Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Hemoglobin SC Disease: One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Hemoglobin C Disease: A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.MethemoglobinErythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Antisickling Agents: Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Litsea: A plant genus of the family LAURACEAE. Members contain laurotetanine and other APORPHINES.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Hemoglobin C: A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Hemoglobin E: An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Hemoglobin A2: An adult hemoglobin component normally present in hemolysates from human erythrocytes in concentrations of about 3%. The hemoglobin is composed of two alpha chains and two delta chains. The percentage of HbA2 varies in some hematologic disorders, but is about double in beta-thalassemia.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Truncated Hemoglobins: A family of hemoglobin-like proteins found in BACTERIA; PLANTS; and unicellular eukaryotes. Truncated hemoglobins are distantly related to vertebrate hemoglobins and are typically shorter than vertebrate hemoglobins by 20-40 residues.Hemoglobinopathies: A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.CarboxyhemoglobinBlood Substitutes: Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Hemoglobin J: A group of abnormal hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic characteristics. They have faster electrophoretic mobility and different amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta chains than normal adult hemoglobin. Some of the variants produce hematologic abnormalities, others result in no clinical disorders.Diphosphoglyceric AcidsHemoglobin H: An abnormal hemoglobin composed of four beta chains. It is caused by the reduced synthesis of the alpha chain. This abnormality results in ALPHA-THALASSEMIA.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.alpha-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Hemoglobin M: A group of abnormal hemoglobins in which amino acid substitutions take place in either the alpha or beta chains but near the heme iron. This results in facilitated oxidation of the hemoglobin to yield excess methemoglobin which leads to cyanosis.alpha-Globins: Members of the alpha-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 16. They include zeta-globin and alpha-globin. There are also pseudogenes of zeta (theta-zeta) and alpha (theta-alpha) in the cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of 2 alpha-globin chains and 2 beta-globin chains.Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)beta-Globins: Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. They include epsilon-globin, gamma-globin, delta-globin and beta-globin. There is also a pseudogene of beta (theta-beta) in the gene cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains and two beta-globin chains.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Hemoglobinuria: The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polycythemia: An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Heinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hemin: Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reticulocytes: Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Fructosamine: An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is derived from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hemoglobin Subunits: The PROTEIN SUBUNITS that comprise multimeric HEMOGLOBINS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Phenylhydrazines: Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Erythrocyte Aggregation: The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Blood Preservation: The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Vitreoscilla: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic or microaerophilic, colorless filaments. It is nonfruiting, motile by gliding, and found in freshwater sediments and cow dung. One species (V. stercoraria) is considered morphologically to be a streptobacillus. That species is strictly aerobic and produces a homodimeric bacterial hemoglobin, especially under oxygen-limited growth conditions. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Erythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.gamma-Globins: Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, two non-allelic types of gamma-globin - A gamma and G gamma are encoded in the beta-globin gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. Two gamma-globin chains combine with two ZETA-GLOBIN chains to form the embryonic hemoglobin Portland. Fetal HEMOGLOBIN F is formed from two gamma-globin chains combined with two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pallor: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Chironomidae: A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Chromium Isotopes: Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.SulfhemoglobinAnion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Erythrocruorins: High molecular weight (1,500,000 to 3,000,000) hemoglobins found in the plasma of many polychete and oligochete annelid worms and various mollusks. They bind one mole of oxygen per heme and function as oxygen carriers.Mercuribenzoates: Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.

*Hemoglobin Hopkins-2

Hemoglobin S is the most common abnormal hemoglobin variant. Hemoglobin S is the variant that causes sickle cell, which is a ... is a mutation of the protein hemoglobin, which is responsible for the transportation of oxygen through the blood from the lungs ... Variants of the "normal" hemoglobin gene result in mutation in the hemoglobins produced. In other words, the researchers ... which replaces the lack of oxygen within red blood cells. Ho-2 is similar to Hemoglobin A, which is normal hemoglobin and also ...

*Hemoglobin

Improperly degraded hemoglobin protein or hemoglobin that has been released from the blood cells too rapidly can clog small ... A (mostly) separate set of diseases called thalassemias involves underproduction of normal and sometimes abnormal hemoglobins, ... Some nonerythroid cells (i.e., cells other than the red blood cell line) contain hemoglobin. In the brain, these include the A9 ... Hemoglobin is also found outside red blood cells and their progenitor lines. Other cells that contain hemoglobin include the A9 ...

*Human genetic resistance to malaria

... the iron-containing non-protein part of hemoglobin hemoglobin - iron based organic molecule in red blood cells that transports ... In red cells containing abnormal hemoglobins, or which are G6PD deficient, oxygen radicals are produced, and malaria parasites ... hemoglobin type E, hemoglobin type S) hematopoietic (stem cell) - the blood stem cells that give rise to all other blood cells ... G6PD is present in all human cells but is particularly important to red blood cells. Since mature red blood cells lack nuclei ...

*Harvey Itano

He found that, under certain conditions, sickle cell hemoglobin is positively charged while normal hemoglobin is not, creating ... Ingram, V M (June 1958). "Abnormal human haemoglobins. I. The comparison of normal human and sickle-cell haemoglobins by ... After failing with a number of other techniques, Itano succeeded in differentiating normal and sickle cell hemoglobins using ... Itano's subsequent work brought the new field of "molecular medicine" to other genetic and blood diseases. In 1954, he won the ...

