Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CAVERNOUS SINUS of the brain. Infections of the paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, and THROMBOPHILIA are associated conditions. Clinical manifestations include dysfunction of cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, marked periorbital swelling, chemosis, fever, and visual loss. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p711)
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS or the inferior sagittal sinus. Sagittal sinus thrombosis can result from infections, hematological disorders, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES. Clinical features are primarily related to the increased intracranial pressure causing HEADACHE; NAUSEA; and VOMITING. Severe cases can evolve to SEIZURES or COMA.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the SPHENOID SINUS. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is uncommon. It usually occurs in conjunction with other paranasal sinusitis.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the LATERAL SINUSES. This condition is often associated with ear infections (OTITIS MEDIA or MASTOIDITIS) without antibiotic treatment. In developed nations, lateral sinus thrombosis can result from CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; THROMBOPHILIA; and other conditions. Clinical features include HEADACHE; VERTIGO; and increased intracranial pressure.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharnyx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation in the upper body and respiratory tract.
Intracranial bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is associated with HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include HEMIPARESIS; HEADACHE; and alterations of consciousness.
Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.
Inflammation of the honeycomb-like MASTOID BONE in the skull just behind the ear. It is usually a complication of OTITIS MEDIA.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Cavernous sinus thrombosis and cerebral infarction caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum infection. (1/20)

We report an unusual case of fusobacterial infection with secondary intracranial invasion. The condition was complicated by a cavernous sinus thrombosis and ischemic stroke. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with no history of systemic disease who had undergone a tooth extraction before the onset of symptoms. She initially suffered from sphenomaxillary sinusitis and a cavernous sinus thrombosis, and subsequently developed meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid examination suggested a pyogenic infection. Anaerobic culture revealed Fusobacterium nucleatum. However, despite immediate antibiotic therapy, her condition remained unstable over the next few days, and she eventually developed an ischemic stroke. We describe our experience in the management of this case of anaerobic meningitis and the unusual complication of ischemic stroke; this case suggests that more aggressive therapy in addition to empirical antibiotics may be warranted.  (+info)

Odontogenic infections. Complications. Systemic manifestations. (2/20)

The term, odontogenic infection refers to an infection that originates in the tooth proper or in the tissues that closely surround it; said infection then progresses along the periodontia down to the apex, involving periapical bone and from this area, it then spreads through the bone and periosteum towards near-by or more distant structures. The relevance of this type of infection lies in that it can cause infections that compromise more distant structures (via direct spread and distant spread), for example, intracraneal, retropharyngeal and pulmonary pleural infections. Dissemination by means of the bloodstream can lead to rheumatic problems and deposits on the valves of the heart (endocarditis), etc. The conditions or factors that influence the spread of infection are dependent on the balance between patient-related conditions and microorganism-related conditions. The virulence of the affecting germs is dependent upon their quality and quantity and is one of the microbiological conditions that influences the infection. It is this virulence that promotes infectious invasion and the deleterious effects the microbe will have on the host. Patient-related conditions include certain systemic factors that determine host resistance, which may be impaired in situations such as immunodeficiency syndrome or in brittle diabetes, as well as local factors that will also exert their impact on the spread of the infection.  (+info)

Venous infarction secondary to septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. (3/20)

A 65-year-old woman with poorly controlled diabetes presented bilateral miosis, bilateral abducens nerve palsy, and left hemiparesis. On MRI, cavernous sinus thrombosis, subdural empyema and hemorrhagic infarction in the frontotemporal lobe were detected. Cerebral angiogram revealed filling defect in the cavernous sinus with venous congestion but no involvement of internal carotid artery. Postmortem examination demonstrated hemorrhagic infarction in the right frontotemporal lobe as well as hemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland. It should be noted that venous congestion due to cavernous sinus thrombosis may cause these complications.  (+info)

Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis complicated by narrowing of the internal carotid artery, subarachnoid abscess and multiple pulmonary septic emboli. (4/20)

A 56-year-old woman was admitted because of a high fever, right ptosis, chemosis, proptosis and ocular muscle palsy. Cranial MRI revealed a cavernous sinus thrombosis and a subarachnoid abscess. Carotid angio-gram demonstrated marked stenosis as well as aneurismal formation of the right internal carotid artery at the intracavernous portion. Chest radiograph showed bilateral multiple pulmonary nodules, some of which contained a cavity. Blood culture was positive for Streptococcus constellatus. She was diagnosed with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis complicated by narrowing of the internal carotid artery, subarachnoid abscess and multiple pulmonary septic emboli. She recovered with partial ocular sequelae as a result of seven weeks of intravenous antimicrobial therapy.  (+info)

Cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis masquerading as ischaemic stroke: a catastrophic pitfall in any emergency department. (5/20)

Cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis is a clinically rare but fatal disease that progresses rapidly. Its initial presentation is always neglected by emergency physicians, until typical symptoms and signs are noted or thin-slice brain CT results obtained, by which time it is already too late. A case of cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis caused by sinusitis, which initially masqueraded as ischaemic stroke, is reported. Blindness of the left eye was the outcome. High suspicion, accurate diagnosis and aggressive antibiotic treatment are emphasised.  (+info)

Perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by cavernous sinus thrombosis: case report. (6/20)

A 37-year-old man presented with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Anticoagulant therapy was administered to treat the cavernous sinus thrombosis, but provoked severe intracranial hemorrhage, severely disabling the patient. Perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a benign clinical entity with generally good prognosis, but the association with cavernous sinus thrombosis requires careful investigation prior to treatment.  (+info)

Recombinant activated factor VII for treatment of refractory hemorrhage after surgery for acute aortic dissection. (7/20)

Despite appropriate treatment, surgery for aortic dissection is frequently associated with bleeding problems. In these series we report on the employment of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) for refractory hemorrhage after emergency surgery for acute type A aortic dissection, used to face the problems of postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements. Despite the good results of the therapy, a patient presented with thrombosis of the left cavernous sinus. Although a risk of thromboembolic complications has to be considered, rFVIIa is a reasonable rescue option in life-threatening hemorrhage and enlarges our hemostatic armamentarium in surgery for acute aortic dissection.  (+info)

Transient pituitary enlargement with central hypogonadism secondary to bilateral cavernous sinus thrombosis: pituitary oedema? (8/20)

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Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a medical condition that refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the cavernous sinuses, which are located near the base of the brain and are important for draining blood from the face and brain. This condition can occur as a complication of an infection in the facial area or sinuses, or it can be associated with other medical conditions such as cancer or trauma.

Symptoms of cavernous sinus thrombosis may include headache, fever, eye pain, swelling or bulging of the eyes, double vision, and decreased vision. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications such as meningitis, brain abscess, or even death. Treatment typically involves administering antibiotics to treat any underlying infection and anticoagulants to prevent further clot formation. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot.

The cavernous sinus is a venous structure located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a depression in the skull that houses several important nerves and blood vessels. The cavernous sinus is situated on either side of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the skull, and it contains several important structures:

* The internal carotid artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the brain
* The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI), which controls lateral movement of the eye
* The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), which controls most of the muscles that move the eye
* The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV), which controls one of the muscles that moves the eye
* The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which transmit sensory information from the face and head

The cavernous sinus is an important structure because it serves as a conduit for several critical nerves and blood vessels. However, it is also vulnerable to various pathological conditions such as thrombosis (blood clots), infection, tumors, or aneurysms, which can lead to serious neurological deficits or even death.

Intracranial sinus thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial venous sinuses, which are responsible for draining blood from the brain. The condition can lead to various neurological symptoms and complications, such as increased intracranial pressure, headaches, seizures, visual disturbances, and altered consciousness. Intracranial sinus thrombosis may result from various factors, including hypercoagulable states, infections, trauma, and malignancies. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent potential long-term neurological damage or even death.

