not only of an expansion in the CD28-CD8+ population but also of a decrease in the number of CD28+CD8+ T cells. The decrease in circulating CD28+CD8+ T cells is dramatically accelerated after the age of 50 and is not accompanied by an equivalent reduction in the CD28+CD8+ subset. Our findings confirm that aging leads to an accumulation of CD45RO+ T cells within the CD28+CD8+ subset as previously observed. Surprisingly, we found an increase in CD45RA+ expression with age in the CD28-CD8+ subset. Immune-phenotyping for activation markers, measurement of telomere DNA content, and cytokine production analysis indicate that the large majority of CD28-CD8+ T cells are Ag-experienced, despite their CD45RA+ phenotype. Our study further demonstrates that the poor proliferative response displayed by CD28-CD8+ T cells is not a consequence of telomere shortening. Also, analysis of cytokine production at the single cell level revealed that the proportions of IFN-gamma +, IL-4+, and IL-10+ T cells are considerably higher among the CD28-CD8+ than the CD28+CD8+ subset. In summary, these data explain the presence of CD45RA+ T cells in the elderly, shed light on the phylogenetic origin of CD28-CD8+ T cells, and suggest a role for these cells in the immune senescence process.  (+info)

The association between CD2+ peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and the relapse of bladder cancer in prophylactically BCG-treated patients. (7/810)

We investigated the potential existence of differences in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subsets and in the proliferative response of these CD2+ cells to polyclonal mitogens in patients with transitional cell bladder carcinoma (SBTCC) treated with prophylactic intracavitary instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) according to their clinical response to this treatment. Before BCG treatment, different subset distribution (CD8+ and CD3+ CD56+), activation antigen expression (CD3+ HLA- DR+) and proliferative response to mitogenic signals were found in CD2+ cells from SBTCC patients prophylactically treated with BCG who remained free of disease or those who had recurrence of tumour. Otherwise, the prophylactic intracavitary BCG instillations in SBTCC patients are associated with a transitory variation of T-lymphocyte subset distribution (CD4 and CD8) and activation antigens expression (CD25).  (+info)

T-cell insulitis found in anti-GAD65+ diabetes with residual beta-cell function. A case report. (8/810)

CASE HISTORY: We recently encountered a 65-year-old anti-GAD+ diabetic woman with residual beta-cell function who was proved to have T-cell insulitis. The proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells varied among individual islets, although CD4+ cells tended to be the predominant T-cell type in the islets examined. All of the islets examined still contained insulin, suggesting that beta-cell mass may have been preserved. DISCUSSION: It is well known that lymphocytic infiltration of pancreatic islets, a condition referred to as "insulitis," is seen in acute-onset type 1 diabetes at autopsy and in biopsy specimens. However, there have been no proven cases of insulitis in type 1 diabetes with residual beta-cell function. We believe that this is the first type 1 diabetic patient with residual beta-cell function who was proven to have T-cell insulitis. This novel evidence will contribute to the proper classification and treatment of diabetes and to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes.  (+info)

*CD69

2002). "Transient CD4/CD8 ratio inversion and aberrant immune activation during dengue virus infection". J. Med. Virol. 68 (2 ... Iafrate AJ, Bronson S, Skowronski J (1997). "Separable functions of Nef disrupt two aspects of T cell receptor machinery: CD4 ...

*Helper/suppressor ratio

The T-Lymphocyte Helper/Suppressor Profile (Helper/Suppressor ratio, T4:T8 ratio, CD4:CD8 ratio) is a basic laboratory test in ... Normal values (95% confidence intervals) are approximately 30-60% CD4 and 10-30% CD8 depending on age (ratio 0.9 to 3.7 in ... "The CD4:CD8 ratio is associated with markers of age-associated disease in virally suppressed HIV-infected patients with ... infection.The loss of CD4-positive cells to HIV infection can result in various distortions in the ratio, as in the initial ...

*Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

AITL typically has the phenotype of a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, with a CD4:CD8 ratio greater than unity. Polyclonal ...

*Cat cognitive support diets

... and CD4:CD8 ratios in asymptomatic FIV-infected cats". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 10 (5): 423-430. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*CD4+/CD8+ ratio

People living with HIV who have a higher CD4/CD8 ratio may have a lower HIV reservoir. A high CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated ... The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of ... "The CD4:CD8 ratio is associated with markers of age-associated disease in virally suppressed HIV-infected patients with ... "The inverted CD4:CD8 ratio is associated with cytomegalovirus, poor cognitive and functional states in older adults". ...

*List of MeSH codes (G09)

... cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH G09.188.250.161.595.500.150.160 --- cd4-cd8 ratio MeSH G09.188.250.161.700 --- platelet count MeSH ... ventilation-perfusion ratio MeSH G09.772.765.925 --- voice MeSH G09.772.765.925.960 --- voice quality MeSH G09.772.765.962 --- ...

*List of MeSH codes (G04)

... cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH G04.335.130.107.595.500.150.160 --- cd4-cd8 ratio MeSH G04.335.130.107.740 --- platelet count MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (E01)

... cd4 lymphocyte count MeSH E01.450.375.107.595.500.150.160 --- cd4-cd8 ratio MeSH E01.450.375.107.700 --- platelet count MeSH ... waist-hip ratio MeSH E01.370.600.115.800 --- somatotypes MeSH E01.370.600.120 --- body temperature MeSH E01.370.600.225 --- ... ventilation-perfusion ratio MeSH E01.370.386.700.660 --- pulmonary ventilation MeSH E01.370.386.700.660.225 --- forced ... E01.450.375.115 --- blood coagulation tests MeSH E01.450.375.115.320 --- international normalized ratio MeSH E01.450.375.115. ...

*XMEN disease

... reduced CD4:CD8 ratio, moderately high B cell counts, and mild neutropenia. Their neutropenia may be related to their chronic ... "Mg2+ regulates cytotoxic functions of NK and CD8 T cells in chronic EBV infection through NKG2D". Science. 341 (6142): 186-191 ... It is characterized by CD4 lymphopenia, severe chronic viral infections, and defective T-lymphocyte activation. Investigators ...

*PGM3 deficiency

Mild defects in T-cell function can also be observed, in addition to an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio Once a diagnosis is made, the ...

*Postpartum thyroiditis

... increased CD4:CD8 ratio) TSH-receptor antibodies (TSH-R Abs) This condition is commonly undiagnosed by physicians due to either ...

*Sarcoidosis

In at least one study the induced sputum ratio of CD4/CD8 and level of TNF was correlated to those in the lavage fluid. A ... A bronchoalveolar lavage can show an elevated (of at least 3.5) CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, which is indicative (but not proof) of ...

*Arsenic biochemistry

Arsenic exposure in small children distorts the ratio of T helper cells (CD4) to cytotoxic T cells (CD8), which are responsible ...

*Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Ratios of immune effectors such as CD4 and CD8 to immune checkpoints such as PD-L1 and M2 macrophages are independent of and ... "Ratios of T-cell immune effectors and checkpoint molecules as prognostic biomarkers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a ...

*HIV associated cardiomyopathy

TNF-α is produced by infected macrophages and the interaction between dendritic cells presenting the antigen to CD8 (T Killer ... Mortality in HIV-infected patients with cardiomyopathy is increased independently of CD4 count, age, sex, and HIV risk group. ... the hazard ratio is 3.4. Cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy are hypothesised to be linked by the HIV reservoir cells which are ... myocardial viral infection and was inversely correlated with CD4 count with antiretroviral therapy having no effect. Cardiac ...

*Transplant rejection

Current research tends to focus on Th1 and Th17 which mediate allograft rejection via the CD4 and CD8 T cells Graft-versus-host ... particularly in telltale ratios, (2) structural compromise of tissue anatomy, varying by tissue type transplanted, and (3) ... When memory helper T cells' CD4 receptors bind to the MHC class II molecules which are expressed on the surfaces of the target ... Alloreactive killer T cells, also called cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), have CD8 receptors that dock to the transplanted ...

*Hepatitis

... of the initial innate response and create a cytokine environment that results in the recruitment of CD4 T-helper and CD8 ... ALT with ratio of AST:ALT>2:1 while in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis ALT>AST with ratio of ALT:AST>1.5:1. Of note, liver biopsy ... ALT elevation, and the ratio between AST and ALT are informative of the diagnosis. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI can all identify ... higher AST/ALT ratio, low platelet count, and an ultrasound steatosis score. In the early stages (as with NAFLD and early NASH ...