*Vernon Ingram

It's in the Blood! A Documentary History of Linus Pauling, Hemoglobin, and Sickle Cell Anemia Davis, Tinsley H. (5 October 2004 ... "A Specific Chemical Difference between Globins of Normal and Sickle-cell Anemia Hemoglobins". Nature. 178 (4537): 792-794. doi: ... in sickle cell disease and trait was the substitution of the glutamic acid in position 6 of the β-chain of the normal protein ... Hunt, J.A.; V.M. Ingram (1958). "Abnormal Human Haemoglobins. II. The Chymotryptic Digestion of the Trypsin-resistant Core of ...
The purpose of this review was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplements on hemoglobin concentration in subjects aged 17.5-68 years old; using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Relevant RCT studies were identified from January 2000 to January 2019 by using MeSH terms in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Clinical trials, Scopus databases and gray literature. The studies were reviewed systematically, and quality assessments were evaluated by the guidelines of the Cochrane risk of bias. The effect of vitamin D supplements (n = 14) on hemoglobin concentration was considered as primary outcome, while its effects on the levels of ferritin, transferrin saturation and iron status were derived as secondary outcomes. In total, 1385 subjects with age range of 17.5 to 68 years old were examined for 3 h to 6 months; Mean (standard deviation) or median interquartile changes in the hemoglobin concentration in each treatment group was recorded for meta-analysis. ...
Definition of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)? Meaning of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) as a finance term. What does mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) mean in finance?
Naftalovich, R.; Naftalovich, D., 2011: Error in noninvasive spectrophotometric measurement of blood hemoglobin concentration under conditions of blood loss
In the US today, blood transfusion is safer than ever. Nevertheless, the century-old quest for a suitable blood substitute persists. The elimination of unwanted side effects, especially transfusion-transmitted diseases, the problems and high cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, the pending worldwide shortages, and the need for compatibility testing are the driving forces contributing towards the development of blood substitutes. The leading research is focusing on hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), which are limited in clinical application due to the pressor effect they induce. In this study, the mechanisms through which HBOCs affect mean arterial pressure (MAP), arteriolar diameter, and nitric oxide levels in the microcirculation were investigated, using Oxyglobin (HBOC-301), a third generation glutaraldehyde-polymerized bovine hemoglobin. The spinotrapezius muscle of female ...
Reduced P50-Free hemoglobin in plasma has a lower P50 than hemoglobin contained in RBCs. Functionally, the difference can be thought of as a left shift in the hemoglobin dissociation curve, where free hemoglobin "holds more tightly" to oxygen at a given O2 tension and will only release O2 if the O2 tension is very low. Hemoglobin contained in RBCs has a P50 of 26-28 mm Hg. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have reduced P50 of 10-16 mm Hg. Hemoglobin dimers, which are spontaneous split products of free hemoglobin, lose the cooperative binding properties of the hemoglobin tetramer. These dimers have a hemoglobin dissociation curve similar to that of myoglobin, and will only release oxygen at O2 tensions as low as 5 mm Hg. ...
Sickle cell haemoglobin. Computer graphic of two molecules of sickle cell haemoglobin showing the mutation (red) that causes sickle cell anaemia. Haemoblogin is the oxygen-carrying pigment that gives red blood cells their colour. The molecule consists of four globin polypeptides (alpha globin = blue, beta globin = yellow), each with a haem component (white) carrying a central iron atom, which binds to oxygen. In sickle cell anaemia a single mutation results in the replacement of the amino acid glutamic acid by valine (red) at residue 6 on the beta chain. As a result the red blood cells and causing anaemia. - Stock Image M108/0329
The isolated minor haemoglobin fractions (haemoglobin D) of ostrich, chicken and duck haemoglobin, which constitute about 30% of total intracellular haemoglobin, form crystalline aggregates upon deoxygenation at physiological temperature, ionic strength and pH and at haemoglobin concentrations even well below those present in the red cell. The aggregation is reversed by oxygenation, and can be inhibited by addition of organic phosphates or the corresponding major haemoglobin fraction in a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1. Embryonic haemoglobin from chicken has similar characteristics with respect to its solubility. The results indicate close functional homology of alpha D and embryonic pi-chains as well as a novel role for organic phosphates in the regulation of haemoglobin function. ...
Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive disorder and the most common genetic disease affecting African-Americans. Approximately 0.15% of African-Americans are homozygous for sickle cell disease, and 8% have sickle cell trait. Hemoglobin S polymerization leads to red cell rigidity, microvascular obstruction, inflammation, and end-organ ischemic injury. Our published data indicate that up to 50% of sickle cell patients have vascular dysfunction due to impaired bioavailability of endogenous nitric oxide, due in large part to scavenging of nitric oxide by cell-free hemoglobin. In previous studies we have demonstrated that steady-state serum LDH is strongly associated with 1) other markers of intravascular hemolysis including plasma cell-free hemoglobin and arginase levels, 2) levels of soluble endothelial adhesion molecules, and 3) an impaired vasodilatory response to an NO donor. Further, significant steady-state LDH elevation identified a subset of ...
Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive disorder and the most common genetic disease affecting African-Americans. Approximately 0.15% of African-Americans are homozygous for sickle cell disease, and 8% have sickle cell trait. Hemoglobin S polymerization leads to red cell rigidity, microvascular obstruction, inflammation, and end-organ ischemic injury. Our published data indicate that up to 50% of sickle cell patients have vascular dysfunction due to impaired bioavailability of endogenous nitric oxide, due in large part to scavenging of nitric oxide by cell-free hemoglobin. In previous studies we have demonstrated that steady-state serum LDH is strongly associated with 1) other markers of intravascular hemolysis including plasma cell-free hemoglobin and arginase levels, 2) levels of soluble endothelial adhesion molecules, and 3) an impaired vasodilatory response to an NO donor. Further, significant steady-state LDH elevation identified a subset of ...
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A process for preparing a stroma-free hemoglobin solution is provided. The process includes washing blood cells to remove noncellular components to obtain a mixture of erythrocytes and leukocytes. The leukocytes are removed from the mixture and the erythrocytes are lysed to form a mixture of stroma and hemoglobin. The stroma is precipitated from the hemoglobin by treating the stroma-hemoglobin mixture with a polyvalent cation; a polysulfate, and a polyvalent anion. The supernatant hemoglobin solution is separated and dialyzed to obtain a substantially pure hemoglobin solution.
It has been known for many years that hemoglobin can aggregate into crosslinked gels within the red blood cells of carriers of the defective sickle hemoglobin gene. However it is only relatively recently that we have started to understand the properties of the individual fibers that make up this gel. These fibers exhibit a variety of striking properties. They have preferred diameters that are larger than the size of the single monomer, and may therefore not be set by this length scale alone. Parallel fibers zipper together into bundles due to interactions that we have been able to quantify rather precisely. The fiber growth rate constants can be sufficient to distort the shape of the red cell membrane and the fiber. Finally the fiber has a novel depolymerisation mechanism that involves two rate constants giving rise to a time scale for complete depolymerisation that is insensitive to the initial fiber length.. ...
By introducing an additional H-bond in the alpha(1)beta(2) subunit interface or altering the charge properties of the amino acid residues in the alpha(1)beta(1) subunit interface of the hemoglobin molecule, we have designed and expressed recombinant hemoglobins (rHbs) with low oxygen affinity and high cooperativity. Oxygen-binding measurements of these rHbs under various experimental conditions show interesting properties in response to pH (Bohr effect) and allosteric effectors. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies show that these rHbs can switch from the oxy (or CO) quaternary structure (R) to the deoxy quaternary structure (T) without changing their ligation states upon addition of an allosteric effector, inositol hexaphosphate, and/or reduction of the ambient temperature. These results indicate that if we can provide extra stability to the T state of the hemoglobin molecule without perturbing its R state, we can produce hemoglobins ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complement-mediated acute effects of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin. AU - Szebeni, J.. AU - Alving, Carl R.. PY - 1999/1. Y1 - 1999/1. N2 - Recent studies on liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) have indicated that this potential blood substitute can activate the complement (C) system of rats, pigs and man. The reaction can involve both the classical and the alternative pathways, and is mediated, in part, by the binding of natural anti-lipid antibodies to the lipid membrane of liposomes. The significance of these discoveries lies in the fact that C activation appears to be the primary cause of the acute physiological, hematological and laboratory changes that have been observed previously in rats and pigs following the administration of LEH or liposomes, which changes include pulmonary vasoconstriction with decreased cardiac output. In light of the proposed use of LEH as an emergency blood substitute, the latter ...
The FDA granted breakthrough therapy designation to voxelotor for the treatment of patients with sickle cell disease, according to a press release from the therapy’s manufacturer. Voxelotor (GBT440, Global Blood Therapeutics) — a novel hemoglobin S polymerization inhibitor administered orally once daily — previously received fast track, orphan drug and rare pediatric disease
Looking for online definition of mean corpuscular haemoglobin in the Medical Dictionary? mean corpuscular haemoglobin explanation free. What is mean corpuscular haemoglobin? Meaning of mean corpuscular haemoglobin medical term. What does mean corpuscular haemoglobin mean?
Apr 23, 2016 · Each hemoglobin molecule can carry how many oxygen molecules? a. 4 b. 6 c. 8 d. 10 e. 12. Hemoglobin is made up of four subunits and can bind up to four oxygen molecules. that binds the globin molecules; one molecule binds one molecule of oxygen. The oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin determines how much oxygen.. Fluorescence is a phenomenon in which an electron in a molecule absorbs energy from. lasting only a few billionths of a second. Many biologically important colored molecules such as hemoglobin-an.. Within the body, the transport of oxygen is performed by hemoglobin. chemically modified because free hemoglobin, without encapsulation in cells, is unstable, breaking down into smaller component.. It works a bit like sonar - scientists bombard molecules with X-rays, then measure the angles as the X-rays bounce off, or diffract. They can. in hemoglobin ...
Abstract: Impact of Weekly Versus Daily Iron-folic Acid Supplementation for Pregnant Women with Anemia on Hemoglobin Levels, Clinical Symptoms and Subjective Complaints
Developing blood substitutes is in urgent demand for chronic blood shortage all over the world. In this connection, the oxygen binding behavior of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) is one of the most important characteristics. However, present methods available for estimating oxygen binding behavior have need of expensive apparatus, and also are not suitable for high-throughput and the time-course analysis. To overcome these problems, we proposed a simple analysis method for the time-course oxygen binding behavior of HBOCs, which employs a general UV-Vis microplate reader and a common reagent, sodium dithionite, as a reductant for HBOCs and an oxygen scavenger. Our method enabled time-course oxygen binding behavior analysis of HBOCs in a simple manner, and obtained data corresponding with those by the conventional method. Thus, our developed method will accelerate the development of HBOCs due to easy oxygen binding analysis.. ...
In this episode of JCIs Authors Take, Donald Kohn of UCLA describes his groups efforts to develop a method to safely and effectively modify patient bone marrow to treat sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in hemoglobin (HBB) that leads to rigid, deformed red blood cells, as seen in the accompanying image. A small number of patients have been successfully treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation; however, there are several drawbacks and complications associated with this procedure. Many complications could potentially be avoided by performing an autologous HSC transplant in combination with gene therapy to over-ride the defective hemoglobin gene. Zulema Romero, Donald Kohn, and colleagues investigated the utility of a lentiviral vector encoding a human b-globin gene engineered to impede sickle hemoglobin polymerization. The vector ...
Sickle hemoglobin tutorial by Eric Martz on the College of Massachusetts The chart beneath summarizes many of the terminology Weve got encountered in discussing the different sorts of hemoglobins and their medical manifestations. Study this chart and discover the particular meanings of these conditions. Theyll help you retain crystal clear just what element of sickle mobile anemia, or what component on the genetic or molecular program is currently being discussed. HbA: Ordinary hemoglobin (refers back to the entire molecule) HbS: Sickle cell hemoglobin (homozygous mutant) Hba: Gene for normal hemoglobin alpha chain Hbb: Gene for typical hemoglobin beta chain Hbs: Gene for mutant hemoglobin beta chain, the sickle cell hemoglobin Structure of Standard Hemoglobin Molecule (HbA): two alpha and 2 beta chains Construction of Sickle Cell Disease Molecule: 2 alpha ...