Sagittal sinus thrombosis is a medical condition that refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the sagittal sinus, which is a venous structure located in the brain. The sagittal sinus runs along the midline of the brain and receives blood from the superficial veins of the brain.

Sagittal sinus thrombosis can occur as a result of various conditions, such as head trauma, infection, cancer, or certain medical disorders that cause hypercoagulability (an increased tendency to form blood clots). The formation of a blood clot in the sagittal sinus can obstruct the flow of blood from the brain, leading to symptoms such as headache, seizures, altered consciousness, and focal neurological deficits.

Diagnosis of sagittal sinus thrombosis typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which can show the presence of a blood clot in the sagittal sinus. Treatment may involve administering anticoagulant medications to prevent further growth of the blood clot and reduce the risk of complications such as pulmonary embolism or cerebral infarction. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the blood clot or alleviate pressure on the brain.

Sphenoid sinusitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation or infection of the sphenoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located in the sphenoid bone at the center of the skull base, behind the eyes. These sinuses are relatively small and difficult to access, making infections less common than in other sinuses. However, when sphenoid sinusitis does occur, it can cause various symptoms such as headaches, facial pain, nasal congestion, fever, and vision problems. Sphenoid sinusitis may result from bacterial or fungal infections, allergies, or autoimmune disorders. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies like CT scans, and sometimes endoscopic examination. Treatment options include antibiotics for bacterial infections, antifungal medications for fungal infections, nasal sprays, decongestants, pain relievers, and, in severe or recurrent cases, surgical intervention.

Lateral sinus thrombosis, also known as sigmoid sinus thrombosis, is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the lateral or sigmoid sinus, which are venous structures located in the skull that help drain blood from the brain.

The lateral sinuses are situated near the mastoid process of the temporal bone and can become thrombosed due to various reasons such as infection (often associated with ear or mastoid infections), trauma, tumors, or other underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of blood clot formation.

Symptoms of lateral sinus thrombosis may include headache, fever, neck stiffness, altered mental status, and signs of increased intracranial pressure such as papilledema (swelling of the optic nerve disc). Diagnosis is typically made with the help of imaging studies like CT or MRI scans, and treatment often involves anticoagulation therapy to prevent clot expansion and potential complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove the clot or manage any underlying conditions.

Streptococcus constellatus is a type of Gram-positive coccus bacteria that belongs to the Streptococcus anginosus group, also known as the "streptococci of uncertain taxonomic position" or S. milleri group. These bacteria are part of the normal flora in the human mouth, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. However, they can cause opportunistic infections when they enter other parts of the body, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

S. constellatus has been associated with a variety of infections, including abscesses, endocarditis, meningitis, septicemia, and dental and respiratory tract infections. It is important to note that the clinical significance of S. constellatus can vary, as it may sometimes be found as a commensal organism or as part of a polymicrobial infection. Proper identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are crucial for appropriate treatment.

A putaminal hemorrhage is a type of intracranial hemorrhage, which is defined as bleeding within the brain. Specifically, it refers to bleeding that occurs in the putamen, which is a region located deep within the forebrain and is part of the basal ganglia.

Putaminal hemorrhages are often caused by hypertension (high blood pressure) or rupture of small aneurysms (weakened areas in the walls of blood vessels). Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of the bleed, but may include sudden onset of headache, altered consciousness, weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and visual disturbances.

Diagnosis is typically made using imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment may involve supportive care, medications to control blood pressure and prevent seizures, and surgical intervention in some cases. The prognosis for putaminal hemorrhage depends on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health status, and the severity of the bleed.

Eye manifestations refer to any changes or abnormalities in the eye that can be observed or detected. These manifestations can be related to various medical conditions, diseases, or disorders affecting the eye or other parts of the body. They can include structural changes, such as swelling or bulging of the eye, as well as functional changes, such as impaired vision or sensitivity to light. Examples of eye manifestations include cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, and uveitis.

Orbital diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the orbit, which is the bony cavity in the skull that contains the eye, muscles, nerves, fat, and blood vessels. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as eyelid swelling, protrusion or displacement of the eyeball, double vision, pain, and limited extraocular muscle movement.

Orbital diseases can be broadly classified into inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic (benign or malignant), vascular, traumatic, and congenital categories. Some examples of orbital diseases include:

* Orbital cellulitis: a bacterial or fungal infection that causes swelling and inflammation in the orbit
* Graves' disease: an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland and can cause protrusion of the eyeballs (exophthalmos)
* Orbital tumors: benign or malignant growths that develop in the orbit, such as optic nerve gliomas, lacrimal gland tumors, and lymphomas
* Carotid-cavernous fistulas: abnormal connections between the carotid artery and cavernous sinus, leading to pulsatile proptosis and other symptoms
* Orbital fractures: breaks in the bones surrounding the orbit, often caused by trauma
* Congenital anomalies: structural abnormalities present at birth, such as craniofacial syndromes or dermoid cysts.

Proper diagnosis and management of orbital diseases require a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other specialists.

Cranial sinuses are a part of the venous system in the human head. They are air-filled spaces located within the skull and are named according to their location. The cranial sinuses include:

1. Superior sagittal sinus: It runs along the top of the brain, inside the skull, and drains blood from the scalp and the veins of the brain.
2. Inferior sagittal sinus: It runs along the bottom of the brain and drains into the straight sinus.
3. Straight sinus: It is located at the back of the brain and receives blood from the inferior sagittal sinus and great cerebral vein.
4. Occipital sinuses: They are located at the back of the head and drain blood from the scalp and skull.
5. Cavernous sinuses: They are located on each side of the brain, near the temple, and receive blood from the eye and surrounding areas.
6. Sphenoparietal sinus: It is a small sinus that drains blood from the front part of the brain into the cavernous sinus.
7. Petrosquamosal sinuses: They are located near the ear and drain blood from the scalp and skull.

The cranial sinuses play an essential role in draining blood from the brain and protecting it from injury.

The subarachnoid space is the area between the arachnoid mater and pia mater, which are two of the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (the third one being the dura mater). This space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection and cushioning to the central nervous system. The subarachnoid space also contains blood vessels that supply the brain and spinal cord with oxygen and nutrients. It's important to note that subarachnoid hemorrhage, a type of stroke, can occur when there is bleeding into this space.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Venous thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins, often in the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT), but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or lungs (pulmonary embolism).

The formation of a venous thrombus can be caused by various factors, including injury to the blood vessel wall, changes in blood flow, and alterations in the composition of the blood. These factors can lead to the activation of clotting factors and platelets, which can result in the formation of a clot that blocks the vein.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected area. In some cases, the clot can dislodge and travel to other parts of the body, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Risk factors for venous thrombosis include advanced age, obesity, smoking, pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer, recent surgery or trauma, prolonged immobility, and a history of previous venous thromboembolism. Treatment typically involves the use of anticoagulant medications to prevent further clotting and dissolve existing clots.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Intracranial thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial vessels, which supply blood to the brain. This condition can occur in any of the cerebral arteries or veins and can lead to serious complications such as ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or venous sinus thrombosis.

The formation of an intracranial thrombus can be caused by various factors, including atherosclerosis, cardiac embolism, vasculitis, sickle cell disease, hypercoagulable states, and head trauma. Symptoms may vary depending on the location and extent of the thrombosis but often include sudden onset of headache, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision changes, and loss of balance or coordination.