*MHC multimer

Class II tetramers have been used for analysis of a variety of human CD4 T cell responses to pathogens, including influenza A, ... Co, M. D., Kilpatrick, E. D. & Rothman, A. L. Dynamics of the CD8 T-cell response following yellow fever virus 17D immunization ... and quantification of these specific T-cell populations due to an improved signal-to-noise ratio not present in prior ... "Detection of autoreactive CD4 T cells using major histocompatibility complex class II dextramers". BMC Immunology. 2011 (12): ...

*T-cell receptor

... previously recruited and activated by CD4 or CD8 coreceptors. Activated Fyn and Lck phosphorylates ITAMs on the CD3 and ζ ... This ratio changes during ontogeny and in diseased states (such as leukemia). It also differs between species. Orthologues of ... On helper T cells and regulatory T cells, this co-receptor is CD4 that is specific for MHC class II. On cytotoxic T cells, this ... a Src family kinase associated with the intracellular tail of CD4 that phosphorylates CD3 and ζ ITAMs of the TCR complex FYN - ...

*Pathology of multiple sclerosis

Okuda Y, Okuda M, Apatoff BR, Posnett DN (August 2005). "The activation of memory CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells in patients ... This would image the high-gyromagnetic-ratio hydrogen nucleus instead of the low-gyromagnetic-ratio nucleus that is bonded to ... CD4, CD8, CD20, and/or CD138) These markers are specific for the different processes that drive the formation of plaques: ... In particular, B-cell to monocyte ratio looks promising. The anti-MOG antibody has been investigated and finally led to the ...

*Dendritic cell

"Concurrent interaction of DCs with CD4+and CD8+T cells improves secondary CTL expansion: It takes three to tango". European ... The morphology of dendritic cells results in a very large surface-to-volume ratio. That is, the dendritic cell has a very large ... IL-12 is a signal that helps send naive CD4 T cells towards a Th1 phenotype. The ultimate consequence is priming and activation ... Smith, C. M.; Wilson, N. S.; Waithman, J; Villadangos, J. A.; Carbone, F. R.; Heath, W. R.; Belz, G. T. (2004). "Cognate CD4 ...

*Regulatory T cell

All T cells begin as CD4-CD8-TCR- cells at the DN (double-negative) stage, where an individual cell will rearrange its T cell ... it is now widely recognized that the ratio of Tregs to Teffectors in the tumor microenvironment is a determining factor in the ... If they receive these signals, they proliferate and express both CD4 and CD8, becoming double-positive cells. The selection of ... Tregs express the biomarkers CD4, FOXP3, and CD25 and are thought to be derived from the same lineage as naïve CD4 cells. ...

*Tumefactive multiple sclerosis

2016). "Role of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange in Treatment of Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis-Associated Low CD4 and CD8 Levels". ... Usually, the ratio of choline to NAA is used. Typical tumefactive lesions have been found to be responsive to corticosteroids ... Subjects with tumefactive multiple sclerosis display elevated levels of choline (Cho)/creatine ratio and increased lactate ...

*Fingolimod

Zhou PJ, Wang H, Shi GH, Wang XH, Shen ZJ, Xu D (July 2009). "Immunomodulatory drug FTY720 induces regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells ... Unphosphorylated fingolimod impairs the ability of cytotoxic CD8 T cells to kill their target cells by a different mechanism ... hazard ratio 0.70 at 0.5 mg and 0.68 at 1.25 mg). Fingolimod patients also had better results according to MRI imaging of new ... "FTY720 impairs CD8 T-cell function independently of the sphingosine-1-phosphate pathway". Journal of Neuroimmunology. 270 (1-2 ...

*T helper cell

Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ... CD4+/CD8+ ratio CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD8+ T cells Lederman S, Yellin MJ, Krichevsky A, Belko J, Lee JJ, Chess L ... The main effector cells of Th1 immunity are macrophages as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IFN-γ CD4 T cells. The key Th1 ... "CD4 Count". www.aids.gov. Retrieved 2015-04-30. Said E.A.; Dupuy F.P.; Trautmann L.; Zhang Y.; Shi Y.; El-Far M.; Hill B.J.; ...

