A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
A member of the C-EBP protein family of transcription factors. It plays a key role in G0 PHASE mammary EPITHELIAL CELL growth arrest, and it is involved in transcriptional regulation of INTERLEUKIN 1; INTERLEUKIN 6; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A CCAAT-enhancer binding protein that is induced by DNA DAMAGE and growth arrest. It serves as a dominant negative inhibitor of other CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
A component of NF-kappa B transcription factor. It is proteolytically processed from NF-kappa B p105 precursor protein and is capable of forming dimeric complexes with itself or with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR RELA. It regulates expression of GENES involved in immune and inflammatory responses.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Parent cells in the lineage that gives rise to MONOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.

Thapsigargin suppresses phorbol ester-dependent human involucrin promoter activity by suppressing CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) DNA binding. (1/560)

Human involucrin (hINV) is a keratinocyte differentiation marker expressed in the suprabasal epidermal layers. In cultured keratinocytes hINV mRNA levels are increased 10-fold by a 24-h treatment with 50 ng/ml PMA, an agent that promotes keratinocyte differentiation. Previous studies show that thapsigargin (TGN), an agent that depletes intracellular calcium stores, inhibits keratinocyte differentiation. In the present study we show that TGN inhibits the PMA-dependent, differentiation-associated, increase in hINV mRNA levels and hINV promoter activity. Inhibition is half-maximal at 10 nM and maximal at 100 nM TGN. Neither basal hINV promoter activity nor glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA levels are inhibited. Mutation of a functionally important CAATT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site within the hINV promoter proximal regulatory region eliminates the regulation, suggesting that TGN may effect C/EBP-dependent promoter activation. Consistent with this hypothesis, TGN inhibits C/EBPalpha-dependent promoter activation via a mechanism that involves inhibition of C/EBPalpha binding to DNA without changing C/EBPalpha protein levels. These results suggest that TGN interferes with hINV expression by interfering with C/EBP transcription-factor function.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of leptin-containing intracellular compartment in rat adipose cells. (2/560)

The major leptin-containing membrane compartment was identified and characterized in rat adipose cells by means of equilibrium density and velocity sucrose gradient centrifugation. This compartment appears to be different from peptide-containing secretory granules present in neuronal, endocrine, and exocrine cells, as well as from insulin-sensitive GLUT-4-containing vesicles abundant in adipocytes. Exocytosis of both leptin- and GLUT-4-containing vesicles can be induced by insulin; however, only leptin secretion is responsive to serum stimulation. This latter effect is resistant to cycloheximide, suggesting that serum triggers the release of a stored pool of presynthesized leptin molecules. We conclude that regulated secretion of leptin and insulin-dependent translocation of GLUT-4 represent different pathways of membrane trafficking in rat adipose cells. NIH 3T3 cells ectopically expressing CAAT box enhancer binding protein-alpha and Swiss 3T3 cells expressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma undergo differentiation in vitro and acquire adipocyte morphology and insulin-responsive glucose uptake. Only the former cell line, however, is capable of leptin secretion. Thus different transcriptional mechanisms control the developmental onset of these two major and independent physiological functions in adipose cells.  (+info)

Role of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP-10) in the programmed activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta during adipogenesis. (3/560)

Hormone induction of growth-arrested preadipocytes triggers mitotic clonal expansion followed by expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)alpha and differentiation into adipocytes. The order of these events is critical because C/EBPalpha is antimitotic and its expression prematurely would block the mitotic clonal expansion required for differentiation. C/EBPbeta, a transcriptional activator of the C/EBPalpha gene, is expressed early in the differentiation program, but lacks DNA-binding activity and fails to localize to centromeres until preadipocytes traverse the G(1)-S checkpoint of mitotic clonal expansion. Evidence is presented that dominant-negative CHOP-10 expressed by growth-arrested preadipocytes transiently sequesters C/EBPbeta by heterodimerization. As preadipocytes reach S phase, CHOP-10 is down-regulated, apparently releasing C/EBPbeta from inhibitory constraint and allowing transactivation of the C/EBPalpha gene. In support of these findings, up-regulation of CHOP-10 with the protease inhibitor N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-norleucinal prevents activation of C/EBPbeta, expression of C/EBPalpha, and adipogenesis.  (+info)

Sequential repression and activation of the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha ) gene during adipogenesis. (4/560)

CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) functions as a pleiotropic transcriptional activator of adipocyte genes during adipogenesis. Nuclear factor C/EBP undifferentiated protein (CUP), an isoform of activator protein-2alpha (AP-2alpha), binds to repressive elements in the C/EBPalpha gene promoter, silencing the gene until late in the differentiation program. The CUP regulatory element overlaps a Sp (GT-box) element in the promoter to which Sp3 (or Sp1) can bind. Binding by Sp3 or Sp1 and CUP/AP2-alpha is mutually exclusive. Sp3 is a strong transcriptional activator of the C/EBPalpha gene promoter in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and Schneider cells, this activation being repressed by CUP/AP-2alpha. Sp3 is expressed throughout differentiation, whereas CUP/AP-2alpha, which is expressed only by preadipocytes, is down-regulated during differentiation coincident with transcription of the C/EBPalpha gene. Thus, CUP/AP-2alpha delays access of Sp3 to the Sp regulatory element, preventing premature expression of C/EBPalpha and thereby interference by C/EBPalpha (which is antimitotic) with mitotic clonal expansion, an essential early event in the differentiation program.  (+info)

CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) and C/EBPalpha (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) are required for the superstimulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription by adenoviral E1a and cAMP. (5/560)

In the present study, we observed superstimulated levels of cAMP-stimulated transcription from the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene promoter in cells infected with wild-type adenovirus expressing 12 S and 13 S E1a proteins, or in cells expressing 13 S E1a alone. cAMP-stimulated transcription was inhibited in cells expressing only 12 S E1a, but slightly elevated in cells expressing E1a proteins with mutations in conserved regions 1 or 2, leading us to conclude that the superstimulation was mediated by conserved region 3 of 13 S E1a. E1a failed to enhance cAMP-stimulated transcription from promoters containing mutations that abolish binding by cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) or CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs). This result was supported by experiments in which expression of dominant-negative CREB and/or C/EBP proteins repressed E1a- and cAMP-stimulated transcription from the PEPCK gene promoter. In reconstitution experiments using a Gal4-responsive promoter, E1a enhanced cAMP-stimulated transcription when chimaeric Gal4-CREB and Gal4-C/EBPalpha were co-expressed. Phosphorylation of CREB on serine-133 was stimulated in cells treated with dibutyryl cAMP, whereas phosphorylation of C/EBPalpha was increased by E1a expression. Our data support a model in which cAMP agonists increase CREB activity and stimulate PEPCK gene transcription, a process that is enhanced by E1a through the phosphorylation of C/EBPalpha.  (+info)

The rat ortholog of the presumptive flounder antifreeze enhancer-binding protein is a helicase domain-containing protein. (6/560)

The expression of winter flounder liver-type antifreeze protein (wflAFP) genes is tissue-specific and under seasonal and hormonal regulation. The only intron of the major wflAFP gene was demonstrated to be a liver-specific enhancer in both mammalian cell lines and flounder hepatocytes. Element B, the core enhancer sequence, was shown to interact specifically with a liver-enriched transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), as well as a presumptive antifreeze enhancer-binding protein (AEP). In this study, the identity of the rat AEP ortholog was revealed via its DNA-protein interaction with element B. It is a helicase-domain-containing protein, 988 amino acids in length, and is homologous to mouse Smubp-2, hamster Rip-1 and human Smubp-2. The specific binding between element B and AEP was confirmed by South-Western analysis and gel retardation assays. Residues in element B important to this interaction were identified by methylation interference assays. Mutation on one of the residues disrupted the binding between element B and AEP and its enhancer activity was significantly reduced, suggesting that AEP is essential for the transactivation of the wflAFP gene intron. The rat AEP is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, and the flounder homolog is present as shown by genomic Southern analysis. The potential role of AEP in regulating the flounder AFP gene expression is discussed.  (+info)

Interferon-gamma-induced regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and STATs in adipocytes. (7/560)

Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is known primarily for its roles in immunological responses but also has been shown to affect fat metabolism and adipocyte gene expression. To further investigate the effects of IFN-gamma on fat cells, we examined the effects of this cytokine on the expression of adipocyte transcription factors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Although IFN-gamma regulated the expression of several adipocyte transcription factors, IFN-gamma treatment resulted in a rapid reduction of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) protein and mRNA. A 48-h exposure to IFN-gamma also resulted in a decrease of both CCAAT/enhancer-binding alpha and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) expression. The short half-life of both the PPARgamma mRNA and protein likely contributed to the rapid decline of both cytosolic and nuclear PPARgamma in the presence of IFN-gamma. Our studies clearly demonstrated that the IFN-gamma-induced loss of PPARgamma protein is partially inhibited in the presence of two distinct proteasome inhibitors. Moreover, IFN-gamma also inhibited the transcription of PPARgamma, which was accompanied by a decrease in PPARgamma mRNA accumulation. In addition, exposure to IFN-gamma resulted in a substantial increase in STAT 1 expression and a small increase in STAT 3 expression. IFN-gamma treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes (48-96 h) resulted in a substantial inhibition of insulin-sensitive glucose uptake. These data clearly demonstrate that IFN-gamma treatment results in the development of insulin resistance, which is accompanied by the regulation of various adipocyte transcription factors, in particular the synthesis and degradation of PPARgamma.  (+info)