Diagnosis of intracranial thrombosis typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Treatment options may include anticoagulation therapy, thrombolysis, endovascular intervention, or surgical intervention, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

The sphenoid sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the sphenoid bone, which is one of the bones that make up the skull base. These sinuses are located deep inside the skull, behind the eyes and nasal cavity. They are paired and separated by a thin bony septum, and each one opens into the corresponding nasal cavity through a small opening called the sphenoethmoidal recess. The sphenoid sinuses vary greatly in size and shape between individuals. They develop during childhood and continue to grow until early adulthood. The function of the sphenoid sinuses, like other paranasal sinuses, is not entirely clear, but they may contribute to reducing the weight of the skull, resonating voice during speech, and insulating the brain from trauma.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Intracranial hypertension is a medical condition characterized by an increased pressure within the skull (intracranial space) that contains the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood. Normally, the pressure inside the skull is carefully regulated to maintain a balance between the formation and absorption of CSF. However, when the production of CSF exceeds its absorption or when there is an obstruction in the flow of CSF, the pressure inside the skull can rise, leading to intracranial hypertension.

The symptoms of intracranial hypertension may include severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances such as blurred vision or double vision, and papilledema (swelling of the optic nerve disc). In some cases, intracranial hypertension can lead to serious complications such as vision loss, brain herniation, and even death if left untreated.

Intracranial hypertension can be idiopathic, meaning that there is no identifiable cause, or secondary to other underlying medical conditions such as brain tumors, meningitis, hydrocephalus, or certain medications. The diagnosis of intracranial hypertension typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and lumbar puncture to measure the pressure inside the skull and assess the CSF composition. Treatment options may include medications to reduce CSF production, surgery to relieve pressure on the brain, or shunting procedures to drain excess CSF from the intracranial space.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which enables the eye to move outward. Abducens nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in various symptoms, primarily affecting eye movement.

Here are some medical definitions related to abducens nerve diseases:

1. Abducens Nerve Palsy: A condition characterized by weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve, causing difficulty in moving the affected eye outward. This results in double vision (diplopia), especially when gazing towards the side of the weakened nerve. Abducens nerve palsy can be congenital, acquired, or caused by various factors such as trauma, tumors, aneurysms, infections, or diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
2. Sixth Nerve Palsy: Another term for abducens nerve palsy, referring to the weakness or paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve.
3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO): A neurological condition affecting eye movement, often caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the abducens nucleus with the oculomotor nucleus. INO results in impaired adduction (inward movement) of the eye on the side of the lesion and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements) of the abducting eye on the opposite side when attempting to look towards the side of the lesion.
4. One-and-a-Half Syndrome: A rare neurological condition characterized by a combination of INO and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with horizontal gaze palsy on the same side, caused by damage to both the abducens nerve and the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). This results in limited or no ability to move the eyes towards the side of the lesion and impaired adduction of the eye on the opposite side.
5. Brainstem Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brainstem, which can affect the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves, leading to various neurological symptoms such as diplopia (double vision), ataxia (loss of balance and coordination), and facial weakness. Brainstem encephalitis can be caused by infectious agents, autoimmune disorders, or paraneoplastic syndromes.
6. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, including the brainstem and optic nerves. MS can cause various neurological symptoms, such as diplopia, nystagmus, and INO, due to damage to the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves.
7. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A neurological disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often seen in alcoholics or individuals with malnutrition. Wernicke's encephalopathy can affect the brainstem and cause various symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, confusion, and oculomotor abnormalities.
8. Pontine Glioma: A rare type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the pons (a part of the brainstem). Pontine gliomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, facial weakness, and difficulty swallowing due to their location in the brainstem.
9. Brainstem Cavernous Malformation: A benign vascular lesion that arises from the small blood vessels in the brainstem. Brainstem cavernous malformations can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, and facial weakness due to their location in the brainstem.
10. Pituitary Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain. Large pituitary adenomas can compress the optic nerves and cause various visual symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, and decreased vision.
11. Craniopharyngioma: A benign tumor that arises from the remnants of the Rathke's pouch, a structure that gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the optic nerves and pituitary gland.
12. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, and seizures depending on their location in the brain or spinal cord.
13. Chordoma: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from the remnants of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spine during embryonic development. Chordomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the brainstem and spinal cord.
14. Metastatic Brain Tumors: Malignant tumors that spread from other parts of the body to the brain. Metastatic brain tumors can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment depending on their location in the brain.
15. Other Rare Brain Tumors: There are many other rare types of brain tumors that can cause diplopia or other neurological symptoms, including gliomas, ependymomas, pineal region tumors, and others. These tumors require specialized diagnosis and treatment by neuro-oncologists and neurosurgeons with expertise in these rare conditions.

In summary, diplopia can be caused by various brain tumors, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, chordomas, metastatic brain tumors, and other rare types of tumors. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience diplopia or other neurological symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

A Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula (CCSF) is an abnormal connection between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, a venous structure in the skull. This connection can be either direct or indirect. Direct CCSFs are caused by trauma or rupture of an aneurysm, while indirect CCSFs are usually spontaneous and associated with conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or connective tissue disorders.

Symptoms of a CCSF may include headache, eye redness, protrusion of the eyeball, double vision, hearing disturbances, and pulsatile tinnitus (a rhythmic sound in the ear). The severity of symptoms can vary depending on the size of the fistula and the pressure within the cavernous sinus.

Treatment options for CCSF include endovascular repair with stenting or coiling, surgical closure, or observation, depending on the type and size of the fistula and the presence of symptoms.

Phlebography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and assess the veins, particularly in the legs. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the veins, followed by X-ray imaging to capture the flow of the contrast material through the veins. This allows doctors to identify any abnormalities such as blood clots, blockages, or malformations in the venous system.

There are different types of phlebography, including ascending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a foot vein and travels up the leg) and descending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a vein in the groin or neck and travels down the leg).

Phlebography is an invasive procedure that requires careful preparation and monitoring, and it is typically performed by radiologists or vascular specialists. It has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound and CT angiography in many clinical settings.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Central nervous system (CNS) vascular malformations are abnormal tangles or masses of blood vessels in the brain or spinal cord. These malformations can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). They can vary in size, location, and symptoms, which may include headaches, seizures, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and vision problems.

There are several types of CNS vascular malformations, including:

1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are tangles of arteries and veins with a direct connection between them, bypassing the capillary network. AVMs can cause bleeding in the brain or spinal cord, leading to stroke or neurological deficits.
2. Cavernous malformations: These are clusters of dilated, thin-walled blood vessels that form a sac-like structure. They can rupture and bleed, causing symptoms such as seizures, headaches, or neurological deficits.
3. Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs): These are benign vascular malformations characterized by an abnormal pattern of veins that drain blood from the brain. DVAs are usually asymptomatic but can be associated with other vascular malformations.
4. Capillary telangiectasias: These are small clusters of dilated capillaries in the brain or spinal cord. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally during imaging studies.
5. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid arteries and their branches. This can lead to decreased blood flow to the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and strokes.

The diagnosis of CNS vascular malformations typically involves imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and sometimes angiography. Treatment options may include observation, medication, surgery, or endovascular procedures, depending on the type, location, and severity of the malformation.

