Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.
Caveolin 2 is a binding partner of CAVEOLIN 1. It undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by C-SRC PROTEIN PP60 and plays a regulatory role in CAVEOLAE formation.
A caveolin that is expressed exclusively in MUSCLE CELLS and is sufficient to form CAVEOLAE in SARCOLEMMA. Mutations in caveolin 3 are associated with multiple muscle diseases including DISTAL MYOPATHY and LIMB-GIRDLE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Family of enveloped, lipid-containing, filamentous DNA viruses that infect ARCHAEA.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.

Presence of oxidized cholesterol in caveolae uncouples active platelet-derived growth factor receptors from tyrosine kinase substrates. (1/744)

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) in fibroblasts is concentrated in caveolae where it controls the tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins. Caveolae are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, but the role of these lipids in PDGFR signal transduction is unknown. We report that introduction of cholest-4-en-3-one into caveolae membranes uncouples PDGFR autophosphorylation from tyrosine phosphorylation of neighboring proteins. Cholest-4-en-3-one appears to interfere with the normal interaction between PDGFR and its partners. The results suggest that tightly packed caveolae lipids form a membrane platform that functions as a lipid scaffold for organizing the molecular interactions of multiple signaling pathways.  (+info)

Agonist-modulated targeting of the EDG-1 receptor to plasmalemmal caveolae. eNOS activation by sphingosine 1-phosphate and the role of caveolin-1 in sphingolipid signal transduction. (2/744)

Plasmalemmal caveolae are membrane microdomains that are specifically enriched in sphingolipids and contain a wide array of signaling proteins, including the endothelial isoform of nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS). EDG-1 is a G protein-coupled receptor for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) that is expressed in endothelial cells and has been implicated in diverse vascular signal transduction pathways. We analyzed the subcellular distribution of EDG-1 in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with cDNA constructs encoding epitope-tagged EDG-1. Subcellular fractionation of cell lysates resolved by ultracentrifugation in discontinuous sucrose gradients revealed that approximately 55% of the EDG-1 protein was recovered in fractions enriched in caveolin-1, a resident protein of caveolae. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that EDG-1 could be specifically precipitated by antibodies directed against caveolin-1 and vice versa. The targeting of EDG-1 to caveolae-enriched fractions was markedly increased (from 51 +/- 11% to 93 +/- 14%) by treatment of transfected cells with S1P (5 microm, 60 min). In co-transfection experiments expressing EDG-1 and eNOS cDNAs in COS-7 cells, we found that S1P treatment significantly and specifically increased nitric-oxide synthase activity, with an EC(50) of 30 nm S1P. Overexpression of transfected caveolin-1 cDNA together with EDG-1 and eNOS markedly diminished S1P-mediated eNOS activation; caveolin overexpression also attenuated agonist-induced phosphorylation of EDG-1 receptor by >90%. These results suggest that the interaction of the EDG-1 receptor with caveolin may serve to inhibit signaling through the S1P pathway, even as the targeting of EDG-1 to caveolae facilitates the interactions of this receptor with ligands and effectors that are also targeted to caveolae. The agonist-modulated targeting of EDG-1 to caveolae and its dynamic inhibitory interactions with caveolin identify new points for regulation of sphingolipid-dependent signaling in the vascular wall.  (+info)

Scavenger receptor BI transfers major lipoprotein-associated phospholipids into the cells. (3/744)

The phospholipids of lipoproteins can be transferred to cells by an endocytosis-independent uptake pathway. We analyzed the role of scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) for the selective cellular phospholipid import. Human monocytes rapidly acquired the pyrene (py)-labeled phospholipids sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine from different donors (low and high density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), lipid vesicles). The anti-SR-BI antibody directed against the extracellular loop of the membrane protein lowered the cellular import of the phospholipids by 40-80%. The phospholipid transfer from the lipid vesicles into the monocytes was suppressed by LDL, HDL, and apoprotein AI. Transfection of BHK cells with the cDNA for human SR-BI enhanced the cellular import of the vesicle-derived py-phospholipids by 5-6-fold. In the case of the LDL donors, transfer of py-SM to the transfected cells was stimulated to a greater extent than the uptake of the other py-phospholipids. Similar differences were not observed when the vesicles and HDL were used as phospholipid donors. The concentration of LDL required for the half-maximal phospholipid import was close to the previously reported apparent dissociation constant for LDL binding to SR-BI. The low activation energy of the SR-BI-mediated py-phospholipid import indicated that the transfer occurs entirely in a hydrophobic environment. Disruption of cell membrane caveolae by cyclodextrin treatment reduced the SR-BI-catalyzed incorporation of py-SM, suggesting that intact caveolae are necessary for the phospholipid uptake. In conclusion, SR-BI mediates the selective import of the major lipoprotein-associated phospholipids into the cells, the transfer efficiency being dependent on the structure of the donor lipoprotein.  (+info)

Isoforms of caveolin-1 and caveolar structure. (4/744)

The relationship between caveolin-1 isoforms alpha and beta and caveolar ultrastructure was studied. By immunofluorescence microscopy of human fibroblasts, caveolae were observed as dots positive for caveolin-1, but many dots labeled by an antibody recognizing both isoforms (anti-alphabeta) were not labeled by another antibody specific for the alpha isoform (anti-alpha). Immunogold electron microscopy of freeze-fracture replicas revealed caveolae of different depths, and indicated that anti-alpha labeled deep caveolae preferentially over shallow ones, whereas anti-alphabeta labeled both forms with an equivalent frequency and intensity. The presence of the beta isoform in deep caveolae was confirmed by labeling epitope-tagged beta-caveolin. When made to be expressed in HepG2 cells lacking endogenous caveolins, the alpha isoform formed caveolar depressions efficiently, but the beta isoform hardly did so. Caveolae were also formed in cells expressing the two isoforms, but their frequency was variable among cells of the same clone. Coexpression of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 caused more efficient formation of deep caveolae than caveolin-1 alone. The result indicates that the two isoforms of caveolin-1 have a different potential for forming caveolae structure, and more importantly, that deep and shallow caveolae may be diversified in their molecular composition.  (+info)

Ultrastructural and histochemical characterization of special muscle cells in the monkey small intestine. (5/744)

The ultrastructure, three-dimensional arrangement, and histochemical features of special muscle cells in the monkey small intestine were investigated. The cells formed a special layer separated from the main part by a connective tissue space along the submucosal surface of the circular muscle coat. Scanning electron microscopy using alkali maceration demonstrated this inner sublayer to be a continuous thin sheet consisting of irregularly-shaped muscle cells equipped with many cytoplasmic projections and caveolae. Other ultrastructural features included direct contact with interstitial cells, due to their close association with nerve fibers of the deep muscular plexus. Histochemical examination revealed significant alkaline phosphatase activity and immunoreactivity for vascular smooth muscle alpha actin in these muscle cells, whereas the ordinary circular muscle cells were immunopositive for enteric smooth muscle gamma actin. These findings suggest that the special muscle cells play an important role in regulating the radial stretch of the monkey small intestinal wall.  (+info)

Bradykinin activates the Janus-activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in vascular endothelial cells: localization of JAK/STAT signalling proteins in plasmalemmal caveolae. (6/744)

Bradykinin (BK) is an important physiological regulator of endothelial cell function. In the present study, we have examined the role of the Janus-activated kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway in endothelial signal transduction through the BK B2 receptor (B2R). In cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), BK activates Tyk2 of the JAK family of tyrosine kinases. Activation results in the tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of STAT3. BK also activates the mitogen-activated p44 and p42 protein kinases, resulting in STAT3 serine phosphorylation. Furthermore, Tyk2 and STAT3 form a complex with the B2R in response to BK stimulation. Under basal conditions, Tyk2, STAT3 and the B2R are localized either partially or entirely in endothelial plasmalemmal caveolae. Following BK stimulation of BAECs, however, the B2R and STAT3 are translocated out of caveolae. Taken together, these data suggest that BK activates the JAK/STAT pathway in endothelial cells and that JAK/STAT signalling proteins are localized in endothelial caveolae. Moreover, caveolar localization of the B2R and STAT3 appears to be regulated in an agonist-dependent manner.  (+info)

Differential targeting of beta -adrenergic receptor subtypes and adenylyl cyclase to cardiomyocyte caveolae. A mechanism to functionally regulate the cAMP signaling pathway. (7/744)

Differential modes for beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (AR) regulation of adenylyl cyclase in cardiomyocytes is most consistent with spatial regulation in microdomains of the plasma membrane. This study examines whether caveolae represent specialized subdomains that concentrate and organize these moieties in cardiomyocytes. Caveolae from quiescent rat ventricular cardiomyocytes are highly enriched in beta(2)-ARs, Galpha(i), protein kinase A RIIalpha subunits, caveolin-3, and flotillins (caveolin functional homologues); beta(1)-ARs, m(2)-muscarinic cholinergic receptors, Galpha(s), and cardiac types V/VI adenylyl cyclase distribute between caveolae and other cell fractions, whereas protein kinase A RIalpha subunits, G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2, and clathrin are largely excluded from caveolae. Cell surface beta(2)-ARs localize to caveolae in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts (with markedly different beta(2)-AR expression levels), indicating that the fidelity of beta(2)-AR targeting to caveolae is maintained over a physiologic range of beta(2)-AR expression. In cardiomyocytes, agonist stimulation leads to a marked decline in the abundance of beta(2)-ARs (but not beta(1)-ARs) in caveolae. Other studies show co-immunoprecipitation of cardiomyocytes adenylyl cyclase V/VI and caveolin-3, suggesting their in vivo association. However, caveolin is not required for adenylyl cyclase targeting to low density membranes, since adenylyl cyclase targets to low buoyant density membrane fractions of HEK cells that lack prototypical caveolins. Nevertheless, cholesterol depletion with cyclodextrin augments agonist-stimulated cAMP accumulation, indicating that caveolae function as negative regulators of cAMP accumulation. The inhibitory interaction between caveolae and the cAMP signaling pathway as well as domain-specific differences in the stoichiometry of individual elements in the beta-AR signaling cascade represent important modifiers of cAMP-dependent signaling in the heart.  (+info)

Downmodulation of caveolin-1 expression in human ovarian carcinoma is directly related to alpha-folate receptor overexpression. (8/744)