Hormonal signaling and transcriptional control of adipocyte differentiation. (8/560)

Recent advances regarding the biology of adipose tissue have identified the adipocyte as an important mediator in many physiologic and pathologic processes regarding energy metabolism. Consideration for a central role of adipose tissue in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus has resulted in new incentives toward understanding the complexities of adipocyte differentiation. Current knowledge of this process includes a cascade of transcriptional events that culminate in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha). These prominent adipogenic transcription factors have been shown to regulate, directly or indirectly, the gene expression necessary for the development of the mature adipocyte. Hormonal and nutritional signaling that impinges on these trans-acting factors provides a molecular link between lipids and lipid-related compounds and the gene expression important for glucose and lipid homeostasis. Knowledge concerning the transcriptional events mediating adipocyte differentiation provides a basis for understanding the physiologic processes associated with adipose tissue as well as for the development of therapeutic interventions in obesity and its related disorders.  (+info)

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha (CEBPA) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of genes involved in the differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells, which are the precursor cells to all blood cells. The protein binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter regions of many genes, and activates or represses their transcription.

Mutations in the CEBPA gene have been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. These mutations can lead to an increased risk of developing AML, as well as resistance to chemotherapy treatments. Therefore, understanding the function of CEBPA and its role in hematopoiesis is essential for the development of new therapies for AML and other hematological disorders.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell growth, development, and differentiation. They bind to specific DNA sequences called CCAAT boxes, which are found in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes.

The C/EBP family consists of several members, including C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPγ, C/EBPδ, and C/EBPε. These proteins share a highly conserved basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which is responsible for their DNA-binding and dimerization activities.

C/EBPs can form homodimers or heterodimers with other bZIP proteins, allowing them to regulate gene expression in a combinatorial manner. They are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as inflammation, immune response, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Dysregulation of C/EBP function has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta (CEBPB) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. It binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes. CEBPB is involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, development, and immune response. Dysregulation of CEBPB has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-delta (C/EBPδ) is a transcription factor that belongs to the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family. Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences, called enhancers or promoters, and controlling the recruitment of the RNA polymerase II complex for the initiation of transcription.

C/EBPδ is widely expressed in various tissues, including the liver, adipose tissue, muscle, and immune cells. It plays crucial roles in several biological processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation, inflammation, and metabolism. C/EBPδ binds to the DNA sequence called CCAAT box, which is present in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes. The binding of C/EBPδ to the target gene promoters or enhancers can either activate or repress their transcription, depending on the context and the interacting partners.

C/EBPδ has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, metabolic disorders, and inflammatory diseases. Dysregulation of C/EBPδ expression or function has been associated with tumorigenesis, obesity, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying C/EBPδ regulation and function is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Adipocytes are specialized cells that comprise adipose tissue, also known as fat tissue. They are responsible for storing energy in the form of lipids, particularly triglycerides, and releasing energy when needed through a process called lipolysis. There are two main types of adipocytes: white adipocytes and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes primarily store energy, while brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat through the action of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1).

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adipocytes also secrete various hormones and signaling molecules that contribute to whole-body homeostasis. These include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and inflammatory cytokines. Dysregulation of adipocyte function has been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Adipogenesis is the process by which precursor cells differentiate into mature adipocytes, or fat cells. This complex biological process involves a series of molecular and cellular events that are regulated by various genetic and epigenetic factors.

During adipogenesis, preadipocytes undergo a series of changes that include cell cycle arrest, morphological alterations, and the expression of specific genes that are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. These changes ultimately result in the formation of mature adipocytes that are capable of storing energy in the form of lipids.

Abnormalities in adipogenesis have been linked to various health conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate adipogenesis is an active area of research, as it may lead to the development of new therapies for these and other related diseases.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Genetic enhancer elements are DNA sequences that increase the transcription of specific genes. They work by binding to regulatory proteins called transcription factors, which in turn recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This results in the activation of gene transcription and increased production of the protein encoded by that gene.

Enhancer elements can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of the genes they regulate, and they can act over long distances along the DNA molecule. They are an important mechanism for controlling gene expression in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, allowing for the precise regulation of gene activity during embryonic development and throughout adult life.

It's worth noting that genetic enhancer elements are often referred to simply as "enhancers," and they are distinct from other types of regulatory DNA sequences such as promoters, silencers, and insulators.

3T3-L1 cells are a widely used cell line in biomedical research, particularly in the study of adipocytes (fat cells) and adipose tissue. These cells are derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts and have the ability to differentiate into adipocytes under specific culture conditions.

When 3T3-L1 cells are exposed to a cocktail of hormones and growth factors, they undergo a process called adipogenesis, during which they differentiate into mature adipocytes. These differentiated cells exhibit many characteristics of fat cells, including the accumulation of lipid droplets, expression of adipocyte-specific genes and proteins, and the ability to respond to hormones such as insulin.

Researchers use 3T3-L1 cells to study various aspects of adipocyte biology, including the regulation of fat metabolism, the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders, and the effects of drugs or other compounds on adipose tissue function. However, it is important to note that because these cells are derived from mice, they may not always behave exactly the same way as human adipocytes, so results obtained using 3T3-L1 cells must be validated in human cell lines or animal models before they can be applied to human health.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. They are called granulocytes because they contain small granules in their cytoplasm, which are filled with various enzymes and proteins that help them fight off infections and destroy foreign substances.

There are three types of granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutrophils are the most abundant type and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. Eosinophils play a role in defending against parasitic infections and regulating immune responses. Basophils are involved in inflammatory reactions and allergic responses.

Granulocytes are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they circulate and patrol for any signs of infection or foreign substances. When they encounter a threat, they quickly move to the site of infection or injury and release their granules to destroy the invading organisms or substances.

Abnormal levels of granulocytes in the blood can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder.

Transcriptional activation is the process by which a cell increases the rate of transcription of specific genes from DNA to RNA. This process is tightly regulated and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli.

Transcriptional activation occurs when transcription factors (proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences) interact with the promoter region of a gene and recruit co-activator proteins. These co-activators help to remodel the chromatin structure around the gene, making it more accessible for the transcription machinery to bind and initiate transcription.

Transcriptional activation can be regulated at multiple levels, including the availability and activity of transcription factors, the modification of histone proteins, and the recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors. Dysregulation of transcriptional activation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. The name "3T3" is derived from the fact that these cells were developed by treating mouse embryo cells with a chemical called trypsin and then culturing them in a flask at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

Specifically, 3T3 cells are a type of fibroblast, which is a type of cell that is responsible for producing connective tissue in the body. They are often used in studies involving cell growth and proliferation, as well as in toxicity tests and drug screening assays.

One particularly well-known use of 3T3 cells is in the 3T3-L1 cell line, which is a subtype of 3T3 cells that can be differentiated into adipocytes (fat cells) under certain conditions. These cells are often used in studies of adipose tissue biology and obesity.

It's important to note that because 3T3 cells are a type of immortalized cell line, they do not always behave exactly the same way as primary cells (cells that are taken directly from a living organism). As such, researchers must be careful when interpreting results obtained using 3T3 cells and consider any potential limitations or artifacts that may arise due to their use.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

PPAR gamma, or Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma, is a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of genes involved in adipogenesis (the process of forming mature fat cells), lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. PPAR gamma is primarily expressed in adipose tissue but can also be found in other tissues such as the immune system, large intestine, and brain.

PPAR gamma forms a heterodimer with another nuclear receptor protein, RXR (Retinoid X Receptor), and binds to specific DNA sequences called PPREs (Peroxisome Proliferator Response Elements) in the promoter regions of target genes. Upon binding, PPAR gamma modulates the transcription of these genes, either activating or repressing their expression.

Agonists of PPAR gamma, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), are used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes due to their insulin-sensitizing effects. These drugs work by binding to and activating PPAR gamma, which in turn leads to the upregulation of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

In summary, PPAR gamma is a nuclear receptor protein that regulates gene expression related to adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation has therapeutic implications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Gene expression regulation in leukemia refers to the processes that control the production or activation of specific proteins encoded by genes in leukemic cells. These regulatory mechanisms include various molecular interactions that can either promote or inhibit gene transcription and translation. In leukemia, abnormal gene expression regulation can lead to uncontrolled proliferation, differentiation arrest, and accumulation of malignant white blood cells (leukemia cells) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.