Ophthalmoplegia is a medical term that refers to the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles, which can result in double vision (diplopia) or difficulty moving the eyes. It can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, muscle disorders, or neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmoplegia can affect one or more eye muscles and can be partial or complete. Depending on the underlying cause, ophthalmoplegia may be treatable with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

Cranial nerves are a set of twelve pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and skull, rather than the spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste) to the brain, as well as controlling various muscles in the head and neck (including those involved in chewing, swallowing, and eye movement). Each cranial nerve has a specific function and is named accordingly. For example, the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, while the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) controls parasympathetic functions in the body such as heart rate and digestion.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

The middle cranial fossa is a depression or hollow in the skull that forms the upper and central portion of the cranial cavity. It is located between the anterior cranial fossa (which lies anteriorly) and the posterior cranial fossa (which lies posteriorly). The middle cranial fossa contains several important structures, including the temporal lobes of the brain, the pituitary gland, the optic chiasm, and the cavernous sinuses. It is also where many of the cranial nerves pass through on their way to the brain.

The middle cranial fossa can be further divided into two parts: the anterior and posterior fossae. The anterior fossa contains the optic chiasm and the pituitary gland, while the posterior fossa contains the temporal lobes of the brain and the cavernous sinuses.

The middle cranial fossa is formed by several bones of the skull, including the sphenoid bone, the temporal bone, and the parietal bone. The shape and size of the middle cranial fossa can vary from person to person, and abnormalities in its structure can be associated with various medical conditions, such as pituitary tumors or aneurysms.

Mastoiditis is a medical condition characterized by an infection and inflammation of the mastoid process, which is the bony prominence located behind the ear. The mastoid process contains air cells that are connected to the middle ear, and an infection in the middle ear (otitis media) can spread to the mastoid process, resulting in mastoiditis.

The symptoms of mastoiditis may include:

* Pain and tenderness behind the ear
* Swelling or redness of the skin behind the ear
* Ear drainage or discharge
* Fever and headache
* Hearing loss or difficulty hearing

Mastoiditis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, as well as possible surgical intervention if the infection does not respond to medication or if it has caused significant damage to the mastoid process. If left untreated, mastoiditis can lead to complications such as meningitis, brain abscess, or even death.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

The sphenoid bone is a complex, irregularly shaped bone located in the middle cranial fossa and forms part of the base of the skull. It articulates with several other bones, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones. The sphenoid bone has two main parts: the body and the wings.

The body of the sphenoid bone is roughly cuboid in shape and contains several important structures, such as the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland, and the sphenoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities within the bone. The greater wings of the sphenoid bone extend laterally from the body and form part of the skull's lateral walls. They contain the superior orbital fissure, through which important nerves and blood vessels pass between the cranial cavity and the orbit of the eye.

The lesser wings of the sphenoid bone are thin, blade-like structures that extend anteriorly from the body and form part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. They contain the optic canal, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery between the brain and the orbit of the eye.

Overall, the sphenoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting several important structures within the skull, including the pituitary gland, optic nerves, and ophthalmic arteries.

Exophthalmos is a medical condition that refers to the abnormal protrusion or bulging of one or both eyes beyond the normal orbit (eye socket). This condition is also known as proptosis. Exophthalmos can be caused by various factors, including thyroid eye disease (Graves' ophthalmopathy), tumors, inflammation, trauma, or congenital abnormalities. It can lead to various symptoms such as double vision, eye discomfort, redness, and difficulty closing the eyes. Treatment of exophthalmos depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