Stroma-free hemoglobin cross-linked with reagents that mimic 2,3 diphosphoglycerate and transform stroma-free hemoglobin into a physiologically competent oxygen carrier which is retained in vivo for adequate periods of time and thus can be used in fluids for transporting oxygen; reagents for cross-linking stroma-free hemoglobin and method for cross-linking stroma-free hemoglobin.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of tranexamic acid on hemoglobin levels during total knee arthroplasty. AU - Pachauri, Amit. AU - Acharya, Kiran K.. AU - Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative administration of 1,4-aminocarboxylic acid (tranexamic acid) in reducing the intraoperative and postoperative blood loss in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR). Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent that is 7-10 times as potent as epsilon aminocaproic acid. We had investigated the effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss intraoperatively and postoperatively during and after TKR thereby significantly preventing a decrease in postop Hb in these patients. This study was a randomized, prospective, observational, double-blinded study on 99 patients, after obtaining ethical committee approval and valid informed consent from patients to be part of the study. In the study ...
Question - 20 year old having microcephaly. Suffering from pneumonia. Low hemoglobin levels. On wysolone, doxycyclin and asthalin. Further treatment?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Pneumonia, Ask a Pulmonologist
We have used isoelectric focusing to measure the differences between the pI values of various normal and mutant human haemoglobins when completely deoxygenated and when fully liganded with CO. It was assumed that the ΔpI(deox.-ox.) values might correspond quantitatively to the intrinsic alkaline Bohr effect, as most of the anionic cofactors of the haemoglobin molecule are stripped off during the electrophoretic process. In haemoglobins known to exhibit a normal Bohr coefficient (ΔlogP50/ΔpH) in solutions, the ΔpI(deox.-ox.) values are lower the higher their respective pI(ox.) values. This indicates that for any particular haemoglobin the ΔpI(deox.-ox.) value accounts for the difference in surface charges at the pH of its pI value. This was confirmed by measuring, by the direct-titration technique, the difference in pH of deoxy and fully liganded haemoglobin A0 (α2β2) solutions in conditions approximating those of the isoelectric focusing, i.e. at 5°C and very low concentration of KCl. ...
Definition of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)? Meaning of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) as a finance term. What does mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) mean in finance?
GOALS: Currently, there is some debate concerning the haemoglobin level at which treatment of anaemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents should be initiated in cancer patients on chemotherapy. We report several analyses of data from a phase III trial of darbepoetin alfa versus placebo, comparing outcomes for patients with mild and moderate-to-severe anaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a phase III trial of darbepoetin alfa versus placebo in anaemic patients with lung cancer receiving chemotherapy ( n=314). Outcomes were compared for patients with baseline haemoglobin , or =10-11 g/dl and ,10 g/dl. RESULTS: Darbepoetin alfa significantly reduced transfusions compared with placebo, irrespective of haemoglobin level at treatment initiation. For patients with baseline haemoglobin ,10 g/dl, 31% and 59% of those receiving darbepoetin alfa and placebo, respectively, required a transfusion from week 5 to the end of the treatment phase ( P,0.038). For patients with baseline ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Iron atom in PDB 2z8a: Ligand Migration And Binding In The Dimeric Hemoglobin Of Scapharca Inaequivalvis: I25W With Co Bound to Heme and in the Presence Of 3 Atoms of Xe
Sickle hemoglobin tutorial by Eric Martz on the University of Massachusetts The chart underneath summarizes several of the terminology We now have encountered in speaking about the various kinds of hemoglobins as well as their scientific manifestations. Study this chart and discover the particular meanings of those phrases. They may help you retain very clear just what exactly facet of sickle mobile anemia, or what part of your genetic or molecular procedure is remaining talked about. HbA: Regular hemoglobin (refers back to the entire molecule) HbS: Sickle mobile hemoglobin (homozygous mutant) Hba: Gene for ordinary hemoglobin alpha chain Hbb: Gene for regular hemoglobin beta chain Hbs: Gene for mutant hemoglobin beta chain, the sickle cell hemoglobin Composition of Usual Hemoglobin Molecule (HbA): two alpha and 2 beta chains Framework of Sickle Mobile ...
The study objectives were to examine the association of maternal haemoglobin with stillbirth and perinatal death in a multi-ethnic population in England. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis using anonymised maternity data from 14 001 women with singleton pregnancies ≥24 weeks gestation giving birth between 2013 and 2015 in two hospitals - the Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust and Guys and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were undertaken to analyse the associations between maternal haemoglobin at first visit and at 28 weeks with stillbirth and perinatal death, adjusting for 11 other risk factors. Results showed that 46% of the study population had anaemia (haemoglobin |110 g/l) at some point during their pregnancy. The risk of stillbirth and perinatal death decreased linearly per unit increase in haemoglobin concentration at first visit (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] stillbirth = 0·70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0·58-0·85, aOR perinatal death = 0·71,
The O2-binding properties of Myxine glutinosa hemoglobins are sensitive to changes in water activity. Given that water activity decreases O2 affinity, water molecules bind preferentially to the oligomeric, low-affinity state, whereby water acts as an allosteric effector. This response is opposite to that of human hemoglobin, where water stabilizes the oxygenated, high-affinity state of the hemoglobin, but similar to that found in the dimeric hemoglobin from the gastropod mollusc Scapharca inaequivalvis, where 6-8 water molecules bind at the dimer interface in the deoxy conformation (Royer et al., 1996). Interestingly, the recently solved crystal structure of dimeric (deoxy) hagfish hemoglobin (Mito et al., 2002) indicates a subunit arrangement similar (but not identical) to that of lamprey and dimeric Scapharca hemoglobins, with the two heme groups in close contact with each other (Heaslet and Royer, 1999; ...
Many people diagnosed with haematological malignancies experience anaemia, and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion plays an essential supportive role in their management. Different strategies have been developed for RBC transfusions. A restrictive transfusion strategy seeks to maintain a lower haemoglobin level (usually between 70 g/L to 90 g/L) with a trigger for transfusion when the haemoglobin drops below 70 g/L), whereas a liberal transfusion strategy aims to maintain a higher haemoglobin (usually between 100 g/L to 120 g/L, with a threshold for transfusion when haemoglobin drops below 100 g/L). In people undergoing surgery or who have been admitted to intensive care a restrictive transfusion strategy has been shown to be safe and in some cases safer than a liberal transfusion strategy. However, it is not known whether it is safe in people with haematological malignancies.To determine the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion strategies for people diagnosed with
Background: Hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOC) offer a potential adjunct to improve early re-oxygenation of ischemic tissue. However, the optimal oxygen content and oxygen affinity of the HBOC solution to optimize myocardial re-oxygenation is not known. Our objective was to compare myocardial recovery following reperfusion with 3 unique HBOC solutions, each with different oxygen affinity.. Methods: 3 HBOC solutions were prepared to a standard concentration of 2.5g/dL in modified Krebs Henseleit buffer, and oxygenated with either room air (RA) or with 100% oxygen (O2). Hearts isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 25 min of global ischemia and then were reperfused for the first 10 min with one of the HBOCs; 1) HBOCR, (polymerized bovine hemoglobin fixed in relaxed, deoxygenated state) P50 = 2.4 mm Hg, n=8, 2) HBOCT (polymerized bovine hemoglobin fixed in tense, oxygenated state) P50 = 48 mm Hg, n=8, or 3) HgbB (isolated bovine ...
The mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration refers to the average concentration of haemoglobin within red blood cells, and confers whether a cell is normochromic, hyperchromic or hypochromic.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The absence of volume change in the gelation of hemoglobin-S. AU - Kahn, P. C.. AU - Briehl, R. W.. PY - 1982/12/1. Y1 - 1982/12/1. N2 - The volume change for the gelation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin has been measured by dilatometry at 20.0°C and found to be zero. The precision of the result is 0 ± 1.4 ml/mol of protein present in the sample. When the solubility of the protein is taken into account, the precision is 0 ± 5.1 ml/mol of gelled hemoglobin. The participation of hydrophobic interactions in sickle cell hemoglobin gelation and model compound studies of the volume change associated with transferring hydrophobic solutes from an aqueous to a hydrophobic milieu, as well as the volume changes of other globular protein polymerizations, led us, initially, to expect a large positive ΔV. The results are discussed in the context of concentration effects in sickle ...
Hemoglobin Constant Spring is a variant of Hemoglobin in which a mutation in the alpha globin gene produces an alpha globin chain that is abnormally long. It is the most common nondeletional alpha-thalassemia mutation associated with hemoglobin H disease. The quantity of hemoglobin in the cells is low because the messenger RNA is unstable and some is degraded prior to protein synthesis. Another reason is that the Constant Spring alpha chain protein is itself unstable. The result is a thalassemic phenotype. Hemoglobin Constant Spring is renamed after Constant Spring district in Jamaica. Hemoglobin variants Hemoglobinopathy Thalassemia What is Thalassemia? Hemoglobin H Disease and its Variants Hemoglobinopathiesm(Hemoglobin Disorders) Schrier, SL; Bunyaratvej, A; Khuhapinant, ...
Hemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric noncovalent complex consisting of two alpha- and two beta-globin chains each associated with a heme group. Its exact assembly pathway is a matter of debate. Disorders of hemoglobin are the most common inherited disorders and subsequently the molecule has been extensively studied. This work attempts to further elucidate the structural properties of the hemoglobin tetramer and its components. Gas-phase conformations of hemoglobin tetramers and their constituents were investigated by means of traveling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry. Sickle (HbS) and normal (HbA) hemoglobin molecules were analyzed to determine whether conformational differences in their quaternary structure could be observed. Rotationally averaged collision cross sections were estimated for tetramer, dimer, apo-, and holo-monomers with reference to a protein standard with known cross sections. Estimates of ...
This mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) calculator determines the concentration of Hb in the erythrocytes as MCHC is one of the RBC indices.
Looking for online definition of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in the Medical Dictionary? erythropoiesis-stimulating agent explanation free. What is erythropoiesis-stimulating agent? Meaning of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent medical term. What does erythropoiesis-stimulating agent mean?
Definition of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Red blood cell indices are blood tests that provide information about the hemoglobin content and size of red blood cells. Abnormal values indicate the presence of anemia and which type of anemia it is. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is the average volume of a red blood cell and is calculated by dividing the hematocrit (Hct) by the red blood cell count. M C V = H c t R B C {\displaystyle MCV={\frac {Hct}{RBC}}} Normal range: 80-100 fL Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is the average amount of hemoglobin (Hb) per red blood cell and is calculated by dividing the hemoglobin by the red blood cell count. M C H = H b R B C {\displaystyle MCH={\frac {Hb}{RBC}}} Normal range: 27-31 pg/cell Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is the average concentration of ...
Epoetin biosimilars are an alternative to originator erythropoietic agents in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anaemia; however, their effects in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders remain unclear. This analysis examined the response of patients with lymphoproliferative disorders experiencing chemotherapy-induced anaemia to 4- or 8-week treatment with the biosimilar epoetin alpha. Treatment was initiated at first occurrence of haemoglobin (Hb) , 10 g/dL during chemotherapy and was stopped when Hb was ,11 g/dL, when chemotherapy was completed, or in case of transfusion dependency. Response to epoetin alpha was defined as an increase in Hb of ,1 g/dL or as an Hb , 11 g/dL. Stability was defined as change in Hb of ±1 g/dL, and no response was indicated by a decrease in Hb of ,1 g/dL or acquired transfusion dependence. Overall, 65 patients were enrolled (median age 69 years; 47.7% ≥ 70 years old). Mean Hb levels at the initiation of epoetin alpha was 9.3 ± 0.5 g/dL. Mean Hb levels ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of S-nitrosation and cross-linking of hemoglobin on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in isolated rat lungs. AU - Deem, Steven. AU - Kim, Joung Uk. AU - Manjula, Belur N.. AU - Acharya, A. Seetharama. AU - Kerr, Mark E.. AU - Patel, Rakesh P.. AU - Gladwin, Mark T.. AU - Swenson, Erik R.. PY - 2002/10/4. Y1 - 2002/10/4. N2 - Free hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells augment hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) by scavenging nitric oxide (NO). S-nitrosation of Hb (SNO-Hb) may confer vasodilatory properties by allowing release of NO during deoxygenation and/or by interaction with small-molecular weight thiols. Likewise, cross-linking of free Hb may limit its vasoconstrictive effect by preventing abluminal movement of the molecule. We compared the effects of free SNO-Hb and Hb intramolecularly cross-linked at the β-cysteine 93 residue [Bis(maleidophenyl)-polyethylene glycol2000HbA (Bis-Mal-PEGHb)] to those of free ...
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a hereditary anemia that causes the red blood cells to change their shape from a round and doughnut-like shape to a half-moon/crescent, or sickled shape. People who have SCD have a different type of hemoglobin (protein that carries oxygen). This different type of hemoglobin makes the red blood cells change into a crescent shape under certain conditions. Sickle-shaped cells are a problem because they often get stuck in the blood vessels blocking the flow of blood and can cause inflammation and injury to important areas of the body. All babies are born with hemoglobin called fetal hemoglobin (HbF). Soon after birth, HbF production slows down and another hemoglobin called adult hemoglobin (HbA) is made. Clinical studies have shown that increasing ...
