CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins: A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein: A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.Cysteine-Rich Protein 61: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Fibromatosis, Gingival: Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Growth and Development: The series of changes to the shape, size, components, and functions of an individual organism that occur over time as the organism progresses from its initial form to full size and maturity.Ear Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Mesangial Cells: Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.

Identification and cloning of a connective tissue growth factor-like cDNA from human osteoblasts encoding a novel regulator of osteoblast functions. (1/98)

We have identified and cloned a novel connective tissue growth factor-like (CTGF-L) cDNA from primary human osteoblast cells encoding a 250-amino acid single chain polypeptide. Murine CTGF-L cDNA, encoding a polypeptide of 251 amino acids, was obtained from a murine lung cDNA library. CTGF-L protein bears significant identity ( approximately 60%) to the CCN (CTGF, Cef10/Cyr61, Nov) family of proteins. CTGF-L is composed of three distinct domains, an insulin-like growth factor binding domain, a von Willebrand Factor type C motif, and a thrombospondin type I repeat. However, unlike CTGF, CTGF-L lacks the C-terminal domain implicated in dimerization and heparin binding. CTGF-L mRNA ( approximately 1.3 kilobases) is expressed in primary human osteoblasts, fibroblasts, ovary, testes, and heart, and a approximately 26-kDa protein is secreted from primary human osteoblasts and fibroblasts. In situ hybridization indicates high expression in osteoblasts forming bone, discrete alkaline phosphatase positive bone marrow cells, and chondrocytes. Specific binding of 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factors to CTGF-L was demonstrated by ligand Western blotting and cross-linking experiments. Recombinant human CTGF-L promotes the adhesion of osteoblast cells and inhibits the binding of fibrinogen to integrin receptors. In addition, recombinant human CTGF-L inhibits osteocalcin production in rat osteoblast-like Ros 17/2.8 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CTGF-L may play an important role in modulating bone turnover.  (+info)

A novel putative low-affinity insulin-like growth factor-binding protein, LIBC (lost in inflammatory breast cancer), and RhoC GTPase correlate with the inflammatory breast cancer phenotype. (2/98)

Inflammatory breast cancer is a rapidly growing, distinct form of locally advanced breast cancer that carries a guarded prognosis. To identify the genes that contribute to this aggressive phenotype, we compared under- and overexpressed sequences in an inflammatory breast tumor cell line with those of actively replicating normal human mammary epithelial cell lines using differential display. Of the 17 transcripts isolated and characterized from these experiments, overexpression of RhoC GTPase and loss of expression of a novel gene on 6q22, LIBC (lost in inflammatory breast cancer), were highly correlated (P<0.0095 and P<0.0013, respectively) with the inflammatory phenotype when a panel of archival inflammatory breast cancers was compared with noninflammatory stage III breast cancers by in situ hybridization. This study suggests two new molecular markers specific for inflammatory breast cancer.  (+info)

WISP-1 is a Wnt-1- and beta-catenin-responsive oncogene. (3/98)

WISP-1 (Wnt-1 induced secreted protein 1) is a member of the CCN family of growth factors. This study identifies WISP-1 as a beta-catenin-regulated gene that can contribute to tumorigenesis. The promoter of WISP-1 was cloned and shown to be activated by both Wnt-1 and beta-catenin expression. TCF/LEF sites played a minor role, whereas the CREB site played an important role in this transcriptional activation. WISP-1 demonstrated oncogenic activities; overexpression of WISP-1 in normal rat kidney fibroblast cells (NRK-49F) induced morphological transformation, accelerated cell growth, and enhanced saturation density. Although these cells did not acquire anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, they readily formed tumors in nude mice, suggesting that appropriate cellular attachment is important for signaling oncogenic events downstream of WISP-1.  (+info)

N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 is mutated in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom. (4/98)

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, to which Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease belongs, are a common cause of disability in adulthood. Growing awareness that axonal loss, rather than demyelination per se, is responsible for the neurological deficit in demyelinating CMT disease has focused research on the mechanisms of early development, cell differentiation, and cell-cell interactions in the peripheral nervous system. Autosomal recessive peripheral neuropathies are relatively rare but are clinically more severe than autosomal dominant forms of CMT, and understanding their molecular basis may provide a new perspective on these mechanisms. Here we report the identification of the gene responsible for hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL). HMSNL shows features of Schwann-cell dysfunction and a concomitant early axonal involvement, suggesting that impaired axon-glia interactions play a major role in its pathogenesis. The gene was previously mapped to 8q24.3, where conserved disease haplotypes suggested genetic homogeneity and a single founder mutation. We have reduced the HMSNL interval to 200 kb and have characterized it by means of large-scale genomic sequencing. Sequence analysis of two genes located in the critical region identified the founder HMSNL mutation: a premature-termination codon at position 148 of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and has been proposed to play a role in growth arrest and cell differentiation, possibly as a signaling protein shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. We have studied expression in peripheral nerve and have detected particularly high levels in the Schwann cell. Taken together, these findings point to NDRG1 having a role in the peripheral nervous system, possibly in the Schwann-cell signaling necessary for axonal survival.  (+info)

