Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Xylella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Actinidia: A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Pantoea: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Phytochelatins: Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.Phytophthora infestans: A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.Flax: A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.Pythium: A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Pectobacterium carotovorum: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cicer: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
... but can cause diseases in humans, animals and plants. Fungi are the most common cause of diseases in crops and other plants. ... Further information: Viral disease. Some of the diseases that are caused by viral pathogens include smallpox, influenza, mumps ... One of the bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium ... It is common to speak of an entire species of bacteria as pathogenic when it is identified as the cause of a disease (cf. ...
This tiny insect causes damage to plants through feeding and transmitting plant diseases. The silverleaf whitefly feeds on its ... tabaci infected plants. Planting different host crops away from each other will decrease the number of plants the flies will be ... Another important control is the use of other crops as a source of trap crops. Squashes can act as trap crops for the ... tabaci individuals that settle on plants to decrease plant damages such as those caused by viral transmissions. This can be ...
Rain, wind, insects, and plant-to-plant contact may spread the disease in the season and cause reinfection.[4] After the plant ... Symptoms and controls of crop diseases. NDSU Extension Bulletin PP-533 Mehta, Yeshwant Ramchandra. "Spike Diseases Caused by ... Bacterial leaf streak (BLS), also known as black chaff, is a common bacterial disease of wheat. The disease is caused by the ... debris or other plants may also cause new infection in clean seed. The disease can tolerate warm or freezing temperature,[2] ...
... a pioneer in plant virology,[37] described 129 viruses that caused disease of plants.[38] Modern, intensive agriculture ... In 1948, in Kansas, US, 7% of the wheat crop was destroyed by wheat streak mosaic virus. The virus was spread by mites called ... By 1935 many plant diseases were thought to be caused by viruses. In 1922, John Kunkel Small (1869-1938) discovered that ... In the following decade many diseases of plants were shown to be caused by viruses that were carried by insects and in 1939, ...
Luckily, there are multiple ways to help control the disease. Silver scurf is a plant disease of potato, which is caused by the ... An interaction of potato crop soil fungi population on fungi responsible for tuber superficial diseases. Journal of Plant ... Silver scurf is a plant disease that is caused by the plant pathogen Helminthosporium solani. This pathogen is a fungus which ... All of these factors combined have an effect of disease spread and development. The spores can still infect and cause disease ...
Mohan, S.K. (2005). "Powdery mildew caused by Leveillula taurica on glossy leaf genotypes of onion in Idaho". Plant Disease. 89 ... The best way to control L. taurica is to remove all crop residue from the previous onion crop before subsequent planting. Two ... Laemmlen, F.F.; R.M. Endo (1985). "Powdery mildew (Oidiopsis taurica) on onion in California". Plant Disease. 69: 451. doi: ... Different races of L. taurica can only infect certain crops, and even specific cultivars within the same crop. An accurate way ...
Advances in new crops". Timber Press and New Crop Resource Online Program, Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue ... However, as with all crops, mass production brings with it exposure to pests and diseases. As of 2017, two diseases affecting ... Symptomatic plants were associated with the presence of whiteflies, which were likely the cause for this outbreak.[25] ... Smaller crops are planted in many parts of the United States.[9] In Mexico tomatillos are planted within a wide range of ...
If the disease is not causing much damage, cultural control alone may be sufficient. Choosing a resistant variety of plant is ... African Crop Science Journal. Phytophthora Megakarya (Black Pod of Cocoa). "Invasive Species Compendium". CABI M. A. Barreto et ... Phytophthora megakarya is a plant pathogen that causes black pod disease in cocoa trees in West and Central Africa. This ... Integrated management of black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Research article, International Journal of Plant ...
Plant diseases[edit]. Further information: Plant disease, Lists of plant diseases, and Plant pathology ... Animals are called pests when they cause damage to agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitising livestock, such as codling ... A pest is any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products.[3] Plants ... Wild boars damage crops, spread disease, and prey upon livestock. Invertebrates[edit]. Further information: Insect bites and ...
... is a plant pathogen that affects sorghum, infecting leaf veins and lesions and causing target leaf spot. It is ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Nyvall, Robert F. Field crop diseases. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1999.. ...
... is a plant pathogen able to cause disease in many species. It is a cosmopolitan fungus and has been ... Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database CAB International (2005). Crop Protection Compendium, 2005 edition. Wallingford, UK www ... and other plant families and causes Leaf and fruit rot on them. Pineapple black rot is one of the most important diseases ...
