A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
A member of the C-EBP protein family of transcription factors. It plays a key role in G0 PHASE mammary EPITHELIAL CELL growth arrest, and it is involved in transcriptional regulation of INTERLEUKIN 1; INTERLEUKIN 6; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
A component of NF-kappa B transcription factor. It is proteolytically processed from NF-kappa B p105 precursor protein and is capable of forming dimeric complexes with itself or with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR RELA. It regulates expression of GENES involved in immune and inflammatory responses.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Parent cells in the lineage that gives rise to MONOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A T-cell factor that plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A histone deacetylase subtype that is found along with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 2; RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4; and RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 7 as core components of histone deacetylase complexes.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
Cis-acting regulatory sequences in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) which play a major role in induction or augmentation of HIV gene expression in response to environmental stimuli such as mitogens, phorbol esters, or other viruses. The HIV enhancer is the binding site for many cellular transcription factors including the nuclear factor NF-kappa B.
A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A family of transcription factors that bind to the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. Family members contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. They can act as both activators and repressors of expression of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.

C/EBPalpha regulates generation of C/EBPbeta isoforms through activation of specific proteolytic cleavage. (1/2395)

C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are intronless genes that can produce several N-terminally truncated isoforms through the process of alternative translation initiation at downstream AUG codons. C/EBPbeta has been reported to produce four isoforms: full-length 38-kDa C/EBPbeta, 35-kDa LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein), 21-kDa LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein), and a 14-kDa isoform. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms are generated in the liver and in cultured cells. Using an in vitro translation system, we found that LIP can be generated by two mechanisms: alternative translation and a novel mechanism-specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. Studies of mice in which the C/EBPalpha gene had been deleted (C/EBPalpha-/-) showed that the regulation of C/EBPbeta proteolysis is dependent on C/EBPalpha. The induction of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells leads to induced cleavage of C/EBPbeta to generate the LIP isoform. We characterized the cleavage activity in mouse liver extracts and found that the proteolytic cleavage activity is specific to prenatal and newborn livers, is sensitive to chymostatin, and is completely abolished in C/EBPalpha-/- animals. The lack of cleavage activity in the livers of C/EBPalpha-/- mice correlates with the decreased levels of LIP in the livers of these animals. Analysis of LIP production during liver regeneration showed that, in this system, the transient induction of LIP is dependent on the third AUG codon and most likely involves translational control. We propose that there are two mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms might be generated in the liver and in cultured cells: one that is determined by translation and a second that involves C/EBPalpha-dependent, specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. The latter mechanism implicates C/EBPalpha in the regulation of posttranslational generation of the dominant negative C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP.  (+info)

A critical role for cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) as a Co-activator in sterol-regulated transcription of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase promoter. (2/2395)

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase, a key regulatory enzyme in the pathway for endogenous cholesterol synthesis, is a target for negative feedback regulation by cholesterol. When cellular sterol levels are low, the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are released from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, allowing them to translocate to the nucleus and activate SREBP target genes. However, in all SREBP-regulated promoters studied to date, additional co-regulatory transcription factors are required for sterol-regulated activation of transcription. We have previously shown that, in addition to SREBPs, NF-Y/CBF is required for sterol-regulated transcription of HMG-CoA synthase. This heterotrimeric transcription factor has recently been shown to function as a co-regulator in several other SREBP-regulated promoters, as well. In addition to cis-acting sites for both SREBP and NF-Y/CBF, the sterol regulatory region of the synthase promoter also contains a consensus cAMP response element (CRE), an element that binds members of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. Here, we show that this consensus CRE is essential for sterol-regulated transcription of the synthase promoter. Using in vitro binding assays, we also demonstrate that CREB binds to this CRE, and mutations within the CRE that result in a loss of CREB binding also result in a loss of sterol-regulated transcription. We further show that efficient activation of the synthase promoter in Drosophila SL2 cells requires the simultaneous expression of all three factors: SREBPs, NF-Y/CBF, and CREB. To date this is the first promoter shown to require CREB for efficient sterol-regulated transcription, and to require two different co-regulatory factors in addition to SREBPs for maximal activation.  (+info)

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is an accessory factor for the glucocorticoid response from the cAMP response element in the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene promoter. (3/2395)

The cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the rat phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter is required for a complete glucocorticoid response. Proteins known to bind the PEPCK CRE include the CRE-binding protein (CREB) and members of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family. We took two different approaches to determine which of these proteins provides the accessory factor activity for the glucocorticoid response from the PEPCK CRE. The first strategy involved replacing the CRE of the PEPCK promoter/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter plasmid (pPL32) with a consensus C/EBP-binding sequence. This construct, termed pDeltaCREC/EBP, binds C/EBPalpha and beta but not CREB, yet it confers a nearly complete glucocorticoid response when transiently transfected into H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. These results suggest that one of the C/EBP family members may be the accessory factor. The second strategy involved co-transfecting H4IIE cells with a pPL32 mutant, in which the CRE was replaced with a GAL4-binding sequence (pDeltaCREGAL4), and various GAL4 DNA-binding domain (DBD) fusion protein expression vectors. Although chimeric proteins consisting of the GAL4 DBD fused to either CREB or C/EBPalpha are able to confer an increase in basal transcription, they do not facilitate the glucocorticoid response. In contrast, a fusion protein consisting of the GAL4 DBD and amino acids 1-118 of C/EBPbeta provides a significant glucocorticoid response. Additional GAL4 fusion studies were done to map the minimal domain of C/EBPbeta needed for accessory factor activity to the glucocorticoid response. Chimeric proteins containing amino acid regions 1-84, 52-118, or 85-118 of C/EBPbeta fused to the GAL4 DBD do not mediate a glucocorticoid response. We conclude that the amino terminus of C/EBPbeta contains a multicomponent domain necessary to confer accessory factor activity to the glucocorticoid response from the CRE of the PEPCK gene promoter.  (+info)

CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins. A role in regulation of human involucrin promoter response to phorbol ester. (4/2395)

The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is a potent inducer of keratinocyte differentiation and of involucrin gene expression. In the present study we show that a CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site in the proximal regulatory region is required for the phorbol ester response. Mutation of the C/EBP site results in the loss of basal and TPA-responsive activity. Gel mobility supershift analysis shows that C/EBPalpha binding to this site is increased by TPA treatment. Moreover, cotransfection of the human involucrin reporter plasmid with C/EBPalpha increases promoter activity to an extent comparable with TPA treatment. Mutation of the C/EBP-binding site eliminates these responses. Transfection experiments using GADD153 to create C/EBP-null conditions confirm that C/EBP factors are absolutely required for promoter activity and TPA responsiveness. C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta inhibit both TPA- and C/EBPalpha-dependent promoter activation, indicating functional differences among C/EBP family members. These results suggest that C/EBP transcription factor activity is necessary for basal promoter activity and TPA response of the involucrin gene.  (+info)