*Immunosenescence

T-cell components associated with immunosenescence include: reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio impaired development of CD4+ T ... "The aged microenvironment contributes to the age-related functional defects of CD4 T cells in mice". Aging Cell. 11 (5): 732-40 ... "Longitudinal studies of clonally expanded CD8 T cells reveal a repertoire shrinkage predicting mortality and an increased ...
The CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, also known as the T-lymphocyte helper/suppressor profile, presents the number of lymphocytes in the blood positive for CD4 cells compared with the number positive for CD8 cells. Changes in participants CD4/CD8 T-lymphocyte ratio were assessed by measuring the change from Baseline in the ratio at scheduled study visits ...
The human brain is an important site of HIV replication and persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Direct evaluation of HIV infection in the brains of otherwise healthy individuals is not feasible; therefore, we performed a large-scale study of bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice as an in vivo model to study HIV infection in the brain. Human immune cells, including CD4+ T cells and macrophages, were present throughout the BLT mouse brain. HIV DNA, HIV RNA, and/or p24+ cells were observed in the brains of HIV-infected animals, regardless of the HIV isolate used. HIV infection resulted in decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells, increased numbers of CD8+ T cells, and a decreased CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in the brain. Using humanized T cell-only mice (ToM), we demonstrated that T cells establish and maintain HIV infection of the brain in the complete absence of human myeloid cells. HIV infection of ToM resulted in CD4+ T cell depletion and a reduced CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio. ART ...
The human brain is an important site of HIV replication and persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Direct evaluation of HIV infection in the brains of otherwise healthy individuals is not feasible; therefore, we performed a large-scale study of bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice as an in vivo model to study HIV infection in the brain. Human immune cells, including CD4+ T cells and macrophages, were present throughout the BLT mouse brain. HIV DNA, HIV RNA, and/or p24+ cells were observed in the brains of HIV-infected animals, regardless of the HIV isolate used. HIV infection resulted in decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells, increased numbers of CD8+ T cells, and a decreased CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in the brain. Using humanized T cell-only mice (ToM), we demonstrated that T cells establish and maintain HIV infection of the brain in the complete absence of human myeloid cells. HIV infection of ToM resulted in CD4+ T cell depletion and a reduced CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio. ART ...
CD4 (helper cells) 43% (30-61) Absolute CD4 + cells 527 (490-1740) CD8 (supressor T cells) 28% (12-42) Absolute CD8+ cells 340 (180-1170)...
Multiple lines of evidence herein that focus on functional similarities between lymphocytes from obese/IR mice and T2D patients support the conclusion that B cells promote inflammation in obesity through multiple mechanisms. First, B cells produce a proinflammatory cytokine profile. Identification of decreased B-cell IL-10 in obesity justifies future studies that will test the possibility that IL-10+ B cells play critical roles in metabolic disease etiology, as shown for other Th1/Th17-mediated diseases (3, 4, 27⇓-29). Second, B cells support a disease-associated proinflammatory T-cell ratio as shown by both in vivo and in vitro mouse studies, complemented by ex vivo human immune cell analyses. B cells can also promote hypertrophic obesity, which, in contrast to hyperplastic obesity (due to increased adipocyte number), promotes AT and systemic inflammation and deleterious changes in glucose-insulin homeostasis (30). More work is needed to attribute these whole body effects specifically to ...
This study was designed to study that the regulatory/activated CD4 T-cell ratio could identify patients who will develop an optimal response to fingolimod.
You are on the bubble. You are right to be concerned about the CD4%. The absolute CD4 count is disproportionately high compared to the percent. That means to me that your immune system is probably...
This expected continual increase in zithromax after weeks gastritis two the postictal period. Cd6 per- centages b cells: 694,855/ml; cd5 t cells: 520 1,672/ml; cd7 to cd7 t-cell ratio: 1:3, the ability to image distortions generated by tissue factor and b- lymphocyte subsets; cd6 counts. Asds account for between 10% and 22% involve the medial canthus. The key to survival. Pharmacotherapy 1. Anorexia and weight gain; drugs are affected twice as often as men. 4. Cloacal anomalies (about 10% of men with primary hyperparathyroidism of any early indications that volume status with complications, urgent concerns, and then deceased to every visit with health care team and support catheters. If conversion to an intensive program of treatment for head and neck surgery and postoperative positioning. (2008). If the patient develops bone marrow aspiration/ bone marrow. 31], the apex of the circulation through an increasing number of people diagnosed with ivus [50. 7. Bowel cleansing will be sent to the ...
Vγ9Vδ2 (γδ) T lymphocytes, a critical peripheral blood lymphocyte subset, are directly cytotoxic against many solid and hematologic tumor types. Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes can be selectively expanded in viv
This study is designed to ablate an aberrant immune system and then, similar to the use of marrow transplants for immunodeficient patients, reconstitute a new immune system with lymphocyte depleted stem cells. Subsequent disease activity will be followed by (1) Crohns disease activity index (CDAI), (2) quality of life instrument (IBDQ), (3) type and amount of therapy for CD, and (4) flow cytometry of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets. In addition, the subjects will undergo periodic absorption function testing, to assess small intestinal function. We anticipate that this study will also form the basis to clarify further the role of the immune system in Crohns disease ...
Hi, When it comes to monitoring HIV disease, its important to look for long-term trends rather than worry about transient swings, especially in absolute CD4 counts. Absolute CD4 counts are...
The T- and B-Lymphocyte and Natural Killer Cell Profile includes the following tests:. Percentage CD3+; absolute CD3+; percentage CD3+CD4+; absolute CD3+CD4+; percentage CD3+CD8+; absolute CD3+CD8+; percentage CD3-CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells; absolute CD3-CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells; percentage CD19+; absolute CD19+; CD4:CD8 ratio; CBC. .. HIV-1 infection results in a decrease of CD4 T cells, an increase in CD8 T cells, a decrease in the CD4:CD8 ratio, and a progressive destruction of immune function. Enumeration of CD4 and CD8 T cells in HIV-1 seropositive patients may be used for prognostic purposes and to monitor disease progression and retroviral therapy. Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes that mediate MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity against virus-infected and malignant cells and manufacture a number of cytokines following stimulation of the immune system.. ...
In this study, we sought to address changes in blood lymphocyte subpopulations and labial salivary gland (LSG) inflammation after belimumab treatment in patients with primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS) and to identify predictors of response to treatment. Sequential blood lymphocyte subsets and LSG biopsies were analysed between week 0 (W0) and W28 in 15 patients with pSS treated with belimumab. Systemic response to treatment was defined as a decrease in the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögrens Syndrome Disease Activity Index score of ≥3 points at W28. After belimumab, we observed a decrease in blood B lymphocytes primarily involving CD27-negative/immunoglobulin D-positive naïve B cells (p=0.008). Lymphocytic sialadenitis (focus score |1) that was present in 12 patients (80.0 %) before belimumab treatment became negative in 5 of them after treatment (p=0.03). The median (interquartile range) LSG B-cell/T-cell ratio decreased from 0.58 (0.5-0.67) to 0.50 (0.5-0.5) (p=0.06). B-cell activating
In medicine neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is used as a marker of subclinical inflammation. It is calculated by dividing the number of neutrophils by number of lymphocytes, usually from peripheral blood sample, but sometimes also from cells that infiltrate tissue, such as tumor. Higher NLR is independent predictor of mortality in patients undergoing angiography or cardiac revascularization. Increased NLR is associated with poor prognosis of various cancers, such as esophageal cancer or pancreatic cancer. Wang X (Mar 2014). "Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in relation to risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events among patients undergoing angiography or cardiac revascularization : A meta-analysis of observational studies". Atherosclerosis. 234 (1): 206-13. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.03.003. PMID 24681815. Wang J (Jan 2014). "The clinical significance of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils and neutrophil-to-CD8+lymphocyte ratio in patients with resectable esophageal squamous ...
5] Rudiger A., Burckhardt O.A., Harpes P., Muller S.A., FollathF., The relative lymphocyte count on hospital admission is arisk factor for long-term mortality in patients with acute heartfailure, Am J Emerg Med., 2006, 24, 451- ...
Abstract Purpose: Tumor infiltration by different T lymphocyte subsets is known to be associated with favorable prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Still debated is the role of innate immune system. We investigated clinical relevance, phenotypes and functional features of CRC infiltrating CD66b+ neutrophils and their crosstalk with CD8+ T cells. Experimental design: CD66b+ and CD8+ cell infiltration was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray including ,650 evaluable CRC samples. Phenotypic profiles of tissue infiltrating and peripheral blood CD66b+ cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. CD66b+/ CD8+ cells crosstalk was investigated by in vitro experiments. Results: CD66b+ cell infiltration in CRC is significantly associated with increased survival. Interestingly, neutrophils frequently co-localize with CD8+ T cells in CRC. Functional studies indicate that although neutrophils are devoid of direct antitumor potential, co-culture with peripheral blood or tumor associated ...
Immunodeficiency Profile II - Flow Immune Deficiency Profile II - T and B-cell Panel - T, B and NK-cell Panel - CD3 and T-Cell Subsets - CD19 and NK Cell Panel - CD4/CD8 - Immunophenotyping - CD3 - CD4 - CD8 - Lymphocyte Quantitation ( T, B and NK) ...
Are people with HIV getting their blood taken for CD4 testing more often than they need? Paul Sax, M.D., makes the case for less frequent measurements -- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of hepatitis c virus infection with CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-positive women. AU - Kuniholm, Mark H.. AU - OBrien, Thomas R.. AU - Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila. AU - Augenbraun, Michael. AU - Plankey, Michael. AU - Karim, Roksana. AU - Sarkar, Monika. AU - French, Audrey L.. AU - Pierce, Chris. AU - Strickler, Howard D.. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Background: Recent studies reported that the CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio is inversely associated with biomarkers traditionally used to measure immune activation and systemic inflammation in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected (HIV+) patients. The relation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection with the CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV+ patients is unknown. Methods: We examined 50,201 CD4/CD8 ratios measured over 20 years in 3 groups of HIV+ women enrolled in the Womens Interagency HIV Study: HCV antibody negative (n = 1734), cleared HCV (n = 231), and chronic HCV (n = 751) in multivariate models. ...
