CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-delta: A member of the C-EBP protein family of transcription factors. It plays a key role in G0 PHASE mammary EPITHELIAL CELL growth arrest, and it is involved in transcriptional regulation of INTERLEUKIN 1; INTERLEUKIN 6; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor CHOP: A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Myelopoiesis: Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Endrin: An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta: A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Acute-Phase Reaction: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.NF-kappa B p50 Subunit: A component of NF-kappa B transcription factor. It is proteolytically processed from NF-kappa B p105 precursor protein and is capable of forming dimeric complexes with itself or with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR RELA. It regulates expression of GENES involved in immune and inflammatory responses.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.RNA Polymerase Sigma 54: A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Mice, Inbred C57BLOligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Monocyte-Macrophage Precursor Cells: Parent cells in the lineage that gives rise to MONOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Myxococcus xanthus: A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1: A T-cell factor that plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Histone Deacetylase 1: A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 2; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Nuclear Factor 90 Proteins: A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Unfolded Protein Response: A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.HIV Enhancer: Cis-acting regulatory sequences in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) which play a major role in induction or augmentation of HIV gene expression in response to environmental stimuli such as mitogens, phorbol esters, or other viruses. The HIV enhancer is the binding site for many cellular transcription factors including the nuclear factor NF-kappa B.Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Core Binding Factor alpha Subunits: A family of transcription factors that bind to the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. Family members contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. They can act as both activators and repressors of expression of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Y-Box-Binding Protein 1: Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A: A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.

C/EBPalpha regulates generation of C/EBPbeta isoforms through activation of specific proteolytic cleavage. (1/2395)

C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are intronless genes that can produce several N-terminally truncated isoforms through the process of alternative translation initiation at downstream AUG codons. C/EBPbeta has been reported to produce four isoforms: full-length 38-kDa C/EBPbeta, 35-kDa LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein), 21-kDa LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein), and a 14-kDa isoform. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms are generated in the liver and in cultured cells. Using an in vitro translation system, we found that LIP can be generated by two mechanisms: alternative translation and a novel mechanism-specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. Studies of mice in which the C/EBPalpha gene had been deleted (C/EBPalpha-/-) showed that the regulation of C/EBPbeta proteolysis is dependent on C/EBPalpha. The induction of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells leads to induced cleavage of C/EBPbeta to generate the LIP isoform. We characterized the cleavage activity in mouse liver extracts and found that the proteolytic cleavage activity is specific to prenatal and newborn livers, is sensitive to chymostatin, and is completely abolished in C/EBPalpha-/- animals. The lack of cleavage activity in the livers of C/EBPalpha-/- mice correlates with the decreased levels of LIP in the livers of these animals. Analysis of LIP production during liver regeneration showed that, in this system, the transient induction of LIP is dependent on the third AUG codon and most likely involves translational control. We propose that there are two mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms might be generated in the liver and in cultured cells: one that is determined by translation and a second that involves C/EBPalpha-dependent, specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. The latter mechanism implicates C/EBPalpha in the regulation of posttranslational generation of the dominant negative C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP.  (+info)

A critical role for cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) as a Co-activator in sterol-regulated transcription of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase promoter. (2/2395)

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase, a key regulatory enzyme in the pathway for endogenous cholesterol synthesis, is a target for negative feedback regulation by cholesterol. When cellular sterol levels are low, the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are released from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, allowing them to translocate to the nucleus and activate SREBP target genes. However, in all SREBP-regulated promoters studied to date, additional co-regulatory transcription factors are required for sterol-regulated activation of transcription. We have previously shown that, in addition to SREBPs, NF-Y/CBF is required for sterol-regulated transcription of HMG-CoA synthase. This heterotrimeric transcription factor has recently been shown to function as a co-regulator in several other SREBP-regulated promoters, as well. In addition to cis-acting sites for both SREBP and NF-Y/CBF, the sterol regulatory region of the synthase promoter also contains a consensus cAMP response element (CRE), an element that binds members of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. Here, we show that this consensus CRE is essential for sterol-regulated transcription of the synthase promoter. Using in vitro binding assays, we also demonstrate that CREB binds to this CRE, and mutations within the CRE that result in a loss of CREB binding also result in a loss of sterol-regulated transcription. We further show that efficient activation of the synthase promoter in Drosophila SL2 cells requires the simultaneous expression of all three factors: SREBPs, NF-Y/CBF, and CREB. To date this is the first promoter shown to require CREB for efficient sterol-regulated transcription, and to require two different co-regulatory factors in addition to SREBPs for maximal activation.  (+info)

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is an accessory factor for the glucocorticoid response from the cAMP response element in the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene promoter. (3/2395)

The cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter is required for a complete glucocorticoid response. Proteins known to bind the PEPCK CRE include the CRE-binding protein (CREB) and members of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family. We took two different approaches to determine which of these proteins provides the accessory factor activity for the glucocorticoid response from the PEPCK CRE. The first strategy involved replacing the CRE of the PEPCK promoter/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter plasmid (pPL32) with a consensus C/EBP-binding sequence. This construct, termed pDeltaCREC/EBP, binds C/EBPalpha and beta but not CREB, yet it confers a nearly complete glucocorticoid response when transiently transfected into H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. These results suggest that one of the C/EBP family members may be the accessory factor. The second strategy involved co-transfecting H4IIE cells with a pPL32 mutant, in which the CRE was replaced with a GAL4-binding sequence (pDeltaCREGAL4), and various GAL4 DNA-binding domain (DBD) fusion protein expression vectors. Although chimeric proteins consisting of the GAL4 DBD fused to either CREB or C/EBPalpha are able to confer an increase in basal transcription, they do not facilitate the glucocorticoid response. In contrast, a fusion protein consisting of the GAL4 DBD and amino acids 1-118 of C/EBPbeta provides a significant glucocorticoid response. Additional GAL4 fusion studies were done to map the minimal domain of C/EBPbeta needed for accessory factor activity to the glucocorticoid response. Chimeric proteins containing amino acid regions 1-84, 52-118, or 85-118 of C/EBPbeta fused to the GAL4 DBD do not mediate a glucocorticoid response. We conclude that the amino terminus of C/EBPbeta contains a multicomponent domain necessary to confer accessory factor activity to the glucocorticoid response from the CRE of the PEPCK gene promoter.  (+info)

CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins. A role in regulation of human involucrin promoter response to phorbol ester. (4/2395)

The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is a potent inducer of keratinocyte differentiation and of involucrin gene expression. In the present study we show that a CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site in the proximal regulatory region is required for the phorbol ester response. Mutation of the C/EBP site results in the loss of basal and TPA-responsive activity. Gel mobility supershift analysis shows that C/EBPalpha binding to this site is increased by TPA treatment. Moreover, cotransfection of the human involucrin reporter plasmid with C/EBPalpha increases promoter activity to an extent comparable with TPA treatment. Mutation of the C/EBP-binding site eliminates these responses. Transfection experiments using GADD153 to create C/EBP-null conditions confirm that C/EBP factors are absolutely required for promoter activity and TPA responsiveness. C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta inhibit both TPA- and C/EBPalpha-dependent promoter activation, indicating functional differences among C/EBP family members. These results suggest that C/EBP transcription factor activity is necessary for basal promoter activity and TPA response of the involucrin gene.  (+info)

The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum stress response element consists of an evolutionarily conserved tripartite structure and interacts with a novel stress-inducible complex. (5/2395)

When mammalian cells are subjected to calcium depletion stress or protein glycosylation block, the transcription of a family of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) genes encoding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones is induced to high levels. The consensus mammalian ER stress response element (ERSE) conserved among grp promoters consists of a tripartite structure CCAAT(N9)CCACG, with N being a strikingly GC-rich region of 9 bp. The ERSE, in duplicate copies, can confer full stress inducibility to a heterologous promoter in a sequence-specific but orientation-independent manner. In addition to CBF/NF-Y and YY1 binding to the CCAAT and CCACG motifs, respectively, we further discovered that an ER stress-inducible complex (ERSF) from HeLa nuclear extract binds specifically to the ERSE. Strikingly, the interaction of the ERSF with the ERSE requires a conserved GGC motif within the 9 bp region. Since mutation of the GGC triplet sequence also results in loss of stress inducibility, specific sequence within the 9 bp region is an integral part of the tripartite structure. Finally, correlation of factor binding with stress inducibility reveals that ERSF binding to the ERSE alone is not sufficient; full stress inducibility requires integrity of the CCAAT, GGC and CCACG sequence motifs, as well as precise spacing among these sites.  (+info)

Tumour necrosis factor-alpha regulates expression of the CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) alpha and beta and determines the occupation of the C/EBP site in the promoter of the insulin-responsive glucose-transporter gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (6/2395)

We have demonstrated previously that treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) results in a rapid (4 h) and significant (75-80%) reduction in the rate of transcription of the GLUT4 gene. Control of GLUT4 gene transcription has been suggested at least in part to reside with the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family (alpha, beta and delta isoforms) of transcription factors. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have examined the ability of TNF to alter the occupation of the C/EBP site in the GLUT4 promoter. The data suggest that in fully differentiated adipocytes the C/EBP site is a ligand for predominantly alpha/alpha homodimers; however, after exposure to TNF, a shift in occupancy of the site occurs and the ligands become alpha/beta heterodimers and beta/beta homodimers. Partner selection in dimer formation appears to be controlled by selective translocation of the beta-isoform from the cytosol to the nucleus after exposure of the cells to TNF.  (+info)

A novel splicing isoform of mouse sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). (7/2395)

We cloned a cDNA encoding the NH2-terminal portion of mouse SREBP-1. The deduced amino acid sequence was 76% and 90% identical to human and hamster SREBP-1, respectively. We found out a novel splicing isoform of mouse SREBP-1 that lacks 42 amino acid residues composing a PEST sequence observed in unstable proteins. It has been reported that SREBP-1 is rapidly turned over in the nucleus. Although this isoform was not a dominant isoform, it might be possible that the produced protein functions differently from other isoforms including a complete PEST sequence.  (+info)

Transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta and nuclear factor-Y bind to discrete regulatory elements in the very low density lipoprotein receptor promoter. (8/2395)

Expression of the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R) is barely detectable in liver, but occurs in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, and placenta, where it is postulated to supply triglyceride to tissues that utilize fatty acids. To investigate its tissue-specific expression, cell lines were transfected with luciferase reporter gene constructs driven by the 5'-flanking region of the VLDL-R gene. Transcriptional activity of a 4.2-kb promoter fragment was 5-fold higher in BeWo placental cells than in Huh-7 hepatoma cells, consistent with relative endogenous expression of the VLDL-R. By deletion analysis, DNase I protection assays and site-directed mutagenesis, two regulatory elements were essential for maximal promoter activity in BeWo cells: footprint site D (-856 to -830) and an inverted CCAAT box (-703 to -707). Mutation of either element reduced promoter activity by 60% in BeWo cells, but had little effect in Huh-7 cells, suggesting that these elements direct cell-type specific transcription. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays with BeWo nuclear extracts revealed that the inverted CCAAT box binds transcription factor NF-Y, and site D binds CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein b (C/EBPbeta) and minor amounts of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPdelta. Overexpression of a dominant negative NF-YA vector confirmed involvement of NF-Y in the regulation of the VLDL-receptor gene through the CCAAT box. However overexpression of C/EBP could not stimulate transcription from the VLDL-receptor promoter nor from site D fused to a heterologous promoter, suggesting that the simultaneous binding of an accessory factor(s) may be necessary for C/EBP transactivation via the D site.  (+info)

*Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins

"CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation". ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) is a family of transcription factors composed of six members, named from C/EBPα to ... Freytag SO, Paielli DL, Gilbert JD (Jul 1994). "Ectopic expression of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha promotes the ... Ramji DP, Foka P (Aug 2002). "CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and regulation". The Biochemical Journal. ...