The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum stress response element consists of an evolutionarily conserved tripartite structure and interacts with a novel stress-inducible complex. (5/2395)

When mammalian cells are subjected to calcium depletion stress or protein glycosylation block, the transcription of a family of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) genes encoding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones is induced to high levels. The consensus mammalian ER stress response element (ERSE) conserved among grp promoters consists of a tripartite structure CCAAT(N9)CCACG, with N being a strikingly GC-rich region of 9 bp. The ERSE, in duplicate copies, can confer full stress inducibility to a heterologous promoter in a sequence-specific but orientation-independent manner. In addition to CBF/NF-Y and YY1 binding to the CCAAT and CCACG motifs, respectively, we further discovered that an ER stress-inducible complex (ERSF) from HeLa nuclear extract binds specifically to the ERSE. Strikingly, the interaction of the ERSF with the ERSE requires a conserved GGC motif within the 9 bp region. Since mutation of the GGC triplet sequence also results in loss of stress inducibility, specific sequence within the 9 bp region is an integral part of the tripartite structure. Finally, correlation of factor binding with stress inducibility reveals that ERSF binding to the ERSE alone is not sufficient; full stress inducibility requires integrity of the CCAAT, GGC and CCACG sequence motifs, as well as precise spacing among these sites.  (+info)

Tumour necrosis factor-alpha regulates expression of the CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) alpha and beta and determines the occupation of the C/EBP site in the promoter of the insulin-responsive glucose-transporter gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (6/2395)

We have demonstrated previously that treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) results in a rapid (4 h) and significant (75-80%) reduction in the rate of transcription of the GLUT4 gene. Control of GLUT4 gene transcription has been suggested at least in part to reside with the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family (alpha, beta and delta isoforms) of transcription factors. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have examined the ability of TNF to alter the occupation of the C/EBP site in the GLUT4 promoter. The data suggest that in fully differentiated adipocytes the C/EBP site is a ligand for predominantly alpha/alpha homodimers; however, after exposure to TNF, a shift in occupancy of the site occurs and the ligands become alpha/beta heterodimers and beta/beta homodimers. Partner selection in dimer formation appears to be controlled by selective translocation of the beta-isoform from the cytosol to the nucleus after exposure of the cells to TNF.  (+info)

A novel splicing isoform of mouse sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). (7/2395)

We cloned a cDNA encoding the NH2-terminal portion of mouse SREBP-1. The deduced amino acid sequence was 76% and 90% identical to human and hamster SREBP-1, respectively. We found out a novel splicing isoform of mouse SREBP-1 that lacks 42 amino acid residues composing a PEST sequence observed in unstable proteins. It has been reported that SREBP-1 is rapidly turned over in the nucleus. Although this isoform was not a dominant isoform, it might be possible that the produced protein functions differently from other isoforms including a complete PEST sequence.  (+info)

Transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta and nuclear factor-Y bind to discrete regulatory elements in the very low density lipoprotein receptor promoter. (8/2395)

Expression of the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R) is barely detectable in liver, but occurs in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, and placenta, where it is postulated to supply triglyceride to tissues that utilize fatty acids. To investigate its tissue-specific expression, cell lines were transfected with luciferase reporter gene constructs driven by the 5'-flanking region of the VLDL-R gene. Transcriptional activity of a 4.2-kb promoter fragment was 5-fold higher in BeWo placental cells than in Huh-7 hepatoma cells, consistent with relative endogenous expression of the VLDL-R. By deletion analysis, DNase I protection assays and site-directed mutagenesis, two regulatory elements were essential for maximal promoter activity in BeWo cells: footprint site D (-856 to -830) and an inverted CCAAT box (-703 to -707). Mutation of either element reduced promoter activity by 60% in BeWo cells, but had little effect in Huh-7 cells, suggesting that these elements direct cell-type specific transcription. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays with BeWo nuclear extracts revealed that the inverted CCAAT box binds transcription factor NF-Y, and site D binds CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein b (C/EBPbeta) and minor amounts of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPdelta. Overexpression of a dominant negative NF-YA vector confirmed involvement of NF-Y in the regulation of the VLDL-receptor gene through the CCAAT box. However overexpression of C/EBP could not stimulate transcription from the VLDL-receptor promoter nor from site D fused to a heterologous promoter, suggesting that the simultaneous binding of an accessory factor(s) may be necessary for C/EBP transactivation via the D site.  (+info)

The term "acute-phase" describes the rapid onset and short duration of this reaction, which typically lasts for hours to days before resolving as the body's inflammatory response subsides. APR is characterized by a series of molecular events that result in altered expression of genes involved in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair.

Some key components of an acute-phase reaction include:

1. Cytokine production: Cytokines are signaling molecules released by immune cells, such as white blood cells, that coordinate the immune response. During an APR, cytokine levels increase, triggering a cascade of downstream effects.
2. Leukocyte trafficking: White blood cells migrate towards sites of inflammation or infection, where they phagocytose (engulf and digest) pathogens and cellular debris. This process helps to limit the spread of infection and initiate tissue repair.
3. Coagulation cascade: The APR triggers a complex series of events involving blood coagulation factors, leading to the formation of blood clots and preventing excessive bleeding.
4. Anti-inflammatory response: As the APR progresses, anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), are produced to dampen the inflammatory response and promote tissue repair.
5. Cellular proliferation: To replace damaged cells and tissues, the APR stimulates cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration.
6. Nutrient mobilization: The APR enhances nutrient uptake and utilization by immune cells, allowing them to mount an effective response to the stress.
7. Hormonal changes: The APR is accompanied by changes in hormone levels, such as the increase in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and cortisol, which help to mobilize energy resources and regulate metabolism.
8. Immune tolerance: The APR helps to establish immune tolerance, preventing excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmune diseases or allergies.
9. Tissue remodeling: The APR stimulates the remodeling of damaged tissues, allowing for the restoration of normal tissue function.
10. Memory formation: The APR sets the stage for the formation of immunological memory, which enables the immune system to mount a more effective response to future infections or stressors.

AML is a fast-growing and aggressive form of leukemia that can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. It is most commonly seen in adults over the age of 60, but it can also occur in children.

There are several subtypes of AML, including:

1. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the PML-RARA fusion gene. It is usually responsive to treatment with chemotherapy and has a good prognosis.
2. Acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified (NOS): This is the most common subtype of AML and does not have any specific genetic abnormalities. It can be more difficult to treat and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes.
3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. It can progress slowly over time and may require ongoing treatment.
4. Juvenile myeloid leukemia (JMML): This is a rare subtype of AML that occurs in children under the age of 18. It is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called blasts in the blood and bone marrow.