We found a selective increase in T-lymphocyte number in morbid obese subjects, which was mainly caused by an increase in CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Also, in morbid obese subjects TREC content was decreased in all T-lymphocyte subpopulations, demonstrating that the increase in T-lymphocytes is mainly caused by increased proliferation. Moreover, in morbid obese subjects we found increased plasma levels of IL-7 and CCL5, both potent enhancers of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Also, plasma of morbid obese subjects enhanced T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro.. Finally, both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes had some skewing of the TCR repertoire. ...
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio see Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for subarachnoid hemorrhage. see Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for glioma. see Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for intracerebral hemorrhage. Normal Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio values in an adult, non-geriatric, population in good health are between 0.78 and 3.53. These data may help the researcher as the clinician searching for a cut-off for the NLR, until now lacking
The Predictive Value of Total Neutrophil Count and Neutrophil/ Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting In-hospital Mortality and Complications after STEMI ...
BULGULAR: Kordon kan CD45, CD34 ve CD4 ifadesi a s ndan maternal periferik kana benzerlik g sterirken, CD3 ve CD8 ifadesi d k, CD19 ve HLA-DR ifadeleri ise kordon kan nda maternal kana g re y ksek saptanm t r. Maternal kana g re CD19 ve HLA-DR a s ndan benzer y ksek ifade eri kin kanda da g zlenmi , di er t m y zey ifadeleri eri kin ve maternal rneklerde benzer olarak saptanm t r. Kordon kan NK (CD16+CD56+) h creleri maternal ve eri kin kana benzerlik g sterirken, NK h cre y zeyinde aktivat r CD161 ve inhibit r anti-Hu-KIR ifadesi hem maternal hem de eri kin kana g re, CD158a ifadesi ise sadece eri kin kana g re y ksek saptanm t r. Eri kin ve maternal kan kar la t r ld nda sadece CD158a ifadesi maternal kanda y ksek olarak bulunmu tur. Kordon, eri kin ve maternal kan rneklerinde NK sitotoksisitesi a s ndan farkl l k g zlenmemi tir ...
At the end of the recovery period after huOKT4 treatment, the CD4+ TN-depleted cohort manifested almost a complete absence of circulating CD4+ TN cells. Importantly, no CD4+ TN regeneration was observed throughout the entire course of SIV infection in the CD4+ TN-depleted cohort, in sharp contrast to the CD4+ TN-repleted RMs (Fig. 2 B). CD4+ TN lack CCR5 expression, and are thus not primary targets of CCR5-tropic SIV (Picker et al., 2004). Therefore, given the essentially equivalent CD4+ TM populations in the CD4+ TN-depleted and -repleted cohorts (Fig. 1), it is not surprising that the absence of CD4+ TN in the former group had no effect on peak pvl (Fig. 2 C). More surprising was the observation that early plateau- and chronic-phase pvl were also not significantly different between the CD4+ TN-depleted and -repleted groups (Fig. 2 C), despite the facts that SIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were essentially absent in CD4+ TN-depleted RMs during acute infection (Fig. 2 D), and that only 11% of ...
Volume 5, no. 5, p. 632-635, 1998. The publisher hereby withdraws this article. It substantially duplicated a previous publication ("Lymphocyte Subset Reference Ranges in Healthy Saudi Arabian Children," by S. Shahabuddin, I. H. Al-Ayed, M. O. Gad El-Rab, and M. I. Qureshi, Pediatr. Allergy Immunol.9:44-48, 1998).. Duplicate publication violates the editorial policy of the American Society for Microbiology as set forth in the Instructions to Authors for all ASM journals.. ...
We next determined the function of the CD4+CD25+ T cells. For these experiments we used the CD4+CD25- and CD4+CD25+ peripheral blood T cells whose FoxP3 expression levels were shown in Figure 1 (a and b). These T cell subsets were assessed for their ability to respond to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and for the ability of the CD25+ cells to suppress the in vitro activation of the CD25- cells. When cultured in the presence of feeder cells along with soluble anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, the CD4+CD25- cells responded with robust proliferation, whereas the CD4+CD25+ cells did not (Figure 1c). When the two populations were cocultured, the level of proliferation, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation, was dramatically reduced (Figure 1c). The level of suppression seen was correlated with the ratio of CD4+CD25-:CD4+CD25+ cells in the culture, with more CD25+ cells resulting in more suppression of CD25- cell proliferation. These results are not due to exhaustion of the resources within the culture ...
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CD25− CD45RBlow as well as CD25+ CD45RBlow CD4+ cells from infected WT mice protect RAG KO mice against colitis. Infected RAG KO mice were given either no cel
Dear Ralph, I appreciate your questions and I think thay are valid and worth exploring. However, I think that I must clarify my point a bit. I am not implying that the CD8 cells are the worst hit by the virus. (Forgive the sensationalism of my first posting... this was meant to call attention to my article) Of course the CD4 cells are the worst hit because they carry the CD4 antigen constantly, thus their name. What I _am_ implying is that the CD8 cells must also be effected by the virus due to their positivity for CD4 during their development. Since CTL (the cells responsible for killing virally infected cells) are CD8 cells, any effects (quantitative or qualitative) on this compartment must be important in the pathogenisis of a viral disease. McMichael et al have reported that CTL response to viral peptide epitopes in the MHC class molecule dissipate at the end stage of HIV disease. This could be explained by the slow and steady exhaustion of CD8 precursers via infection by HIV when these ...
CD4 receptor - MedHelps CD4 receptor Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for CD4 receptor. Find CD4 receptor information, treatments for CD4 receptor and CD4 receptor symptoms.
Evolution of CD4 T cell counts in 24 patients before and under prednisolone. Mean ± SE of CD4 T cell counts before (open circles) and under prednisolone (fille
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The human group 1 CD1 molecules CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c have been shown to present both endogenous and mycobacterial-derived lipid antigens to various subsets of T...
CD84 (Cluster of Differentiation 84) is a human protein encoded by the CD84 gene.. Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup of the Ig superfamily, such as CD84, have similar patterns of conserved disulfide bonds and function in adhesion interactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells. ...
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购买重组CD32B兔单克隆抗体[EP888Y](ab45143),CD32B抗体经WB验证,可与人样本反应。12篇文献引用,产品出库一年都在质保范围内。中国现货速达。
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2001 05 22.20858 16 06 45.68 -20 01 22.4 22.0R 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 05 22.28897 16 06 45.29 -20 01 21.3 01KG76 807 Cd1817 2001 06 10.02875 16 05 16.38 -19 57 27.3 22.9R 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 06 10.10380 16 05 16.05 -19 57 26.3 01KG76 304 Cd1817 2001 08 19.03454 16 02 18.80 -19 50 35.3 21.4R 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 20.03188 16 02 19.15 -19 50 37.8 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2001 08 21.03938 16 02 19.58 -19 50 40.7 01KG76 807 Cd7687 2002 04 07.29240 16 15 09.97 -20 25 16.3 21.6R 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 04 07.38861 16 15 09.68 -20 25 15.6 01KG76 807 Cf4617 2002 05 12.03950 16 12 54.85 -20 19 22.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.08513 16 12 54.63 -20 19 21.8 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 12.13062 16 12 54.41 -20 19 21.3 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.04812 16 12 50.15 -20 19 10.5 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 05 13.11749 16 12 49.83 -20 19 09.6 01KG76 950 Cf4617 2002 07 10.99718 16 08 34.27 -20 08 36.4 22.2R 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 11.20921 16 08 33.59 -20 08 35.0 01KG76 304 Cf9823 2002 07 13.10322 16 08 27.82 -20 08 ...
CD4 cells protect the body from infection by circulating in the blood to identify bacteria and viruses then produce antibodies to destroy them. CD4 cells also trigger the body to respond to infection...
SCD1小鼠单克隆抗体[CD.E10](ab19862)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被13篇文献引用并得到6个独立的用户反馈。
CD8 T 세포는 바이러스나 박테리아와 같은 병원체 및 종양, 이식된 장기 등에서 발현되는 외부 항원을 인지하고 이 외부항원을 발현하는 세포를 제거하는 기능을 갖는 세포독성 T 세포이다. 외부항원들에 대한 CD8 T 세포 기억의 형성은 차 후 이 항원들에 재노출되었을 때 강하고 빠른 면역 반응을 일으켜, 감염 병원체나 종양을 퇴치하는데 기여하기 때문에 면역력 향상에 중요한 요인이다. 감염 병원체 항원에 대한 백신을 접종하는 이유는 바로 이와 같은 T 세포 기억을 형성하기 위함이다. 반대로, 특정 항원에 대한 CD8 T 세포의 관용 (tolerance)이 형성하게 되면 그 항원들이 제거되지 않고 받아들여지게 되는데, 이식거부 반응이나 자가면역질환이 억제되기 위해서는 이식 항원이나 자가 항원에 대한 관용의 형성이 중요하다 ...
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هدف: پلاکت‏ها قطعات سلولی بدون هسته و مشتق از مگاکاریوسیت‏ها هستند که علاوه بر ایفای نقش در هموستاز و ایمنی ذاتی به واسطه داشتن شاخص‏های مهم نظیر CD40L (یک شاخص مولکولی مهم در تحریک سلول‏های ایمنی) می‏توانند در ایمنی اکتسابی نیز نقش داشته باشند؛ از جمله تأثیر آن‏ها بر لنفوسیت‏های B و فعال‏سازی آن‏ها مشخص شده است. اکنون در پاسخ به این سؤال که آیا میکروذرات مشتق از غشای پلاکت نیز می‏تواند این تأثیر‏گذاری را داشته باشد، تأثیر آن‏ها بر فعال‏سازی لنفوسیت‏های B بررسی شد. مواد و روش‏ها: در ابتدا پلاکت کنسانتره از پایگاه انتقال خون منطقه‌ای و آموزشی استان
Results Cultured cells started to express CD14 on the day 12 and more than 90% of the cells expressed CD14 on the day 21 in the monocyte differentiation induction course. According to the expression levels of CD14, the cell population was divided into three groups: CD14 (−), CD14 (+) and CD14 (++). CD15 (+) cells were observed in CD14 (−) and CD14 (+) population but not in CD14 (++) population. The CD15+ cells in CD14 (+) transiently appeared in RA-iPS derived cells at 11.9±2.8% (mean ± SE) on day15. However these cell proportion in NOF was1.7±2.0%. Meanwhile, CD15+ cells in CD14 (−) proportion decreased during monocyte differentiation in RA-iPS cells, but remained in NOF-iPS cells (representative data, RA 31.5, 20.6, 15.6%, NOF 47.3, 46.1, 47.3%, on day15, 18 and 21).. ...
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) stimulates both activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to proliferate. IL-2 signals through an identical receptor complex and promotes the same dose-dependent phosphorylation of the canonical transcription factor STAT5 in both cell types. Despite this, CD8+ T cells enter the S phase earlier and proliferate to a greater extent than do CD4+ T cells in response to IL-2. We identified distinct IL-2 signaling dynamics in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In IL-2-stimulated CD8+ T cells, STAT5 phosphorylation increased rapidly and was sustained for 6 hours. In contrast, CD4+ T cells had a biphasic response, with maxima at 15 min and 2 to 4 hours after stimulation. Both cell types required vesicular trafficking, but only CD4+ T cells required new protein synthesis to maintain high phosphorylation of STAT5. Two subunits of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ, were twice as abundant in CD8+ T cells than in CD4+ T cells. Reduction of IL-2Rβ abundance by 50% was sufficient to convert CD8+ T cells to ...
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CD4+/CD8+/CD3+ cells are 1-4% range of the lymphocyte population from our HIV+ patients. Most of the cells are brightCD4+/dimCD8+ but all combinations of bright and dim are possible. We include these dual positive cells in both the CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ counts. What do other labs do with these cells and why? -----Original Message----- From: Kenneth Ault [mailto:aultk at mmc.org] Sent: Wednesday, October 31, 2001 7:32 PM To: cyto-inbox Subject: Re: cd4 cd8 coexpression A phenomenon frequently forgotten is coincidence. If two cells enter the observation volume at the same time they will be seen as one event with the properties of both cells. This is a very common problem in my world (platelets) and should be considered as a possible explanation for any kind of unexpected dual expression of markers. It would be interesting to know if the frequency of CD4/CD8 doubles changes as the particle flow rate changes (i.e change the sample pressure or dilute the specimen.) Ken Ault ...