Caveolin (cav-1) and the GPI-anchored alpha-folate receptor (alphaFR) are membrane proteins both found associated to caveolar structures. Several studies in tumor cells independently reported cav-1 downregulation and alphaFR overexpression. Here we analysed the expression of the two molecules in normal and tumor ovarian samples derived from fresh specimens and from cultured cell lines. Whereas normal ovary surface epithelial cells displayed only cav-1 expression, ovarian tumor surgical samples and cell lines (COR, IGROV1, OVCAR3 and OVCA432) displayed high alphaFR and low-level or no cav-1 expression, except those cell lines (SKOV3 and SW626) with the lower alphaFR expression. SKOV3, but not two alphaFR-negative non-ovarian cell lines, exhibited down-regulation of cav-1 expression following stable alphaFR cDNA transfection. Conversely, cav-1 transfection in IGROV1 cells led to downregulated alphaFR expression, together with formation of caveolar structures and reduction of growth capability. Moreover, cav-1 expression was induced in IGROV1 cells by transfection with intracellular anti-alphaFR antibodies to downmodulate alphaFR expression. In cav-1 transfected cells, transcriptional activity of the alphaFR-specific promoter P1 was reduced by 70% and an additional specific DNA-protein complex was identified by gel-shift assay, indicating that cav-1 expression influences alphaFR gene transcription. Together these results support the notion that alphaFR and cav-1 protein expression is reciprocally regulated in ovary cancer cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating cardiovascular disease risk factors and signaling in endothelial cell caveolae. AU - Mineo, Chieko. AU - Shaul, Philip W.. PY - 2006/4/1. Y1 - 2006/4/1. N2 - Caveolae are a subset of lipid rafts that are prevalent on the plasma membrane of endothelial cells. They compartmentalize signal transduction molecules which regulate multiple endothelial functions including the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the caveolae resident enzyme endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Recent studies have demonstrated that circulating factors known to modify cardiovascular disease risk regulate signaling in endothelial cell caveolae. In particular, high density lipoprotein (HDL) maintains the lipid environment in caveolae, thereby promoting the retention and function of eNOS in the domain, and it also causes direct activation of eNOS via scavenger receptor type BI (SR-BI)-induced kinase signaling. Estrogen binding to estrogen receptors (ER) in caveolae also activates eNOS, and this occurs ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Role of caveolae in the airway. AU - Pabelick, Christina M. AU - Singh, Brij B.. AU - Prakash, Y.s.. PY - 2013/11/1. Y1 - 2013/11/1. N2 - Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane that are rich in lipids and serve as microdomains to facilitate interactions between proteins at the membrane as well as intracellular components, thus modulating signal transduction, protein and lipid transport, and other processes. Constituent caveolar proteins such as caveolins and cavins also have scaffolding domains that anchor and regulate protein function. There is now evidence that caveolae and their constituent proteins are present in airway smooth muscle in a variety of species. Caveolae in airway cells contain or interact with molecules such as receptors, ion channels, and regulatory proteins that are key to the roles of airway epithelium and smooth muscle in regulating airway structure and function. Furthermore, caveolar protein expression and regulation appear to be ...
Caveolae are specialized membrane domains that function in endocytosis and contain relatively high concentrations of signaling molecules. Isshiki et al. now present evidence that caveolae serve as preferential sites of Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane when intracellular stores of Ca2+ are depleted. The authors fused the calcium sensor yellow chameleon 3.1 to the COOH-terminal end of caveolin-1 to target the sensor to caveolae. Then, they compared Ca2+ signals at the caveolae to those from unmodified yellow chameleon in the cytoplasm or from another fusion protein that targeted the sensor to the plasma membrane. When Ca2+ was depleted from the endoplasmic reticulum of fetal bovine endothelial cells by exposure of the cells to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and thapsigargin, Ca2+ entry into the cells occurred preferentially at caveolae, apparently through store-operated channels of the TRP (transient receptor potential) family. The authors propose that caveolae may function as preassembled, ...
Caveolae are specialized domains present in the plasma membrane (PM) of most mammalian cell types. They function in signalling, membrane regulation, and endocytosis. We found that the Eps-15 homology domain-containing protein 2 (EHD2, an ATPase) associated with the static population of PM caveolae. Recruitment to the PM involved ATP binding, interaction with anionic lipids, and oligomerization into large complexes (60-75S) via interaction of the EH domains with intrinsic NPF/KPF motifs. Hydrolysis of ATP was essential for binding of EHD2 complexes to caveolae. EHD2 was found to undergo dynamic exchange at caveolae, a process that depended on a functional ATPase cycle. Depletion of EHD2 by siRNA or expression of a dominant-negative mutant dramatically increased the fraction of mobile caveolar vesicles coming from the PM. Overexpression of EHD2, in turn, caused confinement of cholera toxin B in caveolae. The confining role of EHD2 relied on its capacity to link caveolae to actin filaments. Thus, ...
article{364f9c3e-a101-48eb-bf5b-ea6e0c163acd, abstract = {,p,Cavins belong to a family of proteins that contribute to the formation of caveolae, which are membrane organelles with functional roles in muscle and fat. Here, we investigate the effect of cavin-3 ablation on vascular and urinary bladder structure and function. Arteries and urinary bladders from mice lacking cavin-3 (knockout: KO) and from controls (wild type: WT) were examined. Our studies revealed that the loss of cavin-3 resulted in ∼40% reduction of the caveolae protein cavin-1 in vascular and bladder smooth muscle. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the loss of cavin-3 was accompanied by a reduction of caveolae abundance by 40-45% in smooth muscle, whereas the density of caveolae in endothelial cells was unchanged. Vascular contraction in response to an α,sub,1,/sub,-adrenergic agonist was normal but nitric-oxide-dependent relaxation was enhanced, in parallel with an increased relaxation on direct activation of soluble ...
The plasma membrane is not uniform, but can be divided into different microdomains. Whereas some microdomains, such as clathrin-coated pits, are morphologically identifiable, others can be identified only upon colocalization with domain-specific marker molecules. Caveolae are microdomains originally identified morphologically as small noncoated invaginations of the plasma membrane. The formation of caveolae depends on expression of caveolin and, since the plasma membrane contains different noncoated invaginations, caveolae can be identified only by labeling for caveolin. Some confusion exists with respect to the relationship between caveolae and lipid rafts [see raft nomenclature ( Simons and Toomre, 2000)]. This is partly due to difficulties in isolating pure caveolae and to the various methods used for this purpose. Initially, subcellular fractionation upon Triton X-100 extraction at 4°C was used. Such fractionation allows the isolation of detergent-resistant membranes [DRMs; also called DIGs ...
Caveolae are plasma membrane microdomains that localise receptors and signalling intermediates within an environment where they can efficiently trigger downstream events. While present in most cells types, they are particularly abundant in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells (ECs), where they regulate low density lipoprotein trans-cytosis, NO production and inflammation. Cavin-1 is a protein required for caveolae maturation, such that its deletion results in no detectable caveolae and the down-regulation of caveolin scaffolding proteins. However, the cellular processes regulating cavin-1 function are poorly understood. Proteomic screening and biochemical experiments have identified cavin-1 as a novel interacting protein of the cytokine-inducible E3 ubiquitin ligase component suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS3), a key inhibitor of IL-6-mediated pro-inflammatory signalling in ECs. We hypothesise d that the SOCS3/cavin-1 interaction may be important in controlling caveola ...
Caveolae. Caveolae were described in the fifties of the last century by P. Palade after observing animal tissues at transmission electron microscopy. They are small invaginations (45-80 nm) of the plasma membrane that can be observed in most of the eukaryotic cells. It was suggested that most of the caveolae become vesicles (but see below). Caveolae are abundant in endothelial cells, muscle cells and adipocytes. The membrane of the caveolae contains caveolin, as well as other integral proteins linked to glycosylphosphatidylinositol, many sphingolipids (sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipids), and is enriched in cholesterol. The presence of caveolin in a cell is enought to form caveolae. There are around 100 to 200 caveolin molecules in one caveola and there are different types of caveolin in one caveola. Caveolin 1 is expressed in smooth muscle cells and in most of the non muscle cells, and it is necessary for caveolae formation in these cells. Caveolin 2, which can be expressed in the same cells ...
Using a Polaron E7200 quick freeze unit, we investigated the distribution of vesicles (caveolae) bound to the plasma membrane of aortic endothelial cells from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Counts of caveolae from replicas of rapidly frozen, unfixed samples were made and compared with counts from both aldehyde-fixed, conventionally frozen, and rapidly frozen aortic samples. Aldehyde-fixed samples prepared for freeze fracture by either of the freezing methods revealed a significantly greater number of caveolae than did unfixed, rapidly frozen samples. These findings suggest that the relative number of caveolae is artifactually increased by exposure to aldehyde fixatives. We conclude that previous estimates of the rates of pinocytotic activity in vascular endothelial cells may contain substantial errors based on overestimates of caveolae and underestimates of subplasmalemmal free vesicles. ...
Cell fractionation and immunocytochemistry have previously shown that PKCα is constitutively present in caveolae and that this is a major cell surface location for the enzyme (25). We used a solid phase binding assay that has successfully identified other membrane binding sites for cytosolic proteins (28) to determine if PKCα would bind to caveolae. PKCα bound with high affinity (binding was dependent on calcium) did not require the addition of either PMA, PS, or ATP, and only occurred at 37°C. PKCα did not bind to noncaveolae membranes, which contain ,90% of the plasma membrane protein starting material. The same specific interaction with caveolae was also detected in a solution binding assay. Caveolae, therefore, exhibit a PKCα binding activity that may be responsible for targeting the enzyme to this compartment.. We found that caveolae contained other members of the PKC enzyme family. Fractions from untreated cells contained PKCα only when calcium was present and PKCλ only when ...
The primary function of adipose tissue is to store energy in the form of triacylglycerol, which is hydrolyzed to fatty acids to supply other tissues with energy. While insulin promotes the storage of triacylglycerol, catecholamines stimulate its hydrolysis. The development of type II diabetes is strongly associated with obesity, indicating a role of triacylglycerol metabolism in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations found in most cells but are highly abundant in adipocytes. Insulin receptors are localized in caveolae and their function depends on intact caveolae structures. In the present thesis work, mass spectrometry-based methodology allowed identification of a number of new proteins and their posttranslational modifications in caveolae of human adipocytes. Variable N-terminal acetylation and phosphorylation of caveolin-1α and caveolin-1β were identified, which might regulate the function of caveolae. The transcription regulator protein PTRF was identified ...
Plays an important role in caveolar biogenesis and morphology. Regulates caveolae morphology by inducing membrane curvature within caveolae (PubMed:19525939). Plays a role in caveola formation in a tissue-specific manner. Required for the formation of caveolae in the lung and fat endothelia but not in the heart endothelia. Negatively regulates the size or stability of CAVIN complexes in the lung endothelial cells. May play a role in targeting PRKCA to caveolae (By similarity).
Background: Muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC)/cavin-4 is a novel member of the cavin family that regulates caveolae function. Caveolae formation and function are also regulated by caveolin-3 in cardiomyocytes (CMs). Overexpression of caveolin-3 induces cardiac protection, and loss of caveolin-3 causes progressive cardiomyopathy. Mutations in MURC have been identified in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the role of MURC as a caveolar component protein remains unknown.. Methods and Results: To assess the role of MURC in the development of heart failure, MURC-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). After TAC, WT mice developed overt heart failure and eccentric cardiac hypertrophy, whereas MURC-KO mice showed preserved cardiac function accompanied by attenuated cardiac hypertrophy. We then focused on β-adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling, because MURC was colocalized and associated with β1-AR. ...
In biology, caveolae (Latin for little caves; singular, caveola), which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50-100 nanometer) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types, especially in endothelial cells, adipocytes and embryonic notochord cells. They were originally discovered by E. Yamada in 1955. These flask-shaped structures are rich in proteins as well as lipids such as cholesterol and sphingolipids and have several functions in signal transduction. They are also believed to play a role in mechanoprotection, mechanosensation, endocytosis, oncogenesis, and the uptake of pathogenic bacteria and certain viruses. Formation and maintenance of caveolae was initially thought to be primarily due to caveolin, a 21 kD protein. There are three homologous genes of caveolin expressed in mammalian cells: Cav1, Cav2 and Cav3. These proteins have a common topology: cytoplasmic N-terminus with scaffolding domain, long hairpin transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic C-terminus. ...
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of signal transduction processes mediated by cAMP and cGMP. One PDE family member, PDE3B, plays an important role in the regulation of a variety of metabolic processes such as lipolysis and insulin secretion. In this study, the cellular localization and the role of PDE3B in the regulation of triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in hepatocytes were investigated. PDE3B was identified in caveolae, specific regions in the plasma membrane, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In caveolin-1 knock out mice, which lack caveolae, the amount of PDE3B protein and activity were reduced indicating a role of caveolin-1/caveolae in the stabilization of enzyme protein. Hepatocytes from PDE3B knock out mice displayed increased glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, which was associated with increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes/enzymes including, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, peroxisome ...
This gene encodes a protein that enables the dissociation of paused ternary polymerase I transcription complexes from the 3 end of pre-rRNA transcripts. This protein regulates rRNA transcription by promoting the dissociation of transcription complexes and the reinitiation of polymerase I on nascent rRNA transcripts. This protein also localizes to caveolae at the plasma membrane and is thought to play a critical role in the formation of caveolae and the stabilization of caveolins. This protein translocates from caveolae to the cytoplasm after insulin stimulation. Caveolae contain truncated forms of this protein and may be the site of phosphorylation-dependent proteolysis. This protein is also thought to modify lipid metabolism and insulin-regulated gene expression. Mutations in this gene result in a disorder characterized by generalized lipodystrophy and muscular dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009 ...
and forskolin-stimulated AC activity is increased by caveolin-1 knockdown or knockout, the results suggest that noninvolvement of Gαi or a GPCR coupled to Gαi. Alternatively, because caveolin-1 is a cholesterol-binding protein (Murata et al., 1995), limiting its expression could lower membrane cholesterol. This is not the case (Fig. 5). In fact, incubating wild-type or Cav-1 RNAi cells with 1 mg/ml exogenous cholesterol significantly decreased isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation (Fig. 5). Thus, removing membrane cholesterol does seem to enhance βAR/Gαs/adenylyl cyclase signaling (most likely by disrupting rafts/caveolae), and adding cholesterol has the opposite effect. Therefore, the elevated cAMP signaling due to loss of caveolin is independent of Gαi and cholesterol levels.. Lipid rafts/caveolae can influence both spatial organization at the membrane and intracellular trafficking of signaling molecules; both mechanisms could regulate the Gαs/adenylyl cyclase signaling cascade. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - AMP-dependent kinase inhibits oxidative stress-induced caveolin-1 phosphorylation and endocytosis by suppressing the dissociation between c-Abl and Prdx1 proteins in endothelial cells. AU - Takeuchi, Kimio. AU - Morizane, Yuki. AU - Kamami-Levy, Cynthia. AU - Suzuki, Jun. AU - Kayama, Maki. AU - Cai, Wenyi. AU - Miller, Joan W.. AU - Vavvas, Demetrios G.. PY - 2013/7/12. Y1 - 2013/7/12. N2 - Caveolin-1 is the primary structural component of endothelial caveolae that is essential for transcellular trafficking of albumin and is also a critical scaffolding protein that regulates the activity of signaling molecules in caveolae. Phosphorylation of caveolin-1 plays a fundamental role in the mechanism of oxidant-induced vascular hyper permeability. However, the regulatory mechanism of caveolin-1 phosphorylation remains unclear. Here we identify a previously unexpected role for AMPKin inhibition of caveolin-1 phosphorylation under oxidative stress. A pharmacological activator of AMPK, ...