The study is a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study designed to describe the benefits and potential risks of a new treatment strategy using a fixed dose of darbepoetin alfa in subjects with chronic kidney disease and not on dialysis. Anemic subjects without recent use of an erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) will be randomly allocated 1:1 to treatment with a fixed dose of darbepoetin alfa or to treatment with darbepoetin alfa using a hemoglobin (Hb)-based titration strategy, which has been the conventional dosing strategy. In the Hb-based titration group, darbepoetin alfa doses will be titrated to maintain hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 10.0 g/dL. This study aims to estimate the incidence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions (administered as deemed clinically necessary) in each group and the difference in incidence of RBC transfusions between the 2 groups. In addition, multiple aspects, such as cumulative darbepoetin alfa dose, total ...
The equilibrium constant (Kequ) for the reaction of 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) - DTNB - with the CysF9 [93]β sulphydryl group of the haemoglobins of the sheep decreases by about two orders of magnitude between pH≈5.6 and 9.2: from a mean of 7.2±1 to a mean of 0.044±0.01. Calculations from the pH dependence of Kequ show that in the r⇌t tertiary conformational transition of haemoglobin the t isomer population is 50.7 and 61.8% for the major and minor haemoglobins, respectively. In the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate (inositol-P6), Kequ increases for both haemoglobins by about an order of magnitude through most of the pH range. The t isomer population also increases to 82.1 and 79.6% for the major and minor haemoglobins, respectively. These results indicate that inositol-P6 increases the affinity of the sulphydryl for DTNB by increasing the population of the t isomer. It is highly probable that a minimum fourstate model that includes the r⇌t transition is required for a full ...
Iron is found in meat, dried fruit and some vegetables. It is used by the body to make haemoglobin, which helps store and carry oxygen in red blood cells (see box, left). Haemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. If there is a lack of iron in the blood, the organs and tissues will not get as much oxygen as they usually do.. How common is iron deficiency anaemia?. Iron deficiency anaemia affects up to 1 in 20 men and 1 in 20 post-menopausal women (after a womans menstrual periods have stopped). Iron deficiency anaemia is more common in women who are still menstruating (having periods). This is because menstruation and pregnancy can cause iron deficiency. Outlook. Treatment for iron deficiency anaemia involves increasing dietary iron intake or taking iron supplements to replace the missing iron in the body. This is usually very effective and the condition rarely causes any serious complications. If you have iron deficiency anaemia, ...
Recent genetic analyses of candidate genes and gene expression in marine fishes have provided evidence of local adaptation in response to environmental differences, despite the lack of strong signals of population structure from conventional neutral genetic markers. In this study expression of the haemoglobin alpha and beta subunit genes was studied in reciprocally transplanted European flounder Platichthys flesus from the highly saline North Sea and the brackish Baltic Sea. Clear differences in expression patterns of haemoglobin alpha and beta subunit genes were found among different types of tissue in flounder. In gill tissue a plastic response to salinity treatments was observed with general up-regulation of these genes concomitant with higher salinity. For liver tissue a population specific expression differences was observed with lower expression at simulated non-native compared to native salinities. Finally, for kidney tissue a stress response was observed in one population, with gene ...
A 10-year-old male child came to our out-patient department (OPD) for evaluation of refractory anemia. He had received adequate dietary and oral iron supplementation but still required multiple blood transfusions. He had no anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps or bleeding from any site. There was no family history of blood transfusions. Laboratory investigations showed hemoglobin of 6.4 gm/dl, total leucocyte count 7600 cells/cumm, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 18 mm/hr at end of 1 hour, packed cell volume 22%, mean corpuscular volume 54.1fL, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 25.4gm/dL, Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) 17.2%, reticulocyte count 1.13%, serum ferritin 2.6ng/dL, serum iron 15ug/dL and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) 570 mcg/dL suggestive of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Peripheral film showed microcytic hypochromic anemia. ...
A 10-year-old male child came to our out-patient department (OPD) for evaluation of refractory anemia. He had received adequate dietary and oral iron supplementation but still required multiple blood transfusions. He had no anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps or bleeding from any site. There was no family history of blood transfusions. Laboratory investigations showed hemoglobin of 6.4 gm/dl, total leucocyte count 7600 cells/cumm, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 18 mm/hr at end of 1 hour, packed cell volume 22%, mean corpuscular volume 54.1fL, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 25.4gm/dL, Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) 17.2%, reticulocyte count 1.13%, serum ferritin 2.6ng/dL, serum iron 15ug/dL and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) 570 mcg/dL suggestive of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Peripheral film showed microcytic hypochromic anemia. ...
Haemolytic events, such as those following rhabdomyolysis and subarachnoid haemorrhage, often result in pathological complications such as vasoconstriction. Haem-protein cross-linked myoglobin and haemoglobin are generated by ferric-ferryl redox cycling, and thus can be used as markers of oxidative stress. We have found haem-protein cross-linked myoglobin in the urine of patients suffering from rhabdomyolysis and haem-protein cross-linked haemoglobin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage. These findings provide strong evidence that these respiratory haem proteins can be involved in powerful oxidation processes in vivo. We have previously proposed that these oxidation processes in rhabdomyolysis include the formation of potent vasoconstrictor molecules, generated by the myoglobin-catalysed oxidation of membranes, inducing nephrotoxicity and renal failure. Haem-protein cross-linked ...
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is an uncommon abnormality that can be single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral, and is sometimes part of the multisystem disorder hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Two aspects of PAVMs are of paramount significance: firstly, right-to-left shunting through the malformation may allow bland or septic paradoxical embolisation into the cerebral vasculature; secondly, effective treatment is possible, by transcatheter techniques or surgery.. A 19 year old man presented with breathlessness and fatigue on exertion, and recurrent haemoptysis. He had pronounced central cyanosis (upper panel, middle column) and digital clubbing. The blood haemoglobin concentration was 25.1 g/dl and arterial oxygen saturation was 76%. His chest x ray showed a large irregular shadow adjacent to the right pulmonary hilum (lower panel, middle column). Echocardiography after injecting agitated saline in an arm vein showed the appearance of contrast in the ...
The presence of a renal bile fistula with escape of all bile into the urinary tract seriously impairs the capacity of an anemic dog to form new hemoglobin on standard diets. These bile fistula dogs will produce about one-half as much hemoglobin in anemia on standard diets as during earlier control periods without a bile fistula. Iron given by mouth to an anemic bile fistula dog will effect the production of about one-half the amount of new hemoglobin as in control periods. Iron given by vein to an anemic bile fistula dog will approximate the theoretical 100 per cent return of new hemoglobin. Obviously absorption is a very important factor in the utilization of iron by these dogs. The reaction to liver feeding is much like the reaction to iron feeding but we have no proof of inadequate protein digestion and absorption in these bile fistula dogs. In fact the uniform body weight and normal clinical state over periods of years ...
What is DROXIA?. DROXIA (hydroxyurea capsules, USP) is a prescription medicine that is used to reduce the frequency of painful crises and reduce the need for blood transfusions in adults with sickle cell anemia. How DROXIA works is not certain but it may work by reducing the number of white blood cells and/or increasing red blood cells that carry fetal hemoglobin (HbF). Fetal hemoglobin may prevent sickling.. What is Sickle Cell Anemia?. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder of the red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of the body by using a protein called hemoglobin. Normal red blood cells contain only normal hemoglobin and are shaped like indented disks. These cells are very flexible and move ...
Hemoglobin variants, ABO and Rhesus blood groups vary from one population to another. The study was designed to sample pregnant women population from Ayetoro community of Ogun state, Nigeria, for the purpose of updating information on the prevalence of abnormal hemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups and compare the results with previously published data. Hospital records of recruited pregnant women were sorted out for the determination of the prevalence of hemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups. Blood group O were the most prevalent (59.1%) followed by groups A (19.1%), B (17.1%) and AB (4.8%). Rhesus D antigen was positive in 97.1% and negative in 2.9% of the study population. Four genotypes; HbAA (70.5%), HbAS (18.1%), HbAC (10.5%) and HbCC (1.0%) were reported in this study. The occurrence of the hemoglobin variants and the different ABO ...
The hemoglobins S and C protect carriers from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, we found that these hemoglobinopathies affected the trafficking system that directs parasite-encoded proteins to the surface of infected erythrocytes. Cryoelectron tomography revealed that the parasite generated a host-derived actin cytoskeleton within the cytoplasm of wild-type red blood cells that connected the Maurers clefts with the host cell membrane and to which transport vesicles were attached. The actin cytoskeleton and the Maurers clefts were aberrant in erythrocytes containing hemoglobin S or C. Hemoglobin oxidation products, enriched in hemoglobin S and C erythrocytes, inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and may account for the protective role in malaria. ...
Large CO2 clusters were formed by introducing room temperature gaseous mixtures of CO2 in argon into a cryogenic cell at 77 K. Rapid cooling of each mixture resulted in a highly supersaturated CO2 concentration, giving rise to homogeneous nucleation and thus cluster formation [F. F Abraham, Homogeneous Nucleation Theory, Advances in Theoretical Chemistry, Supplement 1 (Academic, New York, 1974), and references therein]. Experimental results will be presented here for CO2 in argon dilutions of 1:104, 1:2Ã-105, and 1:106. Light scattering and infrared absorption techniques have been combined to estimate an average cluster radius of 0.20 μm for the 1:104 dilution sample, and an upper limit in cluster radius of 0.10 μm for the 1:2Ã-105 dilution sample. Therefore, the higher dilution CO2:Ar mixtures led to the formation of smaller cluster sizes. Infrared structure in the ν3-asymmetric stretching region of the clusters will be discussed. The quantum mechanical exciton model and the ...
Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from hemeproteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O-2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O-2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. ...
Inhaling a small dose of nitric oxide gas may one day help sickle cell patients avoid pain crises and live healthier lives, researchers say.. Nitric oxide may help normalize a sickle cell patients hemoglobin by restoring the natural charge and shape to the oxygen-carrying component of red blood cells, Medical College of Georgia researchers have found.. "Hemoglobin S plus nitric oxide behaves much like normal adult hemoglobin, which does not sickle," says Dr. C. Alvin Head, chair of the Medical College of Georgia Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine.. In fact, their test-tube studies of human hemoglobin show nitric oxide not only prevents unhealthy clustering of hemoglobin S molecules but can melt existing polymers, leaving more hemoglobin free to do its job of oxygen delivery to the body.. Inhaling the short-acting gas naturally found on ...
Hemoglobin S is an abnormal version of the protein hemoglobin . The sixth amino acid of the normal beta chain, glutamic acid , is replaced by valine with gluconic acid . This mutation causes the red blood cell to take on a sickle shape, and is the cause of the sickle cell trait condition (when the individual is heterozygous for this mutant hemoglobin) and the disease of sickle cell anemia (when the individual is homozygous for this mutant hemoglobin ...
The main aim of the present study was to quantify the magnitude of differences introduced when estimating a given blood volume compartment (e.g. plasma volume) through the direct determination of another compartment (e.g. red cell volume) by multiplication of venous haematocrit and/or haemoglobin concentration. However, since whole body haematocrit is higher than venous haematocrit such an approach might comprise certain errors. To test this experimentally, four different methods for detecting blood volumes and haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were compared, namely the carbon monoxide (CO) re-breathing (for Hbmass), the indocyanine green (ICG; for plasma volume [PV]) and the sodium fluorescein (SoF; for red blood cell volume [RBCV]) methods. No difference between ICG and CO re-breathing derived PV could be established when a whole body/venous haematocrit correction factor of 0.91 was applied (p = 0.11, r = 0.43, mean difference -340 ± 612 mL). In contrast, when ...