Natural disasters included drought, flood, typhoon, plant disease, and insect pest. The slow response was in part due to a lack ... This was partly caused by strong incentives for officials to over-report crop yields. The unwillingness of the Central ... Famine deaths and the reduction in number of births caused the population of China to drop in 1960 and 1961. This was only the ... In the agricultural sectors, crops deemed by the Party to be "full of evil", such as opium, were destroyed and replaced with ...
The nematode causes a disease condition called toppling or blackhead disease in plants. In bananas they weaken the anchor roots ... Cover crops that are not susceptible to the nematode, such as Crotalaria or Tagetes, can be sown. Disease-free sprouts raised ... It is a parasite of plants, and it is a pest of many agricultural crops. It is an especially important pest of bananas and ... It is one of the most important root pathogens of banana crops, causing yield losses of up to 30 to 60% in many countries. It ...
It causes plant diseases such as corn ear rot and wheat head blight. It has also been found on hops causing a necrotic blight ... It is known as a plant pathogen that infects agricultural crops. The fungus was first described in 1982 after it was found ... 2001). First report of Fusarium crookwellense causing tip blight on cones of hop. Plant Disease 85(11) 1208. Sugiura, Y., et al ... List of potato diseases Fusarium crookwellense. MycoBank. Sugiura, Y., et al. (1993). Fusarium poae and Fusarium crookwellense ...
A plant pathogen, it can cause barley brown rust. List of Puccinia species "GSD Species Synonymy: Puccinia hordei". Species ... Murray TD, Parry DW (2008). Diseases of Small Grain Cereal Crops. Manson Publishing. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-84076-545-8. Puccinia ...
Early-sown crops exhibit stronger disease effects than late sown crops. The most important disease is Fusarium wilt, resulting ... The cumin plant grows to 30-50 cm (12-20 in) tall and is harvested by hand. It is an annual herbaceous plant, with a slender, ... Another, but less important, disease is powdery mildew. Incidence of powdery mildew in early development can cause drastic ... Later in development, powdery mildew causes discoloured, small seeds. Pathogens can lead to high reductions in crop yield. ...
The origin of plant diseases was not known at that time. Much as Miles Joseph Berkeley (1803-1889) had insisted in 1841 that ... In de Bary's time, potato late blight had caused sweeping crop devastation and economic loss. He studied the pathogen ... The same year, he published a book on the fungi that caused rusts and smuts in plants. After the graduation, de Bary practiced ... the fungus found in potato blight was the cause of the disease, de Bary declared that the rust and smut fungi were the causes ...
... species are saprotrophic, but are also facultative plant pathogens, causing commercially important crop diseases. ... Rhizoctonia solani causes a wide range of commercially significant plant diseases. It is one of the fungi responsible for Brown ... on dead stems and plant detritus. They are also opportunistic plant pathogens, with an almost unlimited host range, and have ... Subsequent authors added over 100 additional names to the genus, most of them plant pathogens bearing only a superficial ...
The disease may cause the tassels and ears of maize plants to develop improperly or not form at all. This also occurs within ... The disease is controlled mainly through genetic resistance, chemical control, crop rotation, and strategic timing of planting ... This leads to a sterile plant. Personosclerospora sorghi has a polycyclic disease cycle. It is capable of causing secondary ... If susceptible plants are being grown in the same area as these infected plants, the disease can spread rapidly as the conidia ...
Erysiphe heraclei causes a powdery mildew that can cause significant crop loss. Infestation by this causes results in yellowing ... Moderate temperatures and high humidity favor the development of the disease. Several viruses are known to infect the plant, ... In Europe, Mycocentrospora acerina has been found to cause a black rot that kills the plant early. Watery soft rot, caused by ... The rows can be covered with straw to enable the crop to be lifted during frosty weather. Low soil temperatures cause some of ...
... causing "pink disease". Waitea circinata is also a pathogen, causing diseases of cereal crops, including "sheath spot" of rice ... A new disease on bentgrass caused by Waitea circinata var. circinata". Plant Disease. 89: 536-542. doi:10.1094/PD-89-0536. http ... The same fungus also causes "brown ring patch" in turf grasses. Laetisaria fuciformis is the cause of "red thread" disease in ... turf grass, whilst Limonomyces roseipellis is the cause of "pink patch" disease. Donk MA. (1964). "A conspectus of the families ...