Dysregulated gene expression in leukemia may involve genetic alterations such as mutations, chromosomal translocations, or epigenetic changes that affect DNA methylation patterns and histone modifications. These changes can result in the overexpression of oncogenes (genes with cancer-promoting functions) or underexpression of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent uncontrolled cell growth).

Understanding gene expression regulation in leukemia is crucial for developing targeted therapies and improving diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. In AML, the immature cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow fail to mature into normal blood cells. Instead, these blasts accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia).

AML is called "acute" because it can progress quickly and become severe within days or weeks without treatment. It is a type of myeloid leukemia, which means that it affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that includes monocytes and granulocytes, which help fight infection and defend the body against foreign invaders.

In AML, the blasts can build up in the bone marrow and spread to other parts of the body, including the blood, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and brain. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss.

AML is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the type and stage of the leukemia.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Transcription Factor CHOP, also known as DNA Binding Protein C/EBP Homologous Protein or GADD153 (Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-inducible protein 153), is a transcription factor that is involved in the regulation of gene expression in response to various stress stimuli, such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, and DNA damage.

CHOP is a member of the C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) family of transcription factors, which bind to specific DNA sequences called cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of target genes. CHOP can form heterodimers with other C/EBP family members and bind to their target DNA sequences, thereby regulating gene expression.

Under normal physiological conditions, CHOP is expressed at low levels. However, under stress conditions, such as ER stress, the expression of CHOP is upregulated through the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways. Once activated, CHOP can induce the transcription of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and oxidative stress response, leading to programmed cell death or survival, depending on the severity and duration of the stress signal.

Therefore, CHOP plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by regulating gene expression in response to various stress stimuli, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

An Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) is a laboratory technique used to detect and analyze protein-DNA interactions. In this assay, a mixture of proteins and fluorescently or radioactively labeled DNA probes are loaded onto a native polyacrylamide gel matrix and subjected to an electric field. The negatively charged DNA probe migrates towards the positive electrode, and the rate of migration (mobility) is dependent on the size and charge of the molecule. When a protein binds to the DNA probe, it forms a complex that has a different size and/or charge than the unbound probe, resulting in a shift in its mobility on the gel.

The EMSA can be used to identify specific protein-DNA interactions, determine the binding affinity of proteins for specific DNA sequences, and investigate the effects of mutations or post-translational modifications on protein-DNA interactions. The technique is widely used in molecular biology research, including studies of gene regulation, DNA damage repair, and epigenetic modifications.

In summary, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) is a laboratory technique that detects and analyzes protein-DNA interactions by subjecting a mixture of proteins and labeled DNA probes to an electric field in a native polyacrylamide gel matrix. The binding of proteins to the DNA probe results in a shift in its mobility on the gel, allowing for the detection and analysis of specific protein-DNA interactions.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

"Response elements" is a term used in molecular biology, particularly in the study of gene regulation. Response elements are specific DNA sequences that can bind to transcription factors, which are proteins that regulate gene expression. When a transcription factor binds to a response element, it can either activate or repress the transcription of the nearby gene.

Response elements are often found in the promoter region of genes and are typically short, conserved sequences that can be recognized by specific transcription factors. The binding of a transcription factor to a response element can lead to changes in chromatin structure, recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors, and ultimately, the regulation of gene expression.

Response elements are important for many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli such as hormones, growth factors, and stress. The specificity of transcription factor binding to response elements allows for precise control of gene expression in response to changing conditions within the cell or organism.

Transcription Factor AP-2 is a specific protein involved in the process of gene transcription. It belongs to a family of transcription factors known as Activating Enhancer-Binding Proteins (AP-2). These proteins regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences called enhancers, which are located near the genes they control.

AP-2 is composed of four subunits that form a homo- or heterodimer, which then binds to the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. This sequence is typically found in the promoter regions of target genes. Once bound, AP-2 can either activate or repress gene transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors.

AP-2 plays crucial roles during embryonic development, particularly in the formation of the nervous system, limbs, and face. It is also involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of AP-2 has been implicated in several diseases, including various types of cancer.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Myelopoiesis is the process of formation and development of myeloid cells (a type of blood cell) within the bone marrow. This includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), platelets (thrombopoiesis), and white blood cells such as granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils), monocytes, and mast cells. Myelopoiesis is a continuous process that is regulated by various growth factors and hormones to maintain the normal levels of these cells in the body. Abnormalities in myelopoiesis can lead to several hematological disorders like anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

GTP-binding protein (G protein) alpha subunits are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling pathways, particularly those involved in the transmission of signals across the plasma membrane in response to hormones, neurotransmitters, and other extracellular signals. These proteins bind to guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and undergo conformational changes upon activation, which enables them to interact with downstream effectors and modulate various cellular responses.

There are several classes of G protein alpha subunits, including Gs, Gi/o, Gq/11, and G12/13, each of which activates distinct signaling cascades upon activation. For instance, Gs alpha subunits activate adenylyl cyclase, leading to increased levels of cAMP and the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), while Gi/o alpha subunits inhibit adenylyl cyclase and reduce cAMP levels. Gq/11 alpha subunits activate phospholipase C-beta (PLC-β), which leads to the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), while G12/13 alpha subunits modulate cytoskeletal rearrangements through activation of Rho GTPases.

Mutations in G protein alpha subunits have been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of these proteins is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

A "reporter gene" is a type of gene that is linked to a gene of interest in order to make the expression or activity of that gene detectable. The reporter gene encodes for a protein that can be easily measured and serves as an indicator of the presence and activity of the gene of interest. Commonly used reporter genes include those that encode for fluorescent proteins, enzymes that catalyze colorimetric reactions, or proteins that bind to specific molecules.

In the context of genetics and genomics research, a reporter gene is often used in studies involving gene expression, regulation, and function. By introducing the reporter gene into an organism or cell, researchers can monitor the activity of the gene of interest in real-time or after various experimental treatments. The information obtained from these studies can help elucidate the role of specific genes in biological processes and diseases, providing valuable insights for basic research and therapeutic development.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a molecular biology technique used to analyze the interaction between proteins and DNA in the cell. It is a powerful tool for studying protein-DNA binding, such as transcription factor binding to specific DNA sequences, histone modification, and chromatin structure.

In ChIP assays, cells are first crosslinked with formaldehyde to preserve protein-DNA interactions. The chromatin is then fragmented into small pieces using sonication or other methods. Specific antibodies against the protein of interest are added to precipitate the protein-DNA complexes. After reversing the crosslinking, the DNA associated with the protein is purified and analyzed using PCR, sequencing, or microarray technologies.

ChIP assays can provide valuable information about the regulation of gene expression, epigenetic modifications, and chromatin structure in various biological processes and diseases, including cancer, development, and differentiation.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Up-regulation is a term used in molecular biology and medicine to describe an increase in the expression or activity of a gene, protein, or receptor in response to a stimulus. This can occur through various mechanisms such as increased transcription, translation, or reduced degradation of the molecule. Up-regulation can have important functional consequences, for example, enhancing the sensitivity or response of a cell to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or drug. It is a normal physiological process that can also be induced by disease or pharmacological interventions.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Luciferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of their substrates, leading to the emission of light. This bioluminescent process is often associated with certain species of bacteria, insects, and fish. The term "luciferase" comes from the Latin word "lucifer," which means "light bearer."

The most well-known example of luciferase is probably that found in fireflies, where the enzyme reacts with a compound called luciferin to produce light. This reaction requires the presence of oxygen and ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which provides the energy needed for the reaction to occur.

Luciferases have important applications in scientific research, particularly in the development of sensitive assays for detecting gene expression and protein-protein interactions. By labeling a protein or gene of interest with luciferase, researchers can measure its activity by detecting the light emitted during the enzymatic reaction. This allows for highly sensitive and specific measurements, making luciferases valuable tools in molecular biology and biochemistry.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Leucine Zippers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a term used in molecular biology to describe a specific structural motif found in some proteins. Leucine zippers are amino acid sequences that contain regularly spaced leucine residues and form coiled-coil structures, which play a role in protein-protein interactions, particularly in DNA binding transcription factors.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Protein isoforms are different forms or variants of a protein that are produced from a single gene through the process of alternative splicing, where different exons (or parts of exons) are included in the mature mRNA molecule. This results in the production of multiple, slightly different proteins that share a common core structure but have distinct sequences and functions. Protein isoforms can also arise from genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms or mutations that alter the protein-coding sequence of a gene. These differences in protein sequence can affect the stability, localization, activity, or interaction partners of the protein isoform, leading to functional diversity and specialization within cells and organisms.

Endrin is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide that was widely used in the past for agricultural and household pest control. It is an off-white crystalline powder with a mild chemical odor, and it is highly toxic to both animals and humans. Endrin works by disrupting the nervous system, causing symptoms such as seizures, tremors, and respiratory failure.

