Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Mice, Inbred C3HCytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.NAD+ NucleosidaseReceptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cell SeparationTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Herpesvirus 2, Gallid: The type species of the genus MARDIVIRUS in the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It is the etiologic agent of MAREK DISEASE, infecting domestic fowl and wild birds.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Receptors, Fc: Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Scavenger Receptors, Class A: A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Ascitic Fluid: The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Blood DonorsAntibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.

*CD23

The antigen is then transferred from CD23+ B cells to CD11c+ antigen presenting cells. The CD11c+ cells in turn present the ... and macrophages. CD23 is known to have a role of transportation in antibody feedback regulation. Antigens which enter the blood ... "CD23 regulates monocyte activation through a novel interaction with the adhesion molecules CD11b-CD18 and CD11c-CD18". Immunity ... CD23a is present on follicular B cells, whereas CD23b requires IL-4 to be expressed on T-cells, monocytes, Langerhans cells, ...
Looking for online definition of macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor in the Medical Dictionary? macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor explanation free. What is macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor? Meaning of macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor medical term. What does macrophage/monocyte inhibitory factor mean?
The synthesis of Australia or hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) is now considered to be the characteristic hallmark of infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is therefore one of the most important criteria in the diagnosis of type B hepatitis. Hepatitis-B antigenic reactivity is associated with the surface of the spherical and tubular particles (20 nm in diameter) found in the serum of patients and carriers. The outer coat of the relatively rare 42-nm "Dane" particles also exhibits this HB-Ag reactivity, but ...
The cellular mechanisms which account for the formation of osteoclasts and bone resorption associated with enlarging benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours of bone are uncertain. Osteoclasts are marrow-derived, multinucleated, bone-resorbing cells which express a macrophage phenotype. We have determined whether tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts. Macrophages were cultured on both ...
Large populations of macrophages are a prominent feature of tuberculous granulomas, yet there are many unanswered questions surrounding the spatial organization of macrophage subsets in granulomas and whether macrophages have microenvironment-specific homeostatic or bactericidal functions. Much of what we know about granuloma macrophages comes from animal models that may not represent the spectrum of pathology seen in humans or has been derived from cells removed from the context of the granuloma. To address these questions, we used immunohistochemistry to ...
The hallmark of the human atherosclerotic plaque is the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells. However, many macrophage subsets are found within atherosclerotic lesions and it is not well understood how monocytes differentiate into these subsets. We focused on characterizing macrophages derived in vitro from human peripheral blood monocytes treated with IL-15, IL-4 or IL-10. We show these macrophages to have differing phenotypes: CD209+CD64+, ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and macrophages play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Currently, it is not clear whether inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 predominate among the resident macrophages in the synovium. In the present study, we set out to investigate the impact of TLR stimulation on monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophage function and phenotype by mimicking the exposure to abundant TLR agonists as occurs in the context of RA. The response of macrophage subsets to TLR2 and TLR4 activation was evaluated on cluster of differentiation (CD) marker profile; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BCL6 suppresses RhoA activity to alter macrophage morphology and motility. AU - Pixley, Fiona J.. AU - Xiong, Ying. AU - Yu, Raymond Yick Loi. AU - Sahai, Erik A.. AU - Stanley, E. Richard. AU - Ye, B. Hilda. PY - 2005/5/1. Y1 - 2005/5/1. N2 - BCL6 is a potent transcriptional repressor that plays important roles in germinal center formation, T helper cell differentiation and lymphomagenesis and regulates expression of several chemokine genes in macrophages. In a further investigation of its role in macrophages, we show that BCL6 inactivation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages leads to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased muscle proteolysis after local trauma mainly reflects macrophage-associated lysosomal proteolysis. AU - Farges, M C AU - Balcerzak, Denis Pierre. AU - Fisher, B D AU - Attaix, D AU - Bechet, D AU - Ferrara, M AU - Baracos, V E PY - 2002/2. Y1 - 2002/2. N2 - Rat gastrocnemius showed increased protein degradation (+75-115%) at 48 h after traumatic injury. Injured muscle showed increased cathepsin B activity (+327%) and mRNA encoding cathepsin B (+670%), cathepsin L (+298%), cathepsin H (+159%), and cathepsin ...
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS ...
Gaucher disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of glucocerebrosidase that manifests with storage of glycolipids in lysosomes, particularly in macrophages. Available cell lines modeling Gaucher disease do not demonstrate lysosomal storage of glycolipids; therefore, we set out to develop two macrophage models of Gaucher disease that exhibit appropriate substrate accumulation. We used these cellular models both to investigate altered macrophage biology in Gaucher disease and to evaluate candidate drugs for its treatment. We generated and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of Gα(i2) mimics several aspects of LPS priming in a murine macrophage-like cell line. AU - Kugi, M.. AU - Kitamura, K.. AU - Cottam, G. L.. AU - Miller, R. T.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Priming of macrophages with low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the ability of substances that act through heterotrimeric G proteins to stimulate immune cell functions. Although LPS-induced alterations in the expression and functions of G proteins of the α(i) family have been reported in hematopoietic cells, their effects on subsequent ...
It is widely known that macrophages can be activated to kill tumor cells. It is also known that tumor-infiltrating macrophages can be immunosuppressed. The mechanisms of both tumor killing by activated macrophages and tumor-induced macrophage suppression are not entirely clear. To better understand the mechanisms that macrophages use to kill tumor cells, a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, was fixed with paraformaldehyde, subsequently stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ...
In this study we immunophenotypically differentiate subpopulations of brain macrophages into perivascular macrophages and parenchymal microglia and demonstrate that perivascular macrophages are the major cell productively infected by SIV in the CNS of macaques. Preferential infection of perivascular macrophages in the CNS may account for several important observations concerning infection of the CNS, viral dynamics in the CNS, and the role of the ...
Macrophage activation is characterized by pronounced metabolic adaptation. Classically activated macrophages show decreased rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation and acquire a glycolytic state together with their pro-inflammatory phenotype. In contrast, alternatively activated macrophages require oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for their anti-inflammatory function. Although it is evident that mitochondrial metabolism is regulated during macrophage ...
Inflammation is associated with macrophage activation, and this process has been shown to occur during atherogenesis. Macrophages (J774A.1) that were activated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS), zymosan, or phorbol ester demonstrated a 30-35% increased uptake and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in comparison with nonactivated cells. This phenomenon was also shown for LDL cellular binding, and it resulted in macrophage cholesterol accumulation, as evidenced by cholesterol mass determination and flow cell ...
Radioimmunnoassay was used to determine the serologic subspecificities of 85 blood donor serums positive for hepatitis B virus-associated antigen. There was complete agreement with results obtained by immunoprecipitatiotn of 43 serums. The remaining 42 serums were negative by immunoprecipitation but followed type-specific immunology by radioimmunoassay, and this served as a validation for authentic hepatitis B virus antigen. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lentivirus delivery of IL-10 to promote and sustain macrophage polarization towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. AU - Boehler, R. M.. AU - Kuo, R.. AU - Shin, S.. AU - Goodman, A. G.. AU - Pilecki, M. A.. AU - Leonard, J. N.. AU - Shea, L. D.. PY - 2014/6. Y1 - 2014/6. N2 - Gene delivery from biomaterials can create an environment that promotes and guides tissue formation. However, the immune response induced upon biomaterial implantation can be detrimental to tissue regeneration. Macrophages play a central role in mediating early phases of this response, and functional "polarization" of macrophages towards M1 (inflammatory) or M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotypes may bias the local immune ...
Macrophages are usually found in tumor infiltrates where they exert cytostatic/cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. The tumoricidal activity is enhanced by activation of macrophages with bacterial products or cytokines (1,2). Recently nitric oxide (NO) has been indicated as a critical effector molecule for macrophage anti-tumor activity (3,4). Macrophages can be induced to release NO upon stimulation with a variety of stimuli ...