The symptoms of AML can vary depending on the subtype and the severity of the disease, but they may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Shortness of breath
* Pale skin
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Bone pain
* Headache
* Confusion or seizures

AML is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

1. Complete blood count (CBC): This test measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Bone marrow biopsy: This test involves removing a small sample of bone marrow tissue from the hipbone or breastbone to examine under a microscope for signs of leukemia cells.
3. Genetic testing: This test can help identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with AML.
4. Immunophenotyping: This test uses antibodies to identify the surface proteins on leukemia cells, which can help diagnose the subtype of AML.
5. Cytogenetics: This test involves staining the bone marrow cells with dyes to look for specific changes in the chromosomes that are associated with AML.

Treatment for AML typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of AML, the patient's age and overall health, and other factors. Some common treatments for AML include:

1. Chemotherapy: This involves using drugs to kill cancer cells. The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for AML are cytarabine (Ara-C) and anthracyclines such as daunorubicin (DaunoXome) and idarubicin (Idamycin).
2. Targeted therapy: This involves using drugs that specifically target the genetic abnormalities that are causing the cancer. Examples of targeted therapies used for AML include midostaurin (Rydapt) and gilteritinib (Xospata).
3. Bone marrow transplantation: This involves replacing the diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor. This is typically done after high-dose chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells.
4. Supportive care: This includes treatments to manage symptoms and side effects of the disease and its treatment, such as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Examples of supportive care for AML include blood transfusions, antibiotics, and platelet transfusions.
5. Clinical trials: These are research studies that involve testing new treatments for AML. Participating in a clinical trial may give patients access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available.

It's important to note that the treatment plan for AML is highly individualized, and the specific treatments used will depend on the patient's age, overall health, and other factors. Patients should work closely with their healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment for their specific needs.

There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:

* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Diabetes
* Obesity

HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:

* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss

If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope

Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer

Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

Myeloid leukemia can be classified into several subtypes based on the type of cell involved and the degree of maturity of the abnormal cells. The most common types of myeloid leukemia include:

1. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This is the most aggressive form of myeloid leukemia, characterized by a rapid progression of immature cells that do not mature or differentiate into normal cells. AML can be further divided into several subtypes based on the presence of certain genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.
2. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This is a slower-growing form of myeloid leukemia, characterized by the presence of a genetic abnormality known as the Philadelphia chromosome. CML is typically treated with targeted therapies or bone marrow transplantation.
3. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of immature blood cells in the bone marrow. MDS can progress to AML if left untreated.
4. Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML): This is a rare form of myeloid leukemia that is characterized by the accumulation of immature monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. CMML can be treated with chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.

The symptoms of myeloid leukemia can vary depending on the subtype and severity of the disease. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options for myeloid leukemia can include chemotherapy, targeted therapies, bone marrow transplantation, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The prognosis for myeloid leukemia varies depending on the subtype of the disease and the patient's overall health. With current treatments, many patients with myeloid leukemia can achieve long-term remission or even be cured.

"CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation". ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) is a family of transcription factors composed of six members, named from C/EBPα to ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins are often involved in growth arrest and differentiation, which has been interpreted to suggest ... The function of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins in cancer is thus clearly context dependent but largely tumor suppressive. ...
"CCAAT/Enhancer-binding Protein Family Members Recruit the Coactivator CREB-binding Protein and Trigger Its Phosphorylation". ... "CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and regulation". Biochemical Journal. 365 (3): 561-575. doi:10.1042/ ... As suggested by the protein's name, glutamate-rich protein 4, the protein is most highly composed of glutamic acid amino acids ... "TATA-binding proteins". InterPro. Retrieved 6 May 2019. "SRY Gene". Genetics Home Reference. Vihervaara A, Sistonen L (2014). " ...
It is a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of DNA-binding transcription factors. The protein functions ... Qiao D, Im E, Qi W, Martinez JD (June 2002). "Activator protein-1 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein mediated GADD153 ... Ramji DP, Foka P (August 2002). "CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and regulation". The Biochemical Journal ... "Physical and functional association between GADD153 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta during cellular stress". The ...
Another aspect of the CCAAT binding motif is the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs). They are a group of transcription ... Protein specific binding is required for the CCAAT box activation. These proteins are known as CCAAT box binding proteins/CCAAT ... Ramji, Dpiak P.; Foka, Pelagia (10 May 2002). "Review Article: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and ... which are highly conserved and bind to the CCAAT motif. While research on these binding proteins is relatively recent, their ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a protein encoded by the CEBPA gene in humans. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is ... For details on the CCAAT structural motif in gene enhancers and on CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Proteins see the specific page. The ... One category of mutations prevent CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha DNA binding by altering its COOH-terminal basic leucine ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPA CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), alpha". Ohlsson E, Schuster MB, Hasemann M, Porse BT (Apr 2016). " ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPB gene. The protein encoded by this ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPB CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta". Ruffell D, Mourkioti F, Gambardella A, Kirstetter P, Lopez RG ... Chen GK, Sale S, Tan T, Ermoian RP, Sikic BI (April 2004). "CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (nuclear factor for interleukin ... Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000172216 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPD gene. The protein encoded by this ... "CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation". ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPD CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), delta". Gery S, Tanosaki S, Hofmann WK, Koppel A, Koeffler HP (Feb ... Li R, Strohmeyer R, Liang Z, Lue LF, Rogers J (Sep 2004). "CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta) expression and ...
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein gamma may cooperate with Fos to bind PRE-I enhancer elements. Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPG gene. The C/EBP family of ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPG CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), gamma". Nishizawa M, Nagata S (1992). "cDNA clones encoding leucine- ... Involvement of C/enhancer-binding protein transcription factors and their possible interaction with an NF-IL-4 site". J. ...
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon, also known as CEBPE and CRP1, is a type of ccaat-enhancer-binding protein. ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPE CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon". Antonson P, Stellan B, Yamanaka R, Xanthopoulos KG (Jul ... Antonson P, Stellan B, Yamanaka R, Xanthopoulos KG (Jul 1996). "A novel human CCAAT/enhancer binding protein gene, C/EBPepsilon ... Kim J, Cantwell CA, Johnson PF, Pfarr CM, Williams SC (Oct 2002). "Transcriptional activity of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins ...
"CEBPB CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Institutes of ... SUMOylation can affect protein-protein interactions and affect protein ubiquitination. Palmitoylation is the addition of a ... Table 3. Table of WDCP protein Isoforms and Protein Information. The secondary structure of WDCP Protein Isoform 1 consists of ... WDCP Isoform 1 has no transmembrane domains, actin-binding motifs, ER retention motifs, or Golgi transport signals. The protein ...
"Molecular Mechanism of CCAAT-Enhancer Binding Protein Recruitment by the TRIB1 Pseudokinase". Structure. 23 (11): 2111-21. doi: ... Tribbles proteins function as scaffold proteins, which bind their substrates to localize them to or from their function ... It exerts its biological functions through binding to signalling proteins of the MAPKK level of the MAPK pathway, therefore ... The protein's primary structure contains a PEST region, indicative of proteins that are highly susceptible to degradation in ...
"G9a-mediated lysine methylation alters the function of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta". The Journal of Biological ... Nevertheless, increasing evidence suggests methylation of non-histone proteins may influence protein stability, protein-protein ... which is involved in protein-protein interactions. The ankyrin repeat domain also contains H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 binding sites. ... Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 1, also known as G9a-like protein (GLP), is a protein that in humans is encoded ...
Marchildon, François (2012). "CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta is Expressed in Satellite Cells and Controls Myogenesis". ... The proteins responsible for signaling the activation of satellite cells are called mitogens. A mitogen is a small protein that ... The disruption in myofiber integrity is seen in increased plasma levels in muscle proteins. The death of myofibers drives a ... In times of injury, satellite cells in myofibers receive signals to proliferate from proteins in the crushed skeletal muscle. ...
Hanlon M, Sealy L (May 1999). "Ras regulates the association of serum response factor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta ... This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the ... Serum response factor has been shown to interact with: ASCC3, ATF6, CEBPB, CREB-binding protein, ELK4, GATA4, GTF2F1, GTF2I, ... "A multifunctional DNA-binding protein that promotes the formation of serum response factor/homeodomain complexes: identity to ...
"Different regulation of the LXRalpha promoter activity by isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins". Biochemical and ... Liver X receptor alpha (LXR-alpha) is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1H3 gene (nuclear receptor ... The liver X receptors, LXRα (this protein) and LXRβ, form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily and are key ... Miyata KS, McCaw SE, Meertens LM, Patel HV, Rachubinski RA, Capone JP (Nov 1998). "Receptor-interacting protein 140 interacts ...
"Capsaicin induces CYP3A4 expression via pregnane X receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β activation". Molecular ... Due to membrane-bound CYP3A4's natural propensity to conglomerate, it has historically been difficult to study drug binding in ... which binds to the XREM region of the CYP3A4 gene. XREM is a regulatory region of the CYP3A4 gene, and binding causes a ... Ligand binding increases when in the presence of CYP3A4 ligands, such as in the presence of aflatoxin B1, M1, and G1. Indeed, ...
Boruk M, Savory JG, Haché RJ (November 1998). "AF-2-dependent potentiation of CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta-mediated ... "Entrez Gene: DBI diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-Coenzyme A binding protein)". Kos M, Reid G, Denger ... March 2000). "Tamoxifen-bound estrogen receptor (ER) strongly interacts with the nuclear matrix protein HET/SAF-B, a novel ... March 2001). "A subfamily of RNA-binding DEAD-box proteins acts as an estrogen receptor alpha coactivator through the N- ...
March 2001). "Dominant-negative mutations of CEBPA, encoding CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha), in acute ... an aggregate of multiple copies of the same protein, otherwise known as a homomultimeric protein or homooligomeric protein. In ... For example, in humans the Hb gene locus is responsible for the Beta-chain protein (HBB) that is one of the two globin proteins ... A mutation that leads to a mutant protein that disrupts the activity of the wild-type protein in the multimer is a dominant- ...
... cholesterol acyltransferase1 gene expression via MAP kinases and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α". J Cell Biochem. 114 (9): ... First, it is activated by potassium ions binding near the CoA binding site and the catalytic site. This binding causes a ... There are two functional sections of this protein, TMD7 and TMD8; one side is involved in substrate binding and catalysis, ... The gene also may have a binding site for the transcription factor Sp1, and has sequences resembling the binding sites of ...