In spite of the second law of thermodynamics, crystallization of pure liquids usually begins at a lower temperature than the melting point, due to high activation energy of homogeneous nucleation. The creation of a nucleus implies the formation of an interface at the boundaries of the new phase. Some energy is expended to form this interface, based on the surface energy of each phase. If a hypothetical nucleus is too small, the energy that would be released by forming its volume is not enough to create its surface, and nucleation does not proceed. Freezing does not start until the temperature is low enough to provide enough energy to form stable nuclei. In presence of irregularities on the surface of the containing vessel, solid or gaseous impurities, pre-formed solid crystals, or other nucleators, heterogeneous nucleation may occur, where some energy is released by the partial destruction of the previous interface, raising the supercooling point to be near or equal to the melting point. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unstable hemoglobin hemolytic anemia. T2 - In vitro incubation studies on erythrocytes with hemoglobin Sabine. AU - Mills, Gordon C.. AU - Alperin, Jack B.. AU - Hill, Freddie L.. AU - Henderson, Ralph J.. PY - 1971. Y1 - 1971. N2 - Additional biochemical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of the presence of an unstable hemoglobin (Hb Sabine) on metabolism of erythrocytes. In vitro incubation under physiological conditions of these erythrocytes for periods of 5-15 hours has been utilized to evaluate effects of various additives on metabolism of the cells. The addition of adenine to the blood stimulates adenine nucleotide biosynthesis and is effective in maintaining levels of adenine nucleotides. An excessive rate of breakdown of adenine nucleotides to hypoxanthine has been shown previously to be a major factor in the inability of these cells to maintain ATP. The addition ...
Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a major problem in Uganda; it is estimated to contribute about 15% of paediatric admissions and 10% mortality in children at Mulago hospital. Fetal haemoglobin (HbF) level is one of the most important factors influencing the clinical course in SCA. Populations with high levels of HbF like those in Saudi Arabia have been described as having a mild clinical course with fewer complications. Disease modifying drugs can induce the Hb F levels and modify the presentation of SCA. However, in Uganda, there is no documentation on HbF levels and the correlation to clinical features and disease severity in patients with SCA. Objective: The aims of this study were to document fetal haemoglobin levels and describe the correlation between these levels and disease severity in patients with SCA in Mulago Hospital. Design: This study had two designs: a cross sectional survey to document fetal haemoglobin levels in children with SCA attending Mulago hospital and a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Umbilicial cord glycosylated hemoglobin in infants of diabetic mothers. T2 - Relationships to neonatal hypoglycemia, macrosomia, and cord serum C-peptide. AU - Sosenko, J. M.. AU - Kitzmiller, J. L.. AU - Fluckiger, R.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Relationships of neonatal glycemia and birthweight to antecedent fetal glycemia and insulinemia have been examined in the offspring of 63 insulin-dependent diabetic and 29 nondiabetic mothers. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels in maternal and cord blood were measured by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetric technique to estimate antecedent fetal and maternal glycemia; cord serum C-peptide was assayed to estimate fetal insulinemia. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were significantly elevated in the diabetic mothers and their offspring as compared with controls (P , 0.001), and maternal and cord blood levels were highly correlated in the diabetic group (r = ...
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Background. Hemoglobin SC disease is one of the most frequent hemoglobinopathy. Surprisingly, few studies were dedicated to this disease, currently considered as a mild variant of homozygous sickle cell disease. The aim of this study was to update our knowledge about hemoglobin SC disease. Design and Methods. We conducted this study in a monocentric series of 179 patients. Clinical and biological data were collected, with a special concern for the assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and nephropathy. Results. Hemoglobin SC diagnosis was delayed and performed in adulthood in 29% of cases. Hospitalized painful vasoocclusive crisis, acute chest syndrome and priapism had a prevalence of 36%, 20% and 20% respectively. The most common chronic organ complications were retinopathy and sensorineural otologic disorders occurring in 70% and 29% of cases. Indeed, prevalence of complications reported in homozygous sickle cell disease such as ...
C. Wells and S.J. Singer) turned his interest to figuring out the particular distinction between ordinary and sickle cell hemoglobin molecules. Breaking the protein molecules down into shorter fragments referred to as peptides, Pauling and co-personnel subjected these fragments to a different separatory procedure known as paper chromatography. When this procedure is placed on samples of usual and mutant (sickle) hemoglobin molecules (alpha and beta chains) that had been damaged down into specific peptides, all the spots are the same -- except for just one very important location (proven darkened in the ultimate chromatogram below), which represents the difference between sickle cell and normal hemoglobin ...
If your iron levels get particularly low, you can develop iron deficiency anaemia. This is when you dont have enough iron for your body to make enough fully working red blood cells to carry the normal amounts of oxygen around your body. Having iron deficiency anaemia can affect your pregnancy and the growth of your baby,3 and you will likely be checked for anaemia as part of your normal pregnancy screening tests.. Signs that you may have low iron levels and/or iron deficiency anaemia, include feeling listless or washed out, looking pale or feeling breathless. Cravings are often joked about during pregnancy - dashing out for ice-cream in the middle of the night or a never ending desire for pickled onions. But having iron deficiency anaemia can also cause you to crave strange things, including ice, or even dirt. If you feel your cravings are becoming unusual, or you think you have any of the other signs of iron deficiency such as faintness or feeling fatigued4, you should talk ...
We report a technique for simultaneous label-free quantification of cytoplasmic hemoglobin Hb concentration and dynamic membrane fluctuation in individual red blood cells (RBCs). Spectroscopic phase microscopy equipped with three different coherent laser sources and a color detector records three wavelength-dependent quantitative phase images in a single shot of a color-coded hologram. Using molecular specific dispersion, we demonstrate the extraction of Hb concentration and the dynamic membrane fluctuation from individual RBCs.. ©2012 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Several pH-dependent low-spin ferric haem forms are identified in a frozen solution of the ferric 121CysSer mutant of Drosophila melanogaster haemoglobin (DmHb1*) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Different forms with EPR parameters typical of bis-histidine coordinated haem iron centers were observed. Strong pH-dependent changes in the EPR signatures were observed related to changes in the haem pocket. The pulsed EPR data indicate that both the distal and proximal histidine exhibit a large libration around the FeNHis axis. The resonance Raman spectra of the CO-ligated ferrous form of Drosophila melanogaster haemoglobin are typical of an open conformation, with little stabilization of the CO ligand by the surrounding amino-acid residues. The EPR data of the cyanide-ligated ferric DmHb1* indicates a close similarity with cyanide-ligated ferric myoglobin. The structural characteristics of DmHb1* are found to clearly differ from those of other bis-histidine-coordinated globins. ...
• The carbon dioxide gas is temporarily converted to carbonic acid in red blood cells by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, and then further converted to hydrogen and bicarbonate ions. • The result of increased carbon dioxide is decreased pH causing the Bohr effect. • Elevated carbon dioxide levels enhance unbinding of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin thereby making oxygen available for actively metabolizing cells. • By contrast, decreased carbon dioxide, as in the alveolar spaces, increases affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen and promotes oxygen loading and transport. • To a limited degree, changes in temperature affect the association and dissociation of O2 with hemoglobin. • The oxygen carrying ability of hemoglobin is unaffected by normal temperatures. • Near metabolically active cells, blood temperature rises, increasing the thermal motion of molecules ...
Anemia occurs when you have a level of red blood cells (RBCs) in your blood that is lower than normal. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia, and it occurs when your body doesnt have enough of the mineral iron. Your body needs iron to make a protein called hemoglobin. This protein is responsible for carrying oxygen to your bodys tissues, which is essential for your tissues and muscles to function effectively. When there isnt enough iron in your blood stream, the rest of your body cant get the amount of oxygen it needs. In women of childbearing age, the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is a loss of iron in the blood due to heavy menstruation or pregnancy. A poor diet or certain intestinal diseases that affect how the body absorbs iron can also cause iron deficiency anemia. Doctors normally treat the condition with iron supplements or changes to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erythrocyte alterations in hemoglobin H disease. AU - Szelényi, J.. AU - Lelkes, G.. AU - Horányi, M.. AU - Földi, J.. AU - Szász, I.. AU - Hollán, S.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - This study on erythrocytes in hemoglobin H (Hb-H) disease reveals that unstable Hb-H is bound to membranes to a greater extent, especially when it forms methemoglobin or is precipitated as an inclusion body. The methemoglobin content of these erythrocytes is elevated in spite of a higher activity of NADH-methemoglobin reductase. The ATPase activity is doubled and ATP is presumably used for phosphorylation of membrane proteins, which leads to cross-linking of membrane proteins. This assumption could be supported by the observed decrease in non-electrolyte permeability, by increased binding of hemoglobin to the membrane, and polymerisation of membrane proteins detected ...
Phenazopyridine is a commonly used over-the-counter (OTC) medication reported by patients presenting to the ED with complaints of dysuria. Conversely, methemoglobinemia induced from phenazopyridine ingestion is rarely seen in the ED. The epidemiology is unknown and very few cases are cited in the literature, with most in the remote past.1-4 Cases of methemoglobinemia are most frequently cited in the literature after use of dapsone and local anesthetics (i.e. benzocaine and lidocaine), and rarely reported in the emergency medicine literature.4-7. Methemoglobin forms when the ferrous (Fe2+) irons of heme are oxidized to the ferric (Fe3+) state. In the ferric state, methemoglobin is unable to bind oxygen. In addition, the oxygen affinity of any remaining ferrous heme in the hemoglobin tetramer is increased. As a result, the oxygen dissociation curve is shifted to the left, resulting in hypoxia and lactic acid production.8. ...
Background: Iron deficiency anemia is common in patients (pts) with chronic heart failure (CHF) and associated with exercise intolerance. Iron deficiency may diminish exercise performance even in the absence of anemia. We tested the hypothesis that intravenous (iv) iron supplementation would safely improve exercise tolerance in anemic and non-anemic iron deficient CHF pts.. Methods: We randomly assigned 35 pts with CHF (age 64±13y, 25 male, peak oxygen consumption [pVO2]/kg 14.0±2.7 mL/min/kg, NYHA class II [n=18] / III [n=17], LVEF 30±7% [all ,45%]) and iron deficiency (ferritin ,100 ng/mL or ferritin 100-300 ng/mL with transferrin saturations [TSAT] ,20%) to 16 weeks of iv iron or no treatment in a 2:1 ratio. Randomization was stratified according to hemoglobin levels (,12.5 g/dL vs 12.5-14.5 g/dL) and centre. Treatment comprised of 200 mg iv iron sucrose weekly until iron repletion (repletion dose = weight (kg) × 2.4 × [15 - hemoglobin (g/dL)] + 500 mg) and 200 mg monthly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Activity with Various RBC Indices. AU - Gupta, Shalvika. AU - Belle, Vijetha Shenoy. AU - Kumbarakeri Rajashekhar, Ramya. AU - Jogi, Sushma. AU - Prabhu, RV Krishnananda. PY - 2018/9/4. Y1 - 2018/9/4. N2 - Cholinesterases belongs to class hydrolases. There are two types acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase. Acetylcholinesterase present in nerve endings and also in the RBC membrane. It helps to maintain the shape and size of RBCs. Any change in shape and size of RBCs may affect the activity of Acetylcholinesterase. Thus this study aimed to estimate RBCs Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity in various types of anemias and correlate the RBCs Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity with various hematological indices such as Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Red ...
Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world today. It impacts the lives of millions of women and children contributing to poor cognitive development, increased maternal mortality and decreased work capacity. Yet with appropriate public health action, this form of micronutrient malnutrition can be brought under control. These guidelines are offered as an important component of iron deficiency anemia control programs. The International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group (INACG) has a long standing commitment to provide scientifically sound recommendations to public health planners and managers about ways to control iron deficiency anemia. This publication is another in a series of publications aimed at providing such guidance.. Download the guidelines here.. ...
Methods: We used iron sucrose complex intravenously and assessed its effects on hematological parameters in pregnant anemic women Fifty pregnant women with hemoglobin level of 8gm/dl or lower were given calculated dose of iron sucrose complex intravenously in several sessions. Any allergic reactions were noted. Hemoglobin (Hb) levels, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and ferritin levels were monitored ...
Abstract:. Background: Hemoglobinopathies comprising of thalassemias and various hemoglobin (Hb) variants continue to plague the health system of India. Aims: To find out the prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies in the study population and to identify any association with the various ethnic groups residing in rural community of Darjeeling district, West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Naxalbari block of Darjeeling district, West Bengal from June 2011 to August 2011, involving hemoglobin variant screening by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method of 188 antenatal women, selected through multistage random sampling technique. Results: 26.6% of mothers had abnormal hemoglobin, the commonest being the Hemoglobin E (Hb E) trait (15.42%). The prevalence of homozygous HbE, HbE thalassemia, -thalassemia trait and ...