Macrophage recognition of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is facilitated by pattern recognition receptors that interact with the fungal pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Dectin-1 is the major macrophage receptor that is known to recognize fungal Beta-glucans leading to induction of various immune responses. This receptor is also known to be required for in vivo protection against C. albicans (Taylor et al., 2007). We recently showed that the Dectin-1 mediated protection in vivo ...
To elucidate the differentiation mechanisms of macrophages in the murine omentum, we studied the repopulation of these cells and the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the milky spots and omental tissues in mice depleted of macrophages following administration of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (clodronate). The macrophages in the omentum were spindle or dendritic in shape, expressed several macrophage-specific antigens and Ia antigen, and phagocytized intraperitoneally injected carbon ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential mRNA expression of prostaglandin receptor subtypes in macrophage activation. AU - Hubbard, Neil. AU - Lee, S. H.. AU - Lim, D.. AU - Erickson, Kent L. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Assessing the regulation of macrophage receptors for prostaglandin (PGE2) is essential to understanding the control which that potent lipid mediator has in modulating macrophage activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the differential mRNA expression of PGE2 receptor subtypes (EP) during macrophage exposure to activating and transducing agents. RAW 264.7 macrophages constitutively expressed mRNA for EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptor ...
Australia antigen definition: The definition of an australia antigen is a substance in the blood of some people with one form of hepatitus that causes the human body to make antibodies. (noun) HBsAg is the name of the surface molecule that is found in the blood ...
Macrophages persist indefinitely at sites of spinal cord injury (SCI) and contribute to both pathological and reparative processes. While the alternative, anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype is believed to promote cell protection, regeneration, and plasticity, pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophages persist after SCI and contribute to protracted cell and tissue loss. Thus, identifying non-invasive, clinically viable, pharmacological therapies for altering macrophage phenotype is a challenging, yet promising, approach for treating ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-cell contact with proinflammatory macrophages enhances the immunotherapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells in two abortion models. AU - Li, Yanhong. AU - Zhang, Di. AU - Xu, Ling. AU - Dong, Lin. AU - Zheng, Ji. AU - Lin, Yikong. AU - Huang, Jiefang. AU - Zhang, Yanyun. AU - Tao, Yu. AU - Zang, Xingxing. AU - Li, Dajin. AU - Du, Meirong. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are pluripotent cells with immunomodulatory properties, have been considered good candidates for the therapy of several immune disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β2-Agonist clenbuterol suppresses bacterial phagocytosis of splenic macrophages expressing high levels of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure. AU - Shirato, Ken. AU - Sato, Shogo. AU - Sato, Madoka. AU - Hashizume, Yoko. AU - Tachiyashiki, Kaoru. AU - Imaizumi, Kazuhiko. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - Splenic marginal zone macrophages expressing macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) contribute to the clearance of blood-borne pathogens. We determined a splenic adherent cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatitis B Virus. T2 - Inappropriate Reactions to Transmission Risks. AU - Kiernan, Thomas W.. AU - Powers, Robert J.. PY - 1979/2/9. Y1 - 1979/2/9. N2 - Ten patients designated as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBAg) carriers were screened for inappropriate reactions to their disease. Assessment with a 32-item questionnaire showed three carriers to have underreacted to the risks of HBAg transmission through misunderstandings or denial concerning the disease. One carrier, through severe social withdrawal, showed overreaction to the possibilities of disease transmission. Counseling was provided regarding the risks of HBAg transmission. At a ...
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a potent human and animal pathogen. Its principal survival mechanism is rapid intracellular multiplication. The mechanisms that enables it to multiply intracellularly have been ill-defined and the thesis focused on characterizing the outcome of the macrophage-Francisella interaction and also if the interactions differ between the various subspecies of F tularensis. The nature of host cell death was examined and the correlation of macrophage killing with intramacrophage Francisella growth was investigated ...
Cellular proliferation and macrophage influx precede interstitial fibrosis in cyclosporine nephrotoxicity is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
Arrowhead Research will host an analyst event today to discuss ARC-520, its RNAi-based candidate designed to treat chronic hepatitis B virus infection. The company will discuss the program and describe ...
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major cellular component in the tumor microenvironment of many solid tumors. The functional competence of TAMs varies depending on the type of tumors and their respective microenvironments. The classically activated M1 macrophages exhibit antitumor functions, whereas the alternatively activated M2 macrophages exhibit protumor functions that contribute to tumor development and progression. Although TAMs have been detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma ...
Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is used for osteoarthritis management to reduce pain, and pre-clinical studies have shown that TA limits osteophyte formation. Osteophyte formation is known to be facilitated by synovial macrophage activation. TA injections might influence macrophage activation and subsequently reduce osteophytosis. Although widely applied in clinical care, the mechanism through which TA exerts this effect remains unknown. In this animal study, we investigated the in vivo effects of TA injections on macrophage activation, osteophyte development and joint ...
Looking for online definition of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the Medical Dictionary? macrophage colony-stimulating factor explanation free. What is macrophage colony-stimulating factor? Meaning of macrophage colony-stimulating factor medical term. What does macrophage colony-stimulating factor mean?
BACKGROUND: The expression of the two types of ferritin subunits, the H-subunit and L-subunit, has been shown to be differentially regulated by cytokines. The primary aim of the present study was to quantitatively measure the expression of the H-subunit and L-subunit of ferritin in bone marrow macrophages and cells of the erythron in patients with chronic T-helper cell type-1 immune stimulation. METHODS: The expression of the H-subunit and L-subunit of ferritin in bone marrow macrophages and cells of the erythron was quantitatively evaluated by ...
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) have become a focus of attention recently because they have been shown to accumulate with an increase in fat mass and to be involved in the genesis of insulin resistance in obese mice. However, the phenotype and functions of human ATMs are still to be defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study, performed on human subcutaneous AT, showed that ATMs from lean to overweight individuals are composed of distinct macrophage subsets based on the expression of several cell ...
Wear particles derived from implant biomaterials induce a pronounced foreign body macrophage response in both the pseudocapsule and pseudomembrane surrounding arthroplasty components.28 29 The clinical severity and rapidly of onset of aseptic loosening can be correlated with both the amount of wear particle deposition and the extent of the macrophage response in these periprosthetic tissue.30-32 In this study we have shown that the capacity of arthroplasty macrophages to differentiate into osteoclasts is OPGL dependent and that this process is inhibited ...
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is a potent human and animal pathogen. Its principal survival mechanism is rapid intracellular multiplication. The mechanisms that enables it to multiply intracellularly have been ill-defined and the thesis focused on characterizing the outcome of the macrophage-Francisella interaction and also if the interactions differ between the various subspecies of F tularensis.. The nature of host cell death was examined and the correlation of macrophage killing with intramacrophage Francisella growth was investigated ...
Cathelicidins are essential in the protection against invading pathogens through both their direct antimicrobial activity and their immunomodulatory functions. Although cathelicidins are known to modulate activation by several TLR ligands, little is known about their influence on DNA-induced macrophage activation. In this study, we explored the effects of cathelicidins on DNA-induced activation of chicken macrophages and elucidated the intracellular processes underlying these effects. Our ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant by mouse macrophages. AU - Crippen, Tawni L.. AU - Riches, David W H. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The production of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) by functionally diverse mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages was determined. Studies showed that β1,3-glucan, IL-1β, TNFα and IFNγ/TNFα induced expression and production of CINC in macrophages while neither IFNγ nor TGFβ alone induced ...