Damage from this disease causes major reductions in rice crop yield every year. It is spread primarily by Laodelphax ... In Japan, this disease was called "Yurei Byo" (ghost disease) because of these symptoms. If the plants grow, they produce few, ... Severe infections cause grey necrotic streaks and result in the death of the plant. Infection causes the most damage during ... This allows the plants to grow past the tillering stage by the time planthoppers immigrate from wheat and barley plants. Xiong ...
circinata" (PDF). Plant Disease. 89: 536-542. doi:10.1094/PD-89-0536. "Red Thread lawn disease - cause, symptoms and treatment ... Waitea circinata is an important pathogen of commercial cereal crops, causing a number of diseases including sheath spot of ... The same fungus also causes brown ring patch in turf grasses. Laetisaria fuciformis is the cause of red thread disease in turf ... Toda T, Mushika T, Hayakawa T, Tanaka A, Tani T, Hayakumachi M (2005). "Brown Ring Patch: A new disease on bentgrass caused by ...
The best studied species cause plant diseases on important agricultural crops e.g. Cochliobolus heterostrophus, causing ... causing glume blotch on wheat and Leptosphaeria maculans causing a stem canker (called blackleg) on cabbage crops (Brassica). ... The majority of species are saprobes on decaying plant material in fresh water, marine, or terrestrial environments, but ... several species are also associated with living plants as parasites, epiphytes or endophytes. ...
... but can cause diseases in humans, animals and plants. Fungi are the most common cause of diseases in crops and other plants. ... Diseases caused by organisms in humans are known as pathogenic diseases. Pathogenicity is the potential disease-causing ... However, a relatively small list of pathogenic bacteria can cause infectious diseases. One of the bacterial diseases with the ... notably the disease protothecosis. Protothecosis is a disease found in dogs, cats, cattle, and humans caused by a type of green ...
Heritable disease and multifactorial inheritance[edit]. A mutation resulting in a disease state is often recessive, so both ... Jannink, J; Bink, Mc; Jansen, Rc (August 2001). "Using complex plant pedigrees to map valuable genes". Trends in Plant Science ... If a genetic cause is suspected and little else is known about the illness, then it remains to be seen exactly how many genes ... being this task fundamental for marker-assisted crop improvement.[3][4] ...
Home » Botany , Diseases in Crops , gxxk , Plant Diseases » List of Diseases in Crops or Plants caused by Fungi, Bacteria, ... disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases ... Question: Red rust disease of tea is caused by- Answer: Green algae. Question: Green ear disease is related with the crop- ... List of Diseases in Crops or Plants caused by Fungi, Bacteria, Virus etc. By GK Planet Team Monday, 13 February 2017 ...
Plant disease - General characteristics: The fungi represent an extremely large and diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms ... occurs wherever corn is grown; may cause serious crop damage. loose smut. Ustilago nuda. barley, oats, wheat. infected heads ... Guidelines for Identification and Management of Plant Disease Problems: Part II. Diagnosing Plant Diseases Caused by Fungi, ... About 1,200 species cause disease in plants. Probably every form of plant life is fed upon by at least one species of nematode ...
... brassicae can cause disease on other plant families (See Table 1). The role of many of these plants in the cycle of the disease ... Then determine the causes. The Crop Diagnostic Centre in Winnipeg is an excellent resource to identify canola diseases. Plants ... Minnesota Plant Diseases, USDA Plant Disease Epidemics and Identification Section. Special Publication no.8. 184pp. ... Figure 3: Disease cycle of clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae.. Within the plant roots, P. brassicae exists as a ...
Black rust causes cereal plants to lose their green colour and turn yellow. The grain… ... Fungus diseases: …chief damage is caused by black rust. Because this fungus spends part of its life on cereals and part on the ... damage to cereal crops. *. In cereal farming: Fungus diseases. …chief damage is caused by black rust. Because this fungus ... Black rust causes cereal plants to lose their green colour and turn yellow. The grain… ...
... a disease that is ravaging wheat in Africa, could spread to American farmlands. Scientists are rushing to find a way to fight ... Another crop emergency occurred in East Asia in May when a tiny insect called the brown plant hopper caused extensive damage to ... The recent crop scourges come with their own sets of challenges, but farmers have faced plant diseases throughout the ages, ... American farmers are not unfamiliar with the virulent plant disease. In the 1950s it destroyed much of the wheat crop in North ...
Ngugi, H. K., Esker, P. D., & Scherm, H. (2011a). Meta-analysis to determine the effects of plant disease management measures: ... Chaplin-Kramer, R., ORourke, M. E., Blitzer, E. J., & Kremen, C. (2011). A meta-analysis of crop pest and natural enemy ... Several statistical models have been proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments against plant diseases using meta- ... Ojiambo, P. S., & Scherm, H. (2006). Biological and application-oriented factors influencing plant disease suppression by ...