Other proteins such as interferon regulatory factor-2-binding protein-1 (IRF2BP1). CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein gamma (C/EBPγ ... Jun dimerization protein 2 (JUNDM2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JDP2 gene. The Jun dimerization protein is a ... Polyubiquitination of JDP2 protein is induced by IRF2BP1. JDP2 displays histone-binding and histone-chaperone activity. and ... Kimura M (August 2008). "IRF2-binding protein-1 is a JDP2 ubiquitin ligase and an inhibitor of ATF2-dependent transcription". ...
... and duodenal homeobox gene 1 induces hepatic dedifferentiation by suppressing the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ... microRNAs and a variety of other methods including using proteins and plasmids; one example is the non-viral delivery of ... markers of the target cell type and the absence of donor cell markers which can be accomplished using green fluorescent protein ...
Jurado LA, Song S, Roesler WJ, Park EA (2002). "Conserved amino acids within CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP(alpha) and ... A mitochondrial isozyme of the encoded protein also has been characterized. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to ... Wilson HL, McFie PJ, Roesler WJ (2003). "Different transcription factor binding arrays modulate the cAMP responsivity of the ... 2002). "Crystal structure of human cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase reveals a new GTP-binding site". J. Mol. Biol. ...
"Transcriptional regulation of human CYP3A4 basal expression by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha and hepatocyte nuclear ... "Cloning and characterization of seven human forkhead proteins: binding site specificity and DNA bending". The EMBO Journal. 13 ... Forkhead box I1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXI1 gene. This gene belongs to the forkhead family of ... FOX proteins GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168269 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000047861 - ...
2003). "Transcriptional regulation of human CYP3A4 basal expression by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha and hepatocyte ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXA3 gene. HNF-3G is a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. ... 2009). "Differential binding and co-binding pattern of FOXA1 and FOXA3 and their relation to H3K4me3 in HepG2 cells revealed by ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma (HNF-3G), also known as forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3) or transcription factor 3G (TCF-3G) ...
IL-6 activates the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein transcription factors which activate MDR1 gene expression (see Alteration of ... This transporter protein is encoded by the MDR1 gene and is also called the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein. MDR1 has ... MDR1 is activated through NF-κB, a protein complex which acts as a transcription factor. In the rat, an NF-κB binding site is ... These point mutations enhance autophosphorylation of the BCR-ABL protein, resulting in the stabilization of the ATP-binding ...
"AU-rich element-binding protein negatively regulates CCAAT enhancer-binding protein mRNA stability during long-term synaptic ... "Overexpression of and RNA interference with the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein on long-term facilitation of Aplysia sensory to ... Lee JA, Kim H, Lee YS, Kaang BK (2003). "Overexpression and RNA interference of Ap-cyclic AMP-response element binding protein- ... transcription requires the protein kinase-A-mediated phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB). ...
... of a co-repressor that inhibits the transcriptional and growth-arrest activities of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha". J. ... 2000). "Protein-interaction modules that organize nuclear function: FF domains of CA150 bind the phosphoCTD of RNA polymerase ... 2004). "A protein interaction network links GIT1, an enhancer of huntingtin aggregation, to Huntington's disease". Mol. Cell. ... This gene encodes a nuclear protein that regulates transcriptional elongation and pre-mRNA splicing. The encoded protein ...
Eaton EM, Sealy L (Aug 2003). "Modification of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) ... Kim J, Cantwell CA, Johnson PF, Pfarr CM, Williams SC (Oct 2002). "Transcriptional activity of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins ... It is a ubiquitin-like protein and functions in a manner similar to ubiquitin in that it is bound to target proteins as part of ... Small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SUMO2 gene. This gene encodes a protein that ...
"CEBPE CCAAT/enhancer binding protein epsilon [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-09 ... The C8orf48 protein is predicted to be a nuclear protein particularly located in the nuclear lamina. This protein does not ... These transcription factors include MAX binding protein and Estrogen-related receptor alpha (secondary DNA binding preference) ... "Characterization of the DNA-binding properties of the myeloid zinc finger protein MZF1: two independent DNA-binding domains ...
Transcription factors, peroxis proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are main ... cAMP-responsive element binding protein promotes differentiation, while the activation of PPARγ and C/EBPα is also responsive ... T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF), GATA2/3, retinoic acid receptor α, and SMAD6/7 don't affect the ... Adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) can ...
Stimulating protein 1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, GC box elements and HMG box-containing protein 1. Like previously ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2021-08-01. (CS1 maint: url- ... PANO1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PANO1 gene. PANO1 is an apoptosis inducing protein that is able to ... These isoforms have proteins with 215 and 216 amino acids, respectively. No isoforms for the human PANO1 protein could be ...
Sterneck began to study the functions of CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) transcription factors, including their roles ...
Boruk M, Savory JG, Haché RJ (November 1998). "AF-2-dependent potentiation of CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta-mediated ... the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and the protein FKBP4 (FK506-binding protein 4). The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone ... November 1997). "The glucocorticoid receptor is associated with the RNA-binding nuclear matrix protein hnRNP U". The Journal of ... Hulkko SM, Wakui H, Zilliacus J (August 2000). "The pro-apoptotic protein death-associated protein 3 (DAP3) interacts with the ...
"Regulation of the homeodomain CCAAT displacement/cut protein function by histone acetyltransferases p300/CREB-binding protein ( ... matrix attachment region upstream of the T cell receptor beta gene enhancer binds Cux/CDP and SATB1 and modulates enhancer- ... "Regulation of the homeodomain CCAAT displacement/cut protein function by histone acetyltransferases p300/CREB-binding protein ( ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the homeodomain family of DNA binding proteins. It regulates gene expression, ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha), glucocorticoid receptors α and β, and p53. Expression of isoforms 1 and 2 has been ... these tyrosine motifs are bound by the SH2 domains of signaling proteins. Important binding partners for this region include ... allowing the CAS protein to function as a scaffold for other proteins including CRK proteins and C3G, a guanine nucleotide ... All CAS proteins except CASS4 contain a YDYVHL motif within this domain, which is an important binding site for the Src SH2 ...
An important example is that the proapoptotic protein CHOP (CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein), is upregulated ... exposed hydrophobic residues of the misfolded protein are bound by the protein glucose regulate protein 78 (Grp78), a heat ... "Heavy chain binding protein recognizes incompletely disulfide-bonded forms of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein". The ... By binding with the protein TRAF2, Ire1 activates a JNK signaling pathway, at which point human procaspase 4 is believed to ...
Zuo Y, Qiang L, Farmer SR (March 2006). "Activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) alpha expression by C/EBP beta ... binding protein], PACT (protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase), the SMN complex, fragile X mental ... significantly inhibited adipogenesis and repressed induction of the master regulators PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ... These proteins have three highly positively charged regions, termed AT hooks, that bind the minor groove of AT-rich DNA ...
Transcription factor assessment indicates many potential TATA-binding protein and CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins sites, along ... C1orf112 is predicted to interact with a diverse range of proteins, including multiple mitosis-associated proteins. C1orf112 is ... quality-controlled protein-protein association networks, made broadly accessible". Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D362-D368. ... Ligand binding sites are predicted by I-TASSER from positions 377 to 530 in Isoform X1. A leucine zipper motif is present in ...
TFG-TEC binds to the proximal promoter region of the ENO3 gene. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to ... activator protein 1 and 2, CCAAT box transcription factor/nuclear factor I, and cyclic AMP. Unlike the other enolase genes, ... and two myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor 1 boxes. Upstream of the first exon lies a TATA-like box and CpG-rich region, ... Peshavaria M, Hinks LJ, Day IN (Nov 1989). "Structure of human muscle (beta) enolase mRNA and protein deduced from a genomic ...