Blood testing service Blue Horizon Medicals referring patients for Hepatitis B Antibodies (IgM) at private BMI hospitals in the UK
Background Macrophages/microglia are important effector cells at the site of spinal cord injury (SCI). M1-type macrophages facilitate innate immunity to remove foreign microbes and wound debris from the injury site. M2-type macrophages exhibit tissue repair properties and attenuate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Regulation of the polarisation of M1/M2 macrophages may affect the inflammatory response in SCI and may be related to neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Electroacupuncture (EA) at GV acupuncture ...
Background Macrophages/microglia are important effector cells at the site of spinal cord injury (SCI). M1-type macrophages facilitate innate immunity to remove foreign microbes and wound debris from the injury site. M2-type macrophages exhibit tissue repair properties and attenuate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Regulation of the polarisation of M1/M2 macrophages may affect the inflammatory response in SCI and may be related to neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Electroacupuncture (EA) at GV acupuncture ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Candida albicans stimulates arachidonic acid liberation from alveolar macrophages through α-mannan and β-glucan cell wall components. AU - Castro, M.. AU - Ralston, N. V C. AU - Morgenthaler, Timothy Ian. AU - Rohrbach, M. S.. AU - Limper, Andrew Harold. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Candida albicans is an increasingly important fungal pathogen. Alveolar macrophages respond to fungal components such as zymosan by releasing arachidonic acid (AA) and AA metabolites. However, few studies have evaluated the ...
Accumulation of lipid-laden foam cells of monocyte origin plays an important role in atherogenesis. Therefore, for determination of the mechanism of accelerated atherogenesis in Werners syndrome, studies were carried out on the metabolism of acetylated low density lipoprotein (LDL) by monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with this syndrome. These macrophages showed abnormally high activities for degradation and uptake of 125I-acetylated LDL, incorporation of 14C-oleate into cellular cholesteryl ester in the presence of acetylated LDL, and accumulation ...
Bangkok, Thailand (PRWEB) October 3, 2007 -- Immureboost presented a product at the Therapies for Viral Hepatitis Symposium to Boston Scientists. The
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage foam cell formation is augmented in serum from patients with diabetic angiopathy. AU - Cui, Xinglong. AU - Kushiyama, Akifumi. AU - Yoneda, Masayasu. AU - Nakatsu, Yusuke. AU - Guo, Ying. AU - Zhang, Jun. AU - Ono, Haruya. AU - Kanna, Machi. AU - Sakoda, Hideyuki. AU - Ono, Hiraku. AU - Kikuchi, Takako. AU - Fujishiro, Midori. AU - Shiomi, Masashi. AU - Kamata, Hideaki. AU - Kurihara, Hiroki. AU - Kikuchi, Masatoshi. AU - Kawazu, Shoji. AU - Nishimura, Fusanori. AU - Asano, Tomoichiro. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - The differentiation of macrophages into cytokine-secreting foam cells plays a critical role in the development of diabetic angiopathy. J774.1, a murine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human Mesenchymal stem cells program macrophage plasticity by altering their metabolic status via a PGE 2 -dependent mechanism. AU - Vasandan, Anoop Babu. AU - Jahnavi, Sowmya. AU - Shashank, Chandanala. AU - Prasad, Priya. AU - Kumar, Anujith. AU - Jyothi Prasanna, S.. PY - 2016/12/2. Y1 - 2016/12/2. N2 - Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are speculated to act at macrophage-injury interfaces to mediate efficient repair. To explore this facet in-depth this study evaluates the influence of MSCs on human macrophages existing in distinct functional states. ...
article{f63aac35-6350-4bf7-866a-e224429f2246, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 (the Mac-2 antigen) is abundantly expressed in both macrophage like cells and certain non-macrophage cells. We have studied endocytosis of galectin-3 as one important step relevant for its function, and compared it between variants of a macrophage like cell line, and non-macrophage cells. ,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, METHODS: Endocytosis of galectin-3 was observed by ...
Purpose: Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of infectious retinochoroiditis. It is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which affects both immune compromised and immune competent patients. The cytokine interferon gamma (IFNg) plays an important role in the inhibition of Toxoplasma growth. In some cell types (such as HeLa cells) IFNg induces the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) leading to tryptophan depletion and restriction of Toxoplasma growth while other cell types restrict Toxoplasma growth through an unknown mechanism. Macrophages and other innate immunity cells that infiltrate the ...
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Large-scale macrophage infiltration and reactive astrogliosis are hallmarks of early spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology. The exact nature of the macrophage response and relationship between these phenomena have not been explored in detail. Here, we have investigated these responses using a combination of in vivo SCI models, organotypic and primary cultures. In vivo macrophage response was investigated using a contusive injury mouse model. Interactions between astrocytes and macrophages were studied in primary or organotypic cultures. Proliferation was assessed though MTT assay and nucleotide ...
Previous studies identified a prominent role of S1PR1 in tumor progression linked to persistent STAT3 activation in tumor and myeloid cells (Lee et al., 2010; Deng et al., 2012; Degagné et al., 2014). We previously noticed STAT3 signaling downstream of S1PR1 in human macrophages, which contributed to establishing an anti-inflammatory phenotype (Weis et al., 2009). However, in the present study, S1PR1 signaling in CD11bhi CD206+ TAMs did not affect typical STAT3 target genes in macrophages. Rather, a so-far-unexplored S1PR1 signaling circuit in macrophages promoted lymphangiogenesis via ...
Cocaine is a commonly used illicit drug among HIV-1 infected individuals and is known to increase HIV-1 replication in permissive cells including PBMCs, CD4+ T cells, and macrophages. Cocaines potentiating effects on HIV-1 replication in macrophages- the primary targets of the virus in the central nervous system, has been suggested to play an important role in HIV-1 neuro-pathogenesis. However, the mechanism by which cocaine enhances HIV-1 replication in ...
In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. The cells are primarily monocytes and macrophages, and they accumulate in lymph nodes and the spleen. The Kupffer cells of the liver and tissue histiocytes are also part of the MPS. The mononuclear phagocyte system and the monocyte macrophage system refer to two different entities, often mistakenly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dendritic cell/macrophage precursors capture exogenous antigen for MHC class I presentation by dendritic cells. AU - Mitchell, Duane A.. AU - Nair, Smita K.. AU - Gilboa, Eli. PY - 1998/6/1. Y1 - 1998/6/1. N2 - Presentation of MHC class I antigens by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) is an important pathway in priming cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo. This study sought to identify the nature of the professional APC responsible for indirect class I ...
Looking for online definition of CD49b antigen in the Medical Dictionary? CD49b antigen explanation free. What is CD49b antigen? Meaning of CD49b antigen medical term. What does CD49b antigen mean?
BACKGROUND: Alveolar macrophages are sentinels of the pulmonary mucosa and central to maintaining immunological homeostasis. However, their role in governing the response to allergen is not fully understood. Inappropriate responses to the inhaled environment manifest as asthma. METHODS: We utilized a mechanistic IL-13-driven model and a house dust mite allergen mucosal sensitization model of allergic airway disease to investigate the role of alveolar macrophages in regulating pulmonary inflammation. RESULTS: IL-13-dependent eosinophilic and Th2 inflammation was enhanced in mice depleted of alveolar macrophages using clodronate liposomes. Similarly, depletion of alveolar ...
Definition of foreign body giant cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is foreign body giant cell? Meaning of foreign body giant cell as a finance term. What does foreign body giant cell mean in finance?
Abundant macrophage infiltration in tumors often correlates with a poor prognosis. T cell/histiocyte rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is a distinct aggressive B cell lymphoma entity showing a high macrophage content. To further elucidate the role of tumor-associated macrophages in THRLBCL, we performed gene expression profiling of microdissected histiocyte subsets of THRLBCL, nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), Piringer lymphadenitis, sarcoidosis, nonspecific ...
1. Still GF. On a form of chronic joint disease in children. Med Chir Trans 1897; 80: 47. 2. Bywaters EG. Stillęs disease in the adult. Ann Rheum Dis 1971; 30: 121. 3. Yamaguchi M, Ohta A, Tsunematsu T. Preliminary criteria for classification of adult Stillęs disease. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 424-430. 4. Deane S, Selmi C, Teuber SS, Gershwin ME. Macrophage Activation Syndrome in Autoimmune Disease. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2010; 153: 109-120. 5. Sawhney S, Woo P, Murray KJ. Macrophage activation syndrome: A potentially fatal complication of rheumatic disorders. Arch Dis Child 2001; 85: 421-426. 6. Behrens EM, Beukelman T, ...
490 blood samples have been examined for the comparison of the various methods concerned with the detection of the Australia Antigen (Au). The following methods have been comparatively examined: immunodiffusion (ID) counterelectrophoresis (CEP), complement fixation (CF) passive hemoagglutination (HA) and solid phase radioimmunoassay RIA. On the basis of the results so far obtained the RIA appears the most sensitive and specific method, followed by the HA. In order to obtain reproducible results for diagnostic purposes we suggest to carry out routinely two different techniques together ...