Lipid-binding protein that is able to promote the tubulation of the phosphatidic acid-containing membranes it preferentially binds. Plays a role in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport. Involved in the endocytosis of cell-surface receptors like the EGF receptor, contributing to its internalization in the absence of EGF stimulus. May also play a role in the formation of caveolae at the cell membrane. Recruits DNM2 to caveolae, and thereby plays a role in caveola-mediated endocytosis.
Lipid-binding protein that is able to promote the tubulation of the phosphatidic acid-containing membranes it preferentially binds. Plays a role in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport. Involved in the endocytosis of cell-surface receptors like the EGF receptor, contributing to its internalization in the absence of EGF stimulus. May also play a role in the formation of caveolae at the cell membrane. Recruits DNM2 to caveolae, and thereby plays a role in caveola-mediated endocytosis ...
The localization of ion channels to caveolae may modulate the function of the channels in multiple ways. For example, the precise lipid composition can potently regulate channel function, and dynamic changes in this composition underlie some forms of regulation. In addition, the caveolar localization of ion channels can provide compartmentalization of signaling networks, enabling rapid and specific regulation of the channels. Caveolar-localized signaling complexes composed of β2-AR, AC, Gαs, and Gαi have previously been observed in rat ventricular myocytes (9, 19), but the present study adds Cav1.2 and PP2A to the complex. Conversely, the molecules associated with Cav1.2 channels in the heart have not been extensively defined. Recent studies have identified AKAP15 and PKA as well as certain PKC isoforms in association with Cav1.2 in cardiac muscle (23, 24); however, whether these molecules are associated with the channels in caveolae is unknown. The present results add to the list of proteins ...
CAVEOLAE AS PLASMA MEMBRANE SENSORS PROTECTORS AND ORGANIZERS PDF - Caveolae are submicroscopic, plasma membrane pits that are abundant in many mammalian cell types. The past few years have seen a quantum leap in our.
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a 21?kDa protein enriched in caveolae and continues to be implicated in oncogenic cell transformation CHC tumorigenesis and metastasis. response to chemotherapy and radiation and tumor growth. We found Cav-1 is definitely overexpressed in human being Personal computer cell lines mouse models and human being pancreatic tumors and is associated with worse tumor grade and clinical results. In Personal computer cell lines disruption/depletion of caveolae/Cav-1 reduces proliferation colony formation and invasion. Radiation and chemotherapy up-regulate Cav-1 manifestation while Cav-1 depletion induces both chemosensitization and radiosensitization through modified apoptotic and DNA restoration signaling. and and transgene (KPC mouse) (Fig. 1B). Cav-1 manifestation was also tested on a cells microarray of 110 individuals with pancreatic malignancy and obtained semi-quantitatively for low versus high CHC manifestation. While Cav-1 is definitely virtually absent in pancreatic ...
Caveolae are small, cholesterol-rich, hydrophobic membrane domains, characterized by the presence of the protein caveolin and involved in several cellular processes, including clathrin-independent endocytosis, the regulation and transport of cellular cholesterol, and signal transduction. Recently, c …
Caveolae, the sphingomy-cholesterol enriched microdomains, form a stable lipid matrix that act as an ordered support for receptor-mediated signaling events. It has been proposed that caveola composition changes in response to adverse extracellular conditions [35,36]. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found in the current study that HG treatment led to a decrease in the number of caveolae on the surface of LECs. We also found reduced levels of caveolin-1 mRNA and protein in HG-treated LECs, indicating that caveolin-1 expression was down-regulated at the transcription level. Although it has been proposed that caveolin-1 functions as a message center that compartmentalizes anti- and pro-apoptotic signaling molecules on the cell surface to regulate apoptosis [17], its role in regulating apoptosis remains controversial. In the current study, we found the levels of caveolin-1 reduced and apoptosis rate increased in HG-treated LECs, indicating that caveolin-1 may inhibit apoptosis. However, ...
The Editors wish to note that a reader has raised questions about the integrity of certain figures in the foregoing articles listed below. We have been informed by Emory University of an ongoing review conducted by an inquiry committee at the University. We are awaiting the findings of the committee to determine the appropriate next steps.. 1) Zuo L, Ushio-Fukai M, Ikeda S, Hilenski L, and Alexander RW. Microtubules regulate angiotensin II type receptor and rac 1 localization in caveolae/lipid rafts: role in redox signaling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1223-1228.. 2) Zuo L, Ushio-Fukai M, Ikeda S, Hilenski L, Patrushev N, Alexander RW. Caveolin-1 is essential for activation of rac 1 and NAD(P)H oxidase after angiotensin II type 1 receptor stimulation in vascular smooth muscle cells: role in redox signaling and vascular hypertrophy. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25;1824-1830.. ...
Chiara Zurzolo, Gerrit van Meer, Satyajit Mayor. The order of rafts. Conference on microdomains, lipid rafts and caveolae.. EMBO Reports, EMBO Press, 2003, 4 (12), pp.1117-21. ⟨10.1038/sj.embor.7400032⟩. ⟨pasteur-00167027⟩ ...
Obesity and overweight is an increasing health problem in the world. Besides reducing quality of life obesity is a great risk factor for development of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. The adipose tissue is a flexible organ that grows in size if the body is provided with excess energy. Adipocytes store the excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol. The incorporation of fat is stimulated by insulin, while catecholamines promote hydrolysis of triacylglycerol. In the membrane of adipocytes there are cave-like invaginations, caveolae, where proteins involved in insulin signalling, such as the insulin receptor are located. The focus of this thesis is on the function, and thereby the importance, of adipocytes and caveolae in metabolism.. The lipid content of the plasma membrane and caveolae was analyzed and compared to lipid phases determined in model membranes. The amount of different membrane lipids indicated heterogeneity of the caveolae, since there were not ...
Caveolae are specialised forms of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane of most cells. They form dynamic assemblies of sphingolipids and cholesterol containing scaffolding domains with different affinities for proteins resulting in a variety of functions [1]. The constitutive Cav-1 protein is distributed ubiquitously, while Cav-2 is usually associated with Cav-1 [3, 28]. Although Cav-3 is thought to be muscle specific and is expressed in striated muscles [3, 28, 29], we and others have found that Cav-3 is not expressed within human ASM [6, 30]. Recent studies have established that ASM caveolae contain a number of proteins important to [Ca2+]i regulation (e.g. agonist receptors, Ca2+ influx channels, and force regulatory proteins such as RhoA). In canine ASM, it has been established that caveolar-enriched membrane fractions express Cav-1, L-type Ca2+ channels and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase, but not SR proteins such as IP3R or RyR channels [31].. In ASM of different species, in addition to Ca2+ ...
View mouse Cavin3 Chr7:105480083-105482300 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Received 6 November 2009. Accepted 1 December 2009. Uncorrected manuscript published online 3 December 2009. Published online 8 January 2010 ...
Introduction. Caveolin-1(Cav-1) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein essential structural constituent of caveolae, regulating multiple processes in cancer.. A growing body of evidence links elevated expression of Cav-1 to an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells and to a poor prognosis in several tumors. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pro-survival and tumor-promoting functions of Cav-1 and the down-stream mediators of Cav-1 functional role in metastatic cancer have jet to be fully identified. The aim of the present work was to prosecute the investigation on such molecular pathways in solid tumors, based on our recent data obtained in cell lines from SCLC (SCLC-R1) and NSCLC (RAL) and from glioblastoma (A-172) where we demonstrated an oncopromoter activity of Cav-1 through the activation of STAT3 signaling pathway. Here we present the data obtained in a cell line from osteosarcoma (143B), where Cav-1 was highly expressed.. Methods. Cav-1 was knocked-down by siRNA using the ...
Caveolae, Membrane, Endocytosis, Plasma, Plasma Membrane, Senescence, Binding Protein, Caveolin-1, Cellular Senescence, Fibroblasts, Insulin, Mutations, ATP, Mutation, and Blood
The scaffolding protein CAV1 is the main component of the caveolae plasma membranes found in most cell types. The protein links integrin subunits to…
Expression of myocardin family genes correlate with expression of caveolae genes in humans.mRNA expression data was retrieved from the GTExPortal. TMM-normalize
Caveolae and rafts represent highly heterogeneous populations of functionally distinct membrane domains (Maxfield, 2002). Multiple raft-associated proteins may therefore serve to segregate and define raft domains that exhibit differential endocytic capacities. The existence of multiple caveolin-1 binding partners (Liu et al., 2002) implicates caveolin-1 as a scaffolding molecule that determines the cargo for caveolae/raft-dependent endocytosis. Caveolae/raft ligands are also internalized by other endocytic pathways. For instance, cholera, shiga, and anthrax toxins bind to cell surface raft domains and yet are internalized via clathrin-dependent pathways (Sandvig et al., 1989; Shogomori and Futerman, 2001; Abrami et al., 2003). Raft association cannot therefore be considered a criterion in and of itself for internalization via the caveolae/raft-dependent pathway.. Two caveolar ligands, SV40 and CTX, are delivered to a caveolin-1-positive endocytic compartment or caveosome (Parton et al., 1994; ...
The aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin is an ototoxic drug and has been used experimentally to investigate cochlear damage induced by noise. We have investigated the changes in the protein profile associated with caveolae in gentamicin treated and untreated spiral ligament (SL) pericytes, specialized cells in the blood labyrinth barrier of the inner ear microvasculature. Pericytes from various microvascular beds express caveolae, protein and cholesterol rich microdomains, which can undergo endocytosis and transcytosis to transport small molecules in and out the cells. A different protein profile in transport-specialized caveolae may induce pathological changes affecting the integrity of the blood labyrinth barrier and ultimately contributing to hearing loss. Caveolae isolation from treated and untreated cells is achieved through ultracentrifugation of the lysates in discontinuous gradients. Mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis identifies the proteins in the two groups. Proteins segregating with
Purpose: : SPARC, an important matricellular protein in mammalian lens, was internalized by lens epithelium and cultured lens epithelial cells (LEC) in vitro. Caveolae-mediated endocytosis is an important endocytic pathway for the entry of macromolecules into cells. Caveolae have recently been implicated in organizing the cells signal transduction pathways and can play an important role in cell function. Caveolin-1 is the major coat protein of caveolae. Our goal is to characterize the expression of caveolin-1 in epithelial and fiber cells of the murine ocular lens and the cultured murine LEC, and to determine whether caveolae are involved in SPARC endocytosis. Methods: : Eyes from C57BL6/129SVJ wt and SPARC-null mice (1-4 month-old) were prepared for paraffin sections and frozen sections. LEC were cultured from wt and SPARC-null 1-2 month-old mice. The distribution of caveolin-1 in murine lens and cultured LEC was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting with antibodies against ...
The cell cytoskeleton plays a role in caveolar organization and trafficking. Actin stress fibers influence the linear distribution of caveolae at the plasma membrane in many cell types. Stress fibers regulated by the tyrosine kinase Abl and the formin mDIA1 play a major role in caveolar organization as well as endocytic trafficking initiated in response to loss of cell adhesion from the substrate [11]. The actin-binding protein Filamin A also plays a crucial role in trafficking of caveolae linked to actin [12]. Microtubules promote recycling of caveolae through local stabilization of microtubules by β1 integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling (reviewed in [13]). The β1 integrin-ILK recruits the actin-binding protein IQGAP1 which together with mDIA1 stabilize microtubules. Thus mDIA1 which regulates both actin and microtubules is crucial for both the internalization and recycling of caveolae.. Caveolae can flatten in response to membrane stretch and this mechanosensitive response of ...
Although a critical role for caveolae-mediated albumin transcytosis in pulmonary endothelium is well established, considerably less is known about caveolae-independent pathways. In this current study, we confirmed that cultured rat pulmonary microvascular (RPMEC) and pulmonary artery (RPAEC) endothelium endocytosed Alexa488-labeled albumin in a saturable, temperature-sensitive mode and internalization resulted in co-localization by fluorescence microscopy with cholera B toxin and caveolin-1. Although siRNA to caveolin-1 (cav-1) in RPAEC significantly inhibited albumin uptake, a remnant portion of albumin uptake was cav-1-independent, suggesting alternative pathways for albumin uptake. Thus, we isolated and cultured mouse lung endothelial cells (MLEC) from wild type and cav-1-/- mice and noted that ∼ 65% of albumin uptake, as determined by confocal imaging or live cell total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy (TIRF), persisted in total absence of cav-1. Uptake of colloidal gold ...
Jihee completed her Ph.D. in the lab of Dr. Johnny Huard at the University of Pittsburgh Stem Cell Research Center. Her thesis work focused on investigating functional defects in muscle-derived stem cells isolated from dystrophic skeletal muscle and determining the origin of cells responsible for formation of ectopic fat tissues in the skeletal muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. After completing her Ph.D., she joined Dr. Rocky Tuans lab at the University of Pittsburgh Center for Cell and Molecular Engineering. In Dr. Tuans lab, she studied the biology of adult human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Specifically, she conducted research to investigate MSC behaviors in response to 3-dimensional substrate rigidity, as well as their potential influencing by membrane cholesterol, the protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1), and caveolae lipid rafts. Since Jihee joined Sykes lab in July 2018, she has worked to identify critical genetic mediators of neutrophil lifespan and function. The ...
Metastasis is a multistep process requiring cancer cell signaling, invasion, migration, survival, and proliferation. These processes require dynamic modulation of cell surface proteins by endocytosis. Given this functional connection, it has been suggested that endocytosis is dysregulated in cancer. To test this, we developed In-Cell ELISA assays to measure three different endocytic pathways: clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and clathrin-independent endocytosis and compared these activities using two different syngeneic models for normal and oncogene-transformed human lung epithelial cells. We found that all endocytic activities were reduced in the transformed versus normal counterparts. However, when we screened 29 independently isolated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to determine whether these changes were systematic, we observed significant heterogeneity. Nonetheless, using hierarchical clustering based on their combined endocytic properties, we ...
Abstract: Low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (LMW-PTPs) are small enzymes that are ubiquitous in many organisms. They are important in biological processes such as cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasiveness. LMW-PTP is expressed in mammalian cells as two isoforms (IF1 and IF2) originating through alternative splicing. We have previously shown that IF2 targets lipid rafts called caveolae and interacts with caveolin-1, their major structural protein. Caveolae are cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains that have been implicated in a variety of cellular functions, including signal transduction events. Caveolin-1 contains a scaffolding region that contributes to the binding of the protein to the plasma membrane and mediates protein omo- and etero-oligomerization. Interaction of many signaling molecules with the scaffolding domain sequesters them into caveolae and inhibits or suppresses their activities. Caveolin-interacting proteins usually have a ...