*CCAAT/enhancer binding protein zeta

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein zeta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPZ gene. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPZ CCAAT/enhancer binding protein zeta". Imbriano C, Bolognese F, Gurtner A, Piaggio G, Mantovani R (Jul 2001 ... P73 Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115816 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89 ... Hoeppner MA, Gilbert DJ, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Linzer DI, Wu B (1996). "Cloning and characterization of mouse CCAAT binding ...

*TRIB1

Eyers PA, Keeshan K, Kannan N (2015). "Molecular Mechanism of CCAAT-Enhancer Binding Protein Recruitment by the TRIB1 ... Tribbles proteins function as scaffold proteins, which bind their substrates to localize them to or from their function ... It exerts its biological functions through binding to signalling proteins of the MAPKK level of the MAPK pathway, therefore ... The protein's primary structure contains a PEST region, indicative of proteins that are highly susceptible to degradation in ...

*CEBPB

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPB gene. The protein encoded by this ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPB CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta". Ruffell D, Mourkioti F, Gambardella A, Kirstetter P, Lopez RG ... Chen GK, Sale S, Tan T, Ermoian RP, Sikic BI (April 2004). "CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (nuclear factor for interleukin ... Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172216 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...

*Estrogen receptor alpha

Boruk M, Savory JG, Haché RJ (Nov 1998). "AF-2-dependent potentiation of CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta-mediated ... "Entrez Gene: DBI diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-Coenzyme A binding protein)". Kos M, Reid G, Denger ... Chan SW, Hong W (Jul 2001). "Retinoblastoma-binding protein 2 (Rbp2) potentiates nuclear hormone receptor-mediated ... CREB Binding Protein Interaction Interface and Its Importance for the Function of SRC1". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (1): 39-50. doi: ...

*DNA damage-inducible transcript 3

Qiao D, Im E, Qi W, Martinez JD (2002). "Activator protein-1 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein mediated GADD153 expression is ... Ramji DP, Foka P (2002). "CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and regulation". Biochem. J. 365 (Pt 3): 561-75 ... "Physical and functional association between GADD153 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta during cellular stress". J. Biol. ... "Physical and functional association between GADD153 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta during cellular stress". J. Biol. ...

*PCK1

Jurado LA, Song S, Roesler WJ, Park EA (2002). "Conserved amino acids within CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP(alpha) and ... A mitochondrial isozyme of the encoded protein also has been characterized. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to ... Wilson HL, McFie PJ, Roesler WJ (2003). "Different transcription factor binding arrays modulate the cAMP responsivity of the ... 2002). "Crystal structure of human cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase reveals a new GTP-binding site". J. Mol. Biol. ...

*CEBPD

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPD gene. The protein encoded by this ... "CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation". ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPD CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), delta". Gery S, Tanosaki S, Hofmann WK, Koppel A, Koeffler HP (Feb ... Li R, Strohmeyer R, Liang Z, Lue LF, Rogers J (Sep 2004). "CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta) expression and ...

*FOXI1

"Transcriptional regulation of human CYP3A4 basal expression by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha and hepatocyte nuclear ... "Cloning and characterization of seven human forkhead proteins: binding site specificity and DNA bending". The EMBO Journal. 13 ... Forkhead box I1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXI1 gene. This gene belongs to the forkhead family of ... FOX proteins GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168269 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000047861 - ...

*CAAT box

Another aspect of the CCAAT binding motif is the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs). They are a group of transcription ... Protein specific binding is required for the CCAAT box activation. These proteins are known as CCAAT box binding proteins/CCAAT ... Ramji, Dpiak P.; Foka, Pelagia (10 May 2002). "Reivew Article: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and ... which are highly conserved and bind to the CCAAT motif . While research on these binding proteins is relatively recent, their ...

*FOXA3

2003). "Transcriptional regulation of human CYP3A4 basal expression by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha and hepatocyte ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXA3 gene. HNF-3G is a member of the forkheadclass of DNA-binding proteins. ... 2009). "Differential binding and co-binding pattern of FOXA1 and FOXA3 and their relation to H3K4me3 in HepG2 cells revealed by ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma (HNF-3G), also known as forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3) or transcription factor 3G (TCF-3G) ...

*Antineoplastic resistance

IL-6 activates the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein transcription factors which activate MDR1 gene expression (see Alteration of ... This transporter protein is encoded by the MDR1 gene and is also called the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein. MDR1 has ... MDR1 is activated through NF-κB, a protein complex which acts as a transcription factor. In the rat, an NF-κB binding site is ... These point mutations enhance autophosphorylation of the BCR-ABL protein, resulting in the stabilization of the ATP-binding ...

*Kaang Bong-kiun

"AU-rich element-binding protein negatively regulates CCAAT enhancer-binding protein mRNA stability during long-term synaptic ... "Overexpression of and RNA interference with the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein on long-term facilitation of Aplysia sensory to ... Lee JA, Kim H, Lee YS, Kaang BK (2003). "Overexpression and RNA interference of Ap-cyclic AMP-response element binding protein- ... transcription requires the protein kinase-A-mediated phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein(CREB). ...

*CEBPA

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPA gene. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ... For details on the CCAAT motif in gene enhancers and on CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Proteins see the specific page. The protein ... One category of mutations prevent CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha DNA binding by altering its COOH-terminal basic leucine ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPA CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), alpha". Ohlsson E, Schuster MB, Hasemann M, Porse BT. The ...

*CEBPE

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon, also known as CEBPE and CRP1, is a type of ccaat-enhancer-binding protein. ... Antonson P, Stellan B, Yamanaka R, Xanthopoulos KG (Jul 1996). "A novel human CCAAT/enhancer binding protein gene, C/EBPepsilon ... Kim J, Cantwell CA, Johnson PF, Pfarr CM, Williams SC (Oct 2002). "Transcriptional activity of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins ... "A novel human CCAAT/enhancer binding protein gene, C/EBPepsilon, is expressed in cells of lymphoid and myeloid lineages and is ...

*Transmembrane protein 251

CCAAT binding factors, or CCAAT enhancer binding proteins were found. The TMEM251 protein is 169 amino acids in length. The ... Transmembrane protein 251, also known as C14orf109 or UPF0694, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM251 gene. One ... No vertebrate TATA binding protein factors, RNA polymerase transcription factor II B, ... The first transcript variant encodes a shorter predicted protein, while the second transcript variant encodes a protein with a ...

*NFE2L1

"The CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)beta and Nrf1 interact to regulate dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene expression ... NFE2L1 binds DNA as heterodimers with one of small Maf proteins (MAFF, MAFG, MAFK). NFE2L1 has been shown to interact with C- ... β-TrCP also binds to the DSGLC motif, a highly conserved region of CNC-bZIP proteins, in order to poly-ubiquitinate NFE2L1 ... Zhang Y, Lucocq JM, Hayes JD (Mar 2009). "The Nrf1 CNC/bZIP protein is a nuclear envelope-bound transcription factor that is ...

*CEBP

... may refer to: CEBPA, a human gene that modulates leptin expression CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins or C/EBPs Communication ...

*Liver X receptor alpha

"Different regulation of the LXRalpha promoter activity by isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins". Biochemical and ... Liver X receptor alpha (LXR-alpha) is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1H3 gene (nuclear receptor ... The liver X receptors, LXRα (this protein) and LXRβ, form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily and are key ... Miyata KS, McCaw SE, Meertens LM, Patel HV, Rachubinski RA, Capone JP (Nov 1998). "Receptor-interacting protein 140 interacts ...

*Myosatellite cell

Marchildon, François (2012). "CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta is Expressed in Satellite Cells and Controls Myogenesis". ... Moreover, both quiescent and activated human satellite cells can be identified by the membrane-bound neural cell adhesion ... There is some research indicating that satellite cells are negatively regulated by a protein called myostatin. Increased levels ... Activated satellite cells also begin expressing muscle-specific filament proteins such as desmin as they differentiate. The ...

*Haematopoiesis

... is transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα). Mutations in C/EBPα are associated with acute myeloid ... "Ikaros DNA-binding proteins as integral components of B cell developmental-stage-specific regulatory circuits". Immunity. 26 (3 ... One of the key players in self-renewal and development of haematopoietic cells is stem cell factor (SCF), which binds to the c- ... Very important finding is, that different zinc fingers are involved in binding to different place in DNA and this is the reason ...

*Serum response factor

Hanlon M, Sealy L (May 1999). "Ras regulates the association of serum response factor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta ... This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the ... Serum response factor has been shown to interact with: ASCC3, ATF6, CEBPB, CREB-binding protein, ELK4, GATA4, GTF2F1, GTF2I, ... "A multifunctional DNA-binding protein that promotes the formation of serum response factor/homeodomain complexes: identity to ...

*CYP3A4

"Capsaicin induces CYP3A4 expression via pregnane X receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β activation". Molecular ... Due to membrane-bound CYP3A4's natural propensity to conglomerate, it has historically been difficult to study drug binding in ... which binds to the XREM region of the CYP3A4 gene. XREM is a regulatory region of the CYP3A4 gene, and binding causes a ... Ligand binding increases when in the presence of CYP3A4 ligands, such as in the presence of aflatoxin B1, M1, and G1. Indeed, ...