"A synergy control motif within the attenuator domain of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha inhibits transcriptional synergy ... E3 SUMO-protein ligase PIAS4 is one of several protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins. It is also known as protein ... Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 and Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000105229 ... "Entrez Gene: PIAS4 Protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 4". Imoto, Seiyu; Sugiyama Kenji; Muromoto Ryuta; Sato Noriko; Yamamoto ...
... gene involved in regulation of fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism and members of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ... This process is regulated by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a protein regulating ... which are exported into the blood and bound to albumin, and glycerol, which is exported into the blood freely. There is ...
... is transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα). Mutations in C/EBPα are associated with acute myeloid ... "Ikaros DNA-binding proteins as integral components of B cell developmental-stage-specific regulatory circuits". Immunity. 26 (3 ... One of the key players in self-renewal and development of haematopoietic cells is stem cell factor (SCF), which binds to the c- ... Very important finding is, that different zinc fingers are involved in binding to different place in DNA and this is the reason ...
Ccaat/Enhancer Binding Protein Vertebrate TATA binding protein factor CCAAT binding factors Activator-, mediator- and TBP- ... factor 1 RXR heterodimer binding sites GATA binding factors Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 factors Octamer binding protein EGR/ ... proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be ... calcium ion binding, protein binding. Analysis of gene ontology information by BioGPS was able to produce a list of biological ...
CCAAT binding factors, or CCAAT enhancer binding proteins were found. The TMEM251 protein is 169 amino acids in length. The ... Transmembrane protein 251, also known as C14orf109 or UPF0694, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM251 gene. One ... No vertebrate TATA binding protein factors, RNA polymerase transcription factor II B, ... The first transcript variant encodes a shorter predicted protein, while the second transcript variant encodes a protein with a ...
... may refer to: CEBPA, a human gene that modulates leptin expression CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins or C/EBPs Communication ...
"Stem-loop binding protein facilitates 3'-end formation by stabilizing U7 snRNP binding to histone pre-mRNA". Mol Cell Biol. 19 ... "U7 snRNA acts as a transcriptional regulator interacting with an inverted CCAAT sequence-binding transcription factor NF-Y". ... SMN2 pre-mRNA splicing corrected by a U7 snRNA derivative carrying a splicing enhancer sequence". Mol Ther. 15 (8): 1479-1486. ... "A novel zinc finger protein is associated with U7 snRNP and interacts with the stem-loop binding protein in the histone pre- ...
For example, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), an early adipogenic transcription factor, recruits and requires KMT2D ... KMT2C and KMT2D are required for the binding of H3K27 acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and/or p300 on enhancers, ... The protein selectively binds enhancer regions based on type of cell and stage of differentiation. During differentiation, ... The KMT2C and KMT2D proteins, rather than the KMT2C and KMT2D-mediated H3K4me1, control p300 recruitment to enhancers, enhancer ...
RAV Cdx protein family DNA-binding protein Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein Mapper(2) Nuclear receptor, a class of ligand ... Transcription factors bind to either enhancer or promoter regions of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. Depending on ... Heteromeric CCAAT factors 4.8.1 Family: Heteromeric CCAAT factors 4.9 Class: Grainyhead 4.9.1 Family: Grainyhead 4.10 Class: ... although the consensus binding site for the TATA-binding protein (TBP) is TATAAAA, the TBP transcription factor can also bind ...
"N-terminal region of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein epsilon is critical for cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and functional ... The protein encoded by this gene is a key licensing factor in the assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RC), which occurs ... CDT1 (Chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDT1 gene. It is a ... Nishitani H, Lygerou Z, Nishimoto T, Nurse P (2000). "The Cdt1 protein is required to license DNA for replication in fission ...
"The promoter of IL-18 binding protein: Activation by an IFN-γ-induced complex of IFN regulatory factor 1 and CCAAT/enhancer ... Interleukin-18-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL18BP gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Entrez Gene: IL18BP interleukin 18 binding protein". Dinarello CA (2002). "Novel targets for interleukin 18 binding protein". ... This protein binds to IL18, prevents the binding of IL18 to its receptor, and thus inhibits IL18-induced IFN-gamma production. ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein epsilon) gene, a transcription factor primarily active in myeloid cells. Almost all patients ... deficiency results from a novel mutation with loss of function of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ... Ganz T, Metcalf JA, Gallin JI, Boxer LA, Lehrer RI (1988). "Microbicidal/cytotoxic proteins of neutrophils are deficient in two ...
Holland MP, Bliss SP, Berghorn KA, Roberson MS (2004). "A role for CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta in the basal regulation ... Homeobox protein DLX-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLX3 gene. Dlx3 is a crucial regulator of hair follicle ... Park GT, Denning MF, Morasso MI (2001). "Phosphorylation of murine homeodomain protein Dlx3 by protein kinase C". FEBS Lett. ... DLX3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the structural ...
CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cellular differentiation and ... C/EBPα protein level was measured by immunohistochemistry. Methylation in the promoter of C/EBPα gene was detected by MALDI TOF ... There were significant difference in C/EBPα protein expression between chronic cervicitis and cervical carcinoma (P < 0.001 ... Down-regulation of the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α gene in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. *Zemin Pan. 1,2 ...
Home /CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β expression is increased in the brain during HIV-1-infection and contributes to ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β expression is increased in the brain during HIV-1-infection and contributes to regulation of ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β expression is increased in the brain during HIV-1-infection and contributes to regulation of ... CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP), a transcription factor, is detected in rodent brains in response to neuroinflammation ...
Inhibited activities in CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, activating protein-1 and cyclins after hepatectomy in rats with ... Inhibited activities in CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, activating protein-1 and cyclins after hepatectomy in rats with ... Inhibited activities in CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, activating protein-1 and cyclins after hepatectomy in rats with ... Zhao G, Nakano K, Chijiiwa K, Ueda J, Tanaka M. Inhibited activities in CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, activating protein-1 ...
... enhancer-binding proteins which may regulate high rates of avian leukosis virus (ALV) LTR-enhanced c-myc transcription during ... LTR enhancers. Protein binding to these CCAAT/enhancer elements accounts for most of the labile LTR enhancer-binding activity ... a1/EBP: a leucine zipper protein that binds CCAAT/enhancer elements in the avian leukosis virus long terminal repeat enhancer. ... Roles of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins in regulation of liver regenerative growth. Diehl AM. Diehl AM. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov ...
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins. Okamoto R, Gery S, Gombart AF, Wang X, Castellani LW, Akagi T, Chen S, Arditi M, Ho Q, Lusis ... Deficiency of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-epsilon reduces atherosclerotic lesions in LDLR-/- mice.. PLoS One. 9(1):e85341. ... Deficiency of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-epsilon reduces atherosclerotic lesions in LDLR-/- mice.. PLoS One. 9(1):e85341. ... Deficiency of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-epsilon reduces atherosclerotic lesions in LDLR-/- mice.. PLoS One. 9(1):e85341. ...
The CEBPA gene provides instructions for making a protein called CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha. Learn about this gene ... The CEBPA gene provides instructions for making a protein called CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha. This protein is a ... The other type of mutation blocks the DNA-binding ability of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha. Impaired DNA binding ... The mutations result in a shorter version of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha. This shortened protein is produced from one ...
... and CCAAT box enhancer binding protein alpha?(C/EBP-alpha), in fat cell differentiation. Continued dissection of the pathways ... protein fragments that can be expressed and studied in cells o Develop custom clone sets for use in microarrays or other high- ... is not binding, and does not enter into the review of a subsequent application, the information that it contains allows IC ... o Profile mRNA or protein expression in the relevant cell populations or particular fat depots during aging or under different ...