A novel variant of WISP1 lacking a Von Willebrand type C module overexpressed in scirrhous gastric carcinoma. (5/98)

Scirrhous carcinoma of the stomach is characterized by rapid growth with a vast fibrous stroma, high invasiveness, and substantially a poor prognosis. Little is known of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease. Members of the emerging family of the CCN gene (for connective tissue growth factor, cysteine-rich 61, nephroblastoma overexpressed) encode cysteine-rich secreted proteins with roles in human fibrotic disorders and cancer progression. Using targeted differential displays, we identified a novel variant of the CCN family member WISP1 (Wnt-induced secreted protein 1), named WISP1v, as overexpressed in scirrhous gastric carcinomas. Predicted protein of the WISP1v completely lacks a module of Von Willebrand type C that is thought to participate in protein complex formation. Ectopic expression revealed WISP1v to be a secreted oncoprotein inducing a striking cellular transformation and rapid piling-up growth. It is noteworthy that WISP1v transfectants enhanced the invasive phenotype of co-cultured gastric carcinoma cells, while wild-type WISP1 had no such potential. These findings suggest that CCN protein WISP1v is involved in the aggressive progression of scirrhous gastric carcinoma.  (+info)

WISP-1 binds to decorin and biglycan. (6/98)

Wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP-1) is a member of the CCN (connective tissue growth factor, Cyr61, NOV) family of growth factors. Structural and experimental evidence suggests that CCN family member activities are modulated by their interaction with sulfated glycoconjugates. To elucidate the mechanism of action for WISP-1, we characterized the specificity of its tissue and cellular interaction and identified binding factors. WISP-1 binding was restricted to the stroma of colon tumors and to cells with a fibroblastic phenotype. By using a solid phase assay, we showed that human skin fibroblast conditioned media contained WISP-1 binding factors. Competitive inhibition with different glycosaminoglycans and treatment with glycosaminoglycan lyases and proteases demonstrated that binding to the conditioned media was mediated by dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Mass spectrometric analysis identified the isolated binding factors as decorin and biglycan. Decorin and biglycan interacted directly with WISP-1 and inhibited its binding to components in the conditioned media. Similarly, WISP-1 interaction with human skin fibroblasts was inhibited by dermatan sulfate, decorin, and biglycan or by treatment of the cell surface with dermatan sulfate-specific lyases. Together these results demonstrate that decorin and biglycan are WISP-1 binding factors that can mediate and modulate its interaction with the surface of fibroblasts. We propose that this specific interaction plays a role in the regulation of WISP-1 function.  (+info)

COL11A1 in FAP polyps and in sporadic colorectal tumors. (7/98)

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that the alpha-1 chain of type 11 collagen (COL11A1), not normally expressed in the colon, was up-regulated in stromal fibroblasts in most sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Patients with germline mutations in the APC gene show, besides colonic polyposis, symptoms of stromal fibroblast involvement, which could be related to COL11A1 expression. Most colorectal carcinomas are suggested to be a result of an activated Wnt- pathway, most often involving an inactivation of the APC gene or activation of beta-catenin. METHODS: We used normal and polyp tissue samples from one FAP patient and a set of 37 sporadic colorectal carcinomas to find out if the up-regulation of COL11A1 was associated with an active APC/beta-catenin pathway. RESULTS: In this study we found a statistically significant difference in COL11A1 expression between normal tissue and adenomas from one FAP patient, and all adenomas gave evidence for an active APC/beta-catenin pathway. An active Wnt pathway has been suggested to involve stromal expression of WISP-1. We found a strong correlation between WISP-1 and COL11A1 expression in sporadic carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that expression of COL11A1 in colorectal tumors could be associated with the APC/beta-catenin pathway in FAP and sporadic colorectal cancer.  (+info)

Elevated levels of connective tissue growth factor, WISP-1, and CYR61 in primary breast cancers associated with more advanced features. (8/98)

To gain insight into the role of the CCN genes in human breast carcinomas, we quantified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), WISP-1, CYR61, and human NOV (NOVH) mRNA expression levels in samples from 44 primary breast tumors and seven normal breasts using quantitative real-time PCR assay. Overexpression of CTGF, WISP-1, CYR61, and NOVH was found in 55 (24 of 44), 46 (20 of 44), 39 (17 of 44), and 11% (5 of 44) primary breast tumors, respectively. Statistical univariate analysis was performed to explore the links between expression of the CCN genes and clinical and pathological parameters. Interestingly, significant associations were found between CTGF expression versus stage, tumor size, lymph node status, and age at diagnosis; WISP-1 mRNA levels versus stage, tumor size, lymph node, and HER-2/neu overexpression; and CYR61 expression with stage, tumor size, lymph node, age, and estrogen receptor expression. In contrast to CTGF, WISP-1, and CYR61, no significant correlation was found between NOVH expression and any of the clinical and pathological factors. Furthermore, multivariate classification tree model analysis showed that stage and lymph node involvement were important for predicting CTGF expression in breast cancers; the stage, age, and HER-2/neu status were key factors for WISP-1 expression; and the stage, age, and estrogen receptor were valuable predictors for CYR61 expression. In summary, these results suggest that CTGF, WISP-1, and CYR61 may play a role in the progression of breast cancer and might serve as a valuable tool for monitoring tumor status of breast cancer patients.  (+info)