Glucose can react non-enzymatically with amino groups of, for example, proteins, to yield derivatives termed advanced glycation end products (AGE), which contribute to many chronic progressive diseases associated with microvascular complications. The study aimed to determine the effect of AGE-modified albumin on THP-1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or human serum albumin (HSA), modified by glucose-derived AGE, was prepared by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct patterns of nitric oxide production in hepatic macrophages and endothelial cells following acute exposure of rats to endotoxin. AU - Laskin, D. L.. AU - Heck, D. E.. AU - Gardner, C. R.. AU - Feder, L. S.. AU - Laskin, J. D.. PY - 1994/12/1. Y1 - 1994/12/1. N2 - Hepatic macrophages and endothelial cells play an important role in the clearance of endotoxin from the portal circulation. These cells are activated by endotoxin to release reactive mediators including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which have been ...
Definition of Macrophage migration inhibition test with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Abstract A series of Australia antigen-positive sera from healthy Nigerians was examined using the electron microscope. One serum was outstanding inasmuch as it contained a vast preponderance of the large 420 A Dane particles. Other sera exhibited the appearance accepted as the usual one in Australia antigen-positive sera. The significance of this variation in proportion of antigen forms is discussed and it is suggested that variations of this type could be of importance in prognosis.
Home » Type i IFN inhibits alternative macrophage activation during mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and leads to enhanced protection in the absence of IFN-γ ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein that binds to surface structures of a number of different organisms. Leishmania donovani express CRP ligand when first entering the mammalian host and CRP has been shown to alter macrophage function. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of CRP-mediated uptake of L. donovani on survival of the parasite within human macrophages and macrophage cell responses to the infection. CRP opsonized L. donovani uptake was inhibitable by including excess ...
Cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) catalyses the rate limiting step in free cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells and intracellular CEH levels negatively correlate with lipid accumulation in foam cells and susceptibility to atherosclerosis. We have demonstrated that macrophage-specific transgenic expression of CEH enhances cholesterol efflux from foam cells and reduces lesions in athero-susceptible LDLR−/− mice. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that expression of CEH in blood-derived ...
Recognition of bacteria by PRRs is a fundamental aspect of the innate immune response to pathogens. Impaired recognition can lead to severe illness and death. For example, mutations or TLR polymorphisms that affect the interaction of TLR with either agonists or signaling proteins have been associated with greatly increased susceptibility to infection in humans (reviewed in reference 59). We demonstrated previously that F. tularensis LVS is specifically recognized by TLR2 in HEK293T/TLR2 transfectants and in murine DC (8, 30) and that F. tularensis LVS infection induces in mice or their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Morphine induces defects in early response of alveolar macrophages to Streptococcus pneumoniae by modulating TLR9-NF-κB signaling. AU - Wang, Jinghua. AU - Barke, Roderick A.. AU - Charboneau, Richard. AU - Schwendener, Reto. AU - Roy, Sabita. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - Resident alveolar macrophages and respiratory epithelium constitutes the first line of defense against invading lung pneumococci. Results from our study showed that increased mortality and bacterial outgrowth and dissemination seen in morphine-treated mice were further exaggerated ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by numerous different cell types, and it is an important regulator and mediator of many processes including smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission, and murine macrophage- mediated cytotoxicity for microbes and tumor cells. Although murine macrophages produce NO readily after activation, human monocytes and tissue macrophages have been reported to produce only low levels of NO in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine if stimulated human mononuclear phagocytes produce inducible nitric oxide ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An avocado constituent, persenone A, suppresses expression of inducible forms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase in macrophages, and hydrogen peroxide generation in mouse skin. AU - Kim, Oe Kyung. AU - Murakami, Akira. AU - Takahashi, Daisuke. AU - Nakamura, Yoshimasa. AU - Torikai, Koji. AU - Kim, Ha Won. AU - Ohigashi, Hajime. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - We investigated the suppressive effects of an avocado constituent, persenone A, on lipopolysaccharide- and interferon-γ-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. ...
Decidual macrophages (DM) are the second most abundant population in the fetal-maternal interface. Their role has been so far identified as being local immuno-modulators favoring the maternal tolerance to the fetus. Herein we investigated tissue samples from 11 cases of spontaneous miscarriages and from 9 cases of elective terminations of pregnancy. Using immunohistochemistry and dual immunofluorescence we have demonstrated that in spontaneous miscarriages the DM are significantly increased. Additionally, we noted a significant up-regulation of macrophage FasL expression. Our results further support a dual role for DM during ...
Recently, it was reported that nitric oxide (NO) directly controls intracellular iron metabolism by activating iron regulatory protein (IRP), a cytoplasmic protein that regulates ferritin translation. To determine whether intracellular iron levels themselves affect NO synthase (NOS), we studied the effect of iron on cytokine-inducible NOS activity and mRNA expression in the murine macrophage cell line J774A.1. We show here that NOS activity is decreased by about 50% in homogenates obtained from cells treated with interferon gamma plus lipopolysaccharide ...
The Virological Department of the Hammersmith Hospital for the past two years has screened for the presence of Australia antigen (HAA) all candidates for admiss
The fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces a melanin-like pigment in the presence of l-DOPA in vitro. We investigated whether melanization affected yeast uptake by alveolar and peritoneal macrophages, the intracellular resistance of fungal cells and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs. The interactions of melanized and nonmelanized P. brasiliensis with murine primary macrophages and J774.16 and MH-S macrophage-like cell lines were investigated. Melanized yeast cells were poorly phagocytosed by the cells even in the presence of ...
Definition of macrophage-activating factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is macrophage-activating factor? Meaning of macrophage-activating factor as a legal term. What does macrophage-activating factor mean in law?
The meconium aspiration syndrome is an important cause of respiratory distress in newborn infants. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a first line of defense in the lower respiratory tract against inhaled pathogens and particles such as meconium. In this study, we examined the effect of meconium on two primary macrophage functions: phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Short-term exposure of rat NR8383 AMs to sterile meconium from human or equine neonates (1.2-24 mg/mL) produced a dose-dependent Show moreThe meconium aspiration syndrome is an important cause of respiratory distress in newborn infants. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a first ...
Preoperative oral treatment with lactulose is used to prevent complications after surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice. The effect is perhaps the result of an inactivation of gut derived endotoxins but the exact mechanism of action is, however, unknown. Tumour necrosis factor is an important mediator of endotoxin toxicity. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor is mainly produced by mononuclear phagocytes. In this study, the effect of lactulose on the endotoxin induced tumour necrosis factor release by monocytes was ...
misc{7862195, abstract = {Acute or chronic inflammation in the prostate is implicated in pathogenesis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) as well as development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer (PCa). Chronic prostatitis (inflammation in the prostate) is associated with high morbidity and negatively impacts life quality. Macrophages are critical regulators of inflammatory processes and are early immune cells responders. Among macrophage-associated genes, the stress-induced enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), ...
Obesity-mediated inflammation is a major cause of insulin resistance, and macrophages play an important role in this process. The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that modulates unfolded protein response (UPR), and mice with GRP78 heterozygosity were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that mice with macrophage-selective ablation of GRP78 (Lyz- GRP78(-/-)) are protected from skeletal muscle insulin resistance without changes in obesity compared with wild-type mice after 9 wk of high-fat diet. GRP78-deficient ...