*CEBPG

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein gamma may cooperate with Fos to bind PRE-I enhancer elements. Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPG gene. The C/EBP family of ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPG CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), gamma". Nishizawa M, Nagata S (1992). "cDNA clones encoding leucine- ... Involvement of C/enhancer-binding protein transcription factors and their possible interaction with an NF-IL-4 site". J. ...

*C8orf48

"CEBPE CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-09 ... The C8orf48 protein is predicted to be a nuclear protein particularly located in the nuclear lamina. This protein does not ... These transcription factors include MAX binding protein and Estrogen-related receptor alpha (secondary DNA binding preference) ... "Characterization of the DNA-binding properties of the myeloid zinc finger protein MZF1: two independent DNA-binding domains ...

*Glucocorticoid receptor

Boruk M, Savory JG, Haché RJ (November 1998). "AF-2-dependent potentiation of CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta-mediated ... the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and the protein FKBP52 (FK506-binding protein 52). The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone ... Hulkko SM, Wakui H, Zilliacus J (August 2000). "The pro-apoptotic protein death-associated protein 3 (DAP3) interacts with the ... DNA-binding domain (DBD) D - hinge region E - ligand-binding domain (LBD) F - C-terminal domain In the absence of hormone, the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiation-induced gene expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. T2 - CCAAT/enhancer binding protein interacts with and activates the promoters of two adipocyte-specific genes.. AU - Christy, R. J.. AU - Yang, V. W.. AU - Ntambi, J. M.. AU - Geiman, D. E.. AU - Landschulz, W. H.. AU - Friedman, A. D.. AU - Nakabeppu, Y.. AU - Kelly, T. J.. AU - Lane, M. D.. PY - 1989/9. Y1 - 1989/9. N2 - Previous studies have shown that differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes leads to the transcriptional activation of a group of adipose-specific genes. As an approach to defining the mechanism responsible for activating the expression of these genes, we investigated the binding of nuclear factors to the promoters of two differentiation-induced genes, the 422(aP2) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) genes. DNase I footprinting and gel retardation analysis identified two binding regions within the promoters of each gene that interact with nuclear factors present in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ...
Positively regulates Ras-mediated pathways. Acts downstream or parallel to Raf, but upstream of nuclear factors in Ras signaling. Three mutants have been isolated, that suppress the rough eye phenotype caused by mutated Ras1 (sev-Ras1 v12). Inhibits yki activity by restricting its nuclear localization.
In this work, we have shown that the transcription factor C/EBPβ directly regulates the expression of the C3 gene, and that this control could be relevant for the pro-inflammatory effects of this transcription factor. By microarray analysis and RT-PCR we showed that the hippocampal content of C3 transcripts was depleted in C/EBPβ −/− mice. The analysis of the C3 promoter showed that this gene was directly induced by C/EBPβ through a C/EBPβ consensus site located at −616/-599 position from the transcription start site. In accordance with these data, LPS induced the expression of C3 in glial cells, at least in part, through the induction of C/EBPβ since the repression of LPS-induction of C/EBPβ by shRNA interference blocked C3 increase. On the contrary, C/EBPβ overexpression by transient transfection induced C3 expression. Additionally, treatment of these cultures with LPS induced the levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β and COX-2, which were significantly reduced in those ...
In this study we have shown that the rat UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B1 gene is specifically activated by C/EBPα and that this activation is correlated with the binding of C/EBPα to an element residing between −91 and −99 bp upstream of the UGT2B1 gene transcription start site. Furthermore, we extend these findings to show that C/EBPα is essential for the expression of transcripts homologous to UGT2B1 in adult mouse liver.. This is the first example of the regulation of a UGT2B gene by a member of the C/EBP transcription factor family, and adds to our previous finding that the UGT2B1 gene promoter also interacts with and is activated by HNF1α (Hansen et al., 1997). Both C/EBP and HNF1 also interact with the early promoter of the albumin gene (Fig. 1) (Lichtsteiner et al., 1987). When these two factors are simultaneously overexpressed, there is a strong synergistic effect on transcription of this gene (Wu et al., 1994). It was shown that a specific C/EBPα activation domain was required ...
CEBPD (C/EBP delta) is a member of the CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors characterized by a b-Zip domain that mediates dimerization and DNA binding. CEBPD is induced in response to acute stressors such as cytokine stimulation, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), corticosteroids, radiation and hypoxia. We have previously reported that CEBPD has dual functions in breast cancer by both attenuating or enhancing oncogenic pathways depending on context (Balamurugan and Sterneck, 2013, Mendoza-Villanueva et al., 2016). Recent studies reveal that elevated Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress is associated with the pathology of several diseases including cancer. Limiting supply of nutrients and oxygen in growing tumor cells disrupts the protein folding homeostasis resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR includes pathways that support adaptation to stress, and that are also implicated in promoting malignant features and therapy resistance ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Complete information for YWHAE gene (Protein Coding), Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein Epsilon, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Pharmacodynamic studies, including micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA)-181 family and target gene expression, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), alpha gene (CEBPA) expression, and genes involved in erythroid ...
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CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) β regulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 expression in porcine liver during prenatal and postnatal ...
Insulin can inhibit the stimulatory effect of glucocorticoid hormones on the transcription of genes coding for enzymes involved in glucose metabolism. We reported earlier that insulin inhibits the glucocorticoid-stimulated transcription of the gene coding for liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2). To elucidate the mechanism of these hormonal effects, we have studied the regulatory regions of the PFK-2 gene in transfection experiments. We found that both glucocorticoids and insulin act via the glucocorticoid response unit (GRU) located in the first intron. Footprinting experiments showed that the GRU binds not only the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), but also ubiquitous [nuclear factor I (NF-I)] and liver-enriched [hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-3, HNF-6, CAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)] transcription factors. Site-directed mutational analysis of the GRU revealed that these factors modulate glucocorticoid action but that none of them seems to be individually involved in the inhibitory ...
TransAM C/EBP α/β Kits are DNA binding ELISAs that quantify the activated transcription factors using a method that is faster and more sensitive than gelshift, without radioactivity and gels.
Background The up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD) has frequently been observed in macrophages in age-associated disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the role of macrophage CEBPD in the pathogenesis of RA is unclear. Methodology and Principal Findings We found that the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) score and the number of affected paws in Cebpd−/− mice were significantly decreased compared with the wild-type (WT) mice. The histological analysis revealed an attenuated CIA in Cebpd−/− mice, as shown by reduced pannus formation and greater integrity of joint architecture in affected paws of Cebpd−/− mice compared with WT mice. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed decreased pannus proliferation and angiogenesis in Cebpd−/− mice compared with WT mice. CEBPD activated in macrophages played a functional role in promoting the tube formation of endothelial cells and the migration and proliferation of synoviocytes. In vivo DNA
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon, also known as CEBPE and CRP1, is a type of ccaat-enhancer-binding protein. CEBPE is its human gene and is pro-apoptotic. The protein encoded by this gene is a bZIP transcription factor which can bind as a homodimer to certain DNA regulatory regions. It can also form heterodimers with the related protein CEBP-δ. The encoded protein may be essential for terminal differentiation and functional maturation of committed granulocyte progenitor cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with specific granule deficiency, a rare congenital disorder. Multiple variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of only one has been determined. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000092067 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000052435 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CEBPE CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon". Antonson P, Stellan B, Yamanaka R, ...
IL-6 induces PAI-1 mRNA and protein accumulation.13,19 Although several transcription factor binding sites were identified in PAI-1 promoter, no classic inflammatory response element was found. Because promoter activity was increased by IL-6, the IL-6-responsive region was explored. The deletion and site mutation of the region from −239 to −210 bp decreased ,80% of the IL-6-inducible promoter activity, indicating that the region is critical for response. A computer-based database analysis indicated there is a putative C/EBP binding site (−226 to −212 bp). The promoters of most IL-6-inducible acute-phase protein genes have been characterized with C/EBP binding motifs.11 Using competition experiments, EMSA supershift analysis, and DNase I footprinting analysis, a C/EBP motif on PAI-1 promoter was verified, and 3 members of C/EBP family including α, β, and δ were involved in the DNA-protein complex formation. C/EBPβ was involved in the formation of 3 complexes because single-copy ...
We have shown previously that a 500-bp region of the human insulin receptor promoter (−0.3 to −1.8 kb) was able to stimulate transcription from a heterologous thymidine kinase promoter in HepG2 hepatoma cells but not in HeLa fibroblasts. Footprint analysis localized the transcription factor binding sites to a 36-bp region at −1420. In this paper, we analyze the factors that recognize this element and show that it contains binding sites for the CAAT/enhancer binding protein C/EBP and nuclear factor 1 (NF-1). In addition we show that both C/EBPα and the C/EBPβ can transactivate the human insulin receptor promoter in a dose-dependent manner.. ...
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Multilevel issues of place and access confront rural populations and intensify disparities in cancer risk factors, incidence, mortality, and other outcomes. As rural cancer control is a national priority, CEBP will publish this Rural Cancer Control Focus Issue in advance of the AACR Annual Meeting and an NCI-sponsored conference in May 2018.. For more information, email [email protected] ...
Loss of RUNX1/ETO Triggers C/EBPα-Driven Reorganization of the Leukemic Transcriptional Network(A) RUNX1/ETO and CEBPA mRNA expression levels in Kasumi-1 cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential expression of exons 1a and 1c in mRNAs for sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 in human and mouse organs and cultured cells. AU - Shimomura, Iichiro. AU - Shimano, Hitoshi. AU - Horton, Jay D.. AU - Goldstein, Joseph L.. AU - Brown, Michael S.. PY - 1997/3/1. Y1 - 1997/3/1. N2 - The 5 end of the mRNA-encoding sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) exists in two forms, designated 1a and 1c. The divergence results from the use of two transcription start sites that produce two separate 5 exons, each of which is spliced to a common exon 2. Here we show that the ratio of SREBP-1c to 1a transcripts varies markedly among organs of the adult mouse. At one extreme is the liver, in which the 1c transcript predominates by a 9:1 ratio. High 1c:1a ratios are also found in mouse adrenal gland and adipose tissue and in human liver and adrenal gland. At the other extreme is the spleen, which shows a reversed 1c:1a ratio (1:10). In five different lines of ...
In vitro, the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mimics the positive effects of insulin on hepatic genes involved in glucose utilization, such as glucokinase (GK) and enzymes of the lipogenic pathway, suggesting that it is a key factor in the control of hepatic glucose metabolism. Decreased glucose utilization and increased glucose production by the liver play an important role in the development of the hyperglycemia in diabetic states. We thus reasoned that if SREBP-1c is indeed a mediator of hepatic insulin action, a hepatic targeted overexpression of SREBP-1c should greatly improve glucose homeostasis in diabetic mice. This was achieved by injecting streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with a recombinant adenovirus containing the cDNA of the mature, transcriptionally active form of SREBP-1c. We show here that overexpressing SREBP-1c specifically in the liver of diabetic mice induces GK and lipogenic enzyme gene expression and represses the expression of
Neutrophil-specific granule deficiency (SGD) is a rare disorder characterized by recurrent pyogenic infections, defective neutrophil chemotaxis and bactericidal activity, and lack of neutrophil secondary granule proteins. It has been linked to a defect in the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) epsilon. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in SMARCD2 were identified from SGD patients. SMARCD2 is chromatin-remodeling factor, that interacts with CEBP epsilon ...