Plant-eating insects cause enormous damage to crops; any part of a plant is subject to attack by either the adult or the larva ... disease. Chagas disease is characterized by recurring fever and may cause serious damage to the heart muscles. ... When the insect bites a second person, it may then transfer that microorganism-along with the disease it causes-to its second ... In most cases, these bugs feed on plants that contain poisonous chemicals that also occur in the bugs. These chemicals cause ...
Many cause diseases in crops, livestock and humans (athletes foot). Moulds and yeasts are used in the production of beer and ... Fungal parasites depend on living animals or plants: saprophytes utilize the materials of dead plants and animals, and ... Some species infect and cause disease in humans. Some yeasts are a good source of vitamin B and many antibiotics are obtained ... fungi) a simple organism (formerly regarded as a plant) that lacks the green pigment chlorophyll. Fungi include the yeasts, ...
This symptom could be distinguished from those caused by 45 of 46 strains of P. s. pv. syringae recovered from 15 other crop ... syringae That Cause Bacterial Brown Spot of Snap Bean. G. Y. Cheng, Department of Plant Pathology, New York State Agricultural ... Department of Plant Pathology, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University, Geneva 14456. Plant Dis. 73: ... The exception was a strain isolated from almond in California, which caused symptoms indistinguishable from those caused by ...
"First report of Macrophomina phaseolina causing a crown rot of strawberry in Florida." Plant Disease 84:434. ... Many vegetable crops planted as second crops after strawberry, such as squash, cantaloupe, peppers, and legumes used as cover ... This disease was first observed in December 2001, when collapsed and dying strawberry plants from a commercial field were ... Symptoms caused by Macrophomina phaseolina are similar to those caused by other crown-rot pathogens, such as Colletotrichum and ...
... but can cause diseases in humans, animals and plants. Fungi are the most common cause of diseases in crops and other plants. ... Further information: Viral disease. Some of the diseases that are caused by viral pathogens include smallpox, influenza, mumps ... One of the bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium ... It is common to speak of an entire species of bacteria as pathogenic when it is identified as the cause of a disease (cf. ...
... resulting in crop losses. Certain plant-virus interactions allow disease recovery at later stages of infection and have the ... The mechanism underlying plant virus-induced disease recovery remains elusive. Now, it is found that recovery involves the loss ... Although recovery is known to involve antiviral RNA silencing1,2, the specific components of the many plant RNA silencing ... We found that Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) undergo symptom recovery. The ...
I was preparing myself for a career in plant ecology; but the misery caused by crop diseases was clear. They could be triggered ... We argued endlessly about the best approach to developing lasting resistance to plant diseases. He was proud of the advances he ... I made contact with the only person in the US I could locate with an interest in cassava diseases, Professor H. David Thurston ... As costs for developing crop varieties escalated, the few seed companies that could afford the work focused only on areas with ...
... ranging from higher plants to viroids and describes examples of cash and staple crop diseases that have caused human ... 1. The Causal Agents of Plant Disease: Identity and Impact.. 2. The Detection and Diagnosis of Plant Pathogens and the Diseases ... This invaluable resource introduces the eleven types of organism that cause plant disease, ... He has written an earlier book Plant Disease Control: Towards Environmentally Acceptable Methods. ...
... with step-by-step planting instructions and care tips from the experts at HGTV. ... Learn how to plant and grow okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) ... Few pests or diseases bother okra. Fusarium wilt can cause the ... Dont plant okra in the same spot next year; rotating crops can help prevent or control problems. If your okra pods and plants ... so it should follow a crop rotation using corn or grass crops. Okra should not follow other crops that are highly susceptible ...
... is the most important disease of oilseed Brassica crops in Norway. Fungicide applications should be aligned with the actual ... 1) causing stem rot of turnip rape (Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera) in Norway. Plant Disease, 101, 386-386.CrossRefGoogle ... 2018) is one of the major diseases in Brassica oilseed crops (Buchwaldt 2007). The disease symptoms include white-greyish ... After seedling emergence, plants were thinned to three to four plants per pot. All plants were grown under a 16/8 h light/dark ...