"Guidelines Cavernous sinus thrombosis" (PDF). "Cavernous sinus thrombosis - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. NHS Choices. Retrieved 27 ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is the formation of a blood clot within the cavernous sinus, a cavity at the base of the brain ... "Cavernous sinus thrombosis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 27 May 2016. "Cavernous Sinus ... The most common form is septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. The cause is usually from a spreading infection in the nose, sinuses ...
Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a specialised form of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, where there is thrombosis of the ... "eMedicine Article on Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis by Dale K. Mueller". "Guidelines Cavernous sinus thrombosis" (PDF). ... Thrombosis may occur in veins (venous thrombosis) or in arteries (arterial thrombosis). Venous thrombosis (sometimes called DVT ... Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare form of stroke which results from the blockage of the dural venous sinuses by ...
... carotid-cavernous fistula, bacterial infection causing cavernous sinus thrombosis, aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis, ... Both sides of cavernous sinus is connected to each other via intercavernous sinuses. The cavernous sinus lies in between the ... pieces of the clot may break off and enter the cavernous sinus, forming a cavernous sinus thrombosis. From there the infection ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis Dural venous sinuses Yasuda; et al. (Jun 2008). "Microsurgical anatomy and approaches to the ...
Branson, Sara V.; McClintic, Elysa; Yeatts, R. Patrick (2018). "Septic Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Associated With Orbital ... Complications include hearing loss, blood infection, meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, cerebral abscess, and blindness. ... Orbital cellulitis occurs commonly from bacterial infection spread via the paranasal sinuses, usually from a previous sinus ... It is most commonly caused by an acute spread of infection into the eye socket from either the adjacent sinuses or through the ...
A potential complication of sphenoidal sinusitis is cavernous sinus thrombosis.[citation needed] If a fast-growing tumor erodes ... Each sphenoid sinus communicates with the nasal cavity via the opening of sphenoidal sinus.: 500 The two sphenoid sinuses vary ... Posteriorly, an opening of sphenoidal sinus opens into the sphenoidal sinus by an aperture high on the anterior wall the sinus ... cavernous sinus, trigeminal nerve, pituitary gland, and the anterior ethmoidal cells.: 500 The sphenoid sinuses vary in size ...
and a sinus infection, referred to as Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis. Soon after, his eyes swelled and became infected. His ...
If the cavernous sinus is infected, it can cause the blood within the sinus to clot, resulting in a cavernous sinus thrombosis ... between the facial vein and the cavernous sinus. The cavernous sinus lies within the cranial cavity, between layers of the ... In 1937, a study found that 61% of the cases of cavernous sinus thrombosis were the result of furuncles on the upper part of ... "Cavernous sinus thrombosis: Introduction". National Health Service. 10 February 2006. "Nasal Abscess in Danger Area of Face". ...
Septic thrombosis of cavernous or dural venous sinus can sometimes be a complication. Treatment is not standardized for other ...
Complications such as cavernous sinus thrombosis and Ludwig angina can be life-threatening. Four things are required for caries ...
Ludwig's angina and cavernous sinus thrombosis are rare but serious complications of odontogenic infections. Severe infections ... The bone between the floor of the maxillary sinus and the roots of the upper back teeth is very thin, and frequently the apices ... Outside of the mouth, the sinuses, muscles of the face and neck, the temporomandibular joints, and cervical lymph nodes are ... Consequently, acute or chronic maxillary sinusitis can be perceived as maxillary toothache, and neoplasms of the sinus (such as ...
The three main, albeit rare, complications of mouth infections are osteomyelitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and deep neck ... Other rare but dangerous complications include osteomyelitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and deep neck space infection. Dental ... Plewa, Michael C.; Gupta, Mohit (2018), "Cavernous Sinus, Thrombosis", StatPearls, StatPearls Publishing, PMID 28846357, ... Once the infection has spread to the cavernous sinus, it can compress important nerves (cranial nerves III, IV, V1, V2, and VI ...
Foix's syndrome II, opthalmoplegic disease secondary to intracranial aneurysmas or thrombosis of the cavernous sinus. Foix- ... Foix' main contributions to the neurology was to relate thrombosis of specific arteries at autopsies with symptoms and signs ...
Other common sources include cavernous sinus thrombosis, bacterial meningitis, poor dental hygiene and intravenous drug use. ...
This can result in septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, which is a rare, but life-threatening condition. Odontogenic infections ... there can be spread via the common ophthalmic vein through the superior orbital fissure and into the cavernous sinus. ...
... such as a posterior circulation infarction and a cavernous sinus thrombosis. Author(s) (if available) (April 2007). "Article ... The basilar plexus (transverse or basilar sinus) consists of several interlacing venous channels between the layers of the dura ... mater over the basilar part of the occipital bone (the clivus) and serves to connect the two inferior petrosal sinuses. It ...
Infected teeth can on rare occasions cause infection to spread leading to cavernous sinus thrombosis, mediastinitis, or ... a continuation of the sigmoid sinuses. The right and left external jugular veins drain from the parotid glands, facial muscles ...
This can cause cavernous sinus thrombosis. This can lead to damage of the nerves running through the cavernous sinus. When ... via the superior ophthalmic vein through the cavernous sinus. An infection of the face may spread to the cavernous sinus ... The superior ophthalmic vein drains into the cavernous sinus. The medial angle of the eye, nose and lips (known as the danger ... It may also be affected by an arteriovenous fistula of the cavernous sinus. The superior ophthalmic vein - together with the ...
... may extend to the central nervous system, where it may cause cavernous sinus thrombosis, retrograde meningitis, and ... The four paired paranasal sinuses are the frontal, ethmoidal, maxillary, and sphenoidal sinuses. The ethmoidal sinuses are ... brain abscess and life-threatening cavernous sinus thrombosis. Infection of the eye socket is a rare complication of ethmoid ... Odontogenic sinusitis can often spread to other sinuses such as the ethmoid, frontal and (less frequently) sphenoid sinus, and ...
... infection of the superficial face may spread to the cavernous sinus, causing cavernous sinus thrombosis. Complications may ... This plexus communicates freely with the anterior facial vein; it also communicates with the cavernous sinus, by branches ... Due to its communication with the cavernous sinus, ... The plexus is connected with the intercranial cavernous sinus ... and subsequent paralysis of cranial nerves which course through the cavernous sinus.[citation needed] The pterygoid plexus of ...
He died on September 1, 1929, from cavernous sinus thrombosis after an incident at work where hot asphalt splashed behind his ... Deaths from thrombosis, Industrial accident deaths, British Army personnel of World War I). ...
Caudal duplication Caudal regression syndrome Causalgia Cavernous hemangioma Cavernous lymphangioma Cavernous sinus thrombosis ... cerebellar hypoplasia Cerebral calcifications opalescent teeth phosphaturia Cerebral cavernous malformation Cerebral cavernous ... gigantism jaw cysts Cerebral hypoxia Cerebral malformations hypertrichosis claw hands Cerebral palsy Cerebral thrombosis ...
... and lid lag Cavernous sinus thrombosis, associated with infection of the paranasal sinuses, proptosis, periorbital oedema, ... retinal haemorrhages, papilledema, extraocular movement abnormalities, and trigeminal nerve sensory loss Carotid-cavernous ...
... which may result in cavernous sinus thrombosis, a rare but life-threatening condition. The signs and symptoms of an ... to the cavernous sinus via the pterygoid plexus of veins. The contents of the infratemporal space are: branches of the ... as it is possible for infection to spread via emissary veins from the pterygoid plexus to the cavernous sinus, ...
Thrombosis, such as a cavernous sinus thrombosis, refers to a clot (thrombus) affecting the venous drainage from the cavernous ... A pituitary tumour may also extend into the cavernous sinus, compressing the oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and ... travel through the cavernous sinus into the superior orbital fissure, passing out of the skull into the orbit. The maxillary ... sinus, affects the optic (II), oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), opthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) and the abducens ...
... cavernous sinus thrombosis Hydrocephalus Guillain-Barré syndrome Acute porphyria (acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary ...
... cavernous sinus thrombosis Local lesion: optic neuritis, Ischemic optic neuropathy, methanol poisoning, infiltration of the ... cerebral venous sinus thrombosis or intracerebral hemorrhage Respiratory failure Hypotonia Isotretinoin, which is a powerful ... An MRA and MRV may also be ordered to rule out the possibility of stenosis or thrombosis of the arterial or venous systems. The ...
... migraine attack and be relieved afterwards Carotid artery dissection/carotid artery aneurysm/trauma Cavernous sinus thrombosis ... a tumor in the cavernous sinus or a carotid artery dissection) that releases norepinephrine. Partial Horner's syndrome: In case ...
... in Brazil Canadian Society of Transplantation Captopril suppression test Cavernous sinus thrombosis Cell Signaling Technology, ...
Autoimmune disorders such as myasthenia gravis Post-operatively as a complication of neurosurgery Cavernous sinus thrombosis As ... through different structures in the brain and branches into superior and inferior divisions after exiting the cavernous sinuses ...