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Representative traces and indicate data showing the response of shortening (expressed as a % of resting cell size) to selective stimulation of b1-AR with one hundred nM isoproterenol (Iso) in the existence of 100 nM ICI 118,551. C, D. Representative traces and suggest information of the response of [Ca2+]i transient amplitude to selective b1-AR stimulation. Knowledge are from 200 myocytes from 7 hearts. E, F, G. Agent traces and suggest information of the reaction of ICa,L to selective stimulation of b1-AR with 10 nM Iso in the presence of ICI 118, 551 (ICI). n = six myocytes from three hearts. P,.05, Students t-take a look at. doi:ten.1371/journal.pone.0106905.g005 In standard, the results of simvastatin on basal and b-AR stimulated grownup myocyte perform are quite comparable to individuals we have noted beforehand when caveolae are disrupted with MBCD, suggesting that simvastatin is operating by way of cholesterol-dependent (caveolar) pathways. Nonetheless, presented the human body of ...
Download and listen to every speaker at the FOCUS National Conference 2010 right to your computer.. Keynote:. Being Single - Matthew Kelly. Dont Impose Your Morality On Me - Dr. Edward Sri From First Date to Life Mate - Stenphanie Weinert From the Foundation of the World - Curtis Martin Msgr. Stuart Swetland, S.T.D. Testimony The Power of the Spiritual Life - Fr. Benedict Groeschel, CFR. Concurrent:. Can I Be Certain of the Existence of God - Sean Dalton Do I Really Need the Church - Sean Dalton Forgiving When You Dont Feel Like It - Jeff Cavins God Has a Plan of Sheer Goodness - Jeff Cavins Oprah or Jesus - Whose Plan will You Follow - Jeff Cavins Reaching the Lost - Peter Herbeck Who Do You Say That I Am - Debbie Herbeck Who Do You Say That I Am - Sean Dalton World Changers - Curtis Martin. Impact:. As The World Turns - Uncovering the Wounds of Those Born Since 1960 - Vicki Thorn Astrophysics and Creation - Fr. Robert Spitzer, S.J.. Building the Culture of Life - Lila Rose Casting Into the ...
Download and listen to every speaker at the FOCUS National Conference 2010 right to your computer.. Keynote:. Being Single - Matthew Kelly. Dont Impose Your Morality On Me - Dr. Edward Sri From First Date to Life Mate - Stenphanie Weinert From the Foundation of the World - Curtis Martin Msgr. Stuart Swetland, S.T.D. Testimony The Power of the Spiritual Life - Fr. Benedict Groeschel, CFR. Concurrent:. Can I Be Certain of the Existence of God - Sean Dalton Do I Really Need the Church - Sean Dalton Forgiving When You Dont Feel Like It - Jeff Cavins God Has a Plan of Sheer Goodness - Jeff Cavins Oprah or Jesus - Whose Plan will You Follow - Jeff Cavins Reaching the Lost - Peter Herbeck Who Do You Say That I Am - Debbie Herbeck Who Do You Say That I Am - Sean Dalton World Changers - Curtis Martin. Impact:. As The World Turns - Uncovering the Wounds of Those Born Since 1960 - Vicki Thorn Astrophysics and Creation - Fr. Robert Spitzer, S.J.. Building the Culture of Life - Lila Rose Casting Into the ...
Knowledge about the uptake mechanism and subsequent intracellular routing of non-viral gene delivery systems is important for the development of more efficient carriers. In this study we compared two
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped virus that assembles into filamentous virus particles on the surface of infected cells. Morphogenesis of RSV is dependent upon cholesterol-rich (lipid raft) membrane microdomains, but the specific role of individual raft molecules in RSV assembly is not well defined. Here we show that RSV morphogenesis occurs within caveolar membranes and that both caveolin-1 and cavin-1, the two major structural and functional components of caveolae, are actively recruited to and incorporated into the RSV envelope. The recruitment of caveolae occurred just prior to the initiation of RSV filament assembly, and was dependent upon an intact actin network as well as a direct physical interaction between caveolin-1 and the viral G protein. Moreover, cavin-1 protein levels were significantly increased in RSV-infected cells, leading to a virus-induced change in the stoichiometry and biophysical properties of the caveolar coat complex. Our data indicate that RSV ...
Altered fluid flow, which is found in branches and curvatures of arteries, results in abnormal forces on the endothelial cells (EC). These forces have been shown to alter EC gene expression and phenotype and to activate several cellular structures including G-proteins, ion channels, adhesion molecules, and caveolae. Recently, PECAM-1 has been implicated as the primary sensor of hemodynamic forces in EC. Shear stress rapidly induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1 and the recruitment of SHP-2. These events appear to contribute to shear-activation of ERK1/2. Additionally, PECAM-1 has been shown to form a mechanosensory signaling complex with VE-cadherin, VEGFR2, and βcatenin which plays a role in adhesion molecule expression and regulation of NF-κB. Past work has shown that caveolae membrane domains also serve as mechanotransduction sites that regulate many of these same second messengers. Based on these novel observations, we hypothesize that the PECAM-1 mediated mechanotransduction ...
Several exogenous and endogenous cargo proteins are internalized independently of clathrin, including the bacterial Shiga toxin. The mechanisms underlying early steps of clathrin-independent uptake remain largely unknown. In this study, we have designed a protocol to obtain gradient fractions containing Shiga toxin internalization intermediates. Using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and quantitative mass spectrometry, Rab12 was found in association with these very early uptake carriers. The localization of the GTPase on Shiga toxin-induced plasma membrane invaginations was shown by fluorescence microscopy in cells transfected with GFP-Rab12. Furthermore, using a quantitative biochemical assay, it was found that the amount of receptor-binding B-subunit of Shiga toxin reaching the trans-Golgi/TGN membranes was decreased in Rab12-depleted cells, and that cells were partially protected against intoxication by Shiga-like toxin 1 under these conditions. These findings ...
Introduction: Caveolins (Cav), the principal structural proteins of the caveolar domain, have been implicated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension (PH) and lung remodeling. Mice with homozygous deletion of the Cav-1 gene display cardiac hypertrophy and pulmonary abnormalities characterized by thickened alveolar septa, hypercellularity and PH. In vivo administration of a cell-permeable Cav-1 mimetic peptide was previously shown to prevent the development of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary artery medial hypertrophy, PH and right ventricular hypertrophy in rats. Whether administration of such a Cav-1 peptide could rescue the cardio-pulmonary defects observed in Cav-1 KO mice remains unknown.. Methods and Results: Three week-old wild-type and Cav-1 KO mice were randomly assigned to receive a daily intraperitoneal injection of either saline, penetratin alone (AP, 2.5 mg/kg/d) or a peptide consisting of the Cav-1 scaffolding domain coupled to penetratin (AP-Cav, 2.5 ...
article{744458, author = {Remaut, Katrien and Sanders, Niek and De Geest, Bruno and Braeckmans, Kevin and Demeester, Jo and De Smedt, Stefaan}, issn = {0927-796X}, journal = {MATERIALS SCIENCE \& ENGINEERING R-REPORTS}, keyword = {SINGLE-PARTICLE TRACKING,FLUORESCENCE CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY,CROSS-CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY,advanced light microscopy,nuclear uptake,endocytosis,extracellular matrix,non-viral carriers,gene therapy,GLYCOL-POLYETHYLENIMINE/DNA COMPLEXES,CYSTIC-FIBROSIS SPUTUM,BLOCK-COPOLYMER MICELLES,RESONANCE ENERGY-TRANSFER,CAVEOLAE-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS,INTRAVENOUS GENE DELIVERY,IMAGE CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY}, language = {eng}, pages = {117--161}, title = {Nucleic acid delivery: Where material sciences and bio-sciences meet}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mser.2007.06.001}, volume = {58}, year = {2007 ...
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a major structural component of cell membrane caveolae, is involved in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways as well as transmembrane transport. Cav-1, as a scaffolding protein, modulates signal transduction associated with cell cycle progression, cellular senescence, cell proliferation and death, lipid homeostasis, etc. Cav-1 is also thought to regulate the expression or activity of oncoproteins, such as Src family kinases, H-Ras, protein kinase C, epidermal growth factor, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Because of its frequent overexpression or mutation in various tumor tissues and cancer cell lines, Cav-1 has been speculated to play a role as an oncoprotein in cancer development and progression. In contrast, Cav-1 may also function as a tumor suppressor, depending on the type of cancer cells and/or surrounding -stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment as well as the stage of tumors ...
Virus tracking in living NMuMG epithelial cells expressing GFP-fused caveolin-1. (a) Caveolar endocytosis, fission and fusion events, and internal vesicle membrane dynamics are shown not to be affected in a stable cell line. (b) Detail of an infected cell (in a surface confocal section) with a virion bypassing a caveolin-rich domain. (c) In-depth confocal section with a virion(s) captured in a caveolin-rich vesicle at the nuclear periphery. (d and e) Uptake of virions through caveolin membrane domains at the cell surface. Mouse NMuMG epithelial cells expressing GFP-tagged caveolin-1 were infected with Alexa 594-prestained virus (MOI of 10e3 virus particles per cell) and scanned in an open, mediumcontaining chamber with a deltaT of 6 s. Bars, 5 um (a to c) and 2 um (d and e). Liebl et al., J Virol 2006. ...
Kayashima Y, Tomita H, Zhilicheva S, Kim S, Kim HS, Bennett BJ, Maeda N. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Atherosclerosis at the Aortic Root Identified in an Intercross between DBA2J and 129S6 Apolipoprotein E-Null Mice. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 20;9(2):e88274. PMCID: PMC3930552. Perez-Diaz S. Johnson LA, Dekoon RM, Moreno-Navarrete, Alxate O, Fernandez-Real, Maeda N, Arbones-Mainer JM. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) regulates adipocyte differentiation and determines adipose tissue expandability. FASEB J. 2014 May 8 PMID: 24812087. Hiller S, Dekroon R, Xu L, Robinette J, Winnik W, Alzate O, Simington S, Maeda N, Yi X. a-Lipoic acid protects mitochondrial enzymes and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia in mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014 Mar 24;71C:362-367. PMID: 24675228, PMCID: PMC3988092. Johnson LA, Olsen RH, Merkens LS, DeBarber A, Steiner RD, Sullivan PM, Maeda N, Raber J. Apolipoprotein E-low density lipoprotein receptor interaction affects spatial memory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Caveolin-2 is targeted to lipid droplets, a new membrane domain in the cell. AU - Fujimoto, Toyoshi. AU - Kogo, Hiroshi. AU - Ishiguro, Kimiko. AU - Tauchi, Kumi. AU - Nomura, Ryuji. PY - 2001/3/5. Y1 - 2001/3/5. N2 - Caveolin-1 and -2 constitute a framework of caveolae in nonmuscle cells. In the present study, we showed that caveolin-2, especially its β isoform, is targeted to the surface of lipid droplets (LD) by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, and by subcellular fractionation. Brefeldin A treatment induced further accumulation of caveolin-2 along with caveolin-1 in LD. Analysis of mouse caveolin-2 deletion mutants revealed that the central hydrophobic domain (residues 87-119) and the NH2-terminal (residues 70-86) and COOH-terminal (residues 120-150) hydrophilic domains are all necessary for the localization in LD. The NH2- and COOH-terminal domains appeared to be related to membrane binding and exit from ER, respectively, implying that caveolin-2 is ...
The global obesity epidemic has caused an explosion in the prevalence of metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Intensive efforts have focused on the identification of therapeutic targets to better prevent and treat metabolic syndrome. Previous work had identified functional roles of adipocyte and endothelial CAV1 in susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (Razani et al., 2002), insulin resistance (Cohen et al., 2003) and atherosclerosis (Frank et al., 2004). In this study, we expanded upon these findings by using zebrafish larvae to visualize the localization of enterocyte Cav1 and caveolar endocytosis, and a knockout mouse model to identify a role for CAV1 in the intestinal epithelia in the regulation of plasma FAs and LDL cholesterol, lipids that contribute to the development of several metabolic diseases.. Although it is known that CAV1 is expressed in the intestinal epithelium (Field et al., 1998), the intracellular localization of this protein has remained ...
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Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Caveolin-1 Antibody (7C8) [DyLight 488]. Caveolae Marker, Endosome Marker. Validated: WB, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
Rabbit Monoclonal Anti-Caveolin-1 Antibody (SP43). Caveolae Marker, Endosome Marker. Validated: IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
How does fresh arterial blood make its way through the vast web of tiny vessels in the brain to reach the hungriest neurons? Using live imaging in mice, two studies reveal new elements of neurovascular physiology that play a role. For one, arteriolar endothelial cells were covered with inlets called caveolae, which somehow dictated the dilation and contraction of the vessels. The other identified specialized sphincters that controlled the flow of blood from arterioles into downstream capillary beds.. ...
Order PTRF ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Human, Mouse, Rat and more. Compare PTRF ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com.
PMCA4 exists in caveolae. Isoform PMCA4b interacts with nitric oxide synthase and reduces synthesis of nitric oxide by that ...
Caveolae are small (approx. 50 nm in diameter) flask-shape pits in the membrane that resemble the shape of a cave (hence the ... Caveolae are the most commonly reported non-clathrin-coated plasma membrane buds, which exist on the surface of many, but not ... Potocytosis is a form of receptor-mediated endocytosis that uses caveolae vesicles to bring molecules of various sizes into the ... Parton RG, Simons K (March 2007). "The multiple faces of caveolae". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 8 (3): 185-94. doi: ...
One of the roles the PTRF product has it to stabilize and aid in formation of caveolae. Thus, the mechanism is similar to Type ... Parton, RG; Simons, K (2007). "The multiple faces of caveolae". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 8 (3): 185-94. doi: ... 3, in that the caveolae are unable to properly form and carry out their role in lipid regulation in both. Types 3 and 4 are two ...
The exact mechanism of endocytosis varies depending on the virus, and some viruses use multiple mechanisms; caveolae-dependent ...
Caveolae are caveolin-1-enriched smooth invaginations found on these lipid rafts that contribute to transportation of molecules ... Anderson, R. G. (March 1993). "Potocytosis of small molecules and ions by caveolae". Trends in Cell Biology. 3 (3): 69-72. doi: ... The molecules are transported by caveolae (rather than clathrin-coated vesicles) and are deposited directly into the cytosol. ... Potocytosis works by taking up material into caveolae at the surface of the cell. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored class ...
j] tends to delete a preceding [β], as in *caveola, *plovia > Old French pluie, jaiole. Not, however, in cases like *leviarius ... Word-initial /k/ and /kr/ sometimes voiced, as in crassus > grassus or *caveola > *gaveola. Word-final /s/ tended to disappear ...
Mineo C, Ying YS, Chapline C, Jaken S, Anderson RG (May 1998). "Targeting of protein kinase Calpha to caveolae". The Journal of ...
... called caveolae. Oligomers of caveolin form the coat of these domains. Cells that lack caveolins also lack caveolae. Many ... Galbiati F, Razani B, Lisanti MP (October 2001). "Caveolae and caveolin-3 in muscular dystrophy". Trends Mol Med. 7 (10): 435- ... In molecular biology, caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins that are the principal components of caveolae ... leading to the formation of caveolae. The caveolins are similar in structure. They all form hairpin loops that are inserted ...
This gene encodes a caveolin family member, which functions as a component of the caveolae plasma membranes found in most cell ... Caveolin-3 associates with the cardiac sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) in caveolae of cardiac myocytes. This association occurs ... Disruption of caveolin-3 disturbs the structure of cardiac caveolae and blocks atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression, a ... Gratton JP, Bernatchez P, Sessa WC (2004). "Caveolae and caveolins in the cardiovascular system". Circ. Res. 94 (11): 1408-17. ...
... encodes a caveolae-associated, integral membrane protein. The function of flotillin 1 has not been determined. FLOT1 has ... Caveolae are small domains on the inner cell membrane involved in vesicular trafficking and signal transduction. ... "Flotillin and epidermal surface antigen define a new family of caveolae-associated integral membrane proteins". J. Biol. Chem. ...
The scaffolding protein encoded by this gene is the main component of the caveolae plasma membranes found in most cell types. ... "Entrez Gene: CAV1 caveolin 1, caveolae protein, 22kDa". Li S, Okamoto T, Chun M, Sargiacomo M, Casanova JE, Hansen SH, ... Ikezu T, Trapp BD, Song KS, Schlegel A, Lisanti MP, Okamoto T (April 1998). "Caveolae, plasma membrane microdomains for alpha- ... Implications for the interaction of caveolin with caveolae-associated proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (10 ...
"Palmitoylation targets CD39/endothelial ATP diphosphohydrolase to caveolae". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (3): 2057 ...