Stress responses are critical for estrogen (E2) to induce apoptosis in E2-deprived breast cancer cells. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is well known as a therapeutic target to prevent stress responses in chronic inflammatory diseases including cancer. However, whether E2 activates NF-κB to participate in stress-associated apoptosis in E2-deprived breast cancer cells is unclear. We demonstrated that E2 differentially modulates NF-κB activity in E2-deprived breast cancer cells according to the treatment time. Because E2 initially has significant potential to down modulate the NF-κB activation, it completely suppresses the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced NF-κB activation. We found that E2 preferentially and constantly enhances the expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) which is responsible for suppression of NF-κB activation by E2 in MCF-7:5C cells. The mTOR signaling pathway promotes repression of NF-κB by C/EBPβ which is confirmed by ...
Amelogenin gene expression is spatiotemporally regulated during enamel biomineralization. Studies show that C/EBP alpha is a transactivator of the mouse amelogenin gene acting at the C/EBP alpha cis-element located in the -70/+52 minimal promoter that also contains a reversed CCAAT box (-58/-54). Similar to the C/EBP alpha binding site, this CCAAT box is required for the basal promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that NF-Y is directly bound to this reversed CCAAT box. Co-transfection of C/EBP alpha and NF-Y synergistically increases the promoter activity. Protein-protein interactions between C/EBP alpha with NF-Y are identified by a co-immunoprecipitation analysis.; A protein/DNA array technique is utilized to identify a transcriptional factor named YY1. YY1 represses both the basal amelogenin promoter activity and C/EBP alpha-mediated transactivation. Furthermore, YY1 repression is independent of its DNA binding capacity.; C/EBP alpha contains four highly ...
Rationale: Elevated levels of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a member of the C/EBP transcription factor family, in advanced atherosclerotic plaques is reported to be associated with atherosclerotic plaque rupture in humans. However, the molecular mechanism by which CHOP accumulation occurs is poorly defined. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if (1) macrophage AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) regulates cellular CHOP accumulation and (2) whole-body Ampk deletion leads to neointimal disruption. Methods and Results: In isolated or cultured macrophages, Ampkα1 deletion markedly increased apoptosis and CHOP, whereas pharmacological activation of AMPK dramatically reduced CHOP protein level via promoting CHOP degradation by proteasome. In addition, co-transfection of Chop-specific siRNA, but not control siRNA, markedly reduced apoptosis in macrophages transfected with Ampkα1-specific siRNA. Mechanistically, AMPKα1 was found to co-immunoprecipitate with CHOP and phosphorylate CHOP at ...
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DNA methylation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. However, the specific genes that are regulated by DNA methylation under neuropathic pain condition remain largely unknown. Here we investigated how chemokine receptor CXCR3 is regulated by DNA methylation and its contribution to neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in mice. SNL increased Cxcr3 mRNA and protein expression in the neurons of spinal cord. Meanwhile, the CpG island in the Cxcr3 gene promoter region was demethylated, and the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) was decreased. SNL also increased the binding of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) with Cxcr3 promoter and decreased the binding of DNMT3b with Cxcr3 promoter in the spinal cord. C/EBPα expression was increased in spinal neurons after SNL, and inhibition of C/EBPα by intrathecal siRNA attenuated SNL-induced pain hypersensitivity and reduced Cxcr3 expression. Furthermore, SNL-induced mechanical allodynia and heat ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ (CEBPD) is expressed in hypoxic kidney tubular cells in vivo. (a) Mice were exposed to 8% O2 for 6 h using a hypoxia chamber
A recent paper in Nature Medicine showed that Down syndrome brains have reduced expression of Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP beta) and identified C/EBP beta as a transcription factor for SNX27. Down syndrome results in overexpression of miR-155, a chromosome 21-encoded microRNA that negatively regulates C/EBP beta, thereby reducing SNX27 expression. SNX27 is a brain-enriched […]. ...
The transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is a master regulator of granulopoiesis and regulates the switch between proliferating, uncommitted progenitors and cell-cycle-arrested, differentiated myeloid cells. Usage of two alternative translation initiation sites in the CEBPA mRNA results in expression of a full-length C/EBPα protein p42 (42 kDa) and a shorter p30 isoform (30 kDa). CEBPA mutations are found in 9-15% of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) patients. N-terminal frameshift mutations in the CEBPA gene lead to selective ablation of p42 expression, while C-terminal mutations disrupt the dimerization and DNA-binding ability of C/EBPα. AML patients harbor either mono- or biallelic CEBPA mutations (CEBPAmo or CEBPAbi) and both genotypes are frequently associated with concurrent mutations in other genes. The most commonly co-occurring mutations in both groups are loss-of-function mutations in the methylcytosine dioxygenase TET2 (44.4% in CEBPAmo / 34.8% in CEBPAbi). ...
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is a central regulator of lipogenesis whose activity is controlled by proteolytic cleavage. The metabolic factors that affect its processing are incompletely understood. Here, we show that dynamic changes in the acyl chain composition of ER phospholipids affect SREBP-1c maturation in physiology and disease. The abundance of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in liver ER is selectively increased in response to feeding and in the setting of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Exogenous delivery of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine to ER accelerated SREBP-1c processing through a mechanism that required an intact SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) pathway. Furthermore, induction of the phospholipid-remodeling enzyme LPCAT3 in response to liver X receptor (LXR) activation promoted SREBP-1c processing by driving the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into ER. Conversely, LPCAT3 deficiency increased membrane saturation, reduced ...
Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which PPARδ agonists control expression of 14-3-3ε, a key antiinflammatory protein in endothelial cells.12 Our data not only provide evidence that PPARδ modulates expression of YWHAE gene and 14-3-3ε protein under resting conditions but also demonstrate that this nuclear receptor upregulates 14-3-3ε expression by targeting transcription via a PPRE-independent pathway involving colocalization of C/EBPβ and PPARδ on YWHAE promoter. Several lines of evidence support these conclusions. First, PPARδ agonists regulated YWHAE promoter activity in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Concordantly, YWHAE promoter was upregulated by PPARδ overexpression, whereas specific PPARγ and PPARα ligands had no effect on YWHAE promoter under our experimental conditions. Second, PPARδ activation increased 14-3-3ε mRNA and protein expression in both primary and spontaneously transformed endothelial cell lines, whereas PPARδ knockdown depressed basal and ...
One month following graft injection, no significant difference was noted between M2-supplemented (105±7.0 mm3) and control graft volumes (72±22 mm3). By three months post-injection, M2-supplemented grafts remained stable while controls experienced further volume loss (103±8 mm3 vs. 39.4±15 mm3, p=0.015). Presence of M2 macrophages in the supplemented grafts was confirmed by flow cytometry. M2-supplemented grafts demonstrated a 157% increase in vascular density compared to controls (p,0.05). Induction of adipogenic C/EBPα gene expression was observed when M2 supernatants were added to SVF containing ASC ...
The transcription factor C/EBP? is required for regulation of the balance between differentiation and proliferation during the early stages of myelopoiesis. The...
Liver is a unique tissue which is able to regenerate in response to partial hepatectomy (PH) and after injury. My laboratory investigates the role of transcript...
Looking for Negative regulatory element-binding protein? Find out information about Negative regulatory element-binding protein. Christianity the second person of the Trinity, Jesus Christ one of the earliest Lower Paleolithic cultures in northwestern India and in Pakistan. Explanation of Negative regulatory element-binding protein
TNF-a was originally identified as a macrophage product implicated in the metabolic disturbances of chronic inflammation and malignancy. Later on, its biological actions were shown to further extend to anorexia, weight loss, and insulin resistance (7). Elevated adipose tissue expression of TNF-a mRNA has been reported in different rodent models of obesity as well as in clinical studies involving obese patients (23). TNF-a mRNA expression is positively correlated with body adiposity as well as with hyperinsulinemia, showing positive associations with fasting insulin and triglyceride concentrations. TNF-a inhibits the expression of the transcription factor CCAAT/ enhancer binding protein-a (CEBPa) and the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)y2 (8,12,14). Furthermore, TNF-a stimulates the nuclear factor- kB transcription factor (NFkB), which orchestrates a series of inflammatory events, including expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of both endothelial cells ...
ABSTRACT: Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is now routinely used for dynamic measurements of signaling events inside living cells, including detection of protein-protein interactions. An understanding of the basic physics of fluorescence lifetime measurements is required to use this technique. In this protocol, we describe both the time-correlated single photon counting and the frequency-domain methods for FLIM data acquisition and analysis. We describe calibration of both FLIM systems, and demonstrate how they are used to measure the quenched donor fluorescence lifetime that results from F?rster resonance energy transfer. We then show how the FLIM-FRET methods are used to detect the dimerization of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein-a in live mouse pituitary cell nuclei. Notably, the factors required for accurate determination and reproducibility of lifetime measurements are described. With either method, the entire protocol including specimen preparation, ...
Adipocyte differentiation is a developmental process that is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediates nutrient signaling to regulate cell growth, proliferation, and diverse cellular differentiation. It has been reported that rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR and an immunosuppressant, blocks adipocyte differentiation, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. Here we show that mTOR plays a critical role in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and that mTOR kinase activity is required for this process. Rapamycin specifically disrupted the positive transcriptional feedback loop between CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), two key transcription factors in adipogenesis, by directly targeting the transactivation activity of PPAR-gamma. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that PPAR-gamma activity is dependent on amino acid sufficiency, ...
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The genes coding for the A and B subunits of the transcription factor NF-Y are assigned by a combination of in situ hybridization and analysis of somatic cell hybrids and recombinant mouse strains. NF-YA is assigned to human chromosome 6p21 and to mouse chromosome 17. NF-YB is assigned to human chromosome 12 and to mouse chromosome 10.
Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as an important comorbidity of HIV-infected patients, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of HIV-related pain are still elusive. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are expressed in various tissues, including the central nervous system. C/EBPβ, one of C/EBPs is involved in the progression of HIV/AIDS, but the exact role of C/EBPβ and its upstream factors are not clear in HIV pain state. Here, we used a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 application onto the rat sciatic nerve to test the role of phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) and its upstream pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH ...
Lexpressió cortical androgen dependent del KAP està afectada en hipotiroïdisme postnatal. La síntesi puntual de T3 a partir del dia 11 postnatal, comença una resposta cortical feble de KAP que va augmentant cap als dies 15-16, que és quan es produeix un pic fisiològic de T4 i el desenvolupament puberal dels ratolins. Donat que les CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Proteins (C/EBPs) participen en respostes mitjançades per T3 i que en el promotor del KAP existeixen quatre elements de resposta consens per a C/EBPs, hem analitzat la seva participació en la resposta androgènica de KAP mitjançada per T3. La detecció de p42C/EBPa y p35C/EBPb es troba correlacionada amb lexpressió del KAP, apareixent en extractes renal nuclears de ratolins masles control i hipotiroïdals induïts amb T3 durant els dies 7-21 postnatals, però no en els hipotiroïdals no tractats. Mitjançant transfeccions transitòries es mostrava com C/EBPa i C/EBPb eren capaces dinduir respostes màximes del promotor del KAP i que ...
This review describes the structure and functions of Y-box binding protein 1 ( YB-1) and its homologs. Interactions of YB-1 with DNA, mRNAs, and proteins are considered. Data on the participation of Y
Regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) by fatty acid flux was investigated in CaCo-2 cells. Cells were incubated with 1mM taurocholate with or without 250μM 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 or 22:6 fatty acids. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA levels and gene and protein expression of SREBPs were estimated. 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 and 22:6 fatty acids decreased the amount of mature SREBP-1 and mRNA levels of SREBP-1c, SREBP-1a, FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. SREBP-2 gene or mature protein expression was not altered. Liver X receptor (LXR) activation by T0901317 increased gene expression of SREBP-1c, SREBP-1a, FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase without altering SREBP-2. 20:5, but not 18:1, prevented the full expression of SREBP-1c mRNA by T0901317. T0901317 increased SREBP-1 mass without altering the mass of mature SREBP-2. Although only 18:2, 20:4, 20:5 and 22:6 suppressed SREBP-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and FAS expression, all fatty acids decreased the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigating protein-protein interactions in living cells using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. AU - Sun, Yuansheng. AU - Day, Richard. AU - Periasamy, Ammasi. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is now routinely used for dynamic measurements of signaling events inside living cells, including detection of protein-protein interactions. An understanding of the basic physics of fluorescence lifetime measurements is required to use this technique. In this protocol, we describe both the time-correlated single photon counting and the frequency-domain methods for FLIM data acquisition and analysis. We describe calibration of both FLIM systems, and demonstrate how they are used to measure the quenched donor fluorescence lifetime that results from FÃ ¶rster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We then show how the FLIM-FRET methods are used to detect the dimerization of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-Î ± in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB (ABIN1) controls Toll-like receptor-mediated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β activation and protects from inflammatory disease. AU - Zhou, Jingran. AU - Wu, Ruiqiong. AU - High, Anthony A.. AU - Slaughter, Clive A.. AU - Finkelstein, David. AU - Rehg, Jerold E.. AU - Redecke, Vanessa. AU - Häcker, Hans. PY - 2011/11/1. Y1 - 2011/11/1. N2 - Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on innate immune cells and trigger inflammation upon detection of pathogens and host tissue injury. TLR-mediated proinflammatory-signaling pathways are counteracted by partially characterized anti-inflammatory mechanisms that prevent exaggerated inflammation and host tissue damage as manifested in inflammatory diseases. We biochemically identified a component of TLR-signaling pathways, A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB (ABIN1), which recently has been linked by genome-wide association studies to the inflammatory diseases systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis. We ...
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of membrane-bound transcription factors that regulate cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. In mammals, three SREBP isoforms designated SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c, and SREBP-2 have been identified. SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c are derived from the same gene by virtue of alternatively spliced first exons. SREBP-1a has a longer transcriptional activation domain and is a more potent transcriptional activator than SREBP-1c in cultured cells and liver. Here, we describe the physiologic consequences of overexpressing the nuclear form of SREBP-1a (nSREBP-1a) in adipocytes of mice using the adipocyte-specific aP2 promoter (aP2-nSREBP-1a). The transgenic aP2-nSREBP-1a mice developed markedly enlarged white and brown adipocytes that were fully differentiated. Adipocytes isolated from aP2-nSREBP-1a mice had significantly increased rates of fatty acid synthesis and enhanced fatty acid secretion. The increased production and release of fatty acids from ...
Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is encoded by the YBX1 gene in humans. It binds to splice sites in pre-mRNA, regulates splice site selection, and stabilizes cytoplasmic mRNA. YB-1 acts as a transcriptional regulator by: i) controlling the interaction between eukaryotic translation initiation factors and mRNA; and ii) binding to the Y-box motif found in the promoters of genes such as multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and HLA class II genes. YB-1 gene expression has been associated with lung cancer and the response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. YB-1 is also known as nuclease sensitive element binding protein 1 (NSEP1), enhancer factor I subunit A, CCAAT-binding transcription factor I subunit A, DNA-binding protein B (DBPB), Y-box transcription factor, BP-8, CSDA2, CSDB1, and MDR-NF1.. ...
Oxysterols regulate cholesterol homeostasis through the liver X receptor (LXR)- and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-mediated sigling…
Oxysterols regulate cholesterol homeostasis through the liver X receptor (LXR)- and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-mediated sigling…
TransAM NF-YA Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that quantify activated NF-YA (nuclear factor Y, alpha) using a method that is faster and more sensitive than gelshift, without radioactivity and gels.
Top performende anti-Hund Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 2 Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)) vergleichen & kaufen.
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is a well-known nuclear transcription factor involved in lipid synthesis. Recent studies have focused on its functions in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its role in cell migration and invasion, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is still unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of SREBP-1 in HCC tissues was significantly higher than those in matched tumor-adjacent tissues (p | 0.05). SREBP-1 was expressed at significantly higher levels in patients with large tumor size, high histological grade and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (p | 0.05). The positive expression of SREBP-1 correlated with a worse 3-year overall and disease-free survival of HCC patients (p | 0.05). Additionally, SREBP-1 was an independent factor for predicting both 3-year overall and disease-free survival of HCC patients (p | 0.05). In vitro studies revealed that downregulation of SREBP-1 inhibited cell proliferation and induced
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression of inflammation and acute lung injury by Miz1 via repression of C/EBP-δ. AU - Do-Umehara, Hanh Chi. AU - Chen, Cong. AU - Urich, Daniela. AU - Zhou, Liang. AU - Qiu, Ju. AU - Jang, Samuel. AU - Zander, Alia. AU - Baker, Margaret A.. AU - Eilers, Martin. AU - Sporn, Peter H S. AU - Ridge, Karen M.. AU - Sznajder, Jacob I.. AU - Budinger, G. R Scott. AU - Mutlu, Gökhan M.. AU - Lin, Anning. AU - Liu, Jing. PY - 2013/5/1. Y1 - 2013/5/1. N2 - Inflammation is essential for host defense but can cause tissue damage and organ failure if unchecked. How the inflammation is resolved remains elusive. Here we report that the transcription factor Miz1 was required for terminating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Genetic disruption of the Miz1 POZ domain, which is essential for the transactivation or repression activity of Miz1, resulted in hyperinflammation, lung injury and greater mortality in LPS-treated mice but a lower bacterial load and mortality in mice with ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a cysteine-aspartic acid protease that plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. The encoded protein cleaves and inactivates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase while it cleaves and activates sterol regulatory element binding proteins as well as caspases 6, 7, and 9. This protein itself is processed by caspases 8, 9, and 10. It is the predominant caspase involved in the cleavage of amyloid-beta 4A precursor protein, which is associated with neuronal death in Alzheimers disease. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017] ...
Research Interests. Genetic aberrations are important indicators of prognosis in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and are widely used in risk stratification. Translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) are hallmarks of mature B-cell malignancies, where they drive pathogenesis. IGH translocations have been described in B-cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL), where they target different genes with the same consequence; the partner gene is overexpressed as a result of its close proximity to the IGH enhancer. We have previously reported recurrent BCP-ALL translocation partner genes including five members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CEBP) family of transcription factors, showing opposing functions for deregulation in myeloid and lymphoid leukemogenesis; the inhibitory transcription factor, ID4, in the translocation, t(6;14)(p22;q32), defining a subgroup characterized by deletion of CDKN2A/B and PAX; the cytokine receptor for erythropoietin (EPOR) at 19p13; type I ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPB gene. The protein encoded by this intronless gene is a bZIP transcription factor that can bind as a homodimer to certain DNA regulatory regions. It can also form heterodimers with the related proteins CEBP-alpha, CEBP-delta, and CEBP-gamma. The encoded protein is important in the regulation of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses and has been shown to bind to the IL-1 response element in the IL-6 gene, as well as to regulatory regions of several acute-phase and cytokine genes. In addition, the encoded protein can bind the promoter and upstream element and stimulate the expression of the collagen type I gene. CEBP-beta is critical for normal macrophage functioning, an important immune cell sub-type; mice unable to express CEBP-beta have macrophages that cannot differentiate (specialize) and thus are unable to perform all their biological functions - including macrophage-mediated muscle repair. ...
As the key regulatory factor in lipogenesis, SREBPs are targets of hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and growth factors (17, 28, 36). The abundance of the nuclear form of SREBPs is controlled by transcriptional upregulation followed by proteolytic cleavage. However, an increasing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that posttranslational modifications of SREBPs modulate their transactivity and stability (22, 32, 39). In this study, we found that PKA phosphorylated SREBP-1 in cultured hepatoma cells and led to decreased binding and transactivation of SREBP-1. As a result, the expression of SREBP-1-mediated genes was decreased. Because the heterodimer of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated SREBP-1 retained some DNA binding capacity, neither cAMP nor forskolin suppressed the activity of nuclear SREBP-1a fully in our reporter assays. In addition to phosphorylation, cAMP also may inhibit SREBP cleavage, as suggested in a recent report (43). However, our present results have shown that levels ...
Complete information for YBX3 gene (Protein Coding), Y-Box Binding Protein 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The study expands on work reported in 2001 in the journal Molecular Cell announcing that a team led by Buck had found that a small piece of an important regulatory protein called C/EBP beta was responsible for fibrous tissue growth, or excessive scar tissue following injury or illness. When normal scarring goes awry, excessive build-up of fibrous tissue can produce disfiguring scars or clog vital internal organs and lead to serious complications. Buck and colleagues developed a mutated protein that stopped this excessive fibrous tissue growth ...
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EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval-pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity ...
Compare membrane-bound transcription factor protease, site 1 ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and gene expression of key adipocyte genes, including adiponectin, interleukin 6 (Il6), 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β Hsd), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ), forkhead box O1 (Foxo1), glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/ebpα), and fatty acid synthase (Fasn) were characterized in adipocytes from epididymal and subcutaneous fat depots of 28-week-old male WOKW rats and Dark Agouti (DA) controls. ...
The mammary gland is a branched epithelial organ comprised of myoepithelial, ductal and alveolar cells that are derived from resident stem and progenitor cells. The progression from mammary gland stem cell(s) to the differentiated mammary gland cell types is poorly understood. Here, I describe the identification and characterization of two luminal progenitor cell populations in the mouse mammary gland, and investigate the role of the transcription factor C/EBPβ in their development. In Chapter 2, I describe the isolation of two luminal progenitor cell populations (Sca1+ and Sca1- luminal cells) and show that they are differentially primed in their gene expression towards ductal and alveolar cell fates, respectively. Furthermore, I show that in vivo genetic priming affects the in vitro differentiation potential of Sca1+ and Sca1- luminal cells. In Chapter 3, I show that C/EBPβ is required for the appropriate specification of ductal and alveolar lineages, and in its absence, alveolar lineage ...
Targeting MUC1-C with silencing or an inhibitor downregulates p-HER2 activation in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Moreover, MUC1-C has been linked to regulation of downstream RTK signaling, such as the PI3K→AKT and MEK→ERK pathways. MUC1-C is also imported into the nucleus by importin-β, where it interacts with transcription factors and contributes to their transactivating function. In this regard, MUC1-C associates with NF-κB p65 and induces activation of the ZEB1 gene by a NF-κB-mediated mechanism. In turn, MUC1-C binds to ZEB1 and suppresses miR-200c expression with the resulting induction of EMT. In addition, MUC1-C interacts with the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) on the ALDH1A1 gene promoter and induces C/EBPβ-mediated ALDH1A1 expression. The available evidence thus links MUC1-C to the induction of EMT and ALDH activity, both characteristics of breast cancer stem-like cell populations. Overexpression of MUC1, as found in breast cancer cells, is also ...
Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts, Publications, Species, Research Topics, Research Grants about gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits
The AuthorDB and ArticleDB grouping is used for holding information related to PubMed articles. As the PubMed ID is a unique feature, it is used in this grouping as the primary key. The Author field is set currently to only 64 characters maximum as no current value even approaches that maximum. This field maximum can be adjusted if a value were to supersede this arbitrary default. The Abstract field is set to longtext due to the varying length of article abstracts. Utilizing the MyISAM engine allows for searching of this field for keywords at the lowest level which is preferable to creating a piece of software to accomplish the same task.. GeneDB, GeneSynonymDB, SpeciesDB, BindingSiteDB, and TF_connect_TFBS_DB form the main grouping of tables used for holding gene and binding site information. The TF_connect_TFBS_DB acts as a directory to allow a gene to know what binding sites it has and for a binding site to know what gene it belongs to. The GeneDB table includes a Cell_memo field that is used ...
One family of proteins that senses conditions in the ER and increases the organelles folding capacity is comprised of a family of membrane-bound transcription factors, named after the founding member ATF6. We are interested in the molecular mechanisms behind the activity of ATF6 family proteins, as well as their functional roles in the cell. Read more…. ...
Expression of UHRF1BP1 (C6orf107, dJ349A12.1, FLJ20302, ICBP90) in esophagus tissue. Antibody staining with HPA032099 and HPA032100 in immunohistochemistry.
Targeted BMI1 inhibition impairs tumor growth in lung adenocarcinomas with low CEBPα expression. Yong KJ, Basseres DS, Welner RS, Zhang WC, Yang H, Yan B, Alberich-Jorda M, Zhang J, de Figueiredo-Pontes LL, Battelli C, Hetherington CJ, Ye M, Zhang H, Maroni G, OBrien K, Magli MC, Borczuk AC, Varticovski L, Kocher O, Zhang P, Moon YC, Sydorenko N, Cao L, Davis TW, Thakkar BM, Soo RA, Iwama A, Lim B, Halmos B, Neuberg D, Tenen DG, Levantini E. Sci Transl Med. 2016 Aug 3; 8(350):350ra104 ...
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Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. It is a calcium-independent and phospholipids-dependent protein kinase. It is predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues and has been shown to reside specifically in the cell nucleus. This protein kinase can regulate keratinocyte differentiation by activating the MAP kinase MAPK13 (p38delta)-activated protein kinase cascade that targets CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA). It is also found to mediate the transcription ...
Mediates feedback control of cholesterol synthesis by controlling SCAP and HMGCR. Functions by blocking the processing of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Capable of retaining the SCAP-SREBF2 complex in the ER thus preventing it from escorting SREBPs to the Golgi. Seems to regulate the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of HMGCR.
C-reactive protein is a serum acute-phase reactant that increases several thousand-fold in concentration during inflammation in most mammals. However, mouse C-reactive protein is considered to be a minor acute-phase reactant, since its blood level increases only from approx. 0.1 to 1-2 micrograms/ml. A mouse genomic clone of approximately 5 kb was obtained to determine the molecular basis for the regulation of the expression of mouse C-reactive protein. Several cis-acting elements in the 5′ flanking region that potentially regulate transcription were identified: two glucocorticoid-responsive elements, two CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein C (C/EBP) consensus elements that are required for the interleukin-1 responsiveness of some acute-phase reactant genes, an interleukin-6-responsive element, two hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1) elements and a single heat-shock element. Transfection of the hepatoma cell line Hep 3B.2 with a pCAT expression vector containing the 5′ flanking sequence from ...
Another study applying ChIP-seq for two different TFs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α) in the livers of five vertebrates species provides an alternative view of conservation of TF-binding events (Schmidt et al., 2010). This work demonstrated that the majority of binding events are species specific, rather than consistently localized in conserved regions. Binding to conserved sequences in one species was rarely indicative of binding to the homologous sequence in others. These differences in binding were consistently observed between human and mouse in the livers of both species, and also in the livers of aneuploid mice harbouring human chromosome 21. Binding to the human chromosome in mouse was representative of binding to the endogenous chromosome in human, rather than binding to mouse chromosomes (Wilson et al., 2008) (Fig. 4). The differences in binding between species are therefore unlikely to be due to non-equivalence in the assayed tissue. Similarly, ...
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent pyogenic infections, defective neutrophil chemotaxis and bactericidal activity, and lack of neutrophil secondary granule proteins. Neutrophils of affected individuals lack lactoferrin and show abnormal nuclear segmentation, bilobed nuclei, low alkaline phosphatase, and increased number of neutrophil mitochondria and ribosomes ...
Biologists have long pondered how animal cells regulate the composition of their complex lipid membranes. In their Perspective, Nohturfft and Losick discuss new work ( Dobrosotskaya et al.) that solves another piece of the puzzle. Flies and mammals share a similar feedback pathway for lipid synthesis that depends on controlling the proteolysis of sterol response element binding protein. The new work shows that in flies, cleavage of this protein depends on a membrane phospholipid sensor, phosphatidylethanolamine. ...
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This intronless gene encodes a transcription factor that contains a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain and recognizes the CCAAT motif in the promoters of target genes. The encoded protein functions in homodimers and also heterodimers with CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins beta and gamma. Activity of this protein can modulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation as well as in body weight homeostasis. The use of alternative in-frame non-AUG (CUG) and AUG start codons results in several protein isoforms with different lengths. Differential translation initiation is mediated by an out-of-frame, upstream open reading frame which is located between the CUG and the first AUG start codons. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014 ...
AKT3 gene is a constituent of the serine/threonine protein kinase family and plays a crucial role in synthesis of milk fats and cholesterol by regulating activity of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). AKT3 is highly conserved in mammals and its expression levels during the lactation periods of cattle are markedly increased. AKT3 is highly expressed in the intestine followed by mammary gland and it is also expressed in immune cells. It is involved in the TLR pathways as effectively as proinflammatory cytokines. The aims of this study were to investigate the sequences differences between buffalo and cow. Our results showed that there were substantial differences between buffalo and cow in some exons and noteworthy differences of the gene size in different regions. We also identified the important consensus sequence motifs, variation in 2000 upstream of ATG, substantial difference in the "3′UTR" region, and miRNA association in the buffalo sequences compared with the cow. In ...
DJ-1 is an oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinsons disease. DJ-1 has various functions, and the oxidative status of a cysteine residue at position 106 (C106) is crucial for determination of the activation level of DJ-1.DJ-1 binds to many proteins, including various transcription factors, and acts as a coactivator or corepressor for regulating their target genes without direct binding to DNA, thereby affecting various cell functions. DJ-1-regulating transcription factors and their modified proteins are the androgen receptor and its regulatory proteins, p53; polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF); Keap1, an inhibitor for nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP); Ras-responsive element-binding protein (RREB1); signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1); and Nurr1 ...
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This release is also available in A HREF http://chinese.eurek...An ingredient found in abundance in birch bark appears to have an arra...Betulin works by targeting so-called sterol regulatory element-binding... Our study shows that the SREBP pathway is a good target for several m...In the new study Song and his colleagues went in search of a compound...,Birch,bark,ingredient,comes,with,many,metabolic,benefits,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Delta6 desaturase (D6D), the rate-limiting enzyme for highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis, is induced by essential fatty acid-deficient diets. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in part mediates this induction.Delta6 desaturase (D6D), the rate-limiting enzyme for highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis, is induced by essential fatty acid-deficient diets. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in part mediates this induction." (16106047) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancer-binding proteins with a forkhead-associated domain and the sigma(54) regulon in Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body development. AU - Jelsbak, Lars. AU - Givskov, Michael Christian. AU - Kaiser, D.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - In response to starvation, Myxococcus xanthus initiates a developmental program that results in the formation of spore-filled, multicellular fruiting bodies. Many developmentally regulated genes in M. xanthus are transcribed from sigma(54) promoters, and these genes require enhancer-binding proteins. Here we report the finding of an unusual group of 12 genes encoding sigma(54)-dependent enhancer-binding proteins containing a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain as their N-terminal sensory domain. FHA domains in other proteins recognize phosphothreonine residues. An insertion mutation in one of these genes, Mx4885, caused a cell autonomous aggregation and sporulation defect. In-frame deletion mutants showed that the FHA domain is necessary for proper Mx4885 ...
CEBPA mutations in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia: data analysis in a Chinese population Long Su, SuJun Gao, XiaoLiang Liu, YeHui Tan, Lu Wang, Wei Li Cancer Center, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Peoples Republic of China Background: This study was aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and prognoses of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with CEBPA mutations. Patients and methods: Three hundred and forty-five patients with de novo AML were retrospectively analyzed with regard to CEBPA mutations, clinical characteristics, therapeutic responses, and long-term outcomes. Results: CEBPA mutations were detected in 59 patients (17.10%), with 47 cases harboring double mutations and 12 cases harboring single mutations. In those with a normal karyotype (NK), 44 cases (25.29%) were detected with CEBPA mutations. The following characteristics were observed in CEBPA-mutated patients: most (66.10%) of them were M1 or M2; they presented with higher peripheral white blood
TY - JOUR. T1 - Shear stress activation of SREBP1 in endothelial cells is mediated by integrins. AU - Liu, Yi. AU - Chen, Benjamin P C. AU - Lu, Min. AU - Zhu, Yi. AU - Stemerman, Michael B.. AU - Chien, Shu. AU - Shyy, John Y J. PY - 2002/1/29. Y1 - 2002/1/29. N2 - We investigated the effect of shear stress on the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and the mechanotransduction mechanism involved. Application of a shear stress (12 dyn/cm2) caused the proteolytic cleavage of SREBP1 and the ensuing translocation of its transcription factor domain into the nucleus. As a result, shear stress increased the mRNAs encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), as well as the binding of 125I-LDL. Using a step flow channel, we showed that SREBP1 activation in ECs under laminar flow is transient, but disturbed flow causes sustained activation. In studying the shear stress-elicited molecular signaling that activates SREBP1, we found that blocking ...
Aberrant activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a common molecular event in a variety of pathological settings, including genetic tumor syndromes, cancer, and obesity. However, the cell-intrinsic consequences of mTORC1 activation remain poorly defined. Through a combination of unbiased genomic, metabolomic, and bioinformatic approaches, we demonstrate that mTORC1 activation is sufficient to stimulate specific metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, the oxidative arm of the pentose phosphate pathway, and de novo lipid biosynthesis. This is achieved through the activation of a transcriptional program affecting metabolic gene targets of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1alpha) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1 and SREBP2). We find that SREBP1 and 2 promote proliferation downstream of mTORC1, and the activation of these transcription factors is mediated by S6K1. Therefore, in addition to promoting protein synthesis, mTORC1 activates specific ...
Pancreatic β-cells are able to repair themselves after some sublethal injuries in vitro. However, little is known of the nature of the repair mechanisms active in these cells. This study examined the expression of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible genes gadd 153 and gadd 45 in pancreatic rat islets and in the clonal insulin secretory HIT-T15 cells. Rat pancreatic islets were exposed in vitro to the alkylating agents streptozocin or methyl methanesulfonate, or to the cytokine recombinant interleukin-1 β. Islet exposure to STZ or MMS reduced insulin release by 40-50% over the next 4 h, whereas exposure to rIL-1 β induced a 60% increase in insulin release over the same period. Both gadd 153 and gadd 45 mRNA were detectable in rat islets, and their levels were increased twofold after STZ exposure, whereas MMS induced a fivefold increase in gadd 153 and a twofold increase in gadd 45 mRNA. Islet exposure to rIL-1β did not affect the expression of gadd 153 or gadd 45. HIT cells exposed to STZ ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
MBTPS1 - MBTPS1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase, site 1 (MBTPS1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
|i|Background/Aims:|/i| Valproic acid (VPA) is the drug of choice for treating epilepsy, but has the unwanted effects of inducing weight gain and increasing the risk of developing insulin
Homo sapiens transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha) (TFAP2A), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00007020-R01V) - Products - Abnova