Endrin is no longer registered for use in many countries due to its high toxicity and persistence in the environment. It can accumulate in the food chain, posing a risk to wildlife and human health. Exposure to endrin can occur through contaminated food, water, or air, and it can cause acute and chronic health effects, including neurological damage, liver and kidney toxicity, and reproductive problems.

In medical terms, endrin is classified as a neurotoxin and a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide. It is important to note that exposure to endrin should be avoided, and any suspected cases of poisoning should be reported to a healthcare professional immediately.

Regulatory sequences in nucleic acid refer to specific DNA or RNA segments that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes without encoding proteins. They are crucial for the proper functioning of cells as they regulate various cellular processes such as transcription, translation, mRNA stability, and localization. Regulatory sequences can be found in both coding and non-coding regions of DNA or RNA.

Some common types of regulatory sequences in nucleic acid include:

1. Promoters: DNA sequences typically located upstream of the gene that provide a binding site for RNA polymerase and transcription factors to initiate transcription.
2. Enhancers: DNA sequences, often located at a distance from the gene, that enhance transcription by binding to specific transcription factors and increasing the recruitment of RNA polymerase.
3. Silencers: DNA sequences that repress transcription by binding to specific proteins that inhibit the recruitment of RNA polymerase or promote chromatin compaction.
4. Intron splice sites: Specific nucleotide sequences within introns (non-coding regions) that mark the boundaries between exons (coding regions) and are essential for correct splicing of pre-mRNA.
5. 5' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 5' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements affecting translation efficiency, stability, and localization.
6. 3' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 3' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements influencing translation termination, stability, and localization.
7. miRNA target sites: Specific sequences in mRNAs that bind to microRNAs (miRNAs) leading to translational repression or degradation of the target mRNA.

Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta (HNF-3β, also known as FOXA3) is a transcription factor that plays crucial roles in the development and function of various organs, including the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. It belongs to the forkhead box (FOX) family of proteins, which are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain known as the forkhead box or winged helix domain.

In the liver, HNF-3β is essential for the differentiation and maintenance of hepatocytes, the primary functional cells of the liver. It regulates the expression of several genes involved in liver-specific functions such as glucose metabolism, bile acid synthesis, and detoxification.

HNF-3β also has important roles in the pancreas, where it helps regulate the development and function of insulin-producing beta cells. In the kidneys, HNF-3β is involved in the differentiation and maintenance of the nephron, the functional unit responsible for filtering blood and maintaining water and electrolyte balance.

Mutations in the gene encoding HNF-3β have been associated with several genetic disorders, including maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and renal cysts and diabetes syndrome (RCAD).

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

The acute-phase reaction is a complex series of physiological responses that occur in response to tissue injury, infection, or stress. It is characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from activated immune cells, including macrophages and neutrophils.

These cytokines trigger a range of systemic effects, including fever, increased heart rate and respiratory rate, decreased appetite, and changes in white blood cell count. They also stimulate the production of acute-phase proteins (APPs) by the liver, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and serum amyloid A.

The acute-phase reaction is an important part of the body's immune response to injury or infection, helping to promote healing and fight off pathogens. However, excessive or prolonged activation of the acute-phase reaction can contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions and diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) p50 subunit, also known as NFKB1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune response, inflammation, and cell survival. The NF-κB p50 subunit can form homodimers or heterodimers with other NF-κB family members, such as p65 (RelA) or c-Rel, to bind to specific DNA sequences called κB sites in the promoter regions of target genes.

The activation of NF-κB signaling leads to the nuclear translocation of these dimers and the regulation of gene expression involved in various biological processes, including immune response, inflammation, differentiation, cell growth, and apoptosis. The p50 subunit can act as a transcriptional activator or repressor, depending on its partner and the context.

In summary, NF-κB p50 Subunit is a protein involved in the regulation of gene expression, particularly in immune response, inflammation, and cell survival, through its ability to bind to specific DNA sequences as part of homodimers or heterodimers with other NF-κB family members.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

U937 cells are a type of human histiocytic lymphoma cell line that is commonly used in scientific research and studies. They are derived from the peripheral blood of a patient with histiocytic lymphoma, which is a rare type of cancer that affects the immune system's cells called histiocytes.

U937 cells have a variety of uses in research, including studying the mechanisms of cancer cell growth and proliferation, testing the effects of various drugs and treatments on cancer cells, and investigating the role of different genes and proteins in cancer development and progression. These cells are easy to culture and maintain in the laboratory, making them a popular choice for researchers in many fields.

It is important to note that while U937 cells can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cancer cells, they do not necessarily reflect the complexity and diversity of human cancers. Therefore, findings from studies using these cells should be validated in more complex models or clinical trials before being applied to patient care.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

RNA polymerase sigma 54 (σ^54) is not a medical term, but rather a molecular biology concept. It's a type of sigma factor that associates with the core RNA polymerase to form the holoenzyme in bacteria. Sigma factors are subunits of RNA polymerase that recognize and bind to specific promoter sequences on DNA, thereby initiating transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA).

σ^54 is unique because it requires additional energy to melt the DNA strands at the promoter site for transcription initiation. This energy comes from ATP hydrolysis, which is facilitated by a group of proteins called bacterial enhancer-binding proteins (bEBPs). The σ^54-dependent promoters typically contain two conserved sequence elements: an upstream activating sequence (UAS) and a downstream core promoter element (DPE).

In summary, RNA polymerase sigma 54 is a type of sigma factor that plays a crucial role in the initiation of transcription in bacteria. It specifically recognizes and binds to certain promoter sequences on DNA, and its activity requires ATP hydrolysis facilitated by bEBPs.

CREB (Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various cellular signals. CREB binds to the cAMP response element (CRE) sequence in the promoter region of target genes and regulates their transcription.

When activated, CREB undergoes phosphorylation at a specific serine residue (Ser-133), which leads to its binding to the coactivator protein CBP/p300 and recruitment of additional transcriptional machinery to the promoter region. This results in the activation of target gene transcription.

CREB is involved in various cellular processes, including metabolism, differentiation, survival, and memory formation. Dysregulation of CREB has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and mood disorders.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors are two types of intracellular receptors that play crucial roles in signal transduction pathways and regulation of gene expression. They are classified based on their location within the cell. Here are the medical definitions for each:

1. Cytoplasmic Receptors: These are a group of intracellular receptors primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, which bind to specific hormones, growth factors, or other signaling molecules. Upon binding, these receptors undergo conformational changes that allow them to interact with various partners, such as adapter proteins and enzymes, leading to activation of downstream signaling cascades. These pathways ultimately result in modulation of cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Examples of cytoplasmic receptors include receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors, and cytokine receptors.
2. Nuclear Receptors: These are a distinct class of intracellular receptors that reside primarily in the nucleus of cells. They bind to specific ligands, such as steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D, retinoic acid, and various other lipophilic molecules. Upon binding, nuclear receptors undergo conformational changes that facilitate their interaction with co-regulatory proteins and the DNA. This interaction results in the modulation of gene transcription, ultimately leading to alterations in protein expression and cellular responses. Examples of nuclear receptors include estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

Both cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors are essential components of cellular communication networks, allowing cells to respond appropriately to extracellular signals and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.

NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammation, as well as in cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. It is composed of several subunits, including p50, p52, p65 (RelA), c-Rel, and RelB, which can form homodimers or heterodimers that bind to specific DNA sequences called κB sites in the promoter regions of target genes.

Under normal conditions, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins known as IκBs (inhibitors of κB). However, upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, bacterial or viral products, and stress, IκBs are phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and degraded, leading to the release and activation of NF-κB. Activated NF-κB then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to κB sites and regulates the expression of target genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation.

Dysregulation of NF-κB signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as cancer, chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, targeting NF-κB signaling has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases.

Northern blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and analyze specific RNA molecules (such as mRNA) in a mixture of total RNA extracted from cells or tissues. This technique is called "Northern" blotting because it is analogous to the Southern blotting method, which is used for DNA detection.

The Northern blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Electrophoresis: The total RNA mixture is first separated based on size by running it through an agarose gel using electrical current. This separates the RNA molecules according to their length, with smaller RNA fragments migrating faster than larger ones.

2. Transfer: After electrophoresis, the RNA bands are denatured (made single-stranded) and transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane using a technique called capillary transfer or vacuum blotting. This step ensures that the order and relative positions of the RNA fragments are preserved on the membrane, similar to how they appear in the gel.

3. Cross-linking: The RNA is then chemically cross-linked to the membrane using UV light or heat treatment, which helps to immobilize the RNA onto the membrane and prevent it from washing off during subsequent steps.

4. Prehybridization: Before adding the labeled probe, the membrane is prehybridized in a solution containing blocking agents (such as salmon sperm DNA or yeast tRNA) to minimize non-specific binding of the probe to the membrane.