Hemoglobin F (Hb F) is the dominant hemoglobin at birth but is gradually replaced by adult hemoglobin (Hb A) during the year after birth (normal value ≤1% of total hemoglobin after age 2). Increased Hb F levels may continue after the neonatal period and into adulthood for various reasons. Genetic causes include deletional and nondeletional forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and delta-beta thalassemia mutations. Over 100 mutations have been described in the gamma genes and, if detectable, the protein expression will vary over time according to the overall Hb F expression. Gamma globin mutations can manifest either as a quantitative (gamma thalassemia or nondeletional HPFH) or a qualitative (gamma variant) abnormality. Nondeletional HPFH mutations frequently modulate the expected severity of sickling disorders due to the inhibitory properties of Hb F on sickle ...
Objective: Iron deficiency still remains the most common nutritional deficiency throughout the world and is the leading cause of anaemia in children. Early recognition of iron deficiency, even before the development of anaemia is crucial to prevent the systemic complications of this disease. Methods: Ninety-seven school children between 5 and 16 years were stratified into prelatent iron deficiency (10 cases), latent iron deficiency (14 cases), overt iron deficiency anemia (13 cases), and controls (60 cases). All hemograms were performed on the same day of collection using the same Sysmex XE-2100 analyzer with reticulocyte indices included. Biochemical markers such serum iron, total iron binding capacity and percent saturation (calculated) in addition to serum ferritin and serum transferrin receptors were simultaneously measured. Data analysis was done using ANOVA test, generalized linear regression, and ROC curve. Results: Our study indicates that a panel based on hematologic parameters ...
Blood profiles Haematology values are shown in Table 4. There was no significant change to the blood profile with T. bicornis infection, i.e. no significant change in haematocrit, red blood corpuscles (RBCs), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) or platelets (PLTs) (Table 4). There was a slight elevation in white blood corpuscles count (WBC) (leucocytosis) in infected animals, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.068; Mann-Whitney non-parametric test). DISCUSSION The prevalence of T. bicornis in the KNP white rhinoceros population is similar to that reported in Zululand (northern part of KwaZulu-Natal)1. The RLB hybridisation assay was not able to detect B. bicornis in any of the samples. These could be either true negative results or due to a very low B. bicornis parasitaemia which was below the detection limit of the test. Blood smears ...
Blood profiles Haematology values are shown in Table 4. There was no significant change to the blood profile with T. bicornis infection, i.e. no significant change in haematocrit, red blood corpuscles (RBCs), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) or platelets (PLTs) (Table 4). There was a slight elevation in white blood corpuscles count (WBC) (leucocytosis) in infected animals, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.068; Mann-Whitney non-parametric test). DISCUSSION The prevalence of T. bicornis in the KNP white rhinoceros population is similar to that reported in Zululand (northern part of KwaZulu-Natal)1. The RLB hybridisation assay was not able to detect B. bicornis in any of the samples. These could be either true negative results or due to a very low B. bicornis parasitaemia which was below the detection limit of the test. Blood smears ...
Aim: To study im: S haematobium reinfection intensity was significantly lower in boys in the intervention group than in boys in the control group at 6 months (P,0.001) and 9 months (P,0.001) of supplementation. Significantly lower S haematobium reinfection intensity was found in girls in the intervention group than in girls in the control group only at 6 months of supplementation (P=0.018). Boys in the intervention group were 42% (Adjusted Risk Ratio =0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.39, 0.86) less likely to be reinfected with S haematobium than in the control group at 6 months follow up. pact of once weekly iron supplementation on praziquantel cure rate, Schistosoma haematobium reinfection, and haematological parameters in pupils aged between 9 and 15 years of age in Nchelenge district, Zambia. Methods: Pupils in the intervention group received once weekly dose of ferrous sulphate at 200mg while those in the control received once weekly vitamin C at 100mg for up to 9 months. Both study groups ...
Acne, air pollution protection, alopecia (hair loss), amiodarone toxicity (an agent that treats abnormal heart rhythms), anti-aging, athletic performance enhancement, bee stings, benign breast diseases, beta-thalassemia (blood disorder causing low hemoglobin levels), blood disorders (problems with hemoglobin production), blood thinner, breast tenderness, bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants (chronic lung disorder), bursitis (inflammation between the muscles and joints), cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle), celiac disease, childhood growth promotion, chorea (movement disorder), Crohns disease, diabetic foot ulcers, diaper rash, digestive disorders, doxorubicin hair loss prevention (an anticancer drug), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (worsening muscle weakness), dyspraxia (motor skill development disorder), energy enhancement, enlarged prostate, exercise recovery, extravasation (fluid leakage ...
Impaired switching from fetal hemoglobin (HbF) to adult globin gene expression leads to hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) in adult life. This is of prime interest because elevated HbF levels ameliorate beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Fetal hemoglobin levels are regulated by complex mechanisms involving factors linked or not to the beta-globin gene locus. To search for factors putatively involved in gamma-globin gene expression, we examined the reticulocyte transcriptome of three siblings who had different HbF levels and different degrees of beta-thalassemia severity although they had the same alpha- and beta-globin gene cluster genotypes. Using a differential mRNA display approach, we identified a cDNA of the cold shock domain protein A (CSDA), a trans-acting factor previously reported to interact in vitro with the gamma-globin gene promoter. Real time quantitative analysis in the three patients and CSDA expression ...
Surrogate markers including CD4 T cell, viral load estimation and activated immune markers have been identified as having significance in the pathogenesis and prognosis of the HIV infection. But there is limited data on the utility of serum neopterin estimation in HIV infection. This study was aimed at evaluating serum neopterin levels as a marker of predicting the progression of HIV infection and to monitor patients response to antiretroviral therapy. In all one hundred and ninety two (192) HIV infected patients constituting one hundred and four highly active antiretroviral therapy patients (104) and eighty eight (88) highly active antiretroviral therapy naïve patients were recruited from the HIV clinic at the Bomso specialist hospital in the Kumasi metropolis. Venous blood samples were taken and assayed for haematological parameters (Haemoglobin, White blood cell, Red blood cell, Mean cell haemoglobin, Mean cell volume, Haematocrit and Mean cell ...
Anemia is a multifactorial problem in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. New insights regarding anemia symptoms and quality of life (QOL) have prompted reassessment of traditional triggers for anemia treatment to increase hemoglobin (Hb) and improve QOL. In HIV-positive patients, anemia is independently associated with disease progression and survival. Many HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) still develop mild to moderate anemia and associated QOL impairment. Epoetin alfa effectively increases Hb and improves QOL in these patients. Many HIV-positive patients are coinfected with HCV. Standard HCV therapy (interferon alfa/ribavirin) can cause anemia that may result in treatment alterations and compromised virologic outcome. Epoetin alfa therapy in anemic HCV patients increases Hb levels and may provide other benefits. Neuroprotective effects of epoetin alfa in preclinical models of ...
Study Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) in predialysis renal patients.. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for 8 weeks.. Setting: Inpatient and outpatient facility in the Clinical Research Center of a university-based hospital.. Patients: Fourteen adult subjects with renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine, 473 µmol/L ± 61 [6.2 µ 0.8 mg/dL] ) and anemia (mean hematocrit, 0.27 ± 0.01).. Interventions: Recombinant human erythropoietin, 50, 100, or 150 IU/kg body weight or placebo given intravenously three times per week.. Measurements and Main Results: Subjects who received active r-HuEPO showed a dose-dependent rise in hematocrit; mean hematocrit increased 41% from 0. 27 ± 0.01 to 0.38 ± 0.01. At the same time, erythrocyte mass rose 43% from 13.7 ± 0.6 mL/kg in the baseline state to 19.6 ± 1.0 mL/kg after treatment. Maximal oxygen consumption during exercise increased 9% from 16.0 mL/min · kg ± 1.8 to ...
Severe malarial anaemia (SMA) is a common complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections, resulting in mortality rates that may exceed 30% in paediatric populations residing in holoendemic transmission areas. One strategy for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with SMA is to identify clinical predictors that can be readily recognized by caregivers for prompt therapeutic interventions. To determine clinical predictors of SMA, Kenyan children (3-36 mos., n=671) presenting with acute illness at a rural hospital in Siaya District were recruited. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and haematological parameters were measured upon enrolment. Since HIV-1 and bacteraemia promote reduced haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, children with these infections were excluded from the analyses. Children with P. falciparum mono-infections (n=355) were stratified into three groups: uncomplicated malaria (Hb≥11.0 g/dL); non-SMA (6.0≤Hb,10.9), and SMA (Hb,6.0 g/dL). SMA was characterized by a younger ...
Background Faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) in population screening has proved to be effective in reducing mortality from colorectal cancer. In Italy a latex agglutination FOBT has been adopted for a single-sample screening programme. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of FOBTs in the Florence screening programme over several seasons to evaluate the impact of variations in ambient temperature on the performance of the screening test.. Methods Measured haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were aggregated into seasons with their average ambient temperature (AAT). Using logistic regression, the AAT over the period preceding the test measurement was analysed. This period included the time between faecal sampling and return of the test sample (mean 7 days) and the time in the laboratory refrigerator before analysis (mean 4 days). The AAT from days 5-11 before analysis of the test sample was considered a determinant of test positivity. The Kruskal-Wallis rank test was used to ...
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This chapter gives the description on hematology, which is given in the question and answer format. A hemoglobin molecule is conjugated protein composed of iron containing pigment called heme and protein globin. About 65-70% of hemoglobin is synthesized in normoblasts and 30-35% is synthesized at the reticulocyte stage. This chapter covers the anemia, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), macrocytic anemia, pernicious anemia, hemolytic anemia, defects in hemoglobin production, sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytosis, thalassemia syndrome, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, miscellaneous anemia, non-neoplastic disorders of WBC, acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, myeloproliferative neoplasms, plasma cell neoplasms, Hodgkin lymphoma, hemostasis, bleeding disorders (hemorrhagic diatheses), thrombocytopenia, qualitative platelets defects, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of hydroxyurea treatment for patients with hemoglobin SC disease. AU - Luchtman-Jones, Lori. AU - Pressel, Sara. AU - Hilliard, Lee. AU - Brown, R. Clark. AU - Smith, Mary G.. AU - Thompson, Alexis A.. AU - Lee, Margaret T.. AU - Rothman, Jennifer. AU - Rogers, Zora R.. AU - Owen, William. AU - Imran, Hamayun. AU - Thornburg, Courtney. AU - Kwiatkowski, Janet L.. AU - Aygun, Banu. AU - Nelson, Stephen. AU - Roberts, Carla. AU - Gauger, Cynthia. AU - Piccone, Connie. AU - Kalfa, Theodosia. AU - Alvarez, Ofelia. AU - Hassell, Kathryn. AU - Davis, Barry R.. AU - Ware, Russell E.. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - Although hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is usually considered less severe than sickle cell anemia (SCA), which includes HbSS and HbS/β0-thalassemia genotypes, many patients with HbSC experience severe disease complications, including vaso-occlusive pain, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, retinopathy, and poor quality of life. Fully 20 ...
and monitored for changes in the blood profile using a haematological analyser. A chronic infection lasting between 48 and 112 days was observed. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia, which was characterized by a decline in packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) numbers, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCH) developed at an early stage, and persisted throughout the infection. The mean platelet counts declined significantly from 3 x 105/μl (day 0 post infection) to 6.8 x 104/μl (day 7 post infection) and remained low in all the animals. However, the mean platelets volume rose during the course of the infection. An initial decline in total white blood cell (WBC) counts occurred between day 0 and 7 (3.1 x 106/μl) and remained low up to day 35 post infection (3.5 x 106/μl). This was followed by an increase in WBC counts, principally associated with increased lymphocyte numbers. It is concluded that microcytic ...
For more information, email [email protected] References. 1. Halloran S, Launoy G, Zappa M. Fecal occult blood testing. In: Segnan N, Patnick J, von Karsa L, editors. European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening. First ed. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; 2010. p. 165-206. [Read full article: https://www.thieme-connect.de/ejournals/pdf/10.1055/s-0032-1309791.pdf]. 2. Fraser CG, Allison JE, Young GP, Halloran SP, Seaman HE. A Standard for Faecal Immunochemical TesTs for Haemoglobin Evaluation Reporting (FITTER) (Letter). Annals of Clinical Biochemistry (in press).. 3. Fraser CG, Allison JE, Young GP, Halloran SP. Quantitation of hemoglobin improves fecal immunochemical tests for noninvasive screening. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2013;11(7):839-40. Epub 2013 Apr 13. [Read full article: http://www.cghjournal.org/article/S1542-3565(13)00465-5/abstract]. 4. Fraser C, Halloran S, Allison J, Young G. Making ...

Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation | LabCorpHemoglobinopathy Evaluation | LabCorp

... and function of the red blood cells.. Red blood cells containing abnormal hemoglobin (hemoglobin variants) may not carry oxygen ... Hemoglobin (Hb) is the iron-containing protein found in all red blood cells (RBCs) that binds to oxygen in the lungs and allows ... that may result in a combination of abnormal hemoglobins detected by testing. This is known as being compound heterozygous or ... Hemoglobin Constant Spring. Testing may help identify thalassemia by detecting abnormal hemoglobin (e.g., hemoglobin H in alpha ...
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9 Sickle Cell Anemia Symptoms, Inheritance, and Treatment9 Sickle Cell Anemia Symptoms, Inheritance, and Treatment

... sickle cell disease) is a blood disease that shortens life expectancy. It is caused by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin that ... Symptoms of sickle cell anemia include bacterial infections, arthritis, leg ulcers, fatigue, and lung and heart injury. Sickle ... cell treatment is focused on managing and preventing the worst symptoms of the disease. ... separation of the different hemoglobins is possible because of the unique electrical charges they each have on their protein ...
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Characterization of the transcriptome profiles related to globin gene switching during in vitro erythroid maturation<...Characterization of the transcriptome profiles related to globin gene switching during in vitro erythroid maturation<...