... (Cavin1) forms trimers with Cavin2 and Cavin3 in caveola formation and has been shown to interact with other membrane ... Kovtun O, Tillu VA, Ariotti N, Parton RG, Collins BM (April 2015). "Cavin family proteins and the assembly of caveolae". ... PTRF (Cavin1) has been shown to be crucial for caveola formation and function. Termination of RNA polymerase I catalyzed ... at the surface of caveolae in human adipocytes". The Biochemical Journal. 383 (Pt 2): 237-48. doi:10.1042/BJ20040647. PMC ...
Phagocytosis Receptor-mediated endocytosis Caveolae Abbas, Abul, et al. "Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the ...
SV40 may recruit more caveolae from the cytoplasm or even new caveolae formed at the site of entry. A cascade of virus-induced ... Caveolae, on the other hand, are flask shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane that contain caveolin proteins and are the ... Planar rafts contain flotillin proteins and are found in neurons where caveolae are absent. Both types have similar lipid ... and caveolae. Planar rafts are defined as being continuous with the plane of the plasma membrane (not invaginated) and by their ...
Pacsin 2 is involved in the formation of caveolae. The variant rs2413739 in PACSIN2 has been associated with the activity of ... update on the structure and function of caveolae". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 29: 99-106. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2014.04.011. ...
Using electron microscopy, it was proposed that DNA uptake was facilitated by caveolae (or, non-clathrin coated pits). However ... "Expression of naked plasmids by cultured myotubes and entry of plasmids into T tubules and caveolae of mammalian skeletal ... sequestration and transport of small molecules by caveolae". Science. 255 (5043): 410-1. Bibcode:1992Sci...255..410A. doi: ...
1996 Apr;55(2):111-7. Association of Engrailed homeoproteins with vesicles presenting caveolae-like properties. par Joliot A, ...
"Association of Engrailed homeoproteins with vesicles presenting caveolae-like properties". Development. 124 (10): 1865-75. PMID ...
With the binding of eNOS to caveolae, the enzyme is inactivated due to the strong and direct interaction of eNOS with caveolin- ... Lisanti MP, Scherer PE, Tang Z, Sargiacomo M (Jul 1994). "Caveolae, caveolin and caveolin-rich membrane domains: a signalling ... Importantly, eNOS is attached by myristoylation and palmitoylation to caveolae, a pocket-like invagination on the membrane rich ...
The channelosome is frequently clustered within a lipid microdomain or caveolae. This collection of proteins may be involved ...
1997). "Association of Engrailed homeoproteins with vesicles presenting caveolae-like properties". Development. 124 (10): 1865- ...
Pelkmans L, Zerial M (Jul 2005). "Kinase-regulated quantal assemblies and kiss-and-run recycling of caveolae". Nature. 436 ( ...
Riddell DR, Sun XM, Stannard AK, Soutar AK, Owen JS (2001). "Localization of apolipoprotein E receptor 2 to caveolae in the ...
March 1999). "Phospholipase D1 in caveolae: regulation by protein kinase Calpha and caveolin-1". Biochemistry. 38 (12): 3763-9 ...
L caveola), mail (1320; L macula), pill (1400), quail (c. 1300; ML quaccula), rail (1320; L regula), rail (1460; VL rasculum), ...
Caveolins form specific membrane domains called caveolae in which voltage-gated sodium channels sit. Similar to LQT3, these ...
Microtubules and actin microfilaments regulate lipid raft/caveolae localization of adenylyl cyclase signaling components. J ...
... and caveolae-mediated endocytosis". The Biochemical Journal. 377 (Pt 1): 159-69. doi:10.1042/BJ20031253. PMC 1223843. PMID ...
Ikezu T, Trapp BD, Song KS, Schlegel A, Lisanti MP, Okamoto T (Apr 1998). "Caveolae, plasma membrane microdomains for alpha- ...
Caveolae at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Lajoie, P. and I.R. Nabi, Lipid rafts, caveolae ... In biology, caveolae (Latin for "little caves"; singular, caveola), which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50-100 ... Caveolae can also serve as mechanosensors in various cell types. In endothelial cells, caveolae are involved in flow sensation ... Caveolae are also involved in regulation of channels and in calcium signaling. Caveolae also participate in lipid regulation. ...
Membrane microdomains and caveolae.. Kurzchalia TV1, Parton RG.. Author information. 1. Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell ... In addition, several recent papers have suggested that caveolae, which are considered to be a specific form of raft, and ... caveolins, the major membrane proteins of caveolae, are involved in the dynamic cholesterol-dependent regulation of specific ...
Cell Surface Orifices of Caveolae and Localization of Caveolin to the Necks of Caveolae in Adipocytes ... Plasmalemmal caveolae were first identified as an endocytic compartment in endothelial cells, where they appear to move ... Cholesterol Depletion Disrupts Caveolae and Insulin Receptor Signaling for Metabolic Control via Insulin Receptor Substrate-1, ... This raises the possibility that a third function for caveolae is to process hormonal and mechanical signals for the cell. ...
... in the neck of the caveolae. Mature caveolae might be assembled in the Golgi apparatus. Caveolae can flatten out into the cell ... Caveolae might exists as single pits or can form a cluster of caveolae with non-caveolar membrane between the pits. In many ... producing large chains of interconnected caveolae. Another structural feature of caveolae in certain endothelia is the presence ... Caveolae each comprise a caveolar bulb with a diameter of 60-80 nm, connected to an opening of fairly constant diameter. ...
Emerging themes in lipid rafts and caveolae.. Galbiati F1, Razani B, Lisanti MP. ...
Caveolae are small, flask-shaped invaginations found in abundance on the plasma membrane of epithelial cells. They have been ... The generation of an organelle knockout in an intact organism should shed light on the physiological pathways in which caveolae ... Surprisingly, the mice are viable, but totally lack morphologically identifiable caveolae. They do have pulmonary and vascular ... R. G. Parton, Life without caveolae. Science 293, 2404-2405 (2001). [Full Text] ...
Isshiki et al. now present evidence that caveolae serve as preferential sites of Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane when ... Then, they compared Ca2+ signals at the caveolae to those from unmodified yellow chameleon in the cytoplasm or from another ... Caveolae are specialized membrane domains that function in endocytosis and contain relatively high concentrations of signaling ... M. Isshiki, Y. Ying, T. Fujita, R. G. W. Anderson, A molecular sensor detects signal transduction from caveolae in living cells ...
The apparently diverse functions of caveolae, including mechanosensing and lipid regu … ... Caveolae are a highly abundant but enigmatic feature of mammalian cells. They form remarkably stable membrane domains at the ... The multiple faces of caveolae Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Mar;8(3):185-94. doi: 10.1038/nrm2122. ... Caveolae are a highly abundant but enigmatic feature of mammalian cells. They form remarkably stable membrane domains at the ...
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2 A). Caveolae are not observed in endothelial cells of caveolin-1 knock-out mice, although some smooth caveolae-like ... Endocytosis of caveolae/raft domains. The internalization of caveolae is facilitated by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, ... Sorting in caveolae/raft-dependent endocytosis. Caveolae and rafts represent highly heterogeneous populations of functionally ... In this review, we propose that caveolae and rafts are internalized via a common pathway, caveolae/raft-dependent endocytosis, ...
J:244017 Zhu B, et al., Cavin-3 (PRKCDBP) deficiency reduces the density of caveolae in smooth muscle. Cell Tissue Res. 2017 ...
... mice was through caveolae-independent pathway(s) including clathrin-coated pits that resulted in endosomal accumulation of ... considerably less is known about caveolae-independent pathways. In this current study, we confirmed that cultured rat pulmonary ... Although a critical role for caveolae-mediated albumin transcytosis in pulmonary endothelium is well established, ...
To determine the surface density of caveolae, we counted the number of ruthenium red-stained caveolae per cell that were within ... Quantitated inhibition of caveola-mediated endocytosis in anti-dynamin antibody-injected hepatocytes. Caveola-mediated ... but closely resembled caveolae (Fig. 5). Caveolae ("small caves") are specializations of the plasma membrane that are found in ... 1993) Caveolae and sorting in the trans-Golgi network of epithelial cells. EMBO (Eur Mol Biol Organ) J 12:1597-1605, pmid: ...
Caveolins and the more recently discovered cavins are the major protein components of caveolae. When caveolae were discovered, ... Caveolins and the more recently discovered cavins are the major protein components of caveolae. When caveolae were discovered, ... The aim of this review is to focus primarily on molecular and cellular aspects of the role of caveolae, caveolins, and cavins ... The aim of this review is to focus primarily on molecular and cellular aspects of the role of caveolae, caveolins, and cavins ...
Caveolae are small, cholesterol-rich, hydrophobic membrane domains, characterized by the presence of the protein caveolin and ... Caveolae and caveolin in immune cells: distribution and functions Trends Immunol. 2002 Mar;23(3):158-64. doi: 10.1016/s1471- ... Recently, caveolae have been identified as providing a novel route by which several pathogens are internalized by antigen- ... Caveolae are small, cholesterol-rich, hydrophobic membrane domains, characterized by the presence of the protein caveolin and ...
... caveola explanation free. What is caveola? Meaning of caveola medical term. What does caveola mean? ... Looking for online definition of caveola in the Medical Dictionary? ... caveola. Also found in: Dictionary, Financial, Encyclopedia.. Related to caveola: Caveolins. caveola. [ka″ve-o´lah] (pl. caveo´ ... caveo´lae [L.] one of the minute pits or incuppings of the cell membrane formed during pinocytosis.. caveola. pl. caveolae ...
... examined primary rat adipocytes by subcellular fractionation to examine if the insulin receptor was internalized in a caveolae- ... Background The insulin receptor is localized in caveolae and is dependent on caveolae or cholesterol for signaling in ... to insulin stimulation the autophosphorylated insulin receptor in primary adipocytes is rapidly endocytosed in a caveolae- ...
Interestingly, the caveolae inhibitor Mβ-CD strengthened the protective effect of propofol preconditioning. We further found ... But the connection between EMVs, H/R, and caveolae remains largely unclear. Here, we found that H/R significantly increased the ... Inhibition of Caveolae Contributes to Propofol Preconditioning-Suppressed Microvesicles Release and Cell Injury by Hypoxia- ... Caveolae are 50-100 nm cell surface plasma membrane invaginations involved in many pathophysiological processes. Recent ...
Here, the authors show that caveolae can regulate IL6/STAT3 signaling in muscle cells under stress, and that dystrophy related ... Caveolae are mechanosensors and mutations of their coat proteins are implicated in muscle disorders, but molecular mechanisms ... Caveolae, interconnected caveolae, and aberrant sized caveolae are indicated with black arrowheads, asterisks, and white ... Caveolae and interconnected caveolae are indicated with arrowheads and asterisks, respectively. c Quantification of the number ...
Previous work from our lab showed that EHD2 is a dimeric ATPase localised to the caveolae neck and confines caveolae to the ... An example of one such invagination observed in many cell types is "Caveola". Caveolae are bulb shaped invaginations of the ... Caveolin1 acts as the hallmark of caveolae, whereas caveolin3 and cavin4 are limited to muscle cells. Caveolae are appreciated ... This thesis aims to understand the assembly of caveolae and the molecular machineries involved in the regulation of caveolae ...
PC12 cells have caveolae that contain TrkA. Other Titles: Caveolae-disrupting drugs inhibit nerve growth factor-induced, but ... Caveolae are cholesterol-enriched, caveolin-containing plasma membrane microdomains involved in vesicular transport and signal ... Here we demonstrate the presence of caveolae in PC12 cells and their involvement in NGF signaling. Our results showed the ... These data together with the cofractionation of Shc, Ras, caveolin, and TrkA in the caveolae fraction supported a role for ...
C. trachomatis serovar K recently was shown to enter cells via caveolae-like lipid raft ... Caveolae / drug effects, metabolism, microbiology*. Caveolin 1. Caveolins / metabolism*. Chlamydia / drug effects, metabolism ... C. trachomatis serovar K recently was shown to enter cells via caveolae-like lipid raft domains. We asked here how widespread ... 12799183 - Lipid rafts, caveolae, caveolin-1, and entry by chlamydiae into host cells.. 7115463 - The cell population of aortic ...
Role of caveolae and caveolins in health and disease. Cohen, A.W., Hnasko, R., Schubert, W., Lisanti, M.P. Physiol. Rev. (2004) ... VEGF-induced down-regulation of caveolin-1 expression also resulted in the morphological loss of cell surface caveolae ... The phosphorylation of caveolin-2 on serines 23 and 36 modulates caveolin-1-dependent caveolae formation. Sowa, G., Pypaert, M ... Epithelial growth factor-induced phosphorylation of caveolin 1 at tyrosine 14 stimulates caveolae formation in epithelial cells ...
1.caveolae which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50-100 nanometer) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many ... I would like to ask you some questions about the caveolae and caveolin1. I didnt understand the paper that I read on that ... caveolae and caveolin1. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and communication. ... And Caveolin1? it is a protein integral of PM, that is localizated on caveolae? What is the mechanosensing and ...
Cellular spelunking: exploring adipocyte caveolae. J Lipid Res. 2007 Oct; 48(10):2103-11. ...
Effect on caveolae content. CAV-1 is the major protein component of caveolae and, in fact, formation and expression of caveolae ... Parton RG, Simons K. The multiple faces of caveolae. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007;8:185-94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... such that cholesterol level is regulated by CAV-1/caveolae; and 2) modification of cellular cholesterol/CAV-1/caveolae ... Cholesterol and caveolae: structural and functional relationships. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1529:210-22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase I Expression and Enzymatic Activity Are Present in Caveolae of Endothelial Cells. Timothy ... Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase I Expression and Enzymatic Activity Are Present in Caveolae of Endothelial Cells ... Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase I Expression and Enzymatic Activity Are Present in Caveolae of Endothelial Cells ... Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase I Expression and Enzymatic Activity Are Present in Caveolae of Endothelial Cells ...
The role of caveolae and non-caveolar rafts in endocytosis. In: Fielding CJ, editors. Lipid rafts and caveolae - from membrane ... By linking caveolae to actin filaments, EHD2 was proposed to retain caveolae on the PM, preventing their internalization (Moren ... Arrows: caveolae-like vesicles. Arrowheads: merged caveolae-like vesicles. Wide arrow: clathrin-coated pit. Inset: higher ... Small arrows: clusters of caveolae-like vesicles. Large arrows: wound sites. Arrowheads: merged caveolae-like vesicles ...
1. Caveolae in insulin signalling in human and rat adipocytes. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Caveolae in insulin ... Caveolae seem necessary for fhe maintenance of metabolic signalling, like glucose uptake, and defects in caveolae may thus be ... Caveolae are invaginations of the plasma membrane, characterised by the structural protein caveolin. Caveolae and caveolin have ... None of them were detected in caveolae. As a first comprehensive and quantitative analysis of purified caveolae from primary ...
Our data indicate that RSV exploits caveolae for its assembly, and we propose that the incorporation of caveolae into the virus ... The recruitment of caveolae occurred just prior to the initiation of RSV filament assembly, and was dependent upon an intact ... Caveolae provide a specialized membrane environment for respiratory syncytial virus assembly Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Caveolae provide a specialized membrane environment for respiratory syncytial virus assembly. Alexander Ludwig, Tra Huong ...
  • Cav3, like Cav1 in non-muscle cells, is necessary for the formation of caveolae at the plasma membrane of muscle cells 11 . (nature.com)
  • The involvement of these membrane domains in the entry of these organisms was indicated by the sensitivity of their entry to the raft-disrupting agents Nystatin and filipin, and by their intracellular association with caveolin-1, a 22-kDa protein associated with the formation of caveolae in rafts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These proteins are best known for their role in the formation of caveolae - small pouches formed by invaginated sections of the plasma membrane. (elifesciences.org)
  • namely that cellular damage triggers an influx of calcium ions, which causes vesicles called lysosomes to release chemicals that promote the formation of caveolae. (elifesciences.org)
  • We propose a model in which coincident, low-affinity electrostatically controlled protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions allow the formation of caveolae, generating a meta-stable structure that can respond to plasma membrane stress by release of cavins. (biologists.org)
  • Cavins belong to a family of proteins that contribute to the formation of caveolae, which are membrane organelles with functional roles in muscle and fat. (lu.se)
  • To test if caveolae respond to mechanical, human TM and SC cells were subjected to a cyclic stretch paradigm (15%, 1 Hz for 24 h) and analyzed for caveolin-1 phosphorylation by western blotting and for interaction with PTRF/cavin-1, a protein necessary for the formation of caveolae, by co-immunoprecipitation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Coat proteins, called cavins, work together with caveolins to regulate the formation of caveolae but also have the potential to dynamically transmit signals that originate in caveolae to various cellular destinations. (niimama.club)