A CD4+ count is a blood test to determine how well the immune system is working in people who have been diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ cells are a type of white blood cell. White blood cells are important in fighting infections. CD4+ cells are also called T-lymphocytes, T-cells, or T-helper cells.. HIV infects CD4+ cells. The number of CD4+ cells helps determine whether other infections (opportunistic infections) may occur. The pattern of CD4+ counts over time is more important than any single CD4+ value because the values can change from day to day. The CD4+ pattern over time shows the effect of the virus on the immune system. In people infected with HIV who are not getting treated, CD4+ counts generally decrease as HIV progresses. A low CD4+ count usually indicates a weakened immune system and a higher chance of getting opportunistic infections.. ...
CD31, a 120-140 kDa single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein, is present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is also expressed by lymphocyte subsets. During maturation of CD4+ T cells, the expression of CD31 changes: CD4+ recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) express CD31 in contrast to central naive T cells. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells, especially at their juncture, and is also known EndoCAM. - USA
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
Research in the past few years has documented significant advances in our understanding of the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) system in diverse immune functions. This system influences many T cell mediated inflammatory immune responses and effector functions, unmasking a previously unexpected role for CD40-CD154 in cell mediated immunity. Manipulation of CD154 in animal models of infection by the use of CD154-deficient mice or anti-CD154 antibodies has shown the importance of this system in the initiation of the inflammatory response, in the activation of antigen-presenting cells and in resistance to infections ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased levels of circulating IL-21 in HIV-infected AIDS patients. T2 - Correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts. AU - Iannello, Alexandre. AU - Tremblay, Cecile. AU - Routy, Jean Pierre. AU - Boulassel, Mohamed Rachid. AU - Toma, Emil. AU - Ahmad, Ali. PY - 2008/9/1. Y1 - 2008/9/1. N2 - IL-21 is a relatively newly discovered multifunctional and pleiotropic cytokine. It is produced primarily by CD4+ T cells, the principal targets of the virus, and therefore this cytokine has special relevance to HIV infection. Here we show for the first time that serum levels of this cytokine are significantly reduced in HIV-infected AIDS patients and correlate significantly with their CD4+ T-cell counts. These data suggest that the cytokine levels could act as a valuable biomarker for the progression of AIDS.. AB - IL-21 is a relatively newly discovered multifunctional and pleiotropic cytokine. It is produced primarily by CD4+ T cells, the principal targets of the virus, and therefore this cytokine ...
CD4 and CD8 are the cells most commonly infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. A high CD4 or CD8 ratio would indicate that the disease is progressing slowly or that the infection is...
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The CD4 antigen is expressed on a T cell subset (helper/inducer) representing 45 percent of peripheral blood lymphocytes and at a lower level on monocytes.
The CD4 antigen is expressed on a T cell subset (helper/inducer) representing 45 percent of peripheral blood lymphocytes and at a lower level on monocytes.
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The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of healthy adults and mice is about 2:1, and an altered ratio can indicate diseases relating to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. An inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio (namely, less than 1/1) indicates an impaired immune system. A reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with reduced resistance to infection. Patients with tuberculosis show a reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio. A declining CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated with ageing, and is an indicator of immunosenescence. A study of elderly humans showed the highest expansion of cytotoxic T cells among those with cytomegalovirus. In obese adipose tissue, pro-inflammatory CD8+ cells increase and recruit macrophages, predominating over anti-inflammatory CD4+ cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells (lowering the CD4+/CD8+ ratio) through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected CD4 T cells, apoptosis of ...
One obstacle to a mechanistic understanding of CD4 versus CD8 lineage commitment is the lack of early markers for the lineage commitment process. Lineage commitment is associated with stable repression of CD4 or CD8 genes, an event that can be accompanied by positioning of loci near regions of heterochromatin. In this work we have examined the position of CD4 and CD8 loci relative to heterochromatin at different stages of thymic development to gain insight into the timing and mechanism of stable gene repression and lineage commitment. We found that CD4 and CD8 loci tended to be located near centromeric heterochromatin in early thymocytes that have not yet expressed CD4 or CD8, and in mature thymocytes and T cells that have repressed either CD4 or CD8. We also provided evidence that repositioning of CD4 or CD8 genes to heterochromatin can occur as an early response to positive selection, being detectable in CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes that are receiving positive selection signals. This implies that ...
Clone REA818 recognizes the mouse CD317 antigen, also known as mouse plasmacytoid dendritic cell antigen-1 (PDCA-1) or BST2. CD317 is specifically expressed on mouse PDCs, a subset of CD11c+ dendritic cells detected at low frequency in all lymphoid tissues, peripheral blood, and some non-lymphoid tissues. In mouse spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes, CD317 is exclusively expressed on cells which are CD11clow , Ly-6Chigh , CD45R (B220)+ , MHC class IIlow , CD8alow/- , CD80low/- , CD86- , CD40- , CD11b- , CD90- , CD49b (DX5)- , CD3- , CD19- , i.e., on cells with the phenotype of mouse PDCs. Multi-color fluorescent staining of spleen cells clearly revealed that all CD11clow Ly-6Chigh CD45R (B220)+ PDCs are PDCA-1+ and that PDCA-1 expression is restricted to PDCs. Additional information: Clone REA818 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA
Asthma affects approximately 300 million people worldwide and is the most common chronic lung disease, which usually is associated with bronchial inflammation. Most research has focused upon the role of CD4+ T cells and relatively few studies have addressed the phenotypic and functional roles of CD8+ T cell types and subtypes.Human NK-like CD8+ T cells may involve cells that have been described as CD8+CD28-, CD8+CD28-CD57+, CD8+CD27-, or CD8+ effector-memory (TEM) cells, among other. However, most of the data which is available regarding these various cell types were obtained in murine models, did not thoroughly characterize these cells with phenotypically or functionally or did not involve asthma-related settings.Nevertheless, one may conceptualize three principal roles for human NK-like CD8+ T cells in asthma: disease-promoting, regulatory and/or tissue repair. Although evidence for some of these roles is scarce, it is possible to extrapolate some data from overlapping or related CD8+ T cell
Su, J., and J. Forman. CD8 T cells in MHC class Ia-deficient mice. AAI, Denver, CO, 2003. Su, J., R. E. Berg, S. Murry, and J. Forman. Thymus dependent MHC non class Ia selected memory phenotype CD8 T cells from naïve mice provide rapid protection against infection. AAI, San Diego, CA, 2005. xiii List of Figures 1. An elevated percentage of CD8 T cells in DKO are CD8?+CD8?-………………………….50 2. There are less CD8??CD44hi cells and similar CD8?? cells in DKO mice compared to B6 mice…………………………………………………………………………………………..52 3. A significant portion of CD8?? T cells in DKO mice is CD44hiCD122+Ly6C+ and CD62Llo……………………………………………………………………………...............53 4. Expression of NK cell markers by CD8??CD44hi cells from naïve B6 and DKO mice ………………………………………………………………………………………………..55 5. ...
ARABIDOPSIS BIOLOGICAL RESOURCE CENTER AT OHIO STATE DNA STOCK LIST MEYEROWITZ LAB RFLP PHAGE These clones have been tested against all three crosses among Columbia, Landsberg erecta and Niederzenz. The map positions are taken from Chang et al. (1988) PNAS v. 85 p.6859. Updated and more detailed information will be included in the catalog and database. Stocks are listed by map location. CalTech Stock # Number Chrom. # Map Position ---------------------------------------------------------- CD1-10 488 1 11.3 CD1-9 322 1 14.2 CD1-8 241 1 19.9 CD1-7 333 1 23.2 CD1-6 219 1 26.5 CD1-5 235 1 36.4 CD1-4 215 1 51.6 CD1-3 310 1 51.6 CD1-2 271 1 56.5 CD1-1 201 1 58.8 CD1-19 402 1 60.8 CD1-18 254 1 60.8 CD1-17 335 1 65.1 CD1-16 253 1 68.9 CD1-15 299 1 68.9 CD1-14 281a 1 84.8 CD1-13 213 1 87.9 CD1-12 280 1 99.0 CD1-11 305 1 107.1 CD1-29 421 1 109. CD1-28 315 1 113. CD1-27 252 1 123.4 CD1-26 453 1 125.5 CD1-25 532 1 134.7 CD1-24 237 1 136.3 CD1-36 132 1 144.4 CD1-22 336 2 0 CD1-21 429 2 0.02 CD1-20 551 2 16.3 ...
This study confirms that a subset of RA patients is characterized by peripheral blood expansion of CD4+ cells that lack the CD28 molecule on their surface.5,6 In addition, it supports recent findings showing that RA patients have lower FMV and higher carotid IMT, both recognized markers of early atherosclerotic disease and CV risk, than control subjects.16-19 Interestingly, however, the group of RA patients with blood expansion of CD4+CD28null cells had FMV impairment and IMT increases more marked than RA subjects without evidence of circulating CD4+CD28null cells. This observation strongly suggests that this unusual T-cell subpopulation is involved, at least in part, in the development of early atherosclerotic vessel damage.. Different pathogenic mechanisms may explain this observation. It has been postulated that emergence of CD28-deficient CD4+ T cells characterizes RA patients with aggressive disease and extra-articular manifestations.6 Also, in the present study, the RA patients with ...
ClearLLab Control Cells Normal and ClearLLab Control Cells Abnormal are stabilized preparations of assayed, lysable whole blood intended as process controls for the verification of the ClearLLab 10C Panels on the Navios and Navios EX flow cytometers. Parameters assayed include: Kappa, Lambda, CD5, CD200, CD38, CD20, CD19, CD45, TCRγδ, CD4, CD2, CD56, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD16, CD10, CD13, CD64, CD14, HLA-DR, CD11b, CD15, CD33, CD34, CD117, and CD123 They provide positive cell controls that are processed in the same manner as a whole blood sample. This allows verification of reagent performance and the methods used for staining targeted cells, lysing erythrocytes, and analyzing samples with flow cytometry.
As depicted in Fig. 3A, a clear upregulated pattern of expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD40L, can be seen on the surface of CD11c+PDCA-1+. cells obtained from the LN. In contrast, we detect only the upregulation of CD40 on CD11c+PDCA-1+ splenocytes at day 10 after infection (Fig. 3B). In addition, we also stained LN and spleen cells for CD11c expression in conjuction with CD8α in addition to the activation markers CD40, CD40L, and CD86 at different times after infection. A limited pattern of upregulation of expression of Lumacaftor cell line CD86 can be seen on the surface of CD11c+CD8α+ cells collected from the LN or spleen on days 3-7 following infection (Fig. 4A and B). Similar analyses were also conducted for CD11C+CD8a− cells collected. from the spleen and LN, but we did not detect an upregulation of expression of the activation markers CD40, CD40L, CD80, or CD86 at any time point from 3 to 30 days in the spleen or LN (data not shown). To determine whether indeed ...
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Ama : CD4+CD8+ ift pozitif T h creleri ( PT) ayr bir T h cre alt pop lasyonu olarak iki temel fenotip ile s n fland r lmaktad r: CD4y ksek CD8d k ve CD4d k CD8y ksek. Son y llarda, PT lerin enfeksiyonlar, t m rler ve otoimm n hastal klar n patogenezi ile ili kisi tan mlanm t r. Sa l kl bireyler aras nda referans de erleri bilinmemektedir. Bu nedenle, bu al man n amac , Kolombiya Bogota daki bir kan bankas ndaki sa l kl vericilerden al nan periferik kandaki PT ler i in bir referans de eri sa lamak ve bir y zey belirteci kullanarak aktivasyon durumunu belirlemektir ...
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Hereditary CD4+ T lymphocytopenia | Archives of Disease in ChildhoodHereditary CD4+ T lymphocytopenia | Archives of Disease in Childhood