Subsequent infection or inflammation in the cavernous sinus can result in septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, with resultant ... connecting the pterygoid plexus with the cavernous sinus. This is an important route for the spread of infection as cranial ... nerve VI and the internal carotid pass through the cavernous sinus, with cranial nerves III, IV, V1, and V2 passing alongside ... They connect the veins outside the cranium to the venous sinuses inside the cranium. They drain from the scalp, through the ...
"Guidelines Cavernous sinus thrombosis" (PDF). "Cavernous sinus thrombosis - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. NHS Choices. Retrieved 27 ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is the formation of a blood clot within the cavernous sinus, a cavity at the base of the brain ... "Cavernous sinus thrombosis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 27 May 2016. "Cavernous Sinus ... The most common form is septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. The cause is usually from a spreading infection in the nose, sinuses ...
Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a blood clot in an area at the base of the brain. ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a blood clot in an area at the base of the brain. ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis is most often caused by a bacterial infection that has spread from the sinuses, teeth, ears, eyes, ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis is treated with high-dose antibiotics given through a vein (IV) if an infection is the cause. ...
The dural sinuses are grouped into the sagittal, lateral (including the transverse, sigmoid, and petrosal sinuses), and ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) was initially described by Bright in 1831 as a complication of epidural and subdural ... cavernous sinus thrombosis is the most important of any intracranial septic thrombosis. [1] Cavernous sinus thrombosis is ... encoded search term (Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis) and Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis What to Read Next on Medscape ...
The dural sinuses are grouped into the sagittal, lateral (including the transverse, sigmoid, and petrosal sinuses), and ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) was initially described by Bright in 1831 as a complication of epidural and subdural ... cavernous sinus thrombosis is the most important of any intracranial septic thrombosis. [1] Cavernous sinus thrombosis is ... encoded search term (Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis) and Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Etiology of Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis The cavernous sinuses are trabeculated sinuses located at the base of the skull that ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a very rare, typically septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinus, usually caused by nasal ... Symptoms and Signs of Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Initial symptoms of cavernous sinus thrombosis are progressively severe ...
Cavernous sinus thrombosis (formation of a blood clot in a cavity at the base of the brain). Cavernous sinus thrombosis. ... X-ray of the sinuses and surrounding area. X-ray of the sinuses. A sinus x-ray is an imaging test to look at the sinuses. These ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a blood clot in an area at the base of the brain. ... CT scan or MRI of the sinuses and orbit. CT scan or MRI of the sinuses and orbit. A head computed tomography (CT) scan uses ...
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis. *Central Venous Stenosis. *Cerebellar Anomalies. *Cerebral Aneurysm. *Cerebral Artery Bypass ...
Cavernous sinus thrombosis. Condition. Viral meningitis. Condition. Poliomyelitis. Condition. Mumps. Condition. Babesiosis. ... Have some sinus pain. Rest of nostril looks raw and red inside. I have several autoimmune diseases that I am taking ... Hi Im on immune suppression medications, I have doxycycline hyclate, can I take it for a sinus infection? Any negative ...
... located behind the posterior maxillary sinus wall) in ≈30% of cases, and cavernous sinus thrombosis in ≈7% of cases suggest ... Bony penetration was seen in 156 (87.6%) cases (Figure 3) and cavernous sinus thrombosis in 12 (7%) cases. ... had cavernous sinus thrombosis, and 60% had multifocal mucormycosis. Of the 178 study cases, 151 (85%) underwent surgical ... sinuses, or orbits as having localized disease. If sites affected involved the paranasal sinuses and infiltrated the orbit, we ...
... including a cavernous sinus thrombosis that can lead to death. Timely recognition and management of this condition can prevent ...
... particularly of the rare condition of cavernous sinus thrombosis. Studies have begun to in- vestigate whether antibodies to the ... particularly of the rare condition of cavernous sinus thrombosis. Studies have begun to in- vestigate whether antibodies to the ... which included the rare condition of cavernous sinus thrombosis. In April 2021, Schultz et al. reported five patients who ... three patients had splanchnic vein thrombosis, four patients had other thromboses, five patients developed disseminated ...
Allegrini D, Reposi S, Nocerino E, Pece A. Odontogenic orbital cellulitis associated with cavernous sinus thrombosis and ... Recently, a study using 16S rRNA sequencing in 15 patients with primary endodontic infections with and without a sinus tract to ...
... due to cavernous sinus thrombosis 62 62 00 Enophthalmos (senile) 62 62 40 Enophthalmos, traumatic 62 63 00 Pseudotumor, orbit ... ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source MAXILLARY SINUS TRANSILLUMINATION (For detailed examinees 25-74 years only ... sinus) (skin) 99 65 00 Blood vessel broken, burst, or ruptured in eye 99 65 00 Hemorrhage, intraocular 99 65 00 Hemorrhage, eye ... 99 66 00 Thrombosis, eye, site not specified (artery) (vein) (vessel) 99 70 .. Visual field defect--See Defect, field 99 70 00 ...
... and angle closure caused by superior ophthalmic vein and cavernous sinus thromboses.These cases highlight the potential for ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a lesion in the right cavernous sinus. Although there was clinical suspicion that this ... She was treated with chemotherapy, radiation, and warfarin for presumed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. ... and her mastoiditis raised concern for secondary cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) was ...
A Case of Bilateral Septic Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis after Facial Trauma.. JKOS. 2013 Apr;54(4):662-6 ...
Is there a difference between cerebral venous thrombosis and cavernous venous sinus thrombosis?. CVT and CVST have common ... Thrombosis of the left transverse sinus can present as aphasia.. - Thrombosis of the deep venous sinus can cause behavioral ... However, CVST includes thrombosis in the cavernous sinuses with infection. Ocular signs and symptoms predominate. Treatment ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis is associated with ocular pain, chemosis, proptosis, and oculomotor palsies.3,4 ...
CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO CAVERNOSO TROMBOSE DO SEIO LATERAL LATERAL SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO ... INTRACRANIAL THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS INTRACRANEAL TUBERCULOSE DO SISTEMA NERVOSO CENTRAL TUBERCULOSIS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ... SAGITTAL SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO SAGITAL TROMBOSE INTRACRANIANA ... HEMANGIOMA, CAVERNOUS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM HEMANGIOMA CAVERNOSO DEL SISTEMA NERVIOSO CENTRAL HEMATOMA SUBDURAL AGUDO ...
CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO CAVERNOSO TROMBOSE DO SEIO LATERAL LATERAL SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO ... INTRACRANIAL THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS INTRACRANEAL TUBERCULOSE DO SISTEMA NERVOSO CENTRAL TUBERCULOSIS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ... SAGITTAL SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO SAGITAL TROMBOSE INTRACRANIANA ... HEMANGIOMA, CAVERNOUS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM HEMANGIOMA CAVERNOSO DEL SISTEMA NERVIOSO CENTRAL HEMATOMA SUBDURAL AGUDO ...
CAVERNOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO CAVERNOSO TROMBOSE DO SEIO LATERAL LATERAL SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO ... INTRACRANIAL THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS INTRACRANEAL TUBERCULOSE DO SISTEMA NERVOSO CENTRAL TUBERCULOSIS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ... SAGITTAL SINUS THROMBOSIS TROMBOSIS DEL SENO SAGITAL TROMBOSE INTRACRANIANA ... HEMANGIOMA, CAVERNOUS, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM HEMANGIOMA CAVERNOSO DEL SISTEMA NERVIOSO CENTRAL HEMATOMA SUBDURAL AGUDO ...
Dural venous and cavernous sinus thrombosis, ACA aneurysm. Pro. Log in to track your progress. ...
CT venogram excluded a cavernous sinus thrombosis. MRI of the head showed microhaemorrhages in the midbrain where the pupil ...
The orbital apex lesions had early onset cavernous sinus thrombosis. Analysis of clinical manifestations and postoperative ... Sinus debridement was possible in 82% cases (n = 173). Thirty-five (16.6%) patients died due to ROCM. The mean follow-up of ... Timely sinus debridement and systemic Amphotericin B can help reduce mortality. Presence of CNS extension significantly ... At presentation, ROCM was limited to sinuses in 72 (34%), orbital extension was seen in 102 (48%) and 31 (15%) had CNS ...
cavernous sinus thrombosis: rapid progression of proptosis and neurologic signs of intracranial dysfunction; might possibly ... can be indications for aggressive management to prevent orbital apex syndrome or cavernous sinus thrombosis ... CT of orbit and sinuses to confirm sinus disease, rule out mass, rule out orbital foreign body if h/o trauma (even remote), ... It might possibly require orbital and sinus exenteration, coupled with both systemic and local treatment with Amphotericin B ...
Sinus infections are primarily caused by allergies. The most common allergens are pollen, dust mites and pet dander. Those with ... Cavernous sinus thrombosis, which can occur when the infection spreads into the blood vessels in the sinuses of the head. ... Acute sinusitis is a short-term inflammation of the sinuses, most often including a sinus infection. The sinuses are four ... If You Have Sinus Swelling In The Face Smartdocmd Can Help. Sinus infections can cause immense discomfort and at their worst, ...