... and differentiation-dependent factor 1/sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-alpha. ... Protein kinase C-dependent, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta-mediated expression of insulin-like growth factor I gene. ... 3. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins. A role in regulation of human involucrin promoter response to phorbol ester.. Agarwal C; ... Regulation of aromatase P450 expression in endometriotic and endometrial stromal cells by CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/ ...
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ...
This architecture excludes nuclear factor 1/CCAAT transcription factor (NF1/CTF) from the promoter before glucocorticoid ... CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... The degree of enhancer or promoter activity is reflected by the levels and directionality of eRNA transcription. Mikhaylichenko ... Assessing sufficiency and necessity of enhancer activities for gene expression and the mechanisms of transcription activation. ...
MeSH Terms: Acute-Phase Reaction/metabolism; Animals; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/drug ... Hepatic nuclear protein was isolated and analyzed for binding activity to AP-1, NFkappaB, and NF-IL6 consensus sequences. ... The strongest increase in AP-1 binding activity occurred between 6 and 24 hr, and the alteration in binding complexes to an NF- ... to relate the time-dependent activation of nuclear proteins to putative DNA binding sequences within the CYP3A2 5'- ...
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins; Cyclins/*genetics/metabolism; DNA Footprinting; Receptors, Interleukin-2/genetics/metabolism; ... the presence of at least three protein binding sites, two of which were constitutively occupied. They bind in vitro ... DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism; Activating Transcription Factor 1; Antibodies, Monoclonal; Antigens, CD2/*physiology; Antigens ... To understand the mechanisms underlined in this regulation in normal human cells, we have analysed in vivo protein-DNA ...
Functional association of PR and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta isoforms: promoter-dependent cooperation between PR-B and ... Cyclic AMP-induced forkhead transcription factor, FKHR, cooperates with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta in differentiating ... These ligands belong to the MHC class I chain-related protein (MIC) and unique-long 16 binding protein (ULBP) families of ... Paracrine senescence of human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells: a role for the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. ...
Adipose tissue not only stores energy, but also controls metabolism through secretion of hormones, cytokines, proteins, and ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein expression is rapidly extinguished in TA1 adipocyte cells treated with tumor necrosis factor. ... Serum retinol-binding protein is more highly expressed in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue and is a marker of intra ... Retinol binding protein 4 (Rbp4) is a secreted factor from adipocyte tissue that has marked metabolic effects both on liver and ...
Transcriptional regulation of human CYP2A13 expression in the respiratory tract by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein and ... No, Buffer APP for protein precipitation in the Allprep DNA/RNA/protein Mini Kit is not compatible with Buffer RLT Plus. ... This kit allows precipitation of protein from Buffer RLT lysates using a novel protein precipitation buffer, Buffer APP. ... proteins, fatty acids etc., that are non-specifically bound to the silica membrane. At the same time, RNA molecules larger than ...
TRIM23 plays a critical role in the switching from early to late adipogenic enhanceosomes by stabilizing the PPARγ protein. ... 2003a) CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is required for mitotic clonal expansion during adipogenesis Proceedings of the ... The bound proteins were eluted by 10 mM reduced glutathione. Samples were separated by SDS-PAGE, followed by immunoblotting ... This requires the activity of proteins called transcription factors that bind to DNA and switch on the expression of genes. ...
E16 pRb binds and activates C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) (Chen et al., 1996; Chen et al., 1996) . The binding of C/ ... C5 Cdk1 (Cdc2) binds cyclins A or B.. C6 Cdk1 and 2 bind the small protein, Cks1 (Jackman and Pines, 1997). Cks1 binds at the C ... C11a DNA binding is inhibited when DMP1 is bound to cyclin D (Inoue and Sherr, 1998). Cyclin D binds at the DNA-binding domain ... C10 D-type cyclins can bind the myb-like protein DMP1 (Hirai and Sherr, 1996). The binding does not require Cdk4/6 (Inoue and ...
1. Epigenetic silencing of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta activity by YY1/polycomb group/DNA methyltransferase complex. ... suppresses differentiation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the downregulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha ... 9. pRB family proteins are required for H3K27 trimethylation and Polycomb repression complexes binding to and silencing ... Histone deacetylase inhibitors deplete enhancer of zeste 2 and associated polycomb repressive complex 2 proteins in human acute ...
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), delta. *CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta ... From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this intronless gene is a bZIP transcription factor which can bind as a homodimer to ... It can also form heterodimers with the related protein CEBP-alpha. The encoded protein is important in the regulation of genes ...
C-EBP Proteins CAAT-Enhancer Binding Protein CAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins CCAAT Sequence-Specific DNA-Binding Proteins CCAAT- ... BRCA2 Protein [D12.776.660.105] * CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins [D12.776.660.167] * CCAAT-Binding Factor [D12.776.660.167.249 ... for C-EBP NUCLEAR PROTEIN use CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS (NM) 1989-2000; for CCAAT SEQUENCE-SPECIFIC DNA-BINDING PROTEINS ... CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins [D12.776.260.108.124] * CCAAT-Binding Factor [D12.776.] ...
Purified recombinant protein of Human C-type lectin domain family 4, member E (CLEC4E) ... The encoded type II transmembrane protein is a downstream target of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta (CEBPB) and ... Video tutorial: Why protein expression host matters * Webinar Video: Overexpression lysate as positive controls for Western ... Endotoxin level is < 0.1 ng/µg of protein (< 1 EU/µg). Reconstitution. Always centrifuge tubes before opening. Do not mix by ...
... mediated by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β and serum response element sites on the c-fos promoter. ... and high-affinity binding proteins including IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and acid-labile subunit (ALS) transport and also ... Eight additional mutations at site 1 enhance binding of the molecule to recombinant GH-binding protein (GHBP) (120). Covalent ... Use of mutagenesis to probe IGF-binding protein structure/function relationships. Endocr. Rev. 22:800-817. View this article ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha) inhibits cell proliferation through the p21 (WAF-1/CIP-1/SDI-1) protein. ... and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) [21]. However, recent studies suggest that, under certain conditions, p21 is ... b) The protein levels were analyzed by western blot analysis. GAPDH was used as a control. c-d. Specific knockdown of MORC2 up- ... it is a central event to investigate the proteins governing development and progression of gastric cancer. Among the proteins ...
Galien R, Evans HF and Garcia T: Involvement of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and nuclear factor-kappa B binding site in ... An equal amount of protein in total cell extracts was separated by SDS-PAGE. Following electrophoresis, the proteins were ... distinct NF-kappa B binding pattern and enhancer activity in LPS activated murine macrophages. Oncogene. 11:97-106. 1995. ... TNF‑α, IL‑6 and IL‑8 secreted protein levels were measured using an ELISA assay. TNF‑α, IL‑6 and IL‑8 mRNA levels were measured ...
Ramji DP, Foka P: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and regulation. Biochem J. 2002, 365: 561-575. ... show that Ppargc1a can bind and thereby direct p53 to the promoters/enhancers of pro-arrest as well as metabolic target genes. ... compare SM mRNA at the 24 h time point with protein levels in Figure 6A) could be explained by the fact that Ddit4 protein ... The following proteins served as loading controls (L.C.): β-actin for WAT and LIV, β-tubulin for SM. (B) 10 μM Nutlin-3, a ...
Our study provides an in-depth proteome-wide and matrisome-specific analysis of the ECM proteins controlled by the lncRNA H19. ... CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha. CEBPB:. CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein Beta. CTHRC1:. Collagen triple helix repeat ... The protein was collected to low binding microcentrifuge tubes (Eppendorf) and the lysates/solubilized ECM were spun down at 16 ... Proteins were isolated from siH19-MSCs or respective control using an extraction buffer for matrix proteins enrichment, ...
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta Medicine & Life Sciences 71% * Docetaxel Medicine & Life Sciences 56% ...
... which also includes the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein Cebpd, the Maf protein Mafk, the nuclear factor, interleukin-3, ... Most of these proteins participate in pathways that stimulate calcium release (for example, calcium-calmodulin G protein ... Additional term-downregulated G-protein signaling proteins that act to antagonize calcium-calmodulin signaling are illustrated ... genes for calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins (Anxa1, Anxa2, Anxa3 and Anxa8), and for the Anxa2 dimerization ...