  • Moreover, gene expression levels and the effects of exogenous CCN proteins on chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and the expression of chondrocyte-associated genes in their primary chondrocytes were evaluated. (
  • Association of genetic variations in the Wnt signaling pathway genes with myocardial infarction susceptibility in Chinese Han population. (
  • The genes that encode the ephrin-A and ephrin-B proteins are designated as EFNA and EFNB respectively. (
  • Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein (WISP) genes, which belong to members of the CCN growth factor family, play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis and progression of a broad spectrum of human cancers. (
  • In particular, genes downstream of Hippo signaling and the biomechanical sensor and transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP) were downregulated in infected endothelial cells. (
  • CCN2 is best known as a promoter of chondrocyte differentiation among the CCN family members, and its null mice display skeletal dysmorphisms. (
  • Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, we conducted a comparative analysis of CCN2-null and wildtype mice to study the roles of CCN2 and the other CCN proteins in cartilage development. (
  • The mRNA levels of Dickkopf homolog 1(DKK1), Wnt induced secreted protein 1(WISP1), Wnt1, low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 5(LRP5) and beta -catenin in rats cartilaginous tissues were analyzed by using RT-PCR method, and the protein contents of DKK1, WISP1, Wnt1, LRP5 and beta-catenin in cartilaginous tissues were detected by Western blot. (
  • Mounting studies have identified that WISP proteins (WISP1-3) exert different biological functions in various human malignancies. (
  • Members of the CCN protein family are characterized by having four conserved cysteine-rich domains, which include the insulin-like growth factor-binding domain (IGFBP), the Von Willebrand factor type C domain (VWC), the thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR), and a C-terminal domain (CT) with a cysteine knot motif. (
  • The four CYR61 domains are, from N- to C-termini, the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) domain, von Willebrand type C repeats (vWC) domain, thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain (TSR), and the C-terminal (CT) domain that contains a cysteine-knot motif. (
  • In our body, the gels of polysaccharides and fibrous proteins ( scleroproteins ) fill the interstitial space and act as a compression buffer against the stress placed on the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) . (
  • The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g. (
  • PURPOSES: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is essential for articular cartilage to respond appropriately to physical or biological stimuli and maintain homeostasis. (
  • Here we show that Drosophila Tctp directly interacts with the septate junction protein Coracle (Cora) to regulate epithelial integrity and organ growth. (
  • CCN gene expression levels were studied at the mRNA and protein level in retinas of control and diabetic rats using real-time quantitative PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry at 6 and 12 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the presence or absence of aminoguanidine, an AGE inhibitor. (
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were used to detect mRNA and protein expression of FKN and its receptor, CX3CR1, in HUVECs and BRECs. (
  • Western blot analysis was done to detect the expression of Cx43 and PI3K/Akt signalling. (
  • Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, we found that among the family of gap junction proteins, connexin (Cx) 26, Cx36, Cx37, Cx43, and Cx45 were expressed in the mouse neocortex. (
  • In addition, C57BL/6 mice were repeatedly injected with exogenously formed AGE to establish whether AGE modulate retinal CCN growth factors in vivo. (
  • Huang J, Zhao L, Chen D. Growth factor signalling in osteoarthritis. (
  • Eph/ephrin signaling controls the guidance of neuronal axons through their ability to inhibit the survival of axonal growth cones , which repels the migrating axon away from the site of Eph/ephrin activation. (
  • Secretion of endothelin-1 (ET-1)1 from the endothelium signals vasoconstriction and influences local cellular growth and survival. (
  • The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin . (
  • It is well documented that gap junctional intercellular communication is important in mediating normal cell growth, differentiation, and development. (
  • Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a conserved protein involved in growth control, but its role in cell junctions is unknown. (
  • Ovarian follicular development involves continual remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) forming the basement membrane and intercellular framework that support granulosa cell (GC) growth and differentiation. (
  • Differences observed between asthmatic and non-asthmatic bronchial fibroblasts (e.g., response to transforming growth factor β, cell shape, elasticity, and protein expression profile) may have a crucial influence on this phenomenon. (
  • Among activated downstream molecules, PI3K, ShcA protein and STAT1 are all confirmed to be involved in the TIE2-R849W related network[ 10 , 11 ]. (