... loss of vision and cavernous sinus thrombosis. Computed tomography (CT) is the primary imaging examination for the ...
... which can progress to a cavernous sinus thrombosis. This is when any infection, such as sinusitis or a spot on the face, ... spreads into the cavernous sinus, which drains blood from the brain. As a defence mechanism the body attempts to stop the ... Blood vessels are close to the surface in the nose and sinuses making it easier for pathogens to enter the blood stream. The ... Those with any kind of sinus or ear infection should avoid nasal irrigation until it has cleared up. Rinsing can increase the ...
... for cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) avoids the risk of cranial nerve palsy, unlike entire sinus packing, ... No anticoagulant therapy was given postoperatively to promote thrombosis. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ... 12. Sato M, Izumi T, Matsubara N, Nishihori M, Miyachi S, Wakabayashi T. Evaluation for shunted pouches of cavernous sinus ... A case of recurrent cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula arising after superselective shunt occlusion and detected by ...
The result is cavernous sinus thrombosis. Pimples and pustules, which occur in the medial canthal, nasal, and labial areas ( ... Cavernous sinus. The cavernous sinus is a complex plexus of veins in the dura that can be found lateral to the sphenoid sinus. ... They may eventually seed the cavernous sinus. Dental infections may spread into the cavernous sinus by means of the pterygoid ... The superior and inferior petrosal sinuses emerge from the posterior aspect of the cavernous sinus and eventually drain into ...
Rather than bombard you with more data about vaccine efficacy or complex stories of cavernous sinus thrombosis and immunology, ...
Cavernous sinus thrombosis. *Carotid-cavernous fistula. *Orbital cellulitis. *Mucormycosis. *Orbital fractures. *Orbital ...
  • The highly anastomotic venous system of the paranasal sinuses allows retrograde spread of infection to the cavernous sinus via the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is usually a late complication of an infection of the central face or paranasal sinuses. (medscape.com)
  • This intimate juxtaposition of veins, arteries, nerves, meninges, and paranasal sinuses accounts for the characteristic etiology and presentation of cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST). (medscape.com)
  • Sinusitis Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses due to viral, bacterial, or fungal infections or allergic reactions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Analysis of clinical manifestations and postoperative follow up revealed an emerging pattern where Posterosuperior lesions of paranasal sinuses (Ethmoid, roof of maxilla and orbit) progressing to BF, BS, OA, FBO and SBO had poorer treatment outcome than Anteroinferior (Floor of maxillary sinus, palate) based lesions which involved BO of skull base. (bvsalud.org)
  • Etiology: Infection begins in the paranasal sinuses and spreads to the orbit. (eyeplastics.com)
  • The most important anatomic structures below the anterior cranial fossa are the orbits and the paranasal sinuses. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis of cavernous sinus thrombosis is made clinically, with imaging studies to confirm the clinical impression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is the formation of a blood clot within the cavernous sinus, a cavity at the base of the brain which drains deoxygenated blood from the brain back to the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cavernous sinus receives blood from veins of the face and brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cavernous sinuses receive venous blood from the facial veins (via the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins) as well as the sphenoid and middle cerebral veins. (medscape.com)
  • They, in turn, empty into the inferior petrosal sinuses, then into the internal jugular veins and the sigmoid sinuses via the superior petrosal sinuses. (medscape.com)
  • The cavernous sinuses are trabeculated sinuses located at the base of the skull that drain venous blood from facial veins. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The veins from this region run back into the skull and connect with the vessels that drain the brain, providing a pathway for microbes to travel from the sinuses into the brain where they can cause serious infections and potentially even death. (twenty47healthnews.com)
  • DSA also revealed that the CSDAVF had multiple shunted pouches located in bilateral compartments of the CS and draining into bilateral SOVs, inferior petrosal sinuses (IPSs), and superficial middle cerebral veins (SMCVs) [ Figure 1c - f ]. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The foramen cecum sits between the frontal crest and the prominent crista galli and is a site of communication between the draining veins of the nasal cavity and the superior sagittal sinus. (medscape.com)
  • Laterally, the petrosquamous sinus and prootic sinus remnants are later destined to involute as diploic veins, which drain meningeal structures via the foramen ovale. (ajnr.org)
  • Remnants of the orbitotemporal sinuses are occasionally encountered in the form of a persistent petrosquamous sinus, 4 a venous sinus of Kelch, 5 which runs through the superior orbital fissure and connects the superior ophthalmic and middle meningeal veins to the transverse sinus, or a sinus of Hyrtl, 6 which connects the sphenoparietal sinus to middle meningeal veins in the foramen spinosum. (ajnr.org)
  • Emissary veins, along with their companion emissary arteries within skull base or transdiploic foramina, may be exposed to inflammation (from adjacent infection or trauma), which may lead to angiogenic stimuli and the opening of physiologic postcapillary arteriovenous shunting, all resulting in dural sinus or cortical vein DAVFs. (ajnr.org)
  • The emissary vein of the foramen ovale may, therefore, have a role in triggering cavernous sinus fistulas, and the petrobasal vein described in the article may further promote the extension of arteriovenous shunting to the superior petrosal sinus and possibly the tentorium (which does not receive emissary veins). (ajnr.org)
  • The cause is usually from a spreading infection in the nose, sinuses, ears, or teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection can spread to contralateral cavernous sinus within 24-48 hours of initial presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orbital cellulitis Internal carotid artery aneurysm Stroke Migraine headache Allergic blepharitis Thyroid exophthalmos Brain tumor Meningitis Mucormycosis Trauma Recognizing the primary source of infection (i.e., facial cellulitis, middle ear, and sinus infections) and treating the primary source expeditiously is the best way to prevent cavernous sinus thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis is most often caused by a bacterial infection that has spread from the sinuses, teeth, ears, eyes, nose, or skin of the face. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis is treated with high-dose antibiotics given through a vein (IV) if an infection is the cause. (medlineplus.gov)
  • anaerobes are more common when the underlying condition is dental or sinus infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Prompt treatment of a sinus or dental infection may prevent it from spreading and becoming orbital cellulitis. (limamemorial.org)
  • It is rare for an odontogenic infection to cause an orbital abscess, but when it does it can have severe effects, including a cavernous sinus thrombosis that can lead to death. (auntminnie.com)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis, which can occur when the infection spreads into the blood vessels in the sinuses of the head. (healthysinus.net)
  • No matter the severity of a sinus infection, Californians now have the option to receive treatments for sinus infections from the comfort of their homes. (healthysinus.net)
  • The course of the infection may worsen with extrinsic ocular motility dysfunction, loss of vision and cavernous sinus thrombosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is when any infection, such as sinusitis or a spot on the face, spreads into the cavernous sinus, which drains blood from the brain. (twenty47healthnews.com)
  • Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a cerebral vascular malformation characterized by direct communication between dural arteries and either a dural sinus or cortical vein. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The posterior wall is thin and adjacent to the superior sagittal sinus and frontal lobe dura. (medscape.com)
  • These sinuses are just lateral and superior to the sphenoid sinus and are immediately posterior to the optic chiasm, as depicted in the image below. (medscape.com)
  • Anatomy of cross section of cavernous sinus showing close proximity to cranial nerves and sphenoid sinus. (medscape.com)
  • The anterior clinoid processes and the planum sphenoidale, which forms the roof of the sphenoid sinus, mark the posterior limit. (medscape.com)
  • This is a rare disorder and can be of two types-septic cavernous thrombosis and aseptic cavernous thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common form is septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its complex neurovascular anatomic relationship, cavernous sinus thrombosis is the most important of any intracranial septic thrombosis. (medscape.com)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a very rare, typically septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinus, usually caused by nasal furuncles or bacterial sinusitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A Case of Bilateral Septic Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis after Facial Trauma. (nunevit.com)
  • Cortical vein thrombosis presents with motor and sensory deficits, as well as seizure. (emdocs.net)
  • laterally, the prootic sinus anastomoses with a primitive temporal emissary vein to form the petrosquamous sinus. (ajnr.org)
  • 3 In primitive primates, cerebral venous drainage is mainly through the postglenoid emissary vein, which receives the cranio-orbital and petrosquamous sinuses in a configuration that is recognized as the orbitotemporal venous sinuses. (ajnr.org)
  • The frontal bone houses the supraorbital foramina, which, along with the frontal sinuses, form 2 important surgical landmarks during approaches involving the anterior skull base. (medscape.com)