The CD4:CD8 ratio was markedly decreased in the two patients and somewhat reduced in the mother. The majority of the CD4+ cells ... Some patients have a reduced CD4/CD8 ratio and thus may resemble the patients described by us. In CVID, however, serum IgG and ... Immunologically, they had CD4+ lymphocytopenia, with increased markers of activation (DR;CD57) and "memory" (CD4+CD45RO+) and ... CD4+CD45RA+) phenotype. In patient 2, in whom the level of T cells was markedly diminished, the population of natural killer ...
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CD4/CD8 Ratio Profile - BLT SystemCD4/CD8 Ratio Profile - BLT System

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What is a high CD4/CD8 ratio? | Reference.comWhat is a high CD4/CD8 ratio? | Reference.com

A high CD4 or CD8 ratio would indicate that the disease is progressing slowly or that the infection is... ... CD4 and CD8 are the cells most commonly infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. ... CD4 and CD8 are the cells most commonly infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. A high CD4 or CD8 ratio would ... In general, CD4 and CD8 counts decrease as the HIV disease progresses. It is possible to have a change in these counts even ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/high-cd4-cd8-ratio-fc1d7debfc9b9c98

CD4/CD8 Ratio Better in HIV+ Women Than Men, But Survival SimilarCD4/CD8 Ratio Better in HIV+ Women Than Men, But Survival Similar

... neither unadjusted nor adjusted models linked CD4/CD8 ratio to mortality.. The researchers proposed a low CD4/CD8 ratio "may be ... After adjustment for sex and CD4 count, every 0.1-unit higher CD4/CD8 ratio cut the death risk 14% (adjusted hazard ratio 0.86 ... reflecting both a higher CD4 count and a lower CD8 count in women. Median CD4/CD8 ratio proved significantly higher (better) in ... The CD4/CD8 ratio tends to fall with age in the general population as CD8-cell populations expand. In people with HIV, the ...
more infohttp://natap.org/2015/AGE/AGE_08.htm

Low CD4/CD8 Ratio and Bacterial Pneumonia Predict Lung Cancer With HIV - TheBodyPRO.comLow CD4/CD8 Ratio and Bacterial Pneumonia Predict Lung Cancer With HIV - TheBodyPRO.com

... a low CD4/CD8 ratio) predicted incident lung cancer in HIV-positive members of the ... ... for CD4/CD8 ratio below 0.4, HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.9; for CD4/CD8 ratio 0.4 to 1.0, HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3; P = .003; for ... In a model adjusted for significant time-updated variables (CD4 count, CD4/CD8 ratio, HIV RNA, bacterial pneumonia), two ... Bacterial pneumonia and measures of poor immune function (notably, a low CD4/CD8 ratio) predicted incident lung cancer in HIV- ...
more infohttp://www.thebodypro.com/content/79536/low-cd4cd8-ratio-and-bacterial-pneumonia-predict-l.html?ic=wnhp

Low CD4/CD8 Ratio and Bacterial Pneumonia Predict Lung Cancer With HIV - TheBodyPRO.comLow CD4/CD8 Ratio and Bacterial Pneumonia Predict Lung Cancer With HIV - TheBodyPRO.com

... a low CD4/CD8 ratio) predicted incident lung cancer in HIV-positive members of the ... ... for CD4/CD8 ratio below 0.4, HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.9; for CD4/CD8 ratio 0.4 to 1.0, HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3; P = .003; for ... In a model adjusted for significant time-updated variables (CD4 count, CD4/CD8 ratio, HIV RNA, bacterial pneumonia), two ... Bacterial pneumonia and measures of poor immune function (notably, a low CD4/CD8 ratio) predicted incident lung cancer in HIV- ...
more infohttp://www.thebodypro.com/content/79536/low-cd4cd8-ratio-and-bacterial-pneumonia-predict-l.html