Understanding of molecular responses of plant immunity is therefore economically important, guiding the enforcement of crop ... To disentangle complex regulatory mechanisms of the plant immune responses, understanding system as a whole is a must. However ... Plant diseases caused by viral infection are affecting all major crops. Being an obligate intracellular organisms, chemical ... Plant diseases caused by viral infection are affecting all major crops. Being an obligate intracellular organisms, chemical ...
... chemicals that are used by farmers to prevent the effectivity of the pests on the growth and productivity of agricultural crops ... Pests can be defined as any organism that causes plant diseases. Agricultural pesticides are then those ... Pests can be defined as any organism that causes plant diseases. Agricultural pesticides are then those chemicals that are used ... Once they are absorbed by the plants or animals which eat the plants they become residue. There are maximum residue levels for ...
Plant Diseases Bacterial diseases contribute to a world-wide crop loss of roughly 12-15 % annually. Almost any type of plant ... More than 1000 plant diseases are caused by viruses. Tomatoes, potatoes, and cucumbers are some of the plants affected. Damage ... Viroids are known to cause disease in at least six plant groups. They have not been isolated in animals, but are suspected as ... a young Russian botanist named Dimitri Ivanovski was investigating the cause of tobacco mosaic disease. This disease causes ...
The Editors of Crop Protection especially welcome papers describing an interdisciplinary approach showing how different control ... Control of animal pests of world crops *Control of diseases of crop plants caused by microorganisms ... Crop Protection covers all practical aspects of pest, disease and weed control, including the following topics:. *Abiotic ... The editors of Crop Protection invite workers concerned with pest, disease and weed control to submit suitable contributions on ...
... plant spacing, and other factors that will affect your plants when you grow vegetables. ... Without it plants do not mature well. Also aids in disease resistance, particularly those diseases caused by fungi. ... Increases the proportion of fruit to plant. Speeds maturity of crops, also increases plants resistance to some diseases. ... Damping off is caused by a fungus disease that thrives when the surface soil around a young plant stem is damp. The fungus ...
Identification of a potyvirus causing latent infection in calla lilies. Plant Disease. 88:1046.. ... The crop is highly susceptible to several viruses including Tomato spotted wilt. Turnip mosaic, Zantedeschia mosaic, Konjac ... Submitted to: Plant Disease Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication Acceptance Date: 11/4/2004 Publication Date: 1/ ... All of these viral agents induce visual symptoms in infected plants. In this paper, a new virus in the Potyvirus genus causing ...
Figures 1-2. Symptoms of seedling disease causing damping off in corn.. Figure 3. Lesions at the base of the corn plant above ... Crop rotation also can provide some reduction in disease.. Most seed corn is already treated with more than one seed treatment ... Seedling diseases can be caused by any of several common soilborne organisms, such as Pythium, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, or plant ... Plant Disease Diagnosis. For information on submitting samples to UNLs Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic for diagnosis, see ...
... cause the most damaging virus disease of cereal crops. The viruses are spread from infected plants to healthy plants by aphids ... Previous experiments showed that insecticides could reduce the amount of damage caused by BYDVs in oat fields by limiting ... ORF representing the first 6,600 nt of the RhPV showed significant similarity to the nonstructural proteins of several plant ...
... syringae is the model pathogen because it causes disease in many plants. ... Solving the mystery will help scientists enhance disease resistance in crops.. Two papers published in the Dec. 9 issue of ... A protein called enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) plays a central role in plants ability to defend themselves from ... syringae drills through the plant cell wall and secretes effector proteins that target EDS1. "Plants have evolved a molecular ...