  • In an antero-posterior skiagram of the skull, the light shadows formed by the ethmoidal cells are seen to occupy the well-defined area bounded on either side by the still lighter shadow of the orbital cavities and above by the dense horizontal shadow of the cribriform plate, which occupies the frontier line between these sinuses and the frontal sinuses. (co.ma)
  • Patients with thrombus in the lateral sinus may present with intracranial hypertension and headache alone. (emdocs.net)
  • Similarly, the spread of infections from the middle ear to the intracranial venous system has been reported to only occur with the presence of an abnormal petrosquamous sinus. (ajnr.org)
  • In a profile skiagram of the skull the light shadow produced by the sphenoidal sinus is seen immediately inferior to and in front of the characteristic well-defined cup-shaped shadow formed by the concave floor of the hypophyseal fossa. (co.ma)
  • The dural sinuses are grouped into the sagittal, lateral (including the transverse, sigmoid, and petrosal sinuses), and cavernous sinuses. (medscape.com)
  • Sagittal sinus thrombosis may present with motor deficits, bilateral deficits, and seizures. (emdocs.net)
  • The fossa hypophyseos lies immediately behind the superior part of the sphenoidal sinuses, and, in a median sagittal section of the skull, the anterior half of the fossa is seen to project into what would correspond to the supero-posterior angle of the sinuses. (co.ma)
  • citation needed] Cavernous sinus thrombosis symptoms include: decrease or loss of vision, chemosis, exophthalmos (bulging eyes), headaches, and paralysis of the cranial nerves which course through the cavernous sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common signs of CST are related to anatomical structures affected within the cavernous sinus, notably cranial nerves III-VI, as well as symptoms resulting from impaired venous drainage from the orbit and eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third and fourth cranial nerves are attached to the lateral wall of the sinus. (medscape.com)
  • The 3rd, 4th, and 6th cranial nerves and the ophthalmic and maxillary branches of the 5th cranial nerve are adjacent to the cavernous sinus and are commonly affected in cavernous sinus thrombosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Thrombosis of the deep venous sinus can cause behavioral symptoms due to lesions in the thalamus. (emdocs.net)
  • I'd like to welcome you to today's COCA Call: Johnson and Johnson Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia -- Update for Clinicians on Early Detection and Treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Today I'll be discussing some background on the CVST situation and then move into a description of the reports of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia following the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Thrombosis of the left transverse sinus can present as aphasia. (emdocs.net)
  • Since the cavernous sinuses receive blood via this distribution, infections of the face including the nose, tonsils, and orbits can spread easily by this route. (medscape.com)
  • Reports of outbreaks of mucormycosis of the nose and sinuses with subsequent invasion to the orbital and cerebral region among patients successfully treated for COVID-19 have been described in news media in India and in a few case reports ( 13 - 17 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Blood vessels are close to the surface in the nose and sinuses making it easier for pathogens to enter the blood stream. (twenty47healthnews.com)
  • The sphenoidal sinuses are so deeply placed behind the upper half of the piriform aperture of the nose that their outlines cannot be identified in an antero-posterior skiagram. (co.ma)
  • The cavernous sinuses are the most centrally located of the dural sinuses and lie on either side of the sella turcica. (medscape.com)
  • The more the sphenoidal sinuses project backwards, beneath the sella turcica, the thinner is the plate of bone which separates the sinus from that part of the posterior fossa of the base of the skull which supports the pons. (co.ma)
  • When, on the other hand, the sphenoidal sinuses are small and do not extend backwards below the sella turcica, the latter may be difficult to identify. (co.ma)
  • Not infrequently the ethmoidal cells will be seen to extend into the roof of the orbit, while inferiorly and laterally they come into close relation to the superior and medial angle of the shadow formed by the maxillary sinus. (co.ma)
  • The orbital apex lesions had early onset cavernous sinus thrombosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The comparative transparency of the area of the ethmoidal cells is accounted for by the fact that it is superimposed upon that of the sphenoidal sinuses. (co.ma)
  • In a profile skiagram the ethmoidal area is seen to extend from the frontal process of the maxilla backwards across the orbits to the sphenoidal sinuses, with which they are contiguous. (co.ma)
  • The sphenoidal sinuses constitute the surgeon's guide to the hypophysis To reach them he traverses the upper portions of both nasal cavities, removing, from before backwards, the upper portion of the septum nasi, the superior and middle conchæ, and the anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells. (co.ma)
  • reported five patients who presented with venous thrombosis and thrombocytopenia between 7 days and 10 days after receiving the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 adenoviral vector vaccine [5]. (medscimonit.com)
  • Proper knowledge of venous anatomic variations may minimize misdiagnoses of vascular lesions and, more important, may help prevent surgical complications of hemorrhage, thrombosis, or venous infarction. (ajnr.org)
  • By the 17- to 20-mm stage, posterior (sigmoid, tentorial, and marginal) sinuses are formed, while the 2 anterior components of the primitive venous plexus start to involute and form the prootic sinus (a stem of the middle dural plexus that connects to the posterior plexus via the sigmoid sinus). (ajnr.org)
  • By the 60- to 80-mm embryonic stage, while the posterior (sigmoid, transverse, tentorial) sinuses move backward to their permanent configuration, the otic capsule promotes the development of the superior petrosal sinus, while the prootic sinus remains continuous with the petrosquamous sinus. (ajnr.org)
  • enlarges, it frequently does so by projecting downwards towards the sphenoidal sinuses rather than upwards into the cranial cavity. (co.ma)
  • Aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis is usually associated with trauma, dehydration, anemia, and other disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis is much less common and is usually associated with other disorders including trauma, circulatory problems, nasopharynx cancers and other tumors of the skull base, dehydration, and anemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial symptoms of cavernous sinus thrombosis are progressively severe headache or facial pain, usually unilateral and localized to retro-orbital and frontal regions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Findings may include deformity of the internal carotid artery within the cavernous sinus, and an obvious signal hyperintensity within thrombosed vascular sinuses on all pulse sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further reading at Characteristic MR Imaging Findings of Cavernous Hemangiomas in the Cavernous Sinus. (indianradiology.com)
  • The anterior limit of the anterior skull base is the posterior wall of the frontal sinus. (medscape.com)
  • Around the 11- to 14-mm stage, lateral dural sinuses develop, which drain the brain through primitive pia-arachnoid vessels. (ajnr.org)
  • occur but are rarer than cavernous sinus thrombosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cavernous hemangiomas occur very rarely in the cavernous sinus and are difficult to diagnose preoperatively. (indianradiology.com)
  • Orbital venography is difficult to perform, but it is excellent in diagnosing occlusion of the cavernous sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superselective shunt occlusion (SSSO) for cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) avoids the risk of cranial nerve palsy, unlike entire sinus packing, but requires paying attention to recurrence. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Bone penetration was present in ≈90% of cases, 30% had soft-tissue swelling of the pterygopalatine fossa and 7% had cavernous sinus thrombosis, and 60% had multifocal mucormycosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, a study using 16S rRNA sequencing in 15 patients with primary endodontic infections with and without a sinus tract to the oral cavity revealed Propionibacterium acnes as the most prevalent isolate recovered from lesions with an intraoral communication. (medscape.com)
  • The internal carotid artery with its surrounding sympathetic plexus passes through the cavernous sinus. (medscape.com)
  • The Raleigh sinus doctors at Raleigh Medical Group specialize in helping patients with chronic allergy and sinus problems. (healthysinus.net)
  • citation needed] Sinus films are helpful in the diagnosis of sphenoid sinusitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those with repeated sinus infections may have chronic sinusitis, which means long-term solutions may be a better option. (healthysinus.net)
  • Some other things you can do to prevent sinus pain include avoiding alcohol, which can aggravate sinus pain and congestion cleaning your humidifier to avoid fungal allergies washing your bedding in hot water to decrease allergy exposure and avoiding swimming, diving, or flying when you have sinusitis, a common cold, or nasal allergy. (healthysinus.net)
  • They may give some fast relief, but after a few days they make sinus pressure and nasal congestion much worse, warns Das. (healthysinus.net)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) was initially described by Bright in 1831 as a complication of epidural and subdural infections. (medscape.com)
  • An MRI using flow parameters and an MR venogram are more sensitive than a CT scan and are the imaging studies of choice to diagnose cavernous sinus thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CBC, ESR, blood cultures and sinus cultures help establish and identify an infectious primary source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a blood clot in an area at the base of the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a clinical diagnosis with laboratory tests and imaging studies confirming the clinical impression. (wikipedia.org)

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