5. Hybridization: A labeled nucleic acid probe, specific to the RNA of interest, is added to the prehybridization solution and allowed to hybridize (form base pairs) with its complementary RNA sequence on the membrane. The probe can be either a DNA or an RNA molecule, and it is typically labeled with a radioactive isotope (such as ³²P) or a non-radioactive label (such as digoxigenin).

6. Washing: After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove unbound probe and reduce background noise. The washing conditions (temperature, salt concentration, and detergent concentration) are optimized based on the stringency required for specific hybridization.

7. Detection: The presence of the labeled probe is then detected using an appropriate method, depending on the type of label used. For radioactive probes, this typically involves exposing the membrane to X-ray film or a phosphorimager screen and analyzing the resulting image. For non-radioactive probes, detection can be performed using colorimetric, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent methods.

8. Data analysis: The intensity of the signal is quantified and compared to controls (such as housekeeping genes) to determine the relative expression level of the RNA of interest. This information can be used for various purposes, such as identifying differentially expressed genes in response to a specific treatment or comparing gene expression levels across different samples or conditions.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Oligonucleotides are short sequences of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA. They typically contain fewer than 100 nucleotides, and can be synthesized chemically to have specific sequences. Oligonucleotides are used in a variety of applications in molecular biology, including as probes for detecting specific DNA or RNA sequences, as inhibitors of gene expression, and as components of diagnostic tests and therapies. They can also be used in the study of protein-nucleic acid interactions and in the development of new drugs.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a type of short, double-stranded RNA molecule that plays a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNAi pathway is a natural cellular process that regulates gene expression by targeting and destroying specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins.

SiRNAs are typically 20-25 base pairs in length and are generated from longer double-stranded RNA precursors called hairpin RNAs or dsRNAs by an enzyme called Dicer. Once generated, siRNAs associate with a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the siRNA (the guide strand) to recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The RISC then cleaves the target mRNA, leading to its degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis.

SiRNAs have emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function and have shown promise as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and genetic disorders. However, their use as therapeutics is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges associated with delivering siRNAs to specific cells and tissues in the body.

HL-60 cells are a type of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. They are named after the hospital where they were first isolated, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP) and the 60th culture attempt to grow these cells.

HL-60 cells have the ability to differentiate into various types of blood cells, such as granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages, when exposed to certain chemical compounds or under specific culturing conditions. This makes them a valuable tool for studying the mechanisms of cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

HL-60 cells are also often used in toxicity studies, drug discovery and development, and research on cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. They can be easily grown in the lab and have a stable genotype, making them ideal for use in standardized experiments and comparisons between different studies.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Transcription Factor AP-1 (Activator Protein 1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that belongs to the bZIP (basic region-leucine zipper) family. It is formed by the dimerization of Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) and Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1, Fra2) protein families, or alternatively by homodimers of Jun proteins. AP-1 plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Its activity is tightly controlled through various signaling pathways, including the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades, which lead to phosphorylation and activation of its components. Once activated, AP-1 binds to specific DNA sequences called TPA response elements (TREs) or AP-1 sites, thereby modulating the transcription of target genes involved in various cellular responses, such as inflammation, immune response, stress response, and oncogenic transformation.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress refers to a cellular condition characterized by the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins within the ER lumen, leading to disruption of its normal functions. The ER is a membrane-bound organelle responsible for protein folding, modification, and transport, as well as lipid synthesis and calcium homeostasis. Various physiological and pathological conditions can cause an imbalance between the rate of protein entry into the ER and its folding capacity, resulting in ER stress.

To cope with this stress, cells have evolved a set of signaling pathways called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR aims to restore ER homeostasis by reducing global protein synthesis, enhancing ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins, and upregulating the expression of genes involved in protein folding, modification, and quality control.

The UPR is mediated by three major signaling branches:

1. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α): IRE1α is an ER transmembrane protein with endoribonuclease activity that catalyzes the splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA, leading to the expression of a potent transcription factor, spliced XBP1 (sXBP1). sXBP1 upregulates genes involved in ERAD and protein folding.
2. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6): ATF6 is an ER transmembrane protein that, upon ER stress, undergoes proteolytic cleavage to release its cytoplasmic domain, which acts as a potent transcription factor. ATF6 upregulates genes involved in protein folding and degradation.
3. Protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK): PERK is an ER transmembrane protein that phosphorylates the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) upon ER stress, leading to a global reduction in protein synthesis and preferential translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). ATF4 upregulates genes involved in amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and apoptosis.

These three branches of the UPR work together to restore ER homeostasis by increasing protein folding capacity, reducing global protein synthesis, and promoting degradation of misfolded proteins. However, if the stress persists or becomes too severe, the UPR can trigger cell death through apoptosis.

In summary, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a complex signaling network that helps maintain ER homeostasis by detecting and responding to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. The UPR involves three main branches: IRE1α, ATF6, and PERK, which work together to restore ER homeostasis through increased protein folding capacity, reduced global protein synthesis, and enhanced degradation of misfolded proteins. Persistent or severe ER stress can lead to the activation of cell death pathways by the UPR.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of protein that plays a crucial role in communication between cells, especially in the immune system. It is produced by various cells including T-cells, B-cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to infection, injury, or inflammation.

IL-6 has diverse effects on different cell types. In the immune system, it stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies. It also promotes the activation and survival of T-cells. Moreover, IL-6 plays a role in fever induction by acting on the hypothalamus to raise body temperature during an immune response.

In addition to its functions in the immune system, IL-6 has been implicated in various physiological processes such as hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), bone metabolism, and neural development. However, abnormal levels of IL-6 have also been associated with several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Monocyte-macrophage precursor cells, also known as monoblasts or macrophage dendritic cell progenitors, are a type of white blood cell that gives rise to both monocytes and macrophages. They are found in the bone marrow and are part of the immune system's early defense against infection. Monocyte-macrophage precursor cells are large cells with a round or oval nucleus, and they are characterized by the expression of specific surface markers such as CD14 and CD16. They have the ability to differentiate into monocytes, which then circulate in the blood and can further differentiate into macrophages or dendritic cells, depending on the signals they receive from their environment. Macrophages are important phagocytic cells that engulf and destroy foreign particles, microbes, and cellular debris, while dendritic cells play a key role in antigen presentation to T-cells and activation of the adaptive immune response.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of interconnected tubules and sacs that are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It is a continuous membranous organelle that plays a crucial role in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins and lipids.

The ER has two main types: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). RER is covered with ribosomes, which give it a rough appearance, and is responsible for protein synthesis. On the other hand, SER lacks ribosomes and is involved in lipid synthesis, drug detoxification, calcium homeostasis, and steroid hormone production.

In summary, the endoplasmic reticulum is a vital organelle that functions in various cellular processes, including protein and lipid metabolism, calcium regulation, and detoxification.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are a type of membrane transport protein that facilitate the passive or active transport of monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of carbohydrates in the body.

There are two main types of monosaccharide transport proteins: facilitated diffusion transporters and active transporters. Facilitated diffusion transporters, also known as glucose transporters (GLUTs), passively transport monosaccharides down their concentration gradient without the need for energy. In contrast, active transporters, such as the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), use energy in the form of ATP to actively transport monosaccharides against their concentration gradient.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the intestines, kidneys, liver, and brain. They play a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis by regulating the uptake and release of glucose into and out of cells. Dysfunction of these transporters has been implicated in several diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) is an enzyme that cleaves the phosphodiester bonds in the DNA molecule, breaking it down into smaller pieces. It is also known as DNase A or bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease. This enzyme specifically hydrolyzes the internucleotide linkages of DNA by cleaving the phosphodiester bond between the 3'-hydroxyl group of one deoxyribose sugar and the phosphate group of another, leaving 3'-phosphomononucleotides as products.

DNase I plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including DNA degradation during apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and host defense against pathogens by breaking down extracellular DNA from invading microorganisms or damaged cells. It is widely used in molecular biology research for applications such as DNA isolation, removing contaminating DNA from RNA samples, and generating defined DNA fragments for cloning purposes. DNase I can be found in various sources, including bovine pancreas, human tears, and bacterial cultures.

Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a group of small intracellular proteins that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fatty acids within cells. They are responsible for binding long-chain fatty acids, which are hydrophobic molecules, and facilitating their movement across the cell while protecting the cells from lipotoxicity.

FABPs are expressed in various tissues, including the heart, liver, muscle, and brain, with different isoforms found in specific organs. These proteins have a high affinity for long-chain fatty acids and can regulate their intracellular concentration by controlling the uptake, storage, and metabolism of these molecules.