  • He spoke of microbes as the cause of "diseases" of beer and wine, notwithstanding that beer and wine are not living organisms by formal definition, and imputed that diseases of humans and animals might also result from microbial infestation--as was known to be the case for plants. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The spores can be carried and disseminated by wind currents, water (splashing and rain), soil (dust), insects, birds, and the remains of plants that once were infected. (britannica.com)
  • To prevent the introduction of clubroot spores to a new field, attempts should be made to prevent the movement of soil from one area to another, by means of soil carried on equipment, personnel, planting material, etc. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Soil and plant testing for clubroot is conducted by commercial laboratories, but it is recommended that fields be scouted and identification of other potential problems be conducted first. (gov.mb.ca)
  • In general, high temperatures (30°C [86º F]), sandy soils, and low soil moisture favor infection and disease development. (ufl.edu)
  • Pre-plant soil fumigation is the standard method employed by growers to reduce inoculum levels and control charcoal rot. (ufl.edu)
  • Further studies with different fumigants, formulations, and methods of applications are still needed to attain better distribution of fumigants in the soil bed profile and more effective disease management. (ufl.edu)
  • Although okra will grow in soil with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0, for best results, plant in soil with a pH of 6.5 to 7.0. (hgtv.com)
  • Wait until the young plants are 3 or four inches tall before mulching, so the sun can help warm the soil. (hgtv.com)
  • provides detailed information about soil nutrients, location, fertilizers, pH balance, planting times, plant spacing, and other factors that will affect your plants when you grow vegetables. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Your field and forage crops will thrive without your knowing the soil too intimately. (motherearthnews.com)
  • In the vegetable garden, however, if a hundred-foot row of potatoes doesn't grow because you've limed the soil, that's the end of your entire crop. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Test the soil before you stake out and plant your vegetable garden, particularly those first few years when you're building up the soil and learning how things grow. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Cool soil temperatures and episodes of rainfall are contributing to the development of seedling diseases in corn this spring. (unl.edu)
  • Symptoms of Pythium stalk rot can cause collapse of the lower stalks at or near the soil surface. (unl.edu)
  • You can minimize the likelihood of developing seedling diseases by planting high quality seed at appropriate planting depths and soil conditions to support rapid plant growth and emergence. (unl.edu)
  • Another major drawback is the time involved in preparing the soil for new crops. (reference.com)
  • A reduction in the pest population improves the quality of the soil and mitigates the amount of crops that are destroyed each season. (reference.com)
  • Rich soil and healthy plants also contribute to fewer weeds. (reference.com)
  • It may also be speeding the growth of super weeds and causing worrying changes to plants and soil. (mercola.com)
  • Bacteria, depending on the type, overwinter on plants and in the soil. (gardenguides.com)
  • Persistence of agrobacteria in plants and soil, including study of the stability and dispersion of the pTi, will be experimentally evaluated. (europa.eu)
  • Evaluation of procedures (sanitary practices, solarisation, heat treatments, etc.) to lower pathogenic populations in plant and soil reservoirs. (europa.eu)
  • Horseradish roots received before you are able to plant may be stored in slightly moist soil or sand or wrapped in a damp cloth held in a cool cellar for a couple of weeks. (burpee.com)
  • Plant horseradish in early spring as soon as the soil can be worked. (burpee.com)
  • Avoid disturbing the soil around the plants when weeding. (burpee.com)
  • Mites occur in all imaginable habitats - in soil and water, on the bottom of the sea, and on plants and the bodies of other animals. (www.csiro.au)
  • Before planting, supplement with a general fertilizer, such as Growmore or blood, fish and bone, applied to the soil surface or spread along the sides of the drill during sowing, at the rate of 1kg per 10m (2.2lb per 33ft) row. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Earth-up the plants by drawing soil around the stems to form a ridge. (rhs.org.uk)
  • The disease is soil-borne and can be avoided by rotating crops. (gardenguides.com)
  • Sow in average soil in full sun in early spring for the first crop and again in late summer for a fall crop. (burpee.com)
  • Root chewing insects include species that subsist entirely on plant tissue for development, such as root weevils and root maggots, and those that feed on a combination of soil organic matter and roots (most white grubs). (ct.gov)
  • If you feel you have given your plants all the conditions for good growing--plenty of sunlight, water, and nutrients, and a rich soil with neutral pH, then the wilting could be a disease problem. (garden.org)
  • Pests, poor soil quality, nutrient deficiencies and age can cause the leaves of a pumpkin to turn yellow. (reference.com)
  • Diseases that are related to poor soil caused by lack of rotation also include phytophthora and rhizoctonia. (reference.com)
  • These issues can be prevented by starting seedlings in a different area of the garden each year and treating soil for nutrient deficiencies before planting. (reference.com)
  • Infection of soybean plants typically occurs early in the spring when soil moisture is high. (pioneer.com)