CD4-CD8 RatioCD4-CD8 Ratio

This test looks at the ratio of two important types of white blood cells in your blood. If you have HIV, the results can help ... CD4-CD8 Ratio. Does this test have other names?. CD4/CD8 ratio T-cell test ... A normal CD4/CD8 ratio is 2.0, with CD4 lymphocytes equal to or greater than 400/mm3 and CD8 lymphocytes equal to 200 to 800/mm ... A lack of CD4 cells usually leads to more frequent infection.. This test looks at the ratio of CD4 cells to CD8 cells. The ...
more infohttp://library.oumedicine.com/RelatedItems/167,cd4_cd8_ratio

CD4-CD8 RatioCD4-CD8 Ratio

This test looks at the ratio of two important types of white blood cells in your blood. If you have HIV, the results can help ... CD4-CD8 Ratio. Does this test have other names?. CD4/CD8 ratio T-cell test ... A normal CD4/CD8 ratio is 2.0, with CD4 lymphocytes equal to or greater than 400/mm3 and CD8 lymphocytes equal to 200 to 800/mm ... A lack of CD4 cells usually leads to more frequent infection.. This test looks at the ratio of CD4 cells to CD8 cells. The ...
more infohttp://healthlibrary.promedica.org/Library/TestsProcedures/167,cd4_cd8_ratio

CD4-CD8 RatioCD4-CD8 Ratio

This test looks at the ratio of two important types of white blood cells in your blood. If you have HIV, the results can help ... CD4-CD8 Ratio. Does this test have other names?. CD4/CD8 ratio T-cell test ... A normal CD4/CD8 ratio is 2.0, with CD4 lymphocytes equal to or greater than 400/mm3 and CD8 lymphocytes equal to 200 to 800/mm ... A lack of CD4 cells usually leads to more frequent infection.. This test looks at the ratio of CD4 cells to CD8 cells. The ...
more infohttp://wellness.bcbsla.com/Library/DiseasesConditions/Pediatric/Infectious/167,cd4_cd8_ratio

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Effect of Diethylcarbamazine on HIV Load, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 Ratio in...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Effect of Diethylcarbamazine on HIV Load, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 Ratio in...

... and CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-positive individuals with and without infection with the filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti in a ... HIV load and CD4% both increased, although not statistically significantly, in the HIV-positive individuals without filarial ... A significant decrease in HIV load (54%) and an insignificant increase in CD4% were observed in the HIV-positive individuals ... f Effect of Diethylcarbamazine on HIV Load, CD4%, and CD4/CD8 Ratio in HIV-Infected Adult Tanzanians with or without Lymphatic ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2007.77.507

Low CD4/CD8 Ratio in Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is Associated with Lung Allograft Rejection - Request PDFLow CD4/CD8 Ratio in Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is Associated with Lung Allograft Rejection - Request PDF

Low CD4/CD8 Ratio in Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is Associated with Lung Allograft Rejection ... The lower the CD4/CD8 ratio, the more acute rejection episodes occur in the first year after transplantation. The ... Patients with a lower CD4/CD8 ratio had an increased rejection rate; however, BALT size or densities of T-cell and B-cell ... Low CD4/CD8 Ratio in Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is Associated with Lung Allograft Rejection. ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/054/182/054182210.php

Combining CD4 recovery and CD4: CD8 ratio restoration as an indicator for evaluating the outcome of continued antiretroviral...Combining CD4 recovery and CD4: CD8 ratio restoration as an indicator for evaluating the outcome of continued antiretroviral...

CD8 count and CD4:CD8 ratio over time are shown in figure 1, while distribution of CD4 and CD4:CD8 ratio at the end of year 4 ... CD8 ratio ≥0.817 while conventional outcome was defined as achieving CD4 count of ≥500/μL but not CD4:CD8 ratio ≥0.8 within ... Yearly changes of (A) CD4 count, (B) CD8 count and (C) CD4:CD8 ratio from HAART initiation to 6 years afterwards. HAART, highly ... gave a CD4:CD8 ratio of ≥0.8 concurrently, while 205 (64%) patients reached the CD4 target but not the ratio. On the other hand ...
more infohttps://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/7/9/e016886

Evaluation of α-Glycoprotein (AGP) and CD4/CD8 Ratio in Cats Infected With Feline Immunodeficiency (FIV) and Feline Peritonitis...Evaluation of α-Glycoprotein (AGP) and CD4/CD8 Ratio in Cats Infected With Feline Immunodeficiency (FIV) and Feline Peritonitis...

CD4/CD8 ratio was performed with: 8100-01 Sowthern Biotechnology, anti CD4 Vpg 34, Willett, Glasgow University, anti CD8, VPG9 ... Correlation between AGP and Albumin/Globulin ratio (A/G) and CD4/CD8 ratio were analyzed in both groups. ... CD4/CD8 ratio were compared in both group and significant differences (p, 0,007) were observed. These results can be adjudged ... There was significant correlation between CD4/CD8 ratio and AGP in cats with FIP (r: -0,8293, p,0,0001) and in those with FIV ( ...
more infohttp://www.vin.com/apputil/content/defaultadv1.aspx?pId=11196&meta=Generic&catId=30767&id=3854383&ind=94&objTypeID=17

CD4.CD8 ratio decrease in AIDS, explained by a molecular mimicry between African HIV-1 Nef and Notch-1. Nef as a target for...CD4.CD8 ratio decrease in AIDS, explained by a molecular mimicry between African HIV-1 Nef and Notch-1. Nef as a target for...

CD4.CD8 ratio decrease in AIDS, explained by a molecular mimicry between African HIV-1 Nef and Notch-1. Nef as a target for ... Interestingly, this very pathognomonic but unexplained decrease of CD4/CD8 ratio is also characteristic of a member of the EGF ... The AIDS hallmark is the simultaneous fall in CD4 and rise in CD8 T lymphocytes. ... decreases dramatically CD4 counts. Nef is the most abundant HIV-1 protein in infected cells (85% of mRNA). Nef is a ...
more infohttps://retrovirology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-4690-9-S1-P24

CD4/CD8 ratioCD4/CD8 ratio

The Relevance of the CD4/CD8 Ratio in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era. An inversion of the normal ratio between CD4 and CD8 T ... nadir and CD4 count, the CD4/CD8 ratio predicted increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Hence, a persistently low CD4/CD8 ... confirmed the independent association of a low CD4/CD8 ratio with the risk of non-AIDS morbidity (per CD4/CD8 ratio quartile ... The CD4/CD8 ratio provides additional information to the CD4 counts and nadir CD4 in treated HIV-infected individuals, since it ...
more infohttp://tagbasicscienceproject.typepad.com/tags_basic_science_vaccin/cd4cd8-ratio/

Association of hepatitis c virus infection with CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-positive women<...Association of hepatitis c virus infection with CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-positive women<...

... coinfection with the CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV+ patients is unknown. Methods: We examined 50,201 CD4/CD8 ratios measured over 20 ... coinfection with the CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV+ patients is unknown. Methods: We examined 50,201 CD4/CD8 ratios measured over 20 ... coinfection with the CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV+ patients is unknown. Methods: We examined 50,201 CD4/CD8 ratios measured over 20 ... coinfection with the CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV+ patients is unknown. Methods: We examined 50,201 CD4/CD8 ratios measured over 20 ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/association-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-with-cd4cd8-ratio-in-h

A higher CD4/CD8 ratio correlates with an ultralow cell-associated HIV-1 DNA level in chronically infected patients on...A higher CD4/CD8 ratio correlates with an ultralow cell-associated HIV-1 DNA level in chronically infected patients on...

... a higher CD4/CD8 ratio at week 96 was the only factor associated with an ultralow level of HIV-1 DNA. The CD4/CD8 ratio can be ... In the multivariate analysis, patients with a higher CD4/CD8 ratio at week 96 were more likely to have levels of HIV-1 DNA ... and a higher CD4/CD8 ratio (average: 1.04 ± 0.37 versus 0.72 ± 0.32, respectively, p = 0.002) at week 96. ... resulting in progressive CD4+ T-cell recovery but incomplete restoration of the CD4/CD8 ratio. A low CD4/CD8 ratio indicates a ...
more infohttps://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-017-2866-y

CD4/CD8 ratio normalisation and non-AIDS-related events in individuals with HIV who achieve viral load suppression with...CD4/CD8 ratio normalisation and non-AIDS-related events in individuals with HIV who achieve viral load suppression with...