PLOS ONE: Role of Macrophage CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Delta in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Collagen...PLOS ONE: Role of Macrophage CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Delta in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Collagen...

In vivo DNA binding assays and reporter assays showed that CEBPD up-regulated CCL20, CXCL1, IL23A and TNFAIP6 transcripts ... CCL20, IL23A, CXCL1 and TNFAIP6 contributed to the migration and proliferation of synoviocytes, and the latter two proteins ... Background The up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD) has frequently been observed in macrophages in age ... through direct binding to their promoter regions. ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/authors?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0045378&imageURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0045378.g007

Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins - WikipediaCcaat-enhancer-binding proteins - Wikipedia

"CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation". ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) is a family of transcription factors composed of six members, named from C/EBPα to ... Freytag SO, Paielli DL, Gilbert JD (Jul 1994). "Ectopic expression of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha promotes the ... Ramji DP, Foka P (Aug 2002). "CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and regulation". The Biochemical Journal. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ccaat-enhancer-binding_proteins

Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins - The Full WikiCcaat-enhancer-binding proteins - The Full Wiki

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation, J ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors, composed of six members called C/EBP α to C/ ... 1. Ramji, D. P. & Foka P., CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and regulation, Biochem. J. 365:561-575 (2002). ... C/EBP proteins interact with the CCAAT (cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine) box motif which is present in several ...
more infohttp://www.thefullwiki.org/Ccaat-enhancer-binding_proteins

CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comCCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody- ... C/EBP alpha (CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha) BioAssay™ ELISA Kit (Human) ... Your search returned 119 CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-2265631/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_CCAATenhancer_binding_protein_alpha

Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteinsCcaat-enhancer-binding proteins

... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are composed of six members C/EBP α to C ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Ccaat-enhancer-binding_proteins". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ... Ramji, D. P. & Foka P., CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and regulation, Biochem. J. 365:561-575 (2002). ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Ccaat-enhancer-binding_proteins.html

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein zeta - WikipediaCCAAT/enhancer binding protein zeta - Wikipedia

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein zeta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPZ gene. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPZ CCAAT/enhancer binding protein zeta". Imbriano C, Bolognese F, Gurtner A, Piaggio G, Mantovani R (Jul 2001 ... P73 Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115816 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89 ... Hoeppner MA, Gilbert DJ, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Linzer DI, Wu B (1996). "Cloning and characterization of mouse CCAAT binding ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CCAAT/enhancer_binding_protein_zeta

C/EBPα, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α | DiabetesC/EBPα, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α | Diabetes

Tamara Tchkonia, Nino Giorgadze, Tamar Pirtskhalava, Thomas Thomou, Matthew DePonte, Ada Koo, R. Armour Forse, Dharmaraj Chinnappan, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Thomas von Zglinicki, James L. Kirkland ...
more infohttps://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/keyword/cebp%CE%B1-ccaatenhancer-binding-protein-%CE%B1

Regulation of Id2 expression by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta.  - PubMed - NCBIRegulation of Id2 expression by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta. - PubMed - NCBI

Regulation of Id2 expression by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta.. Karaya K1, Mori S, Kimoto H, Shima Y, Tsuji Y, Kurooka H ... similar to the mice lacking the CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) beta. Here, we show that Id2 is a direct target of C/ ... Oligonucleotide HpxA was used as a positive control for C/EBPβ binding. DNA-protein complexes were separated on a 6% ... which was achieved by using a system utilizing the fusion protein between C/EBPbeta and the ligand-binding domain of the human ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15809228?dopt=Abstract

British Library EThOS: Studies into the regulation of CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein delta expression (C EBP) delta by cytokinesBritish Library EThOS: Studies into the regulation of CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein delta expression (C EBP) delta by cytokines

Studies into the regulation of CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein delta expression (C EBP) delta by cytokines ... Expression of APP genes is known to be regulated by the CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors ... However, unlike endogenous C/EBP5 mRNA and protein expression, both of which were induced by IL-1, the activity of the human C/ ... is characterised by changes in levels of serum acute phase response proteins (APPs). These APPs are synthesised primarily by ...
more infohttp://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.584072

RecName: Full=CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta; Short=C/EBP delta; - Protein - NCBIRecName: Full=CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta; Short=C/EBP delta; - Protein - NCBI

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta; Short=C/EBP delta; AltName: ... RecName: Full=CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta; Short ... RefSeq protein See the reference protein sequence for CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (NP_005186.2). ... RecName: Full=CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta; Short=C/EBP delta; AltName: Full=Nuclear factor NF-IL6-beta; Short=NF-IL6- ... HMDB and 5-AzadC Combination Reverses Tumor Suppressor CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein Delta to Strengthen the Death of Liver ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/P49716

CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein Beta | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein Beta | Springer for Research & Development

Interleukin-6-dependent DNA-binding protein (IL6DBP); Nuclear factor for IL-6 expression (NF-IL6); Transcription factor 5 (TCF5 ... CCAAT-enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP-β); ... CCAAT-enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP-β); Interleukin-6- ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is expressed in satellite cells and controls myogenesis. Stem Cells. 2012;30:2619-30. https ... The nuclear factor for IL-6 expression (NF-IL6) was discovered as a member of the CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) in ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-67199-4_101550

Growth-dependent inhibition of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP alpha) gene expression during hepatocyte proliferation in...Growth-dependent inhibition of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP alpha) gene expression during hepatocyte proliferation in...

We have focused on CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP alpha), a transcription factor which is highly abundant in normal ... Growth-dependent inhibition of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP alpha) gene expression during hepatocyte proliferation in ... Growth-dependent inhibition of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP alpha) gene expression during hepatocyte proliferation in ... Growth-dependent inhibition of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP alpha) gene expression during hepatocyte proliferation in ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/12/6/2553?ijkey=5a8027e68083d19ef8c450bf0331677b435dd489&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cebpe - CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein epsilon - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Cebpe gene & proteinCebpe - CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein epsilon - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Cebpe gene & protein

... the CCAAT homology common to many promoters and the enhanced core homology common to many enhancers. Required for the ... C/EBP are DNA-binding proteins that recognize two different motifs: ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein epsilonAdd BLAST. 281. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... sp,P56261,CEBPE_RAT CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein epsilon OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Cebpe PE=1 SV=2 ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P56261

Molecular mechanisms of gene activation and gene expression mediated by CCAAT/enhancer binding proteinsMolecular mechanisms of gene activation and gene expression mediated by CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins

The transcription factor CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein alpha (C/EBPa) coordinates proliferation arrest and differentiation of ... Der Transkriptionsfaktor CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein alpha (C/EBPa) koordiniert Proliferationshemmung und Differenzierung ... Molecular mechanisms of gene activation and gene expression mediated by CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins. ... but by direct protein-protein interactions that abolish the binding of C/EBPa to DNA. This mechanism of transcriptional ...
more infohttps://edoc.hu-berlin.de/handle/18452/16525?show=full

Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteinsCcaat-enhancer-binding proteins

... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are composed of six members C/EBP α to C ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Ccaat-enhancer-binding_proteins". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ... Ramji, D. P. & Foka P., CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and regulation, Biochem. J. 365:561-575 (2002). ...
more infohttps://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Ccaat-enhancer-binding_proteins.html

ccaat enhancer binding protein betaccaat enhancer binding protein beta

Research Topics about ccaat enhancer binding protein beta ... ccaat enhancer binding proteins , ccaat enhancer binding ... ccaat enhancer binding protein beta. Summary. Summary: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ... ccaat enhancer binding proteins*transcription factors*gene expression regulation*ccaat enhancer binding protein alpha*cell ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation. ...
more infohttp://labome.ru/topics/chemicals/and/proteins/nuclear/ccaat/ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-beta-14424.html

Elevated ATF4 expression, in the absence of other signals, is sufficient for transcriptional induction via CCAAT enhancer...Elevated ATF4 expression, in the absence of other signals, is sufficient for transcriptional induction via CCAAT enhancer...