FABPs also play a role in modulating cell signaling pathways that are involved in various physiological processes such as inflammation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of FABP expression and function has been implicated in several diseases, including diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

In summary, fatty acid-binding proteins are essential intracellular proteins that facilitate the transport and metabolism of long-chain fatty acids while regulating cell signaling pathways.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Freytag SO, Paielli DL, Gilbert JD (Jul 1994). "Ectopic expression of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha promotes the ... "CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation". ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) is a family of transcription factors composed of six members, named from C/EBPα to ... The function of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins in cancer is thus clearly context dependent but largely tumor suppressive. C/ ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is a protein encoded by the CEBPA gene in humans. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha is ... One category of mutations prevent CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha DNA binding by altering its COOH-terminal basic leucine ... For details on the CCAAT structural motif in gene enhancers and on CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Proteins see the specific page. The ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPA CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), alpha". Ohlsson E, Schuster MB, Hasemann M, Porse BT (Apr 2016). " ...
"Different regulation of the LXRalpha promoter activity by isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins". Biochemical and ... Liver X receptor alpha (LXR-alpha) is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1H3 gene (nuclear receptor ... "The atypical interaction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha with liver X receptor alpha antagonizes the ... peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and liver-X-receptor alpha". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 146 (1-2): ...
"Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits type I collagen synthesis through repressive CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins". Molecular ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPB gene. The protein encoded by this ... It can also form heterodimers with enhancer-binding proteins such as alpha, delta, and gamma. The activity of this protein is ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPB CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta". Ruffell D, Mourkioti F, Gambardella A, Kirstetter P, Lopez RG ...
Boruk M, Savory JG, Haché RJ (November 1998). "AF-2-dependent potentiation of CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta-mediated ... March 2001). "A subfamily of RNA-binding DEAD-box proteins acts as an estrogen receptor alpha coactivator through the N- ... "Entrez Gene: DBI diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-Coenzyme A binding protein)". Kos M, Reid G, Denger ... March 2000). "Tamoxifen-bound estrogen receptor (ER) strongly interacts with the nuclear matrix protein HET/SAF-B, a novel ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPD gene. The protein encoded by this ... It can also form heterodimers with the related protein CEBP-alpha. The encoded protein is important in the regulation of genes ... "CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation". ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPD CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), delta". Gery S, Tanosaki S, Hofmann WK, Koppel A, Koeffler HP (Feb ...
March 2001). "Dominant-negative mutations of CEBPA, encoding CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha), in acute ... an aggregate of multiple copies of the same protein, otherwise known as a homomultimeric protein or homooligomeric protein. In ... For example, in humans the Hb gene locus is responsible for the Beta-chain protein (HBB) that is one of the two globin proteins ... A mutation that leads to a mutant protein that disrupts the activity of the wild-type protein in the multimer is a dominant- ...
Jurado LA, Song S, Roesler WJ, Park EA (2002). "Conserved amino acids within CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP(alpha) and ... A mitochondrial isozyme of the encoded protein also has been characterized. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to ... Wilson HL, McFie PJ, Roesler WJ (2003). "Different transcription factor binding arrays modulate the cAMP responsivity of the ... 2002). "Crystal structure of human cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase reveals a new GTP-binding site". J. Mol. Biol. ...
"Transcriptional regulation of human CYP3A4 basal expression by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha and hepatocyte nuclear ... "Cloning and characterization of seven human forkhead proteins: binding site specificity and DNA bending". The EMBO Journal. 13 ... Forkhead box I1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXI1 gene. This gene belongs to the forkhead family of ... FOX proteins GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168269 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000047861 - ...
2003). "Transcriptional regulation of human CYP3A4 basal expression by CCAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha and hepatocyte ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXA3 gene. HNF-3G is a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. ... 2009). "Differential binding and co-binding pattern of FOXA1 and FOXA3 and their relation to H3K4me3 in HepG2 cells revealed by ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma (HNF-3G), also known as forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3) or transcription factor 3G (TCF-3G) ...
... of a co-repressor that inhibits the transcriptional and growth-arrest activities of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha". J. ... 2000). "Protein-interaction modules that organize nuclear function: FF domains of CA150 bind the phosphoCTD of RNA polymerase ... 2004). "A protein interaction network links GIT1, an enhancer of huntingtin aggregation, to Huntington's disease". Mol. Cell. ... This gene encodes a nuclear protein that regulates transcriptional elongation and pre-mRNA splicing. The encoded protein ...
... studies indicate a role for CCAAT enhancer binding proteins alpha and epsilon (C/EBP alpha and C/EBP epsilon ) and CDP/cut in ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon, also known as CEBPE and CRP1, is a type of ccaat-enhancer-binding protein. ... "Entrez Gene: CEBPE CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon". Antonson P, Stellan B, Yamanaka R, Xanthopoulos KG (Jul ... Antonson P, Stellan B, Yamanaka R, Xanthopoulos KG (Jul 1996). "A novel human CCAAT/enhancer binding protein gene, C/EBPepsilon ...
"A synergy control motif within the attenuator domain of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha inhibits transcriptional synergy ... E3 SUMO-protein ligase PIAS4 is one of several protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins. It is also known as protein ... Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 and Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000105229 ... "Entrez Gene: PIAS4 Protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 4". Imoto, Seiyu; Sugiyama Kenji; Muromoto Ryuta; Sato Noriko; Yamamoto ...
"A synergy control motif within the attenuator domain of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha inhibits transcriptional synergy ... Eaton EM, Sealy L (August 2003). "Modification of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta by the small ubiquitin-like modifier ( ... Dobreva G, Dambacher J, Grosschedl R (December 2003). "SUMO modification of a novel MAR-binding protein, SATB2, modulates ... Small ubiquitin-related modifier 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SUMO3 gene. SUMO proteins, such as SUMO3, and ...
Zuo Y, Qiang L, Farmer SR (March 2006). "Activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) alpha expression by C/EBP beta ... inhibited adipogenesis and repressed induction of the master regulators PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA ... binding protein], PACT (protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase), the SMN complex, fragile X mental ... These proteins have three highly positively charged regions, termed AT hooks, that bind the minor groove of AT-rich DNA ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha), glucocorticoid receptors α and β, and p53. Expression of isoforms 1 and 2 has been ... these tyrosine motifs are bound by the SH2 domains of signaling proteins. Important binding partners for this region include ... allowing the CAS protein to function as a scaffold for other proteins including CRK proteins and C3G, a guanine nucleotide ... All CAS proteins except CASS4 contain a YDYVHL motif within this domain, which is an important binding site for the Src SH2 ...
... found in inflammatory zone 1/resistin-like molecule alpha gene expression by a STAT6 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein- ... 2003). "The Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), a Large-Scale Effort to Identify Novel Human Secreted and ... Resistin-like beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RETNLB gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163515 - ... 2003). "Bacterial colonization leads to the colonic secretion of RELMbeta/FIZZ2, a novel goblet cell-specific protein". ...
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, liver activator protein, and D-element-binding protein". Mol. Cell. Biol. 12 (7): 3023-31 ... interaction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein with elements flanking the ADH2 TATA box". Gene. 90 (2): 271-9. doi:10.1016/0378- ... 1986). "cDNA and protein structure for the alpha subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase". Biochemistry. 25 (9): 2465-70. ... Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. This gene is ...
... activated protein kinase cascade that targets CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA). It is also found to mediate the ... "Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and - ... Protein kinase C eta type is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCH gene. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of ... "Entrez Gene: PRKCH protein kinase C, eta". Greif H, Ben-Chaim J, Shimon T, et al. (1992). "The protein kinase C-related PKC-L( ...
CCAAT binding factors, or CCAAT enhancer binding proteins were found. The TMEM251 protein is 169 amino acids in length. The ... 71.6% alpha helix. 8.9% turns It is predicted to have two transmembrane helices, of 23 amino acids in length each. The average ... Transmembrane protein 251, also known as C14orf109 or UPF0694, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM251 gene. One ... No vertebrate TATA binding protein factors, RNA polymerase transcription factor II B, ...
... by activating a p38 delta mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade that targets CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha". J. Biol ... "Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and - ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase D3 (PKD3) or PKC-nu is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKD3 gene. Protein kinase C ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein is associated with an increase in both NF-kappa B binding and protein kinase C ...
Transcription factors, peroxis proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are main ... February 1999). "Cross-regulation of C/EBP alpha and PPAR gamma controls the transcriptional pathway of adipogenesis and ... cAMP-responsive element binding protein promotes differentiation, while the activation of PPARγ and C/EBPα is also responsive ... T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF), GATA2/3, retinoic acid receptor α, and SMAD6/7 don't affect the ...