QUEIROZ, Celso Emanoel de Souza et al. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of two endodontic cements in a macrophage culture. J. Appl. Oral Sci. [online]. 2005, vol.13, n.3, pp.237-242. ISSN 1678-7757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-77572005000300007.. Compared to gutta-percha, the endodontic cements are used in small quantity to seal root canals, but are indispensable to achieve hermetically sealed margins, where its biocompatibility depends on the sum of responses of each cell present in the periapical region. The object of this study was to evaluate the ...
An increasing number of studies address the roles of Wnt proteins in shaping leukocyte functions. Recombinant Wnt3a and Wnt5a, prototypical activators of β-Catenin-dependent and -independent Wnt signaling, respectively, are widely used to investigate the effects of Wnt proteins on myeloid cell functions. Recent reports describe both proinflammatory and immunemodulatory effects of Wnt3a and Wnt5a on macrophages, DCs, and microglia. The underlying molecular mechanisms for this divergence are unclear. We show here that recombinant Wnt3a- and ...
Mice deficient in phagocyte oxidase (phox) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which are primary macrophage killing mechanisms, generated tissue granulomas but showed unrestrained Leishmania donovani visceral replication and suboptimal initial responsiveness to antimony treatment. Nevertheless, visceral infection was controlled post-treatment and did not recur. A phox/iNOS-independent macrophage mechanism, which was not triggered by L. donovani, emerges after chemotherapy.
Background: Clinical studies have demonstrated that remnant lipoproteins play an important role in atherogenesis, and we have previously reported that very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R), one of the major receptors for remnant lipoproteins, is involved in foam cell formation. Recent studies have indicated that the oxygenation state of atherosclerotic plaques vary with plaque thickness. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to determine the effect of hypoxia on VLDL-R expression in macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells and to characterize the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis and other immunocompromised patients. The bacterium survives within macrophages by interfering with typical endocytic trafficking, resulting in delayed maturation of a B. cenocepacia-containing phagosome. We hypothesize that B. cenocepacia alters gene expression after internalization by macrophages, inducing genes involved in ...
Delta agent infection in Melbourne.: Evidence of infection with delta agent was sought in 284 patients with acute hepatitis B referred to Fairfield Hospital, Me
Macrophage suppression has been shown to be mediated by a unique, low molecular weight fraction of murine serum. The present investigation involves the in vitro production of this macrophage modulator (suppressor) by Concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells. Spleen cell culture supernatant containing macrophage suppressor factor (MSF) caused a significant decrease in in vitro phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by non-elicited peritoneal macrophages. The molecular weight of MSF was determined by ultrafiltration to ...
Oxidative stress is an important part of host innate immune response to foreign pathogens. However, the impact of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation remains unclear in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation. CAP patients were enrolled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-B1;), and IL-6 were analyzed in CAP patients and LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. MH-S cells were transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmids. Autophagy was measured in LPS-stimulated ...
The role of RNI during experimental salmonellosis in murine hosts has recently been demonstrated (21, 22). To elucidate the role of RNI in the cellular microbiology of Salmonella, we first investigated how a cultured macrophage-like cell line reacts to infection with S. typhimurium. RAW267.4 macrophages were infected with S. typhimurium wild-type and the NO response as measured by nitrite accumulation was studied. An increase in the MOI resulted in a gradual increase of the nitrite production by the RAW267.4 cells at early time after infection (Fig. 1 A). 8 h after infection, no significant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage elastase suppresses white adipose tissue expansion with cigarette smoking. AU - Tsuji, Takao. AU - Kelly, Neil J.. AU - Takahashi, Saeko. AU - Leme, Adriana S.. AU - Houghton, A. Mc Garry. AU - Shapiro, Steven D.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 ...
Fc gamma receptor IIIA (CD16/FcγRIIIA) on monocytes/macrophages may play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe malarial anemia (SMA) by promoting phagocytosis of IgG-coated uninfected red cells and by allowing the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) upon cross-linking by immune complexes (ICs). However, not much is known about the differential expression of this receptor on monocytes of children with severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Therefore, we investigated the expression of ...
Asbestos-induced mutagenicity in the lung may involve reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) released by alveolar macrophages. With the aim of proposing an alternative in vitro mutagenesis test, a coculture system of rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383) and transgenic Big Blue Rat2 embryonic fibroblasts was developed and tested with a crocidolite sample. Crocidolite exposure induced no detectable increase in ROS production from NR8383, contrasting with the oxidative burst that ...
article{1188623, abstract = {Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by biased Th2 inflammation and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) by a Th1 immune response. Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is increased in CRSwNP. We aimed to determine macrophage phenotypes in nasal mucosa of CRSwNP and CRSsNP and to examine phagocytosis of S. aureus in these pathologies. Methods: Macrophage phenotyping was performed by immunohistochemical staining on nasal mucosa sections ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophages contribute to the development of renal fibrosis following ischaemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. AU - Ko, Gang Jee. AU - Boo, Chang Su. AU - Jo, Sang Kyung. AU - Cho, Won Yong. AU - Kim, Hyoung Kyu. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. N2 - Background. Ischaemia/reperfusion is a major cause of acute kidney injury and can result in poor long-term graft function. Although most of the patients with acute kidney injury recover their renal function, significant portion of patients suffer from progressive deterioration of renal function. A persistent inflammatory response might be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunobiology of monocytes and macrophages during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. AU - Nielsen, Mads Lausen. AU - Christiansen, Gunna. AU - Poulsen, Thomas Bouet Guldbæk. AU - Birkelund, Svend. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Infections caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis are a global health burden affecting more than 100 million people annually causing damaging long-lasting infections. In this review, we will present and discuss important aspects of the interaction between ...
Low-grade chronic adipose tissue inflammation contributes to the onset and development of aging-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the current study, B1;-mangostin, a xanthone isolated from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), was identified to ameliorate lipopolysaccharides-induced acute adipose tissue inflammation in mice, by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In a cohort of young (3 months) and old (18–20 months) mice, B1;-mangostin mitigated aging-associated adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. Further study showed that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Study of histamine effects on phagocytosis and enzyme secretion of Tetrahymena pyriformis. AU - Darvas, Z.. AU - Madarasz, B.. AU - László, V.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - 1. The biogenic amine histamine develops effects not only in mammalian cells and tissues but in ciliated unicellular Tetrahymena as well. In addition to binding and internalization of labelled histamine, low concentrations can stimulate the phagocytosis of cells in inorganic salt solution. 2. In inorganic solution Tetrahymena cells secrete acid hydrolases to the medium. High concentration of histamine (10 ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an incurable and progressive disease. Emphysema is the principal manifestation of COPD, and the main cause of this condition is cigarette smoke (CS). Natural products have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent acute lung inflammation and emphysema, but there are few reports in the literature regarding therapeutic approaches to emphysema. We hypothesized that supplementation with natural extracts would repair lung damage in emphysema caused by CS exposure. Mice were exposed to 60days of CS and then treated or not ...
The HIV pandemic raised the potential for facultative-pathogenic mycobacterial species like, Mycobacterium kansasii, to cause disseminating disease in humans with immune deficiencies. In contrast, non-pathogenic mycobacterial species, like M. smegmatis, are not known to cause disseminating disease even in immunocompromised individuals. We hypothesized that this difference in phenotype could be explained by the strong induction of an innate immune response by the non-pathogenic mycobacterial ...
The principal mechanism by which bronchodilator β-adrenoceptor agonists act is to relax airways smooth muscle although they may also be anti-inflammatory. However, the extent of anti-inflammatory activity and the cell types affected by these agonists are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether β-adrenoceptor agonists prevent pro-inflammatory cytokine generation from activated human lung macrophages. Macrophages were isolated and purified from human lung. The cells were pre-treated with both short-acting (isoprenaline, salbutamol, ...