  • This protein also localizes to caveolae at the plasma membrane and is thought to play a critical role in the formation of caveolae and the stabilization of caveolins. (genecards.org)
  • Essential for the formation of caveolae in all tissues (PubMed:18056712, PubMed:18191225, PubMed:19726876). (genecards.org)
  • Caveolin forms oligomers and associates with cholesterol and sphingolipids in certain areas of the cell membrane , leading to the formation of caveolae . (wikipedia.org)
  • A lack of this protein probably impairs the formation of caveolae. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Caveolae are one source of clathrin-independent raft-dependent endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caveolae are specialized membrane domains that function in endocytosis and contain relatively high concentrations of signaling molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this review, we propose that caveolae and rafts are internalized via a common pathway, caveolae/raft-dependent endocytosis, defined by its clathrin independence, dynamin dependence, and sensitivity to cholesterol depletion. (rupress.org)
  • Clathrin-independent endocytosis includes the constitutive pinocytotic pathway as well as endocytosis mediated by caveolae and glycolipid rafts. (rupress.org)
  • The consequent sensitivity of endocytosis, via both caveolae and rafts, to nonacute cholesterol depletion with agents such as filipin, nystatin, or methyl-β-cyclodextrin distinguishes these pathways from both the clathrin-dependent and constitutive pinocytotic pathways. (rupress.org)
  • In this review, we argue that caveolae and rafts mediate a common endocytic pathway, caveolae/raft-dependent endocytosis, defined by its clathrin independence, dynamin dependence, sensitivity to cholesterol depletion, and the morphology and lipid composition of the vesicular intermediate. (rupress.org)
  • In support of this, caveola-mediated endocytosis of labeled cholera toxin B was inhibited in antibody-injected hepatocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, functional in vivo studies as well as ultrastructural and biochemical analyses indicate that dynamin mediates both clathrin-dependent endocytosis and the internalization of caveolae in mammalian cells. (rupress.org)
  • This pathway, which is clearly distinct from clathrin-mediated endocytosis, relies on flask-shaped, nonclathrin-coated, 50-85-nm-diam plasmalemmal vesicles called caveolae (e.g. (rupress.org)
  • Caveolae are small, cholesterol-rich, hydrophobic membrane domains, characterized by the presence of the protein caveolin and involved in several cellular processes, including clathrin-independent endocytosis, the regulation and transport of cellular cholesterol, and signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings directly link lesion removal by caveolar endocytosis to the maintenance of plasma membrane and muscle fiber integrity, providing a mechanistic explanation for the muscle pathology associated with mutations in caveolae proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • have obtained evidence that membrane repair relies not on patching, but on endocytosis (the process by which substances are taken into the cell in small vesicles that 'pinch' from the plasma membrane) of these caveolae pouches. (elifesciences.org)
  • caveola - (= caveolae (plural) ) Small invagination of the plasma membrane characteristic of many mammalian cells and associated with endocytosis. (enacademic.com)
  • Caveolae at the plasma membrane can be removed by endocytosis to. (niimama.club)
  • Our results collectively suggest that aquareoviruses can use caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis as the primary entry pathway to initiate productive infection. (ndsl.kr)
  • The role of caveolae endocytosis in caveolin-1 polarization in migrating endothelial cells. (paratlab.com)
  • Since the viral genes and pathogenic proteins that are taken into cells are directly delivered to their target organelles, caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis represents a promising pathway for specific delivery. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we demonstrated the ability of an artificial pentadecapeptide, which binds to ganglioside GM3, to deliver protein into cells by caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Cav-1 and the caveolae structure are believed to be involved in multiple cellular processes that include signal transduction, lipid regulation, endocytosis, transcytosis, and mechanoprotection. (mdpi.com)
  • In molecular biology caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins that are the principal components of caveolae membranes and involved in receptor-independent endocytosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pericytes from various microvascular beds express caveolae, protein and cholesterol rich microdomains, which can undergo endocytosis and transcytosis to transport small molecules in and out the cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, genistein treatment, siRNA knockdown of caveolin-1, or overexpression of a dominant-negative caveolin mutant impacted the ZIKV entry, with ZIKV particles being observed to colocalize with caveolin-1, implying that caveola endocytosis can also be involved. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies have indicated that TGF-β responsiveness is determined by TGF-β receptor partitioning between lipid raft/caveolae-mediated and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytosis facilitates TGF-β degradation and thus suppressing TGF-β responsiveness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell plasma membrane lipid raft fractionation experiments revealed that blocking endocytosis with dynamin K44A causes UT-A1 protein accumulation in both the lipid raft and nonlipid raft pools, suggesting that both caveolae- and clathrin-mediated mechanisms may be involved in the internalization of UT-A1. (emory.edu)
  • We conclude that UT-A1 endocytosis is dynamin-dependent and mediated by both caveolae- and clathrin-coated pit pathways. (emory.edu)
  • singular, caveola), which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50-100 nanometer) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types, especially in endothelial cells, adipocytes and embryonic notochord cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caveolae are small, flask-shaped invaginations found in abundance on the plasma membrane of epithelial cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • caveolae are cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich smooth invaginations of the plasma membrane that partition into raft fractions and whose expression is associated with caveolin-1. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, clusters of distinct, nonclathrin-coated, flask-shaped invaginations resembling caveolae accumulated at the plasma membrane of antibody-injected cells. (rupress.org)
  • it is unknown how caveolae and noncoated plasmalemmal invaginations detach to form free endocytic vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • Caveolae are cholesterol and glycosphingolipid-rich flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane which are particularly abundant in vascular endothelium and present in all other cell types of the cardiovascular system, including vascular smooth-muscle cells, macrophages, cardiac myocytes, and fibroblasts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Caveolae are 50-100 nm cell surface plasma membrane invaginations involved in many pathophysiological processes. (hindawi.com)
  • Caveolae are cup-shaped plasma membrane invaginations that were first observed in the 1950s by Palade and Yamada on electron micrographs from vascular and gall bladder tissues 1 , 2 . (nature.com)
  • Caveolae are bulb shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol. (diva-portal.org)
  • 1.caveolae which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50-100 nanometer) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types, especially in endothelial cells and adipocytes. (biology-online.org)
  • Caveolae are invaginations of the plasma membrane that may arise from so called rafts in the presence of the structural protein caveolin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Caveolae are invaginations of the plasma membrane, characterised by the structural protein caveolin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Caveolae (or 'little caves') are bulb-shaped invaginations of 50-60 nm that are a main feature of the plasma membrane in many cell types, including adipocytes, endothelial and muscle cells ( Fig. 1A ). (biologists.org)
  • Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane that are rich in lipids and serve as microdomains to facilitate interactions between proteins at the membrane as well as intracellular components, thus modulating signal transduction, protein and lipid transport, and other processes. (elsevier.com)
  • Caveolae, referring to the 50-100 nm sized, flask-shaped, and non-clathrin-coated invaginations of the plasma membrane, regulates the kinetics of vesicle transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They are best known for their role in the formation of 50- nanometer -size invaginations of the plasma membrane, called caveolae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caveolae are 50-100 nm invaginations located at the plasma membrane of many cell types and are known to transport molecules across endothelial cells [ PMID: 9759488 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Emerging themes in lipid rafts and caveolae. (nih.gov)
  • Although caveolae are well-characterized subdomains of glycolipid rafts, their distinctive morphology and association with caveolins has led to their internalization being considered different from that of rafts. (rupress.org)
  • However, even in the absence of caveolin, the internalization of rafts must invoke the invagination and budding of a vesicular structure that is cholesterol and sphingolipid rich and necessarily related to caveolae. (rupress.org)
  • The commonly accepted view that caveolae and rafts mediate distinct endocytic pathways ignores the extensive fundamental similarities between these two processes. (rupress.org)
  • A large number of signaling molecules that regulate vascular ECs localize to lipid rafts/caveolae (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, entry via the Nystatin and filipin-sensitive pathway is dependent on lipid rafts containing cholesterol, rather than invaginated caveolae per se. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a comparison we also isolated a detergent-insoluble fraction of the plasma membrane, utilizing the detergent insolubility of caveolae and rafts. (diva-portal.org)
  • Lipid rafts, caveolae and GPI-linked proteins. (ru.nl)
  • Lipid rafts and caveolae are specialized membrane microdomains enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol. (ru.nl)
  • Here, we outline the similarities and differences between lipid rafts and caveolae as well as discuss important components and functions of each. (ru.nl)
  • Inhibition of cytokine signaling in human retinal endothelial cells through modification of caveolae/lipid rafts by docosahexaenoic acid. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In this study the authors address the hypothesis that DHA(22:6,n3) acts through modifying lipid composition of caveolae/lipid rafts, thereby changing the outcome of important signaling events in these specialized plasma membrane microdomains. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Lipid rafts and caveolae play a pivotal role in organization of signaling by TLR4 and several other immune receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this review, rather than focus on definitions of rafts/caveolae (for this, the reader is referred to recent scholarly reviews in Refs. (jimmunol.org)
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  • Conference on microdomains, lipid rafts and caveolae. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Caveolae are a subset of lipid rafts that are prevalent on the plasma membrane of endothelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Acts as an accessory protein in conjunction with CAV1 in targeting to lipid rafts and driving caveolae formation. (abcam.com)
  • CAV1 promotes phosphorylation on Ser-23 which then targets the complex to the plasma membrane, lipid rafts and caveolae. (abcam.com)
  • Lipid rafts and caveolae are specialized membrane microdomains implicated in regulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling cascades. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Previous studies have suggested that rafts/caveolae may regulate β-adrenergic receptor/Gα s signaling, but underlying molecular mechanisms are largely undefined. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using a simplified model system in C6 glioma cells, this study disrupts rafts/caveolae using both pharmacological and genetic approaches to test whether caveolin-1 and lipid microdomains regulate G s trafficking and signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lipid rafts/caveolae were disrupted in C6 cells by either short-term cholesterol chelation using methyl-β-cyclodextrin or by stable knockdown of caveolin-1 and -2 by RNA interference. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is suggested that lipid rafts/caveolae are sites that remove Gα s from membrane signaling cascades and caveolins might dampen globally Gα s /adenylyl cyclase/cAMP signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lipid rafts and caveolae are specialized membrane microdomains defined by their cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-rich nature, enrichment in glycosyl-phosphatidylinositolanchored proteins, cytoskeletal association, and their resistance to detergent extraction ( Brown, 2006 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lipid rafts and caveolae selectively partition and organize proteins and lipids in membranes, and they have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of cellular functions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As a first comprehensive and quantitative analysis of purified caveolae from primary cells, our results provide a firm basis for the examination of caveolae formation using artificial membranes. (diva-portal.org)
  • After isolation of caveolae and using electron microscopy on cell membranes, the insulin receptor was demonstrated to be localised in caveolae of human adipocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here we show that RSV morphogenesis occurs within caveolar membranes and that both caveolin-1 and cavin-1, the two major structural and functional components of caveolae, are actively recruited to and incorporated into the RSV envelope. (biologists.org)
  • In an effort to discover other novel resident proteins of caveolae, Scherer and colleagues identified a second caveolin homologue through the microsequencing of purified adipocyte caveolar membranes. (asm.org)
  • Caveolae-like membranes and the amyloid precursor protein : a critical reassessment. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • caveolae-like membranes (CLMs) with similar characteristics can be isolated fmm brain tissue. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • These results indicate that, rather than being a genuine component of caveolae-like membranes, APP in this fraction arises from conlamination of the CLM fradion with distind vesicles of a similar density. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Caveolae and parent membranes were analyzed by quantitative, label-free mass spectrometry. (arvojournals.org)
  • The scaffolding protein encoded by this gene is the main component of the caveolae plasma membranes found in most cell types. (creativebiomart.net)
  • abstract = "Previously we showed that IL-Iβ stimulates the conversion of sphingomyelin to ceramide in the caveolae fraction of normal human fibroblasts. (elsevier.com)
  • C. trachomatis serovar K recently was shown to enter cells via caveolae-like lipid raft domains. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Caveolae are curved lipid raft regions rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids found abundantly in vascular endothelial cells, adipocytes, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts. (brad.ac.uk)
  • A study in this issue of Diabetes ( p. 1381 ) provides novel evidence that reduced flow-mediated dilation (FMD)-the degree of vasodilation in response to increasing wall shear stress-in the coronary arterioles of diabetic patients results from peroxynitrite (ONOO - ) targeting of endothelial caveolae, a type of lipid raft whose primary functional protein is caveolin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Caveolin knockdown significantly decreased Gα s localization in detergent insoluble lipid raft/caveolae membrane fractions, suggesting that caveolin localizes a portion of Gα s to these membrane microdomains. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Examination of primary murine brain endothelial cells revealed an increase in caveolae in ETX-treated cells, resulting in dynamin and lipid raft-dependent vacuolation without cell death. (prelekara.sk)
  • We propose that betulinic acid modulates TGF-β responsiveness by changing the partitioning of TGF-β receptor between lipid-raft/caveolae and non-caveolae microdomain on plasma membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Betulinic acid induces translocation of TGF-β receptors from lipid raft/caveolae to non-caveolae microdomains without changing total level of TGF-β receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, internalization of other caveolae/raft ligands occurs independently of caveolin expression. (rupress.org)
  • Both pDMAEMA- and PEI-complexed DNA showed colocalization with fluorescently-labeled transferrin and cholera toxin after internalization by COS-7 cells, which indicates uptake via the clathrin- and caveolae-dependent pathways. (springer.com)