... through reactive oxygen species and transcription factors Elk-1 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein. Biochem J. Nov 15;392:93- ... 1979) Binding site on macrophages that mediates uptake and degradation of acetylated low density lipoprotein, producing massive ... 2006) As2O3-induced c-Src/EGFR/ERK signaling is via Sp1 binding sites to stimulate p21WAF1/CIP1 expression in human epidermoid ... Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr A. L. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265- ...
  • This protein is a transcription factor, which means that it attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity (expression) of certain genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This requires the activity of proteins called transcription factors that bind to DNA and switch on the expression of genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • The canonical pathway of EZH2 (Enhancer of Zeste homolog 2) catalyzes the trimethylation of histone H3K27 to silence the transcription of target genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • NF-κB acts as a transcription factor binding to an NF-κB response element located at the promoter of target genes, regulating TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 ( 11 , 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The CEBPA gene provides instructions for making a protein called CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Notably, Tan I upregulated CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1) and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), but silencing of IRE1 or p62 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the LC3II accumulation in Tan I-treated H28 cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP), a transcription factor, is detected in rodent brains in response to neuroinflammation, implicating it in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). (nntc.org)
  • Because levels of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and lipoprotein lipase are also increased, lipid transport into cells and fatty acid synthesis within cells is increased ( 8 - 15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Functional genomics data indicate that 2 of the suggestive SNPs (rs2446823 and rs2446824) are located within putative binding sites for the CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (CEBP) and Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4, Alpha transcription factors (TFs), respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • El FACTOR DE UNIÓN A CCAAT es estructuralmente un tipo distinto de proteína de unión aumentadora a CCAAT que consta de un trímero de tres subunidades diferentes. (bvsalud.org)
  • CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nuclear receptors that bind OXYSTEROLS and function as heterodimers with RETINOID X RECEPTORS. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were examined by western blot analysis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Specific DNA-binding activity of C/EBPδ protein in nuclear extracts was examined by electromobility shift and antibody supershift assay. (utmb.edu)
  • The GR is an intracellular protein that is ubiquitously expressed in almost every cell of the organism and interacts with chromatin to modulate the activity of numerous transcription factors in a cell type-specific manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ß deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Impaired DNA binding interferes with the protein's ability to regulate gene expression and impairs its tumor suppressor function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the amount of PPARγ bound to DNA is too low, then it is unable to activate gene expression. (elifesciences.org)
  • Gene Expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding Protein Mediated by Autoregulation Is Repressed by Related Gene Family Proteins. (elsevierpure.com)
  • This shortened protein is produced from one copy of the CEBPA gene in each cell, and it is believed to interfere with the tumor suppressor function of the normal protein produced from the second copy of the gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Absence of the tumor suppressor function of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha is believed to disrupt the regulation of blood cell production, leading to the uncontrolled production of abnormal cells that occurs in acute myeloid leukemia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One type leads to production of an abnormally short protein that interferes with the tumor suppressor function of normal versions of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In adipocytes, the sterol regulatory element binding protein pathway is increased, resulting in increases in levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase. (cdc.gov)
  • Adipose tissue not only stores energy, but also controls metabolism through secretion of hormones, cytokines, proteins, and microRNAs that affect the function of cells and tissues throughout the body. (intechopen.com)
  • They bind in vitro respectively ATF-1 and NF-Y proteins. (cnrs.fr)
  • Overexpression of C/EBPβ increases TIMP-1 promoter activity, mRNA and protein levels in human astrocytes activated with IL-1β. (nntc.org)
  • Histamine increases the permeability of capillaries to white blood cells and various proteins to allow them to engage pathogens in the infected tissue ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Histamine binds to the H1 receptor in target cells to contract gut and bronchus smooth muscle and to increase venular permeability and rheum ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Glucocorticoids exert their function by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Physiological concentrations of glucocorticoids stimulate osteoblast proliferation and promote osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chronic and acute CB1 antagonism decreases NF-κB binding activity To further investigate the mechanisms involved in Slc2a4 upregulation by the CB1 receptor, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay ( EMSA ) was performed. (bioscientifica.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: 18F-FP-CIT positron emission tomography (PET) is known for its high sensitivity and specificity for evaluating striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding. (bvsalud.org)
  • CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha is involved in the maturation (differentiation) of certain blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • TRIM23 knockdown caused a marked decrease in PPARγ protein abundance during preadipocyte differentiation, resulting in a severe defect in late adipogenic differentiation, whereas it did not affect the formation of early enhanceosomes. (elifesciences.org)
  • The mutations result in a shorter version of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The somatic CEBPA gene mutations that have been identified in leukemia cells generally decrease the DNA-binding ability of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The other type of mutation blocks the DNA-binding ability of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, beta and delta gene variants: associations with obesity related phenotypes in the Leeds Family Study. (cdc.gov)
  • Knockdown of C/EBPβ with siRNA decreases TIMP-1 mRNA and protein levels. (nntc.org)
  • The levels of C/EBPδ binding-activity, are consistent with the changes in mRNA levels in young lipopolysaccharide treated livers. (utmb.edu)
  • In vivo genomic DMS footprinting revealed upstream of the major transcription initiation sites, the presence of at least three protein binding sites, two of which were constitutively occupied. (cnrs.fr)
  • Here, we show that a novel ubiquitin E3 ligase, tripartite motif protein 23 (TRIM23), stabilizes PPARγ protein and mediates atypical polyubiquitin conjugation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Herein, Tan I exerted cytotoxicity with autophagic features of autophagy protein 5 (ATG5)/ microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3II (LC3 II) activation, p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) accumulation and increased number of LC3II punctae, acridine orange-stained cells and autophagic vacuoles. (oncotarget.com)
  • The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). (bvsalud.org)
  • To understand the mechanisms underlined in this regulation in normal human cells, we have analysed in vivo protein-DNA interactions at the Cyclin A locus in primary T lymphocytes. (cnrs.fr)
  • analyzed this process in mouse cells and identified a protein called TRIM23 that is produced in precursor cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • isoforms lacking KTS was associated with specific binding to cis -elements in the IGF-IR promoter region, as demonstrated using electrophoretic mobility shift assays ( EMSAs ) and DNaseI footprinting analysis. (bioscientifica.com)
  • 2014. Deficiency of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-epsilon reduces atherosclerotic lesions in LDLR-/- mice. . (oregonstate.edu)
  • this suggests that this protein is necessary for adipogenesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Overlap of 2 suggestive SNPs with likely TF binding sites suggests possible roles in disruption of gene regulation. (cdc.gov)
  • These enhancer regions are subsequently inherited by late enhanceosomes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our results suggest that TRIM23 plays a critical role in the switching from early to late adipogenic enhanceosomes by stabilizing PPARγ protein possibly via atypical polyubiquitin conjugation. (elifesciences.org)