... forkhead box protein A1 (FoxA1), and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein b (C/EBPb)] of FTMT transcription have been identified ( ... "Sp1 and Smad proteins cooperate to mediate transforming growth factor-beta 1-induced alpha 2(I) collagen expression in human ... "Functional cooperation of simian virus 40 promoter factor 1 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta and delta in ... Sp1 and cAMP-response-element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP/p300)". The Biochemical Journal. 339 (3): 751-8. doi:10.1042 ...
"CCAAT/Enhancer-binding Protein Family Members Recruit the Coactivator CREB-binding Protein and Trigger Its Phosphorylation". ... The alpha helix segments span from amino acids 2-9, 21-24, 47-58, 61-94, and 104-111 in the protein sequence. ERICH4 is not ... "CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins: structure, function and regulation". Biochemical Journal. 365 (3): 561-575. doi:10.1042/ ... As suggested by the protein's name, glutamate-rich protein 4, the protein is most highly composed of glutamic acid amino acids ...
... stimulating protein 1, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, GC box elements and HMG box-containing protein 1. Like previously ... PANO1 appears to diverge much more quickly than fibrinogen alpha and much more quickly than cytochrome c. p14ARF is a protein ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2021-08-01. (Articles with ... PANO1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PANO1 gene. PANO1 is an apoptosis inducing protein that is able to ...
Transcription factor assessment indicates many potential TATA-binding protein and CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins sites, along ... C1orf112 secondary structure is predicted to be predominately alpha helical, with < 5% of the protein composed of beta sheets. ... C1orf112 is predicted to interact with a diverse range of proteins, including multiple mitosis-associated proteins. C1orf112 is ... quality-controlled protein-protein association networks, made broadly accessible". Nucleic Acids Research. 45 (D1): D362-D368. ...
Ccaat-enhancer binding protein KRAB domain zinc finger protein 57 Krüppel-like C2H2 zinc finger factors Octamer binding protein ... The secondary structure of CCDC180 is predicted to be almost completely composed of alpha helices, with only a few predicted ... binding factors Nerve growth factor-induced protein C Myc-associated zinc finger GC-binding factor 2 X-box binding protein 1 ... Coiled-coil domain containing protein 180 (CCDC180) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCDC180 gene. This protein is ...
Ccaat/Enhancer binding protein (CEBP) cAMP-responsive element binding proteins (CREB) Vertebrate TATA binding protein factor ( ... two alpha-helical segments were predicted. Predictive models made by Phyre2 and SWISS-Model have shown two alpha-helical ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-03-02. "Genomatix - NGS ... C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) X-box binding factors (XBBF) TALE homeodomain class recognizing TG motifs (TALE) Human and ...
Ccaat/Enhancer Binding Protein Vertebrate TATA binding protein factor CCAAT binding factors Activator-, mediator- and TBP- ... with occasional short alpha helix segments. PELE uses eight different prediction programs to compare and confirm predictions, ... factor 1 RXR heterodimer binding sites GATA binding factors Nuclear receptor subfamily 2 factors Octamer binding protein EGR/ ... proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be ...
... interaction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein with elements flanking the ADH2 TATA box". Gene. 90 (2): 271-9. doi:10.1016/0378- ... Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. GRCh38: ... 2. The primary structure of the gamma 1 protein chain". European Journal of Biochemistry. 145 (3): 447-53. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ... Class I alcohol dehydrogenase, consisting of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, exhibit high ...
Home » Human C/EBP_(CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha) ELISA Kit,ELISA KIT, E-EL-H0674-96T, Human ... Product Tag - Human C/EBP_(CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha) ELISA Kit,ELISA KIT, E-EL-H0674-96T, Human. ...
Freytag SO, Paielli DL, Gilbert JD (Jul 1994). "Ectopic expression of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha promotes the ... "CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation". ... CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) is a family of transcription factors composed of six members, named from C/EBPα to ... The function of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins in cancer is thus clearly context dependent but largely tumor suppressive. C/ ...
Phosphorylation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha regulates GLUT4 expression and glucose transport in adipocytes. J Biol ... Lithium stabilizes the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) through a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)- ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha is a regulatory switch sufficient for induction of granulocytic development from ... Absence of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor signaling and neutrophil development in CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha- ...
In particular, PU.1 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha) play key roles in the regulation of normal and ... These proteins make up approximately 4% of the serum proteins of the body. These serum proteins amplify the innate immune ... A third pathway is called the mannan-binding lectin pathway. This last pathway requires the binding of mannan-binding lectin to ... C/EBP alpha is a leucine-zipper transcription factor that is important in neutrophil development. Expression of C/EBP alpha ...
... are located within putative binding sites for the CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (CEBP) and Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4, Alpha ... Overlap of 2 suggestive SNPs with likely TF binding sites suggests possible roles in disruption of gene regulation. These ...
... through Wnt10b signalling which reduces adipogenesis via inhibiting CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPα) although the ... Background: Heterozygote germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene play a role in the ... Pituitary tumor-transforming gene binding factor (PBF) is a ubiquitous glycoprotein which is over-expressed in thyroid, breast ... Characterising the functional significance of the first reported mutations in the pituitary tumor-transforming gene binding ...
MeSH headings : Animals; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha / analysis; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha / physiology; ... CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / genetics; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / metabolism; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding ... MeSH headings : Animals; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha / physiology; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / physiology; ... MeSH headings : Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / genetics; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein- ...
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha [CEBPA]), and immune response (nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 [NFKB1]) were predicted to ... enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit), and ER stress (X-box binding protein 1) (Supplemental Fig. 4B and ... fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), and transmembrane protein 50B (Supplemental Fig. 3C and Supplemental Table 4C). At the ... tumor protein 53, RNA binding motif protein X linked, Fos proto-oncogene, AP1 transcription factor subunit [FOS], HIX ZBTB ...
Adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP). * CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) alpha, beta, and delta ... Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is converted into alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), which acts centrally on the ... Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med. 2010 Nov 25. 363(22):2102- ... Leptin is a 16-kd protein produced predominantly in white subcutaneous adipose tissue and, to a lesser extent, in the placenta ...
Hypoxia down-regulates CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha expression in breast cancer cells ... the downregulation of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α67 or the tumor suppressor RECK68 by binding to ... Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha represses the transcription of the estrogen receptor alpha gene in human breast cancer cells ... In mice, heme inhibits the DNA-binding activity of Bach2 and induces Bach2 degradation in B cells.40 HO-1, an important enzyme ...
... of C/EBPalpha is responsible for the growth-inhibitory function of the protein through its ability to interact with CDK2 and ... Adipocytes, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha, Cell Differentiation, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 ... of C/EBPalpha is responsible for the growth-inhibitory function of the protein through its ability to interact with CDK2 and ...
Knockdown of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA; also known as C/EBPalpha) using small interfering RNA diminished ... Furthermore, CEBPA bound to the distal enhancer both in vitro and in vivo. We also identified a proximal promoter region ... The distal enhancer is highly conserved, and contains two completely conserved CCAAT boxes. In 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes, ... We conducted binding assays using various synthetic musclin peptides and mutant musclin proteins. The first NP-homologous ...
Absence of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha results in loss of myeloid identity in bcr/abl-induced ...
CEBPA: CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha. *CEP57: centrosomal protein 57. *CEP290: centrosomal protein 290 ... CHD2: chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2. *CHD3: chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 3 ... CHD7: chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7. *CHD8: chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 8 ...
... soluble frizzled related protein (SFRP) 4 and 5 were also higher in HE offspring at 3 weeks. The expression of PPARγ ... Expression of adipogenic genes, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ and CCAAT enhancer binding protein ... Activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) alpha expression by C/EBP beta during adipogenesis requires a peroxisome ... CCAAT Enhancer binding protein α), were higher in piglets (P , 0.05) from HE dams. In addition, FABP4 (fatty acid binding ...
We demonstrate that the lack of functional BRCA1 protein correlates to higher aromatase levels in 85% of BRCA1 mutation ... breast epithelial cells inhibit adipocyte differentiation by selectively down-regulating CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha ... cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF2/CREB2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ... Kijima I, Ye J, Glackin C, Chen S: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta up-regulates aromatase promoters I.3/II in breast ...
6] Mutation of CEBPA (the gene encoding CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, a granulocytic differentiation factor and member ...
Functional anyagonism between CCAAT/ 21. Folli F, Saad MJ, Velloso L. Crosstalk between insulin and enhancer binding protein- ... TNF-alpha in skeletal muscle,22 increase in the ratio of 4. Matsuda M, Shimomura I, Sata M. Role of adiponectin in pre- insulin ... Adipocytokines are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, psychoac- proteins produced mainly by adipocytes.4 These mole- ... alpha and peroxisome proliferators- angiotensin II signaling systems. Exp CLin Endocrinol Dia- activated receptor-gamma on the ...