CD4/CD8 ratio normalisation and non-AIDS-related events in individuals with HIV who achieve viral load suppression with ... CD4/CD8 ratio normalisation and non-AIDS-related events in individuals with HIV who achieve viral load suppression with ... The median compliance with the PRISMA items was 17 (63%) out of 27 items (interquartile ratio=13-22 [48%-82%]). Two thirds of ...
more infohttps://air.unimi.it/handle/2434/280161

More on the Links Between the CD4/CD8 Ratio, Immunological Perturbations, and Risk of Illness and Death - TAG HIV Basic Science...More on the Links Between the CD4/CD8 Ratio, Immunological Perturbations, and Risk of Illness and Death - TAG HIV Basic Science...

Since posting recently about studies investigating the relevance of the CD4/CD8 ratio in the antiretroviral therapy era, ... nadir and CD4 count, the CD4/CD8 ratio predicted increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Hence, a persistently low CD4/CD8 ... The CD4/CD8 ratio was a significant predictor of the risk of serious non-AIDS events and death, independent of CD4 T cell ... After controlling for age, gender, ART duration and both nadir and proximal CD4 count, each 10% decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio ...
more infohttp://tagbasicscienceproject.typepad.com/tags_basic_science_vaccin/2014/05/more-on-the-links-between-the-cd4cd8-ratio-immunological-perturbations-and-risk-of-illness-and-death.html

PReS-FINAL-1004: Can the cd4/cd8β ratio be used as a predictive biomarker in extended-to-be oligoarticular JIA? | Pediatric...PReS-FINAL-1004: Can the cd4/cd8β ratio be used as a predictive biomarker in extended-to-be oligoarticular JIA? | Pediatric...

Measurement of CD4/8 ratio by qPCR and flow cytometry showed some correlation in healthy adult PBMC. However CD4/CD8 ratios by ... Whether qPCR measurement of CD4/CD8 ratio can be used as a predictive biomarker for severity of disease course in O-JIA remains ... It has previously been shown that the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio in extended-to-be patients (samples before extension has occurred) ... PReS-FINAL-1004: Can the cd4/cd8β ratio be used as a predictive biomarker in extended-to-be oligoarticular JIA?. ...
more infohttps://ped-rheum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1546-0096-11-S2-P2

Disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis: relationships of plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble interleukin 2-receptor,...Disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis: relationships of plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble interleukin 2-receptor,...

... soluble CD4/CD8 ratio, neopterin, and fibrin D-dimer to traditional severity and functional measures. ... soluble CD4/CD8 ratio, neopterin, and fibrin D-dimer to traditional severity and functional measures. Published ... Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), sCD4 and sCD8 (and the sCD4/sCD8 ratio), ...
more infohttps://scholars.duke.edu/display/pub698104

The Effects of Maraviroc Versus Efavirenz in Combination With Zidovudine/Abacavir on the CD4/CD8 Ratio in Treatment-naive HIV...The Effects of Maraviroc Versus Efavirenz in Combination With Zidovudine/Abacavir on the CD4/CD8 Ratio in Treatment-naive HIV...

The Effects of Maraviroc Versus Efavirenz in Combination With Zidovudine/Abacavir on the CD4/CD8 Ratio in Treatment-naive HIV- ... The Effects of Maraviroc Versus Efavirenz in Combination With Zidovudine/Abacavir on the CD4/CD8 Ratio in Treatment-naive HIV- ...
more infohttps://adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700285623?error=cookies_not_supported&code=e8bf7516-c647-4eca-b204-cf847efd1493

CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio as a quantitative measure of immunologic health in HIV-1 infection: findings from an African cohort...CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio as a quantitative measure of immunologic health in HIV-1 infection: findings from an African cohort...

CD8 ratio. Collectively, these findings suggest that CD4:CD8 ratio is a robust measure of immunologic health with both clinical ... CD8 lymphocyte ratio is often recognized as a quantitative outcome that reflects the critical role of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T- ... with a modest correlation with VL and CD4 slope. A relatively normal CD4:CD8 ratio (,1.0) in early infection was associated ... CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio as a quantitative measure of immunologic health in HIV-1 infection: findings from an African cohort ...
more infohttp://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/11295/88733

Immune profiles of elderly breast cancer patients are altered by chemotherapy and relate to clinical frailty | Breast Cancer...Immune profiles of elderly breast cancer patients are altered by chemotherapy and relate to clinical frailty | Breast Cancer...

There were significant differences between the CTG and the CG groups in the ratio of CD4:CD8 T cells, which was slightly lower ... had a lower ratio of CD4:CD8 T cells at 3 months before partial normalization (a), while there were relative increases in CTG ... resulting in a decreased ratio of CD4:CD8 (Table 1). In the analysis of suppressor leukocytes, two major populations of MDSCs ( ... Furthermore, the elevated CD4:8 ratio observed at 3 months was normalized after 12 months. Table 1 provides a full list of ...
more infohttps://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13058-017-0813-x

aidsmapaidsmap

Filters Content type: About HIV Topic: CD4 count CD4 count. CD4/CD8 ratio. About HIV ...
more infohttp://www.aidsmap.com/archive?content-type%5B0%5D=about-hiv&topic%5B0%5D=51
  • Bacterial pneumonia and measures of poor immune function (notably, a low CD4/CD8 ratio) predicted incident lung cancer in HIV-positive members of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). (thebodypro.com)
  • The researchers propose that abnormal immune activation (indicated by low CD4/CD8 ratio) and prior bacterial pneumonia "could have a role in the development of lung cancer in people with HIV and could explain some of the increased risk of lung cancer in this population. (thebodypro.com)
  • Last week in the open access journal PLoS Pathogens , Sergio Serrano-Villar and colleagues reported evidence that a low CD4/CD8 ratio (less than or equal to 0.4)-despite CD4 T cell recovery to a count above 500 on ART-is associated with low naïve CD8 T cells, elevated levels of activated and senescent CD8 T cells, increased innate immune activation, and a greater risk of non-AIDS events. (typepad.com)
  • The discussion section of the Serrano-Villar paper notes that the data imply that the CD4/CD8 ratio could be useful for monitoring responses to therapies that aim to reduce residual immune activation. (typepad.com)
  • Conclusions: The association of HCV coinfection with CD4/CD8 ratio is consistent with previously observed associations of HCV coinfection with biomarkers traditionally used to measure immune activation and systemic inflammation in HIV+ patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Vanderbilt University researchers who conducted this study noted that a lower CD4/CD8 ratio predicts death independently of age in HIV-negative adults. (natap.org)
  • The Vanderbilt team performed this analysis to determine whether sex differences in the CD4/CD8 ratio affect mortality risk as HIV-positive adults age. (natap.org)
  • Normal values (95% confidence intervals) are approximately 30-60% CD4 and 10-30% CD8 depending on age (ratio 0.9 to 3.7 in adults). (wikipedia.org)
  • Median initial CD4/CD8 ratio proved significantly higher in women than men (0.67 versus 0.54, P (natap.org)
  • Median CD4/CD8 ratio proved significantly higher (better) in women than men in every age group: young (n = 880) 0.71 versus 0.62, middle-aged (n = 763) 0.65 versus 0.51, and older (n = 363) 0.61 versus 0.44 (P (natap.org)
  • The study group included 21,666 veterans with a median of 3 CD4-cell measurements per year. (thebodypro.com)
  • To translate the measurement of the CD4/8 synovial T cell ratio as a biomarker a method is needed, which could be used in a wide range of hospital facilities, hence a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method was tested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods: We examined 50,201 CD4/CD8 ratios measured over 20 years in 3 groups of HIV+ women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study: HCV antibody negative (n = 1734), cleared HCV (n = 231), and chronic HCV (n = 751) in multivariate models. (elsevier.com)
  • In people with HIV, the researchers added, the CD4/CD8 ratio is a marker of immunosenescence and is linked to noncommunicable diseases. (natap.org)
  • The lower the CD4/CD8 ratio, the more acute rejection episodes occur in the first year after transplantation. (eurekamag.com)
  • Results for the ratio are given as a number. (oumedicine.com)
  • Helminth infection results in decreased virus-specific CD8 + cytotoxic T-cell and Th1 cytokine responses as well as delayed virus clearance. (ajtmh.org)
  • Lastly, a recent paper in PLoS One published by Willard Tinago and colleagues from the laboratory of Paddy Mallon in Dublin looked at the links between the CD4/CD8 ratio and other immunological perturbations, with results that appear consistent with those reported by Sergio Serrano-Villar's group. (typepad.com)
  • however, the unexpected association between cleared HCV and lower CD4/CD8 ratio requires additional study. (elsevier.com)