Protein limitation in vivo or amino acid deprivation of cells in culture causes a signal transduction cascade consisting of ... is sufficient for transcriptional induction via CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-activating transcription factor response ... is sufficient for transcriptional induction via CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-activating transcription factor response ... Protein limitation in vivo or amino acid deprivation of cells in culture causes a signal transduction cascade consisting of ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Elevated-ATF4-expression%2C-in-the-absence-of-other-Shan-Ord/6a40a1dcc52ed2518fc3a12674aec5506d914cff

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein | definition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein by Medical...CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein | definition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein by Medical...

What is CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein? Meaning of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein medical ... What does CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein mean? ... Looking for online definition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ... homologous protein in the Medical Dictionary? CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein explanation free. ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein , definition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein by Medical ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/CCAAT%2Fenhancer-binding+protein+homologous+protein

CEBPZOS (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), zeta, opposite strand) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)CEBPZOS (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), zeta, opposite strand) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), zeta, opposite strand. Synonyms: 1110001A16Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, ...
more infohttps://www.komp.org/geneinfo.php?project=CSD75019

RasV12-Mediated Down-regulation of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β in Immortalized Fibroblasts Requires Loss of p19Arf and...RasV12-Mediated Down-regulation of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β in Immortalized Fibroblasts Requires Loss of p19Arf and...

RasV12-Mediated Down-regulation of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β in Immortalized Fibroblasts Requires Loss of p19Arf and ... RasV12-Mediated Down-regulation of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β in Immortalized Fibroblasts Requires Loss of p19Arf and ... RasV12-Mediated Down-regulation of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β in Immortalized Fibroblasts Requires Loss of p19Arf and ... RasV12-Mediated Down-regulation of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β in Immortalized Fibroblasts Requires Loss of p19Arf and ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/69/6/2588.figures-only

Functional Cooperation of Simian Virus 40 Promoter Factor 1 and CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein β and δ in Lipopolysaccharide...Functional Cooperation of Simian Virus 40 Promoter Factor 1 and CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein β and δ in Lipopolysaccharide...

Selective suppression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β binding and cyclooxygenase-2 promoter activity by sodium salicylate ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) regulate the tissue specific activity of the CD11c intergrin gene promoter through ... The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA in macrophages is biphasic and requires both CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) ... Dynamic regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 promoter activity by isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 277: ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/171/2/821?ijkey=e67031960b4926e9100297ec57fac1377935498a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Article | Deficiency of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-Epsilon Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesions in LDLR-/- Mice | ID: 9593tw85t ...Article | Deficiency of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-Epsilon Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesions in LDLR-/- Mice | ID: 9593tw85t ...

Deficiency of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-Epsilon Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesions in LDLR-/- Mice Public Deposited ... The CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are transcription factors involved in hematopoietic cell development and induction ... 2014) Deficiency of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-Epsilon Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesions in LDLR-/- Mice. PLoS ONE 9(1): ... Peritoneal macrophages of llee male mice have reduced mRNA expression of FABP4, a fatty acid binding protein implicated in ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/articles/9593tw85t

Interleukin-6 and Mevastatin Regulate Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Through CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein-δ |...Interleukin-6 and Mevastatin Regulate Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Through CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein-δ |...

10 CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) binding motifs are identified in the promoter regions of most acute-phase protein ... containing a putative CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) binding site was necessary. Point mutation in this site abolished ... Biological role of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family of transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 1998; 273: 28545-28548. ... Interleukin-6 and Mevastatin Regulate Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Through CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein-δ. Jie Dong, ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/25/5/1078

Arsenic trioxide sensitizes human glioma cells, but not normal astrocytes, to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via CCAAT/enhancer...Arsenic trioxide sensitizes human glioma cells, but not normal astrocytes, to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via CCAAT/enhancer...

... to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein-dependent DR5 up-regulation. ... Our results also indicate that an increase in CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) protein levels precedes ... to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein-dependent DR5 up-regulation.. Kim EH, Yoon MJ ... to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein-dependent DR5 up-regulation.. Posted on: 01/13 ...
more infohttps://virtualtrials.com/newsarticle.cfm?item=4099

Functional Studies of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Site Located Down by Yujie Liu, Michael R. Nonnemacher et al."Functional Studies of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Site Located Down" by Yujie Liu, Michael R. Nonnemacher et al.

We have demonstrated that DS3 was a functional C/EBPβ binding site and mutation of this site to the C/EBP knockout DS3-9C ... Previous studies have identified a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) site located downstream of the transcriptional start ... Functional Studies of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Site Located Downstream of the Transcriptional Start Site. ... Previous studies have identified a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) site located downstream of the transcriptional start ...
more infohttps://jdc.jefferson.edu/kimmelgrandrounds/60/
  • C/EBPβ can interact with CREB, NF-κB, and other proteins, leading to a trans-activation potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the transcripts of CRE binding (CREB) family proteins were readily detected in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. (harvard.edu)
  • CREB was upregulated, phosphorylated and bound to the CREs in response to GM-CSF stimulation. (harvard.edu)
  • Additionally, sequence variation at C/EBP site I, which lies immediately upstream of the distal nuclear factor kappa B site and immediately downstream of a binding site for activating transcription factor (ATF)/cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), has been shown to affect HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) activity. (asm.org)
  • First, low amounts of CREB-1 and C/EBP appear to heterodimerize and bind to a site consisting of a half site from both the ATF/CREB and C/EBP binding sites. (asm.org)
  • In addition, CREB-1 homodimers bind to the ATF/CREB site and recruit C/EBP dimers to their cognate weak binding sites. (asm.org)
  • This interaction is reciprocal, since C/EBP dimer binding to a strong C/EBP site leads to enhanced CREB-1 recruitment to ATF/CREB sites that are weakly bound by CREB. (asm.org)
  • Most importantly, sequence variation at the ATF/CREB binding site affected basal LTR activity as well as LTR function following interleukin-6 stimulation, a treatment that leads to increases in C/EBP activation. (asm.org)
  • Thus, HIV-1 LTR ATF/CREB binding site sequence variation may modulate cellular signaling at the viral promoter through the C/EBP pathway. (asm.org)
  • Protein limitation in vivo or amino acid deprivation of cells in culture causes a signal transduction cascade consisting of activation of the kinase GCN2 (general control nonderepressible 2), phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, and increased synthesis of activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 by a translational control mechanism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Incubation of wild-type CHO-K1 or CT-expressing MT58 cells at 40°C did not induce differences in CHOP protein levels in time. (biochemj.org)
  • These results suggest that PC depletion in MT58 induces the ER-stress-related protein CHOP, without raising a general ER stress response. (biochemj.org)
  • In reporter assays, transactivation of the Id2 promoter by C/EBPbeta was observed and, among three potential C/EBPbeta binding sites found in the 2.3 kb Id2 promoter region, the most proximal element was responsible for the transactivation. (nih.gov)
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) identified this element as a core sequence to which C/EBPbeta binds. (nih.gov)
  • The initial phase of inflammation, the acute phase response (APR), is characterised by changes in levels of serum acute phase response proteins (APPs). (bl.uk)
  • Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) I footprinting analysis revealed that 5′ flanking region (−232 to −210 bp) is acute-phase response protein-binding site. (ahajournals.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is accelerated by acute-phase response, which involves altered hepatic protein synthesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and C/EBPδ were involved in protein-DNA complex formation in intact cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • C/EBP family consist of several related proteins, C/EBP α, β, γ, δ, that form homodimers and that form heterodimers with each other. (creativebiomart.net)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • In the Id2 promoter region spanning positions −2248 to +84 from the transcription initiation site, there are three potential C/EBPβ binding sites, named CβE1 (−445 to −436), CβE2 (−81 to −73) and CβE3 (−73 to −65), as indicated by arrows in the schematic representation of pGL2-Id2/A. The numbers shown on the left of the respective reporter constructs indicate the positions from the transcription initiation site. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have revealed that LPS can activate transcription of the IL-10 gene promoter through an SV40 promoter factor 1 (Sp1) binding site in mouse macrophage RAW264.7. (jimmunol.org)
  • Systematic deletion assay of the promoter demonstrated that the region (−239 to −210 bp) containing a putative CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) binding site was necessary. (ahajournals.org)
  • The promoter elements of many monocyte-specific genes contain C/EBP binding sites, including macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha ( 32 ), IL-6 ( 6 , 27 , 38 ), and IL-8 ( 27 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Recent observations have shown two CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) binding sites to be critically important for efficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication within cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, a cell type likely involved in transport of the virus to the brain. (asm.org)
  • Additional studies indicated that these two C/EBP binding sites were required for replication of an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone in the U-937 cell line as well as in primary cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. (asm.org)
  • This protein is expressed in the mammalian nervous system and plays a significant role in the development and function of nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is expressed in the mammalian nervous system and has many implications in the nerve cells. (bionity.com)
  • 4-9 Increases of acute-phase proteins including PAI-1 are attributable largely to changes in hepatic productions by proinflammatory cytokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • By site-directed mutagenesis, we found that disruption at both the Sp1 and C/EBP binding sites almost completely blocked the LPS response. (jimmunol.org)
  • CEBPz protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CEBPZ human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disturbed DNA binding of C/EBPa is often observed in AML patients suggesting a causative role in granulocytic disorders. (hu-berlin.de)