Human CEBPa(CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha) ELISA Kit. *Human CEBPb(CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta) ELISA Kit ... Human CEBPa(CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha) ELISA Kit. *Human CEBPb(CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta) ELISA Kit ... Rat RBP4(Retinol Binding Protein 4, Plasma) ELISA Kit. *Rat RELA(V-Rel Reticuloendotheliosis Viral Oncogene Homolog A) ELISA ... Rat RBP4(Retinol Binding Protein 4, Plasma) ELISA Kit. *Rat RELA(V-Rel Reticuloendotheliosis Viral Oncogene Homolog A) ELISA ...
CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein Alpha Is a Novel Regulator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Osteochondrogenic Transition and ...
Human CEBPa(CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha) ELISA Kit. *Human KLK8(Kallikrein 8) ELISA Kit ... Human ABCA1(ATP Binding Cassette Transporter A1) ELISA Kit. *Human FABP3(Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3, Muscle And Heart) ELISA ... cGAMP is a second messenger that binds and activates the adaptor protein STING, which triggers the innate immune response. As a ... Human ABCG1(ATP Binding Cassette Transporter G1) ELISA Kit. *Human MYC(V-Myc Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Homolog) ELISA Kit ...
A resource of tissue regeneration enhancer elements (TREEs) of epicardial cells during zebrafish heart regeneration reveals new ... CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein b) (Huang et al., 2012), the TGFβ pathway (Smad2/3/4) (Chablais and Jazwinska, 2012) and the ... and guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3 (gnai3; encoding a G protein). We next combined ... Gnai3 is a G protein that binds to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to regulate various transmembrane signaling pathways ( ...
CCAAT box - 2nd most common; raises baseline transcription; bound by TF CP1 (CCAAT binding protein 1) SP1 recognition sequence ... DNA binding domain = 2 alpha helices positioned at right angles to each other, connected by short linker region; 1 alpha helix ... Promoters and enhancers bound by transcription factors; short (4-10 bp); palindromic (inverted, end to end repeats); can vary ... Targeting protein to specific compartment; newly translated region on protein that is bound by docking protein, which in turn ...
CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta [S.... CHERP. 10523. CHERP. calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticu.... ... TNF alpha induced protein 2 [Source:HG.... TNPO2. 30000. TNPO2. transportin 2 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:.... ... GRYDER_PAX3FOXO1_ENHANCERS_IN_TADS GRYDER_PAX3FOXO1_ENHANCERS_KO_DOWN GRYDER_PAX3FOXO1_TOP_ENHANCERS GSE14386_UNTREATED_VS_IFNA ... methyl-CpG binding domain protein 1 [S.... MECP2. 4204. MECP2. methyl-CpG binding protein 2 [Source:H.... ...
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins 86% * 3T3-L1 Cells 75% * Cues 72% * Small Interfering RNA 69% ... AMPK alpha 1 Regulates Macrophage Skewing at the Time of Resolution of Inflammation during Skeletal Muscle Regeneration. ... Protein kinases in hormonal regulation of adipocyte metabolism.. Berggreen, C., 2014, Protein Phosphorylation, Faculty of ... HMGB1 binds to the rs7903146 locus in TCF7L2 in human pancreatic islets.. Zhou, Y., Oskolkov, N., Shcherbina, L., Ratti, J., ...
Galien R, Evans HF, Garcia T: Involvement of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and nuclear factor-kappa B binding sites in ... Kritzer MF: Regional, laminar, and cellular distribution of immunoreactivity for ER alpha and ER beta in the cerebral cortex of ... The cluster contained S100 calcium-binding (S100a9, S100a8) and defense proteins (RatNP-3b, Np4, Defa, Camp), complement C3 and ... Bouzidi F, Doussiere J: Binding of arachidonic acid to myeloid-related proteins (S100A8/A9) enhances phagocytic NADPH oxidase ...
Rat CEBPa(CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha) ELISA Kit. *Rat D2D(D-Dimer) ELISA Kit ... Human IGBP1(Immunoglobulin Binding Protein 1) ELISA Kit. *Human IGFBP6(Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 6) ELISA Kit ... Mouse REG1a(Regenerating Islet Derived Protein 1 Alpha) ELISA Kit. *Mouse SIGLEC3(Sialic Acid Binding Ig Like Lectin 3) ELISA ... Human FUCa2(Fucosidase Alpha L2, Plasma) ELISA Kit. *Human GABARAPL2(GABA-A Receptor Associated Protein Like Protein 2) ELISA ...
  • Functional genomics data indicate that 2 of the suggestive SNPs (rs2446823 and rs2446824) are located within putative binding sites for the CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (CEBP) and Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4, Alpha transcription factors (TFs), respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Adipogenesis appears controlled in part, through Wnt10b signalling which reduces adipogenesis via inhibiting CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPα) although the molecular mechanism remains unclear.Aims: Abdominal subcutaneous AT (AbdSc AT) was collected from a, non-di. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Human Bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates. (myelisakit.com)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Sialic Acid Binding Ig Like Lectin 6 from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (wildpalm.net)
  • Our results demonstrate that ARMC5 was a substrate adaptor protein between full-length SREBF and CUL3-based E3 ligase, and they suggest the involvement of the SREBF pathway in the development of BMAH. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2'3′-cGAMP is a second messenger that binds and activates the adaptor protein STING, which triggers the innate immune response. (knoblauchpublishing.com)
  • C/EBPβ can interact with CREB, NF-κB, and other proteins, leading to a trans-activation potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of complement to a foreign substance, or antigen, amplifies and augments the body's innate immune system by means of its role as an opsonin (a factor that enhances phagocytosis of unwanted particles) and as a chemoattractant (a factor that recruits cells to areas of inflammation). (medscape.com)
  • Unexpectedly, decreased BACH2 levels in dispersed MCL cells were due to direct transcriptional repression by hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF-1α) and increased heme-mediated protein degradation. (ashpublications.org)
  • [ 1 ] Neutrophils move to the site of invasion by means of chemotaxis, which occurs in response to microbial products, activated complement proteins, and cytokines. (medscape.com)
  • Once bound to DNA, C/EBPs can recruit so-called co-activators (such as CBP) that in turn can open up chromatin structure or recruit basal transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • PFCAs at high doses are known to regulate xenobiotic transporters partly through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α ) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in rodent models. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The roles of BRCA1 in cellular functions include cell cycle control, protein degradation, DNA damage repair, and transcriptional regulation of its target genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C/EBP proteins also contain activation domains at the N-terminus and regulatory domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with F, B has an enhanced response to ACTH, relatively higher concentrations in brain and CSF and differential transmembrane trafficking by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) is a family of transcription factors composed of six members, named from C/EBPα to C/EBPζ. (wikipedia.org)
  • This domain is involved in dimerization and DNA binding, as are other transcription factors of the leucine zipper domain-containing family (c-Fos and c-jun). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hu et al showed that this suppression of aromatase transcription while mediated by BRCA-1-associated RING domain (BARDI) protein is also dependent on other tissue-specific co-regulators, present only in granulosa and adipose tissue and not cancer epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Via a classic mode of action, ERs can induce transcription upon binding to estrogen-responsive elements in target gene promoters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They can also modulate transcription via interfering with other promoter-bound transcription factors, or via influencing a variety of intracellular signaling pathways [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes encoding amino acid transporters, which are essential for protein synthesis, were novel inducible targets by all three PFCAs, suggesting a potentially protective mechanism to reduce further toxic insults. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using HepaRG cells, this study is among the first to show that perfluorinated carboxylic acids with increasing carbon chain lengths upregulate amino acid transporters, which are essential for protein synthesis, and modulate xenobiotic transporters to limit further toxic exposures at concentrations lower than what was used in the literature. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Various cell types can process and present these antigens to T cells, or antigens may be soluble and bound to B-cell receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Inhibitors of wnt signaling, soluble frizzled related protein (SFRP) 4 and 5 were also higher in HE offspring at 3 weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C/EBP proteins are involved in different cellular responses, such as in the control of cellular proliferation, growth and differentiation, in metabolism, and in immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opsonins are often antibodies or components of the complement pathway that bind to the surface of target organisms to facilitate this phagocytosis. (medscape.com)
  • miRNA are a type of single-stranded, non-coding RNA approximately 22 nucleotides in length, that function as post-transcriptional regulators of targeted gene expression in eukaryotes, thus regulating the translation of mRNAs and proteins. (omicsonline.org)
  • C/EBP proteins interact with the CCAAT (cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine) box motif, which is present in several gene promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aims of the current study were to investigate whether women with hereditary BRCA1 mutations resulting in a reduction of BRCA1 protein levels or bioactivity, show alterations in CYP19A1 gene expression in major aromatase target tissues such as breast and the ovary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In fetal liver it has been proposed that a short, centrally located, 15-amino-acid proline-histidine-rich region (PHR) of C/EBPalpha is responsible for the growth-inhibitory function of the protein through its ability to interact with CDK2 and CDK4, thereby inhibiting their activities. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that the lack of functional BRCA1 protein correlates to higher aromatase levels in 85% of BRCA1 mutation carriers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Bone morphogenetic protein 5(BMP5) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5 (BMP5) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
  • Human CRP is a highly conserved protein belonging to the pentraxin family of acute phase reactants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Sialic Acid Binding Ig Like Lectin 6 (SIGLEC6) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (wildpalm.net)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Sialic Acid Binding Ig Like Lectin 6 (SIGLEC6) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (wildpalm.net)
  • Elevated baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein is expressed in the mammalian nervous system and plays a significant role in the development and function of nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)