Clearance of influenza virus from the lung depends on migratory langerin+CD11b− but not plasmacytoid dendritic cells | JEMClearance of influenza virus from the lung depends on migratory langerin+CD11b− but not plasmacytoid dendritic cells | JEM

The disappearance of CD11b−CD11c+ tracheal DCs was accompanied by a new influx of CD11b+CD11c+ DCs into the trachea (present as ... When lung CD11chi DCs and macrophages or langerin+CD11b−CD11chi DCs were depleted using either CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor ... pDCs are CD11b−CD11cint cells expressing SiglecH and bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (recognized by the mAbs mouse pDC antigen 1 ... Despite the fact that these cells had seen viral antigens (Fig. 3, E and F, NP staining), the CD11b+ DCs and pDCs did not ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/205/7/1621

CD207+ CD103+ dermal dendritic cells cross-present keratinocyte-derived antigens irrespective of the presence of Langerhans...CD207+ CD103+ dermal dendritic cells cross-present keratinocyte-derived antigens irrespective of the presence of Langerhans...

CD11b+ and CD11c− CD11b+ cells. In the case that MHCIIhigh CD207− CD11c− CD11b+ cells correspond to dermal macrophages ( ... mDDCs cross-present a keratinocyte-derived self antigen. (A) Gating strategy for isolation of CD207+ CD103+, CD207− CD11b−, and ... CD11b−-to-+ and CD11c− CD11b+ subsets (Bogunovic et al., 2006; Jakubzick et al., 2008). The CD11c+ CD11b−-to-+ subset expresses ... and CD11b was assessed among MHCIIhigh CD11cinter-to-high DCs, leading to the isolation of CD207− CD11b−/low and CD207− CD11b+ ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/207/1/189

Frontiers | TcG2/TcG4 DNA Vaccine Induces Th1 Immunity Against Acute Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: Adjuvant and Antigenic...Frontiers | TcG2/TcG4 DNA Vaccine Induces Th1 Immunity Against Acute Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: Adjuvant and Antigenic...

... and macrophages (M) responded to challenge infection by expression of markers of antigen uptake, processing, and presentation ... and macrophages (M) responded to challenge infection by expression of markers of antigen uptake, processing, and presentation ... After challenge infection, TcG2/TcG4-vaccinated mice exhibited potent expansion of antigen- and Tc-specific IgGs that were not ... After challenge infection, TcG2/TcG4-vaccinated mice exhibited potent expansion of antigen- and Tc-specific IgGs that were not ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01456/full

Plus itPlus it

C, either high purity CD11bhigh, CD11clow MDSC or high purity CD11blow, CD11chigh MHC class IIhigh DCs were sorted using a ... Ia antigen-bearing B cell tumor lines can present protein antigen and alloantigen in a major histocompatibility complex- ... Cross-presentation of tumor antigens by bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells is the dominant mechanism in the induction ... This monocyte/macrophage population is characterized by the expression of CD11b ( 15), F4/80 ( 16), and IL4Rα ( 17), variable ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/68/13/5439

Identification of resident and inflammatory bone marrow derived cells in the sclera by bone marrow and haematopoietic stem cell...Identification of resident and inflammatory bone marrow derived cells in the sclera by bone marrow and haematopoietic stem cell...

GFP positive cells were CD11b positive macrophages (38.2 (10.3)% of GFP positive cells, fig 5C​5C)) and CD11c positive ... Macrophages and dendritic cells are bone marrow derived antigen presenting cells (APC) which serve in the first step of the ... In the present study, we grafted GFP labelled bone marrow and HSC and found that both cell types migrated in the sclera in a ... Treseler P A, Foulks G N, Sanfilippo F. The expression of HLA antigens by cells in the human cornea. Am J Ophthalmol 1984. 98 ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1994730/

Plus itPlus it

... as well as macrophages (CD11b+ MHCII+), DCs (CD11c+ MHCII+), and immature myeloid cells (CD11b+ MHCII−) were unchanged 11 days ... Although the tdLN is immune-suppressed, it is also antigen experienced through drainage of tumor-associated antigens (TAA), so ... 1B). Proportionally, there were more B220+ B cells and fewer CD3+ T cells present in the tdLN than in the non-tdLN (Fig. 1B). ... 1A), the overall distribution of different lymphocytes and the frequencies of CD11b+ MHCII+ macrophages (Mφ), CD11c+ MHCII+ DCs ...
more infohttp://cancerimmunolres.aacrjournals.org/content/2/5/436

Methods for enriching specific cell-types by density gradient centrifugation - Activated Cell Therapy, Inc.Methods for enriching specific cell-types by density gradient centrifugation - Activated Cell Therapy, Inc.

The present invention relates to methods of enriching for desired cell population from cell sources, such as body fluids, ... anti-CD11b specific for granulocytes, monocytes and natural killer cells; anti-CD11c specific for monocytes, granulocytes, ... Leukocyte differentiation antigens are described in Leucocyte Typing IV, White Cell Differentiation Antigens 1989, ed. Knapp et ... monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes and B-cells; anti-CDw32 specific for macrophages, granulocytes, B-cells and eosinophils; ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/5840502.html

Frontiers | The Effects of T4 and A3/R Bacteriophages on Differentiation of Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells | MicrobiologyFrontiers | The Effects of T4 and A3/R Bacteriophages on Differentiation of Human Myeloid Dendritic Cells | Microbiology

CD11c, MHC II, PD-L1, PD-L2, TLR2, TLR4, and CCR7) and phagocytosis receptors (CD64 and DEC-205). By contrast, bacterial lysate ... CD11c, MHC II, PD-L1, PD-L2, TLR2, TLR4, and CCR7) and phagocytosis receptors (CD64 and DEC-205). By contrast, bacterial lysate ... They were originally identified in blood as a fraction of HLA-DR+ lineage cells expressing myeloid antigens CD11b, CD11c, CD13 ... Antigens endocytosed via DEC-205 were shown to enter both MHC class I and MHC class II antigen presenting pathways and to be ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01267/full