  • Despite the marginal effect of inhibitors on polyplex internalization, blocking the caveolae-mediated uptake route resulted in an almost complete loss of polyplex-mediated gene expression, whereas gene expression was not negatively affected by blocking the clathrin-dependent route of uptake. (springer.com)
  • Recent investigations have identified caveolae as key microdomains of the plasma membrane that appear to concentrate (perhaps preassemble) certain components of signal transduction pathways and, in some cases, serve as sites of internalization. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Clathrin-coated pits and caveolae serve as sites that transport different types of molecules and thus appear to represent similar but distinct pathways for internalization of GPCR. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Based on these results, we hypothesize that ETX binds to MAL on the apical surface of brain endothelial cells, causing recruitment of caveolin-1, triggering caveolae formation and internalization. (prelekara.sk)
  • This was further supported by 1) small interfering RNA to knock down either caveolin-1 or μ2 reduced UT-A1 internalization in HEK293 cells and 2) inhibition of either the caveolae pathway by methyl-β-cyclodextrin or the clathrin pathway by concanavalin A caused UT-A1 cell membrane accumulation. (emory.edu)
  • Cavin proteins emerged in the late 2000s to be the main structural components controlling caveola formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principle protein components of caveolae involve caveolin1, 2 and 3, cavin 1, 2, 3 and 4 along with EHD2, PACSIN2 and dynamin. (diva-portal.org)
  • In particular, we have focused on the mechanism of cavin coat assembly, the influence of cavin3 in the regulation of caveolae dynamics, along with the mechanistic cycle of EHD2. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cavins form characteristic striations around caveolae, and in this work we showed that the N-terminus of cavin3 interacts with the trimeric N-terminus of cavin1 in competition with the N-terminus of cavin2 to form cavin sub-complex. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our results demonstrated the molecular composition of the caveolae coat at a domain level with the stoichiometry of cavin sub-complexes. (diva-portal.org)
  • In summary, the current study provides a novel insight into the assembly of cavin coat and protein machineries involved in the regulation of caveolae dynamics. (diva-portal.org)
  • Caveolae accumulate in dystrophic muscle fibers and caveolin and cavin mutations cause muscle pathology, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the past decade has seen the emergence of the cavin family of peripheral membrane proteins as essential coat components and regulators of caveola biogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • In this Commentary, we summarise recent data on the role of cavins in caveola formation, highlighting structural studies that provide new insights into cavin coat assembly. (biologists.org)
  • In mammals, there are four cavin family members that associate through homo- and hetero-oligomerisation to form distinct subcomplexes on caveolae, which can be released into the cell in response to stimuli. (biologists.org)
  • Studies from several labs have provided a better understanding of cavin stoichiometry and the molecular basis for their oligomerisation, as well as identifying interactions with membrane phospholipids that may be important for caveola function. (biologists.org)
  • Our studies revealed that the loss of cavin-3 resulted in ∼40% reduction of the caveolae protein cavin-1 in vascular and bladder smooth muscle. (lu.se)
  • Electron microscopy demonstrated that the loss of cavin-3 was accompanied by a reduction of caveolae abundance by 40-45% in smooth muscle, whereas the density of caveolae in endothelial cells was unchanged. (lu.se)
  • Loss of cavin-3 thus reduces the number of caveolae in smooth muscle and partly destabilizes cavin-1 but the functional consequences are modest and include an elevated vascular sensitivity to nitric oxide and slightly disturbed Golgi homeostasis in situations of severe cellular stress. (lu.se)
  • Cavin-1 is a protein required for caveolae maturation, such that its deletion results in no detectable caveolae and the down-regulation of "caveolin" scaffolding proteins. (bmj.com)
  • We hypothesise d that the SOCS3/cavin-1 interaction may be important in controlling caveola stability and/or IL-6 signalling. (bmj.com)
  • We examined placental mRNA and protein expression/localisation of the caveolae components Caveolin 1-3, Cavin 1-4 as well as eNOS/ iNOS in normotensive control (n=24) and pre-eclamptic pregnancies (n=19). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Cavin-1 is an essential peripheral component of caveolae that stabilises caveolin-1, the main structural/integral membrane protein of caveolae. (brad.ac.uk)
  • While dysfunctional cytokine signalling is also a hallmark of cardiovascular disease, knowledge of caveolae-dependent cytokine signalling is lacking as is the role of cavin-1 independent of caveolae. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Williams JJL and Palmer TM (2014) Cavin-1: caveolae-dependent signalling and cardiovascular disease. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Core component of the CAVIN complex which is essential for recruitment of the complex to the caveolae in presence of calveolin-1 (CAV1). (genecards.org)
  • Studies suggest that cavin-1 plays an essential role in forming and stabilizing caveolae, which are small pouches in the membrane that surrounds cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PTRF-Cavin, a conserved cytoplasmic protein required for caveola formation and function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A critical role of cavin (polymerase I and transcript release factor) in caveolae formation and organization. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Caveolae constitute a small part of the reservoir, so the redistribution of caveolar proteins such as caveolin-1 and cavin-1 that represents caveolae per se was assessed. (blogspot.com)
  • Caveolins and the more recently discovered cavins are the major protein components of caveolae. (frontiersin.org)
  • Membrane microdomains and caveolae. (nih.gov)
  • Caveolae are cholesterol-enriched, caveolin-containing plasma membrane microdomains involved in vesicular transport and signal transduction. (csic.es)
  • These data together with the cofractionation of Shc, Ras, caveolin, and TrkA in the caveolae fraction supported a role for these plasma membrane microdomains in NGF signaling. (csic.es)
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate the presence of caveolae in PC12 ceils, which contain the high affinity NGF receptor TrkA, and the specific involvement of these cholesterol-enriched plasma membrane microdomains in the propagation of the NGF-induced signal. (csic.es)
  • Caveolae are plasma membrane microdomains that localise receptors and signalling intermediates within an environment where they can efficiently trigger downstream events. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: In endothelial cells, nitric oxide (NO) is produced by the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which is localized in the cholesterol-rich plasmalemmal microdomains involved in signal transduction, known as caveolae. (inserm.fr)
  • The vascular endothelium is richly endowed with caveolae, which are specialized membrane microdomains that facilitate the integration of specific cellular signal transduction processes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The significance of PECAM-1 compartmentalization to these membrane microdomains was demonstrated in endothelial cells treated with raft/caveolae disrupting compounds where shear stress-induced PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was markedly attenuated . (temple.edu)
  • Cavin1 has been shown to be the main regulator of caveola formation in multiple tissues, with the sole expression of Cavin1 sufficient for morphological caveola formation in cells lacking caveolae but abundant in Cav1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CAV1 gene product is essential to form caveolae, membrane domains abundant in Schlemm's canal (SC) and trabecular meshwork (TM). (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition, several recent papers have suggested that caveolae, which are considered to be a specific form of raft, and caveolins, the major membrane proteins of caveolae, are involved in the dynamic cholesterol-dependent regulation of specific signal transduction pathways. (nih.gov)
  • The generation of an organelle knockout in an intact organism should shed light on the physiological pathways in which caveolae play a critical role. (sciencemag.org)
  • The caveolae- and raft-dependent pathways are therefore characterized by a common sensitivity to cholesterol depletion and inhibition of dynamin function. (rupress.org)
  • Bioinformatics revealed that more than 50% of canonical pathways significantly overrepresented in caveolae were shared in both preparations. (arvojournals.org)
  • Such a broad biological role of Cav-1/caveolae is bound to have functional cross relationships with several molecular pathways including HIV replication and viral-induced pathogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • We identified a pool of proteins which are uniquely segregating with caveolae during the treatment, mainly participating in metabolic and biosynthetic pathways, in transport pathways and in genetic information processing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to its role in caveolae, studies suggest that this protein is involved in repairing damage to the outer cell membrane, cell growth and division (proliferation), cell movement, stopping cell division in older cells (senescence), and regulating various chemical signaling pathways. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Caveolae each comprise a caveolar bulb with a diameter of 60-80 nm, connected to an opening of fairly constant diameter. (uniprot.org)
  • Caveolae might exists as single pits or can form a cluster of caveolae with non-caveolar membrane between the pits. (uniprot.org)
  • Caveolae can flatten out into the cell membrane, thereby loosing their caveolar identity. (uniprot.org)
  • Each individual caveola is in equilibrium with multi caveolar assemblies and exhibits various dynamics ranging from stable association with cell surface to the "kiss and run" type and internalized caveolae called cavicle. (diva-portal.org)
  • Caveolae were strongly enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin, the concentration was 3.5 and 2.8-fold, respectively, higher in the caveolar membrane than in the surrounding plasma membrane. (diva-portal.org)
  • A) Electron micrograph of caveolar bulbs (see caveolae marked by red dotted line) at the cell surface of a fibroblast cell. (biologists.org)
  • EHD2 is known to associate with the caveolar neck and can modulate the dynamics of caveolae. (biologists.org)
  • A major advance in the study of caveolae was the discovery of the 21- to 24-kDa caveolar marker protein named caveolin (now called caveolin-1) ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Depletion of EHD2 by siRNA or expression of a dominant-negative mutant dramatically increased the fraction of mobile caveolar vesicles coming from the PM. Overexpression of EHD2, in turn, caused confinement of cholera toxin B in caveolae. (uzh.ch)
  • F-actin disruption and cholesterol depletion decreased, and microtubule disruption increased the amount of the caveolar proteins (caveolae). (blogspot.com)
  • Plasmalemmal caveolae were first identified as an endocytic compartment in endothelial cells, where they appear to move molecules across the cell by transcytosis. (pnas.org)
  • A growing body of biochemical and morphological evidence indicates that a variety of molecules known to function directly or indirectly in signal transduction are enriched in caveolae. (pnas.org)
  • We have calculated that an average adipocyte caveola contains 18000 molecules of cholesterol, 6000 of sphingomyelin, 18000 of phosphoacylglycerol, 350 protein molecules, and about I 00 glycolipid molecules. (diva-portal.org)
  • A large number of studies have now revealed a remarkably diverse array of functions for caveolae - including lipid turnover and organisation of the plasma membrane - providing a platform for regulation of signalling molecules and enzymes, intracellular trafficking, as well as supplying a membrane reservoir for mechanosensing and mechanoprotection at the cell surface (reviewed in Parton and del Pozo, 2013 ). (biologists.org)
  • Caveolae in airway cells contain or interact with molecules such as receptors, ion channels, and regulatory proteins that are key to the roles of airway epithelium and smooth muscle in regulating airway structure and function. (elsevier.com)
  • These forces have been shown to alter EC gene expression and phenotype and to activate several cellular structures including G-proteins , ion channels , adhesion molecules , and caveolae . (temple.edu)
  • Various GPCR and receptor tyrosine kinases have been localized in caveolae or caveolin-rich cellular fractions along with many of the molecules critical for transducing the signals initiated by these types of receptors: e.g. (aspetjournals.org)
  • They compartmentalize signal transduction molecules which regulate multiple endothelial functions including the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the caveolae resident enzyme endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). (elsevier.com)
  • We also assessed whether ERα and eNOS are further colocalized and functionally linked in plasmalemmal caveolae, whether the caveolae scaffolding protein caveolin-1 plays a role in the membrane association of ERα, whether other agonists whose receptors are found in caveolae activate eNOS directly in this microdomain, and whether the localization of ERα-eNOS interaction may clarify the role of calcium in the process. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell fractionation and immunocytochemistry show caveolae to be the principal location of PDGF receptors at the cell surface. (elsevier.com)
  • Some scientists have shown that insulin receptors attach to caveolae, hinting at a feasible part of caveolae in insulin function, but other scientists have disputed this selecting. (innovationigniter.com)
  • Estrogen binding to estrogen receptors (ER) in caveolae also activates eNOS, and this occurs through G protein and kinase activation. (elsevier.com)
  • Caveolins may differentially regulate GPCR signaling by scaffolding and partitioning different receptors, G proteins and their effectors in caveolae. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The aim of this review is to focus primarily on molecular and cellular aspects of the role of caveolae, caveolins, and cavins in endothelial cell signaling and function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Caveolae are appreciated as important plasma membrane structures in maintaining cellular homeostasis of many cell types. (diva-portal.org)
  • We also observed that cavin3 interacts with caveolin1 in a cholesterol dependent manner and cavin3 may promote scission by acting as a positive regulator of caveolae dynamics, opposite to the cellular function of EHD2. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cellular spelunking: exploring adipocyte caveolae. (harvard.edu)
  • Caveolae generally display an uneven cellular distribution, and caveola-associated proteins have distinct tissue-specific expression profiles suggestive of highly specialised functions. (biologists.org)
  • Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) similarly treated with hp-beta-CD demonstrated a 50% decrease of total cellular cholesterol and a decreased abundance of caveolae as well as their 'grape-like' clustering. (inserm.fr)
  • 2011 ). In addition, kinase insert domain receptor (KDR, or VEGF receptor-2), a receptor of VEGF that is considered mediating most of the known cellular responses (permeability included) to VEGF, locates in caveolae (Holmes et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cellular spelunking The top of fat cells contains many small pockets called caveolae. (innovationigniter.com)
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  • Therefore, caveolins and caveolae differentially influence GPCRs and can either promote or inhibit their signaling cascades. (aspetjournals.org)
  • now present evidence that caveolae serve as preferential sites of Ca 2+ influx across the plasma membrane when intracellular stores of Ca 2+ are depleted. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results provide strong evidence that caveolae play important roles in membrane mechanosensation in the outflow pathway. (arvojournals.org)
  • There is now evidence that caveolae and their constituent proteins are present in airway smooth muscle in a variety of species. (elsevier.com)
  • Correspondingly, pharmacological (methyl-β-cyclodextrin) or genetic disruption of caveolae (Cav-1 knockout mice) abolished coronary FMD, which was rescued by sepiapterin, the stable precursor of NO synthase (NOS) cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The new study proposes a mechanism by which disruption of caveolae predisposes BH 4 to oxidation by ONOO - , ultimately resulting in diminished NO-mediated coronary dilation in diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • McIntosh, D. P., Tan, X.-Y., Oh, P. and Schnitzer, J. E. Targeting endothelium and its dynamic caveolae for tissue-specific transcytosis in vivo: A pathway to overcome cell barriers to drug and gene delivery. (springer.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia and fatty streak formation on the endothelial caveolae and on endothelial function, and attempted to determine to what extent the caveolae were involved in endothelium-derived NO production. (inserm.fr)
  • The abundance of caveolae in the endothelium covering the fatty streak, as well as their 'grape-like' clustering, appeared to be decreased. (inserm.fr)