  • An integrated management approach is required to reduce microslerotia levels in the soil and stresses to the crop. (pioneer.com)
  • Seeding and Fertility - Avoid excessive seeding rates and maintain adequate soil fertility levels (especially potassium) to reduce disease incidence and severity. (pioneer.com)
  • However, in areas that have experienced extreme heat, drought, poor soil, diminished nutrition or oxygen deprivation due to compaction, the disease takes hold on those traumatized plants. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • Clean up infected plant matter and destroy it rather than chopping it into the soil to compost. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • Plant turnips in well-drained soil and full sunlight. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • Plow the soil thoroughly immediately after harvest and again before planting in spring. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • The crop raised on sandy or loose soil does soils, the bulbs produced are deformed and during harvesting, many bulbs are broken and bruised and so they do not keep well in storage. (indiaagronet.com)
  • The highest number of plant dermatology claims were in forestry, landscaping services, horticulture and soil preparation services which produced 53.5, 35.9, 15.9 and 9.9 cases per 10,000 employees, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • The occupations reporting exposure to chemicals were horticulture, crop services, poultry and egg production, vegetables and melons, general crop farms and soil preparation services. (cdc.gov)
  • Dept. of Plant, Soil & Insect Sci. (apsnet.org)
  • Soil is used in agriculture, where it is the primary nutrient base for plants. (scribd.com)
  • Soil is also a restricting factor as to which plants can grow in a specific environment. (scribd.com)
  • Soil pH however, is vital to plants for it can affect its growth. (scribd.com)
  • Various plants can adapt to acidic or basic soil but the usual soil pH needed and adapted by plants is 6.0 - 7.0. (scribd.com)
  • Chromite is also said to be present in the soil, where it has some hazardous effects not only in the soil and plants but most especially to human health. (scribd.com)
  • The researcher also wants to come up with the result to identify the reasons why the soil is infertile causing the reason of unproductive agricultural of the community. (scribd.com)
  • There is no significant mean effect of Soil Acidity to plants' growth. (scribd.com)
  • A lightweight, portable instrument developed by the Soil-Plant Analyses Development (SPAD) unit of Minolta Camera Company can be used to estimate chlorophyll levels in plants (Figure 1). (missouri.edu)
  • Seeds may also be planted 3 inches below the soil surface, which enables them to stratify naturally. (osu.edu)
  • BLS is primarily seed-borne (the disease is transmitted by seed) and survives in and on the seed, but may also survive in crop residue in the soil in the off-season. (wikipedia.org)
  • Residual bacteria in the soil, debris or other plants may also cause new infection in clean seed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlamydospores that survive in the soil produce mycelia that can also infect plant structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Black rust causes cereal plants to lose their green colour and turn yellow. (britannica.com)
  • Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) cause the most damaging virus disease of cereal crops. (usda.gov)
  • Wheat is the most important crop and is grown on 57 percent of the land used for cereal production. (fao.org)
  • Smuts are parasitic chiefly on cereal grasses like corn and wheat and can cause enormous damage to crops. (dictionary.com)
  • In view of the need for additional food, an FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission visited Rwanda from 3-16 December, to assess prospects for the 1997 season A food crops, to evaluate the food and nutritional status of the population and to estimate cereal import requirements, including food aid, for the first semester of next year. (fao.org)
  • syringae isolated from bacterial brown spot (BBS) lesions on beans in New York State, Wisconsin, and Colorado caused a unique symptom when assayed on excised bean pods. (apsnet.org)
  • Lesions at the base of the corn plant above the roots indicates seedling disease in these samples submitted to the UNL Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic. (unl.edu)
  • As the disease develops, the lesions enlarge to form reddish-brown spots that later become necrotic. (ufl.edu)
  • As anthracnose lesions develop, abundant spores are formed that may be moved to other plants and new fields on equipment and harvesters. (ufl.edu)
  • If you keep chickens, the likeliest spot for your vegetable garden is someplace where you can fence off half the area for a chicken yard and plant on the other half. (motherearthnews.com)
  • This plant was introduced to North America simultaneously by the French colonists in Canada and the British in the Thirteen Colonies for use as a root vegetable, but in the mid-19th century, it was replaced as the main source of starch by the potato and consequently was less widely cultivated. (rug.nl)
  • If your okra pods and plants look deformed or distorted, suspect aphids, leaf footed bugs or stink bugs. (hgtv.com)
  • This secretion may (1) kill plants, as evidenced by armored scale feeding, (2) cause galls to form, as in the case of gall aphids, or (3) kill portions of a leaf, as seen in leafhopper "burn. (ct.gov)
  • Sampling: Count aphids, primarily on the undersides of leaves, on at least 20 plants in various areas of the field. (purdue.edu)
  • When aphids are just beginning to colonize soybean plants, they will be concentrated on the most active growing points - the newest unrolled leaves and the developing pods. (purdue.edu)