Publications - Adaptive BiotechnologiesPublications - Adaptive Biotechnologies

Macrophages and DCs process and present this antigen to CD8+ T-cells, increasing the number of unique T-cell receptor ... Cd11b and Tnf and the distant tumors to enhanced Cd11c, Cd3 and Ifng. When ablation was added to immunotherapy, 100% (n=20/20) ... Here we report the results from a scaled-up version of the assay using 270 different query peptide antigens (159 self- and 111 ... where CD169+ macrophages are an IFN-enhanced subpopulation associated with dead-cell antigen presentation. Conclusion: While ...
more infohttps://www.adaptivebiotech.com/immune-profiling-platform/publications/?pub=49

ITGAL | Cancer Genetics WebITGAL | Cancer Genetics Web

... the following 27 CD antigens were differentially abundant for progressive CLL: CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD19, CD20 (two ... The present study has identified surface profiles of CD antigens that distinguish clinically progressive CLL from slow- ... T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell Data from Gene ... Macrophages are among the infiltrate components of most malignant tumors. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may secrete a ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/ITGAL.htm

The Controversial Role of Microglia in Malignant GliomasThe Controversial Role of Microglia in Malignant Gliomas

CD45low for microglia and CD45high for macrophages) on CD11b+ CD11c+ cells [27-29]. The robustness of this is questionable. ... Specifically, MSDCs only weakly present glioma antigens to cytotoxic T cells and express FasL, which contributes to the local ... T. Dutta, A. Spence, and L. A. Lampson, "Robust ability of IFN-γ to upregulate class II MHC antigen expression in tumor bearing ... Figure 2: CNS macrophage/monocytes differentiate into polarized macrophage subsets when exposed to different cytokine milieu. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2013/285246/

Pathogenic Mechanisms in Type 1 Diabetes: The Islet is Both Target and Driver of DiseasePathogenic Mechanisms in Type 1 Diabetes: The Islet is Both Target and Driver of Disease

Proinsulin is an important antigen in early diabetes. T cells migrate to the islets via the circulation and establish insulitis ... T cells within insulitis are specific for islet antigens rather than bystanders. Pathogenic CD4,sup,+,/sup, T cells may ... first meet beta-cell antigens presented by dendritic cells. ... CD11b+CD103-) and CD103+ (CD11c+CD11bloCD103+) DCs are present ... 5.7 The emerging role of macrophages and NK cells. Evidence exists that macrophages take a decisive role in the destruction of ...
more infohttp://www.soc-bdr.org/content/rds/archive/9/4_winter/chapter_i_pathogenesis/pathogenic_mechanisms_in_t1d/?showfulltext=1

Differentiation of type 1 T regulatory cells (Tr1) by tolerogenic DC-10 requires the IL-10-dependent ILT4/HLA-G pathway | Blood...Differentiation of type 1 T regulatory cells (Tr1) by tolerogenic DC-10 requires the IL-10-dependent ILT4/HLA-G pathway | Blood...

Using CD14, CD11b, CD11c, CD83, and CD1c as markers, we demonstrated that DC-10 cells are present in human spleen and represent ... CD11b+, HLA-DR+, CD83+, CD1a−, CD1c−, express the Ig-like transcripts (ILTs) ILT2, ILT3, ILT4, and HLA-G antigen, display high ... Human IL-23-producing type 1 macrophages promote but IL-10-producing type 2 macrophages subvert immunity to (myco)bacteria. ... and non-self-antigens. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is the crucial driving factor for Tr1 cell differentiation, but the molecular ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/116/6/935?ijkey=e77b24990d39939b84de1c75fb073826e68ca114&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true

CD11/CD18 Antibody ReviewCD11/CD18 Antibody Review

CD11a/CD18 is a lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and CD11b/CD18 is a macrophage antigen-1. Both are present on ... CD11b/CD18 and CD11c/CD18 are more restricted antigens normally expressed on monocytes, macrophages, PMN and natural killer ... Activated granulocytes and monocytes express far more CD11b/CD18 than the other two antigens: 6 to 8 x 10(5) CD11b/CD18 ... The CD11b mAbs reacted with all the cells except afferent dendritic cells, whereas CD11c were non-reactive to blood ...
more infohttp://antibodybeyond.com/reviews/antigen-c/cd11.cd18.htm

Glycosidic Tn-based vaccines targeting dermal dendritic cells favor germinal center B-cell development and potent antibody...Glycosidic Tn-based vaccines targeting dermal dendritic cells favor germinal center B-cell development and potent antibody...

DCs cross-present antigen to CD8+ T cells, whereas both CD103+ and CD11bhi CD103− DCs present viral antigen to CD4+ T cells.38 ... Tn-glycosylated antigens target dermal dendritic cells (dDCs) in vivo. (A) Analysis of macrophage galactose-type lectin ... CD11b+ Langerin+ CD103−), CD103+ dDC (CD11c+ MHCII+ EpCam− CD11b−), and CD103− dDC (CD11c+ MHCII+ EpCam− CD11b+ CD103−) from ... CD11c+ MHCII+ CD8α− Langerin+ CD103−), CD103+ dDC (CD11c+ MHCII+ CD8α− Langerin+ CD103+), and CD103− dDC (CD11c+ MHCII+ CD11b+ ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/116/18/3526?sso-checked=true

Publications - Adaptive BiotechnologiesPublications - Adaptive Biotechnologies

Macrophages and DCs process and present this antigen to CD8+ T-cells, increasing the number of unique T-cell receptor ... Cd11b and Tnf and the distant tumors to enhanced Cd11c, Cd3 and Ifng. When ablation was added to immunotherapy, 100% (n=20/20) ... RNA sequencing revealed that human and murine iPSCs express tumor-associated antigens, and we show here a proof of principle ... where CD169+ macrophages are an IFN-enhanced subpopulation associated with dead-cell antigen presentation. Conclusion: While ...
more infohttps://adaptivebiotech.com/immune-profiling-platform/publications/?pub=20

JCI -
Human intestinal macrophages display profound inflammatory anergy despite avid phagocytic and bacteriocidal activityJCI - Human intestinal macrophages display profound inflammatory anergy despite avid phagocytic and bacteriocidal activity

Thus, intestinal macrophages do not express receptors for LPS, IgA, IgG, C3 (CD11b/CD18), C4 (CD11c/CD18), IL-2 and IL-3, or ... neither receptor is expressed on intestinal macrophages. In contrast, levels of the monocyte/macrophage surface antigens HLA-DR ... Scavenger receptor CD36 was present on macrophages, however, albeit at markedly reduced levels compared with monocytes. ... Antigen retrieval was achieved by immersion of the sections in 10 mM sodium citrate buffer, pH 6.0, heated to 95°C for 5 ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/19229

Human dendritic cell subsets.Human dendritic cell subsets.