  • 2010 ). Results from cav-1 (caveolin-1, the key structural protein of caveolae)-deficient mice indicated that cav-1 in endothelium is essential in the translocation of LDL-derived cholesterol into the vessel wall and in the development of atherosclerosis, and this result was further confirmed in apoE-/- mice (Fernandez-Hernando et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CAVEOLAE, CAVEOLIN AND CONTROL OF VASCULAR TONE: NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND ENDOTHELIUM DERIVED HYPERPOLARIZING FACTOR (EDHF) REGULATION ( Please, take a look at the figure at page 107). (blogspot.com)
  • Further, the investigators demonstrated that the location of ONOO - production in the diabetic endothelium overlapped with membrane regions that contained caveolin-1, an observation suggesting that ONOO - targets the caveolae. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Alteration of plasmalemmal caveolae mimics endothelial dysfunction observed in atheromatous rabbit aorta. (inserm.fr)
  • Some known inhibitors of the caveolae pathway are Filipin III, Genistein and Nystatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absence of functional caveolae in mutant myotubes uncouples the regulation of IL6/STAT3 signaling with mechanical stress, which results in the constitutive hyperactivation of the IL6/STAT3 signaling pathway and the upregulation of several muscle-related genes. (nature.com)
  • We have shown that absence of caveolae results in elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), reduced conventional outflow, and outflow pathway pathology. (arvojournals.org)
  • The above results demonstrate that RSV ameliorates caveolae-mediated hyperpermeability induced by high glucose via VEGF/KDR pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was reported that LDL-derived cholesterol, the major component of atherosclerotic plaque, enters the subendothelial space through the caveolae-mediated pathway (Sun et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1999 ). Report showed that VEGF increased the permeability through caveolae-mediated transcellular pathway in the blood-tumor barrier (Zhao et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, a subpopulation of ERα is localized to endothelial cell caveolae where they are coupled to eNOS in a functional signaling module that may regulate the local calcium environment. (ahajournals.org)
  • Caveolae regulate many cardiovascular functions and thus could be of interest in relation to pre-eclampsia, a pregnancy specific disorder characterised by hypertension and proteinuria. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Our preliminary data show that the cardiac TTCCs are localized to caveolae and associate with caveolin-3 and regulate their function in the ventricular myocytes. (grantome.com)
  • Pilch and colleagues review in the October issue of the Journal of Lipid Analysis current knowledge about caveolae and conclude that one of their major functions is to regulate the movement and creation of fats in extra fat cells. (innovationigniter.com)
  • Past work has shown that caveolae membrane domains also serve as mechanotransduction sites that regulate many of these same second messengers . (temple.edu)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that circulating factors known to modify cardiovascular disease risk regulate signaling in endothelial cell caveolae. (elsevier.com)
  • Then, they compared Ca 2+ signals at the caveolae to those from unmodified yellow chameleon in the cytoplasm or from another fusion protein that targeted the sensor to the plasma membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • Such caveolae may be pinched off to form free vesicles within the cytoplasm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This protein translocates from caveolae to the cytoplasm after insulin stimulation. (genecards.org)
  • Caveolae are also involved in regulation of channels and in calcium signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caveolae also participate in lipid regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apparently diverse functions of caveolae, including mechanosensing and lipid regulation, might be linked to their ability to respond to plasma membrane changes, a property that is dependent on their specialized lipid composition and biophysical properties. (nih.gov)
  • Our study reveals that under mechanical stress the regulation of mechanoprotection by caveolae is directly coupled with the regulation of IL6/STAT3 signaling in muscle cells and that this regulation is absent in Cav3-associated dystrophic patients. (nature.com)
  • This thesis aims to understand the assembly of caveolae and the molecular machineries involved in the regulation of caveolae dynamics. (diva-portal.org)
  • We also showed the function of cavin3 in the regulation of caveolae dynamics at the plasma membrane. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our results showed the stringent regulation of EHD2 oligomerization and its importance with respect to various statuses and/or function of caveolae. (diva-portal.org)
  • We hypothesized that in DM, ONOO − interferes with the function of coronary endothelial caveolae, which plays an important role in nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasomotor regulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We hypothesize that caveolae are mechanosensors, participating in the regulation of conventional outflow and IOP. (arvojournals.org)
  • The proteomic analyses provide a starting point to identify caveolae-dependent mechanisms governing outflow regulation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Caveolae targeting and regulation of large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels in vascular endothelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This review will introduce caveolae, its structural components, the caveolins and cavins, their regulation by cAMP, and their potential role in cardiovascular disease. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Caveolae containing scaffolding protein caveolin-3 (Cav-3) organize multi-protein signaling complexes and provide temporal/spatial regulation of intracellular Ca2+ in cardiomyocytes. (grantome.com)
  • Thus caveolae and caveolin-3 could impact the Ca2+ signaling through functional regulation of cardiac TTCCs during cardiac hypertrophy. (grantome.com)
  • Phosphodiesterase 3B is localized in caveolae and smooth ER in mouse hepatocytes and is important in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. (lu.se)
  • In conclusion, hepatocyte PDE3B is localized in caveolae and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and plays important roles in the regulation of glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism. (lu.se)
  • The caveola is a small (apparently) uncoated pit mostly found in the cell membrane of many highly differentiated mammalian cells, such as adipocytes, endothelial cells and muscle cells. (uniprot.org)
  • In many tissues, and particularly in adipocytes, multiple caveolae are arranged around a central vacuolar domain. (uniprot.org)
  • We have isolated caveolae from purified plasma membrane of primary rat adipocytes using ultrasonication to disrupt the membrane followed by density gradient ultracentrifugation. (diva-portal.org)
  • This thesis presents results on fhe role of caveolae in insulin signalling in human and rat adipocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • We also used biochemical and morphological methods to show that the glucose transporter GLUT4 was translocated to caveolae in response to insulin in rat adipocytes, indicating fhat the caveola is the locale for glucose uptake in adipocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • After subcellular fractionation of adipocytes the lipid-bound [32P]phosphooligosaccharide of the plasma membrane was found to be localized in plasma membrane domains apparently corresponding to caveolae. (rupress.org)
  • Caveolae structures are present in abundance in mechanically stressed cells such as endothelial cells and adipocytes. (mdpi.com)
  • Caveolae are particularly numerous in adipocytes, where they appear to be essential for the normal transport, processing, and storage of fats. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Caveolae have been shown to be required for the protection of cells from mechanical stress in multiple tissue types such as the skeletal muscles, endothelial cells and notochord cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In endothelial cells, caveolae are involved in flow sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Ca 2+ was depleted from the endoplasmic reticulum of fetal bovine endothelial cells by exposure of the cells to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and thapsigargin, Ca 2+ entry into the cells occurred preferentially at caveolae, apparently through store-operated channels of the TRP (transient receptor potential) family. (sciencemag.org)
  • M. Isshiki, Y. Ying, T. Fujita, R. G. W. Anderson, A molecular sensor detects signal transduction from caveolae in living cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Caveolae are a highly abundant but enigmatic feature of mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, caveolae have been identified as providing a novel route by which several pathogens are internalized by antigen-presenting cells and as centers for signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we review the distribution and role of caveolae and caveolin in mammalian immune cells. (nih.gov)
  • Recent evidence has indicated EMVs and caveolae may have functional effects in cells undergoing H/R injury. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we explored the mechanical role of caveolae in human muscle cells and their possible deregulation in caveolinopathies, a family of muscle genetic disorders involving mutations in the CAV3 gene. (nature.com)
  • Caveolin1 acts as the hallmark of caveolae, whereas caveolin3 and cavin4 are limited to muscle cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here we demonstrate the presence of caveolae in PC12 cells and their involvement in NGF signaling. (csic.es)
  • To approach this hypothesis, caveolae were disrupted by treatment of PC12 cells with cholesterol binding drugs. (csic.es)
  • treated cells with streptolysin O, a toxin that forms pores in the membrane that cannot be repaired using patches, and found that this led to the formation of small membrane-derived vesicles that looked just like caveolae. (elifesciences.org)
  • Caveolae are an abundant feature of the plasma membrane in many cells. (biologists.org)
  • Using a Polaron E7200 quick freeze unit, we investigated the distribution of vesicles (caveolae) bound to the plasma membrane of aortic endothelial cells from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conclude that previous estimates of the rates of pinocytotic activity in vascular endothelial cells may contain substantial errors based on overestimates of caveolae and underestimates of subplasmalemmal "free" vesicles. (ahajournals.org)
  • Caveolae in non-neuronal cells are specialized membrane regions in &ich a range of signalling mdearles are concentrated, along with a characteristc protein called caveolin. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Isolation of phosphooligosaccharide/phosphoinositol glycan from caveolae and cytosol of insulin-stimulated cells. (rupress.org)
  • Caveolae may help the hormone insulin bind to fat cells also, but this is controversial. (innovationigniter.com)
  • Polarization of caveolin-1 and caveolae in transmigrating endothelial cells. (paratlab.com)
  • shows that caveolae in the arterial endothelial cells are required for neurovascular coupling at the level of vascular smooth-muscle cells and arterioles. (alzforum.org)
  • Cells that lack caveolins also lack caveolae. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have investigated the changes in the protein profile associated with caveolae in gentamicin treated and untreated spiral ligament (SL) pericytes, specialized cells in the blood labyrinth barrier of the inner ear microvasculature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Caveolae isolation from treated and untreated cells is achieved through ultracentrifugation of the lysates in discontinuous gradients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The caveolae proteome in gentamicin treated cells shows that 40% of total proteins are uniquely associated with caveolae during the treatment, and 15% of the proteins normally associated with caveolae in untreated cell are suppressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several Rab GTPases proteins, ubiquitous transporters, uniquely segregate with caveolae and are significantly enriched in gentamicin treated cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using in vivo and in vitro methods, we determined that ETX causes BBB permeability in mice by increasing caveolae-dependent transcytosis in brain endothelial cells. (prelekara.sk)
  • Caveolin-3 is the major structural protein of caveolae in muscle. (nature.com)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated an increased 3-nitrotyrosine formation (ONOO − -specific protein nitration) in endothelial plasma membrane in DM, which colocalized with caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the key structural protein of caveolae. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We now present evidence that the PDGF receptor initiates signal transduction from caveolae. (elsevier.com)
  • When caveolae were discovered, their functional role was believed to be limited to transport across the endothelial cell barrier. (frontiersin.org)
  • These defects are fully reversed by reassembling functional caveolae through expression of caveolin-3. (nature.com)
  • We show here that the Cav3 P28L and Cav3 R26Q myotubes are unable to assemble sufficient amounts of functional caveolae at the plasma membrane, leading to a loss of membrane tension buffering and membrane integrity under mechanical stress. (nature.com)
  • Finally, the expression of WT Cav3 in mutant myotubes is sufficient to restore a functional pool of caveolae and to rescue the coupling of caveolae mechanosensing with IL6/STAT3 signaling. (nature.com)
  • EHD2 was found to undergo dynamic exchange at caveolae, a process that depended on a functional ATPase cycle. (uzh.ch)
  • Mineo, C & Shaul, PW 2006, ' Circulating cardiovascular disease risk factors and signaling in endothelial cell caveolae ', Cardiovascular Research , vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 31-41. (elsevier.com)
  • CAVIN1 (Caveolae Associated Protein 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Moreover, combined deepetching and immunogold techniques revealed the presence of the NGF receptor TrkA in the caveolae of PC12 ceils. (csic.es)
  • Caveolae provide an environment where multiple receptor signalling components are sequestered, clustered, and compartmentalised for efficient signal transduction. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Multiple caveolae proteins acquire phosphotyrosine when PDGF binds to its receptor, but the hormone appears to have little effect on the tyrosine phosphorylation of noncaveolae membrane proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Five proteins known to interact with the phosphorylated receptor were found to be highly enriched in caveolae membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, ceramide may modulate PDGF receptor function directly in caveolae. (elsevier.com)
  • Caveolae differ biochemically from another specialized region of the plasma membrane implicated in receptor-trafficking, clathrin-coated pits. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In particular, high density lipoprotein (HDL) maintains the lipid environment in caveolae, thereby promoting the retention and function of eNOS in the domain, and it also causes direct activation of eNOS via scavenger receptor type BI (SR-BI)-induced kinase signaling. (elsevier.com)
  • Andersen, Richard G.W. / Localization of PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation cascade to caveolae . (elsevier.com)
  • Caveolae contain truncated forms of this protein and may be the site of phosphorylation-dependent proteolysis. (genecards.org)
  • A central dogma of the caveolae/glycolipid raft field, therefore, has been that the invaginated flask-shaped morphology of caveolae is a specific consequence of the association of caveolin-1 with select raft domains. (rupress.org)
  • In the absence of caveolin-2 protein expression, caveolae still form and caveolin-1 maintains its localization in plasma membrane caveolae, although in certain tissues caveolin-1 is partially destabilized and shows modestly diminished protein levels. (asm.org)
  • In developing muscle fibres, multiple caveolae are connected by a single neck to the cell membrane, producing large chains of interconnected caveolae. (uniprot.org)
  • pl. caveolae [L.] one of the minute pits or incuppings of the cell membrane formed during pinocytosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Findings from this study will contribute to the understanding of how cholesterol/CAV-1/caveolae regulates aspects of the cell membrane important to cell adhesion, substrate sensing, and microenvironment interaction. (springer.com)
  • Cholesterol supplementation to MSCs increased membrane cholesterol, and resulted in decreased membrane fluidity and localization of elevated numbers of caveolae and CAV-1 to the cell membrane. (springer.com)
  • Conversely, knockdown of CAV-1 expression or cholesterol depletion on MSCs caused a parallel decrease in caveolae content and an increase in membrane fluidity due to decreased delivery of cholesterol to the cell membrane. (springer.com)
  • Plays an important role in caveolae formation and organization. (genecards.org)
  • Furthermore, the effect of E 2 on eNOS in caveolae was prevented by calcium chelation. (ahajournals.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Fatty streak deposit is associated with a decrease in caveolae 'transductosomes' abundance which appears to represent a novel mechanism of endothelial dysfunction. (inserm.fr)
  • Caveolae are specialized domains present in the plasma membrane (PM) of most mammalian cell types. (uzh.ch)
  • Caveolae are submicroscopic, plasma membrane pits that are abundant in many mammalian cell types. (niimama.club)
  • The investigators tested this model using knockout mice with disrupted endothelial caveolae. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mature caveolae might be assembled in the Golgi apparatus. (uniprot.org)