  • Shortcuts: if aphids are observed on the petioles and stems, that plant is over 250 aphids. (purdue.edu)
  • Should you find an average of 250 or more aphids/plant during the pod and seed development stages (R1-R4), a treatment is justified. (purdue.edu)
  • Threshold of ≥250 aphids/plant includes a week to get field sprayed. (purdue.edu)
  • Plants immediately surrounding agricultural fields may serve as primary virus inocula for aphids to acquire and transmit to bean crops. (scoop.it)
  • Isolation, identification, detection and quantification of numerous pathogenic agrobacteria in various crops to study the origin and fate of agrobacterial populations within and between different crops and countries. (europa.eu)
  • Discovery and development of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) for degradation of plant pathogenic biofilms. (findaphd.com)
  • Angular Leaf Spot (ALS), caused by Xanthomonas fragariae , is an important disease for winter strawberry production worldwide. (ufl.edu)
  • This causes ring spots and mosaic or mottling on the leaves and black streaks on the leaf stalk. (burpee.com)
  • Numerous filamentous virus-like particles with a modal length of 720 nm (Fig. 2A) were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in negatively-stained partially-purified leaf tissue extracts (2) from diseased but not from healthy, asymptomatic white ash plants. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • The disease is transmitted by leaf-feeding beetles, such as the bean leaf beetle and the western corn rootworm adults. (umn.edu)
  • Getting rid of alternaria leaf spot of turnip isn't always possible, but you can take steps to keep the disease in check. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • Leaf spot is the most important disease. (indiaagronet.com)
  • Insert the newest fully expanded leaf from each plant while avoiding old or immature leaves. (missouri.edu)
  • Plants with bronze leaf margins may be deficient in potassium. (missouri.edu)
  • He was proud of the advances he and his colleagues had made in raising yields but saw that for these to be sustained, and for the overall health of the environment, the way crops were grown had to change. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Early chapters cover serological and molecular techniques for the diagnosis of plant pathogens, epidemiology, methods for estimating disease severity and its effect on crop yields and techniques for limiting inoculum. (wiley.com)
  • 4. The Measurement of Inoculum and Disease Severity and Their Effect on Crop Yields. (wiley.com)
  • Producers may attribute low yields to drought and not realize the significant effect of the disease. (pioneer.com)
  • RIO DE JANEIRO, Sep 17 2013 (IPS) - Crop yields in Brazil, an agricultural powerhouse, are set to decline as a result of climate change, according to the most complete diagnosis yet of climate trends in this country. (ipsnews.net)
  • Dry conditions substantially lowered crop production in Gikongoro, Gitarama and parts of Butare and Kigali rural prefectures, whilst abundant rainfall elsewhere reduced prospective yields of beans, though it favoured cereals, roots and tubers. (fao.org)
  • Encompasses a wide range of topics, from field studies to information on how to maintain and improve the health of crops. (wiley.com)
  • In the South, okra plants can reach 8 feet tall (the stems are sturdy, however, and don't need staking). (hgtv.com)
  • Spores, dispersed by wind and rain, cause the initial infections on leaves and stems. (gov.mb.ca)
  • BPMV may also be related to the development of green stem syndrome, in which plants retain green stems and leaves after pods and most nearby plants have matured. (umn.edu)
  • Bark wounds, called cankers, can form on stems and branches as a result of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections of stems and branches lead to the formation of cankers while infections on cocoa pods cause pod rot. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only preventive actions include longer crop rotations, and disinfesting contaminated equipment to prevent spread of soilborne resting spores. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Minimizing the use of overhead sprinklers during plant establishment and for freeze protection may also reduce the spread and severity of the disease. (ufl.edu)
  • The diseases and pests have traditionally been fought with chemical pesticides, which spread throughout our environment and may be hazardous to human health, beneficial organisms and the environment. (helsinki.fi)
  • The research uses a new surveillance technique that could be applied internationally to respond to the spread of a wide variety of plant diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • This new diagnostic technique, called "field pathogenomics", could be applied internationally to respond to the spread of a wide variety of plant diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • That report foresees shifts in Michigan climate that would disrupt ecosystems, raise the cost of Great Lakes shipping, threaten infrastructure, hurt tourism, spread disease and alter agriculture. (mlive.com)
  • The spread of tick-and-mosquito-borne diseases like Lyme disease and West Nile virus likely would accelerate if the climate warms. (mlive.com)
  • Diseases contracted or primarily spread in health care settings (i.e. hospitals, nursing homes, etc. (healthmap.org)
  • Diseases that are associated with or primarily spread through sexual contact. (healthmap.org)
  • Beauty and utility in one bright package, sunflowers are one of just a few commercial crops with origins in the United States. (eurekalert.org)
  • Treatments to reliably protect commercial crops have not been identified. (apsnet.org)