Developmental studies indicate that DCs originate independently from monocytes and tissue macrophages. Emerging evidence also ... Dendritic cells are highly adapted to their role of presenting antigen and directing immune responses. ... Myeloid DCs (mDCs) express typical myeloid antigens CD11c, CD13, CD33 and CD11b, corresponding to mouse CD11c+ classical or ... 49 sense viral nucleic acids with TLR3 and TLR8 and to cross-present antigen to CD8+ T-cell clones in vitro.8-40 This function ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Human-dendritic-cell-subsets/23621371.html

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Raymond  A. SobelProtocols and Video Articles Authored by Raymond A. Sobel

... that included a decrease in CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD4(+) dendritic cells (DC) and an elevation of CD11b(hi)Gr1(hi) monocytes. CD11b ... independent of antigen specificity. Type II monocyte-induced regulatory T cells specific for a foreign antigen ameliorated ... In the present study, we report that targeted deletion of IP-10 did not diminish the expression, severity, or histopathology of ... In vivo, amelioration of disease by GW2580 was associated with a reduction in the proportion of macrophages and T cells in the ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Raymond++A._Sobel

slides - Smith Labslides - Smith Lab

C3dg macrophages and B cells - CR3 (CD11b): iC3b macrophages and neutrophils - CR4 (CD11c) : iC3b dendritic cells CR1 Binds C3b ... C3b receptors are present on phagocytes - CR1 (CD35): C3b macrophages, neutrophils, RBC - CR2 (CD21): ... Antigen/Antibody conjugates) • Immune complexes can cause many problems, esp. in autoimmune diseases • Immune complexes bind ... Antibodies complexed with antigens • Natural • Adaptive - C-reactive protein • Acute phase protein that binds phophocholine in ...
more infohttp://slidegur.com/doc/111325/slides---smith-lab

Renal Dendritic Cells Stimulate IL-10 Production and Attenuate Nephrotoxic Nephritis | American Society of NephrologyRenal Dendritic Cells Stimulate IL-10 Production and Attenuate Nephrotoxic Nephritis | American Society of Nephrology

CD11c+ DCs expressing transgenic GFP, MHC II+ DCs, and CD11c− CD11b+ macrophages (F), and of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and ... and the requirement of macrophages6 indeed demonstrated the existence of an additional such subset. The present study ... In vivo depletion of CD11c(+) dendritic cells abrogates priming of CD8(+) T cells by exogenous cell-associated antigens. ... renal DCs appeared to act antagonistic to renal macrophages in experimental glomerulonephritis. Both classes of antigen- ...
more infohttps://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/19/3/527?ijkey=201429ebe273738ef05271eb80d07f25f3c4e6e6&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cancer immunotherapy with recombinant poliovirus induces IFN-dominant activation of dendritic cells and tumor antigen-specific...Cancer immunotherapy with recombinant poliovirus induces IFN-dominant activation of dendritic cells and tumor antigen-specific...

CD11c, CD11b, F4/80, and MHC II (BioLegend); panel 2, LIVE/DEAD cell stain, NK1.1, CD11b, CD45.2, CD8, CD4, and B220 (BioLegend ... S9). Although monocyte/macrophage populations were present on the day of treatment, their numbers remained relatively unchanged ... lysing tumor cells to release a mix of tumor and viral antigens, as well as sublethally infecting antigen-presenting cells and ... 8C). Neutrophil influx was followed by DC (CD45.2+CD11b+CD11c+classII+F4/80−) and T cell (CD45.2+CD4+ or CD8+) infiltration ...
more infohttps://stm.sciencemag.org/content/9/408/eaan4220.full

Cancer immunotherapy with recombinant poliovirus induces IFN-dominant activation of dendritic cells and tumor antigen-specific...Cancer immunotherapy with recombinant poliovirus induces IFN-dominant activation of dendritic cells and tumor antigen-specific...

CD11c, CD11b, F4/80, and MHC II (BioLegend); panel 2, LIVE/DEAD cell stain, NK1.1, CD11b, CD45.2, CD8, CD4, and B220 (BioLegend ... S9). Although monocyte/macrophage populations were present on the day of treatment, their numbers remained relatively unchanged ... lysing tumor cells to release a mix of tumor and viral antigens, as well as sublethally infecting antigen-presenting cells and ... 8C). Neutrophil influx was followed by DC (CD45.2+CD11b+CD11c+classII+F4/80−) and T cell (CD45.2+CD4+ or CD8+) infiltration ...
more infohttps://stm.sciencemag.org/content/9/408/eaan4220

Dendritic Cell Research | BD Biosciences-CADendritic Cell Research | BD Biosciences-CA

... or CD11b (migratory DCs). The IRF4 + DCs from both species coexpress CD172a/Sirp-α and can efficiently present antigens to ... and CD11c APC+(mDC). Residual macrophages were negligible as confirmed by staining with CD14 BV786 (data not shown). Center ... 1-3 They are potent antigen sensing and antigen presenting cells (professional APCs) that are uniquely capable of initiating ... CD4 +CD11b + Lymphoid-Resident DCs. CD4 + CD11b + CD11c high CD8a - CD14 -. CD24 +, CD26 + CD172a (Sirp-α) + CD205 (DEC-205) + ...
more infohttps://www.bdbiosciences.com/en-ca/applications/research-applications/dendritic-cell-research

JCI -
DC isoketal-modified proteins activate T cells and promote hypertensionJCI - DC isoketal-modified proteins activate T cells and promote hypertension

CD11b+/ESAMhi cells are known to present antigens to CD4+ T cells, while the role of CD11b+/ESAMlo cells is less well defined. ... B and E) Intracellular staining of isoketals in CD11b+/CD11c-, (C and F) CD11b+/CD11c+, and (D and G) CD11b+/CD11c- cells ... Antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) capture and process antigens and present antigenic peptides to T cells, leading to T ... It is well established that inflammation is involved in the genesis of hypertension (1). T cells and macrophages accumulate in ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/74084
  • The nonclassic Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I molecule HLA-G plays a central role in the induction and maintenance of fetal-maternal tolerance during pregnancy. (bloodjournal.org)
  • After recognizing foreign antigen in the periphery of the body, DCs migrate via afferent lymphatics into the draining LNs, where they can induce antigen-specific protective CD8 CTL responses, as well as CD4 T helper cells that enforce cellular and humoral immunity ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • The lung interstitium that is accessible by enzymatic digestion also contains CD11b + and CD11b − DCs that access the alveolar lumen and migrate to the mediastinal LNs (MLNs) ( 14 , 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • However, recent findings suggest that microglia originate from yolk sac macrophages that migrate into the CNS during early embryogenesis [ 4 ] (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • 1 , 2 DCs acquire and process antigen and migrate to the lymphoid organs where they present antigen to specific T cells, thereby inducing primary T- and B-cell responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The capacity of Tn-glycosylated antigens-and the multiple antigenic glycopeptide Tn3 therapeutic candidate vaccine-to target mouse and human MGL + DCs are demonstrated, especially regarding dermal DCs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. (cancerindex.org)
  • This property may be tested directly by explanting tissue in vitro , and is mirrored by significant differences in turnover between DCs and macrophages after stem cell transplantation in vivo . (biomedsearch.com)
  • 120G8 + CD11c int pDCs also accumulated in the lung and LNs carrying viral NP, but in their absence, there was no effect on viral clearance or clinical severity. (rupress.org)
  • Knowledge of this extra reactivity is important because it could be, and already has been, mistakenly interpreted to support the view that antigen transfer can occur between LCs and DDCs. (rupress.org)
  • This monocyte/macrophage population is characterized by the expression of CD11b ( 15 ), F4/80 ( 16 ), and IL4Rα ( 17 ), variable expression of Gr1, and low expression of CD11c, MHC class I, and MHC class II ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite these findings, the true nature of the tolerogenic antigen presenting cell (APC) remains elusive. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, the present invention relates to the use of a cell-trap centrifugation tube containing a specific density gradient solution adjusted to the specific density of a desired cell population to enrich for the desired cell from a cell source. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblast cell lines expressing the CD11a/CD18 or CD11b/CD18 antigen were engineered by gene transfection. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • This emigration from the lung was followed by an accumulation of CD11b + CD11c hi DCs in the trachea and lung interstitium. (rupress.org)
  • CD11b might be involved at least in part in the process of fungal dissemination from lung to brain. (antibodybeyond.com)
  • DCs are equipped with molecular sensors and antigen-processing machinery to recognize pathogens, integrate chemical information and guide the specificity, magnitude and polarity of immune responses. (biomedsearch.com)