... which function in metabolic pathways associated with cell survival, hematopoiesis, blood cells activation, and inflammatory ... keywords = "Erythroid maturation, Fetal hemoglobin, Gene profiling, Hemoglobin switching, β-globin, γ-globin", ... to replace abnormal adult sickle β S-globin is a successful strategy to treat sickle cell disease; however the molecular ... cell cycle control, and ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein) signaling pathways; transcription factors identified ...
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RBCCRBCC

Abnormal. cell-surface display of the main variable cytoadherence ligand, PfEMP-1. (P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein- ... including abnormal hemoglobins, G6PD deficiency, and absence of Duffy. blood group antigen, that influence resistance against ... the mitigating effects of blood group O, CD36, and ICAM1 phenotypes were. greater than that of sickle cell hemoglobin. Cserti- ... PE 1: Evidence at protein level;. KW Cell adhesion; Complete proteome; Direct protein sequencing;. KW Disease mutation; ...
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... most often due to abnormal hemoglobins or nonoxygen hemoglobin-ligand complexes, pulse oximetry can be misleading (such as ... The oncotic pressure, which is determined by the protein concentration in the blood, favors movement of fluid into the vessel. ... Because both squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma are more commonly central and large at presentation, they are ... Expectoration of blood-whether streaks of blood, blood mixed with airway secretions, or pure blood-deserves a special approach ...
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Red blood cells (contains Hemoglobins). *White blood cells (fight infections). *Hemoglobin (an oxygen-carrying protein in red ... HbS is an abnormal form of hemoglobin associated with sickle cell anemia. People who have sickle cell anemia have a crescent or ... sickle shape blood cells amid other normal red blood cells. These sickle shaped red blood cells can easily break down and cause ... Platelets(helps with blood clotting). Abnormal increases or decreases in cell counts may indicate that you have an underlying ...
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HemoglobinHemoglobin

Improperly degraded hemoglobin protein or hemoglobin that has been released from the blood cells too rapidly can clog small ... A (mostly) separate set of diseases called thalassemias involves underproduction of normal and sometimes abnormal hemoglobins, ... Presence in nonerythroid cells. Some nonerythroid cells (i.e., cells other than the red blood cell line) contain hemoglobin. In ... Hemoglobin is also found outside red blood cells and their progenitor lines. Other cells that contain hemoglobin include the A9 ...
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The Mermaids Tale: The beta globin complex and malariaThe Mermaid's Tale: The beta globin complex and malaria

Some disorders, perhaps especially hemoglobin S, the abnormal hemoglobin variant responsible for the sickle cell trait and ... Normal hemoglobin is composed of two α-globin proteins and two β-globin proteins, with each protein being capable of ... is that malaria appears to have a hell of a time getting into fetal hemoglobin blood cells.[7,8] ... 1. Hardison R (1998) Hemoglobins from bacteria to man: evolution of different patterns of gene expression. The Journal of ...
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Left Ventricular Assist Device Thrombosis | JACC: Heart FailureLeft Ventricular Assist Device Thrombosis | JACC: Heart Failure

An increasing hemoglobin increases blood viscosity but is unlikely to affect blood coagulability in the normal range in healthy ... decreased flow rates with bearing heating and denaturation of coagulation proteins, abnormal angulation of the inflow cannula, ... 16) reported that the use of erythropoietin in 333 hemodialysis patients reduced the need for red blood cell transfusions and ... Conversely, the rate of thrombosis may have been overestimated, as baseline and discharge hemoglobins were the same in both ESA ...
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Thalassemia - Clinical AdvisorThalassemia - Clinical Advisor

Both conditions can have a low red blood cell volume (MCV) and a low amount of hemoglobin per red cell (MCH). Patient with ... Carriers can have abnormal red blood cell indices indicated by a low mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular ... This results in death of these cells from toxicity and the resulting unfolded protein responses, which leads to ineffective ... hemoglobin E or S) and if done quantitatively, will indicate whether hemoglobins A2 and F are elevated, as occurs in β- ...
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Ganongs Review of Medical Physiology | Kim E. Barrett, Susan M. Barman, Heddwen L. Brooks, Jason X.J. Yuan | downloadGanong's Review of Medical Physiology | Kim E. Barrett, Susan M. Barman, Heddwen L. Brooks, Jason X.J. Yuan | download

Many protein molecules are made of several proteins, or subunits (eg, hemoglobin), and the term quaternary structure is used to ... The plasma and the cellular elements of the blood, principally red blood cells, fill the vascular system, and together they ... For example, abnormal hemoglobins are metabolized rapidly in individuals with congenital hemoglobinopathies (see Chapter 31). ... Understand higher-order structures of the basic building blocks of the cell (eg, DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids) to cell ...
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A Voxel-Based Approach to Explore Local Dose Differences Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung DamageA Voxel-Based Approach to Explore Local Dose Differences Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

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A Voxel-Based Approach to Explore Local Dose Differences Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung DamageA Voxel-Based Approach to Explore Local Dose Differences Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

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RegenerativeMedicine.net - Article ArchivesRegenerativeMedicine.net - Article Archives

... angina Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles and cell-free hemoglobin as a mechanism for the red cell ... mice Therapeutic targeting of polycomb and BET bromodomain proteins in diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas Abnormal capillary ... tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function A biochemical biophysical study of hemoglobins ... cells Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid-tissue-derived CD4 T cells Cell ...
more infohttp://regenerativemedicine.net/NewsletterArchives.asp?qEmpID=10772&qCat=RMJ

RegenerativeMedicine.net - Article ArchivesRegenerativeMedicine.net - Article Archives

... angina Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles and cell-free hemoglobin as a mechanism for the red cell ... mice Therapeutic targeting of polycomb and BET bromodomain proteins in diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas Abnormal capillary ... tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function A biochemical biophysical study of hemoglobins ... cells Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid-tissue-derived CD4 T cells Cell ...
more infohttp://regenerativemedicine.net/NewsletterArchives.asp?qEmpID=25949&qCat=RMJ

RegenerativeMedicine.net - Article ArchivesRegenerativeMedicine.net - Article Archives

... angina Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles and cell-free hemoglobin as a mechanism for the red cell ... mice Therapeutic targeting of polycomb and BET bromodomain proteins in diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas Abnormal capillary ... tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function A biochemical biophysical study of hemoglobins ... cells Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid-tissue-derived CD4 T cells Cell ...
more infohttp://regenerativemedicine.net/NewsletterArchives.asp?qEmpID=10017&qCat=RMJ

RegenerativeMedicine.net - Article ArchivesRegenerativeMedicine.net - Article Archives

... angina Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles and cell-free hemoglobin as a mechanism for the red cell ... mice Therapeutic targeting of polycomb and BET bromodomain proteins in diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas Abnormal capillary ... tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function A biochemical biophysical study of hemoglobins ... cells Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid-tissue-derived CD4 T cells Cell ...
more infohttp://regenerativemedicine.net/NewsletterArchives.asp?qEmpID=4335&qCat=RMJ

RegenerativeMedicine.net - Article ArchivesRegenerativeMedicine.net - Article Archives

... angina Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles and cell-free hemoglobin as a mechanism for the red cell ... mice Therapeutic targeting of polycomb and BET bromodomain proteins in diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas Abnormal capillary ... tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function A biochemical biophysical study of hemoglobins ... cells Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid-tissue-derived CD4 T cells Cell ...
more infohttp://regenerativemedicine.net/NewsletterArchives.asp?qEmpID=9765&qCat=RMJ

RegenerativeMedicine.net - Article ArchivesRegenerativeMedicine.net - Article Archives

... angina Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles and cell-free hemoglobin as a mechanism for the red cell ... mice Therapeutic targeting of polycomb and BET bromodomain proteins in diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas Abnormal capillary ... tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function A biochemical biophysical study of hemoglobins ... cells Cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 is required to trigger pyroptotic death of lymphoid-tissue-derived CD4 T cells Cell ...
more infohttp://regenerativemedicine.net/NewsletterArchives.asp?qEmpID=13354&qCat=RMJ
  • Therefore, we performed global gene expression profiling using primary erythroid progenitors grown from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to characterize gene expression patterns during the γ-globin to β-globin (γ/β) switch observed throughout in vitro erythroid differentiation.Results: We confirmed erythroid maturation in our culture system using cell morphologic features defined by Giemsa staining and the γ/β-globin switch by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results also demonstrate that the in vitro liquid culture system is an excellent model to define mechanisms of global gene expression and the DNA-binding protein and signaling pathways involved in globin gene regulation. (elsevier.com)
  • RT of the human CD36 gene in different cell types. (hegelab.org)
  • Background: The fetal and adult globin genes in the human β-globin cluster on chromosome 11 are sequentially expressed to achieve normal hemoglobin switching during human development. (elsevier.com)
  • This study represents the first report of a transcriptome analysis in human primary erythroid progenitors to identify transcription factors involved in hemoglobin switching. (elsevier.com)
  • Carriers of β-thalassemia mutations (β-thalassemia trait) have microcytosis, hypochromia, a normal or increased number of red blood cells, and often will have an elevation of the minor adult hemoglobin, (HBA 2) , along with a mild anemia in some cases. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Through a series of in vivo screens, we show here that the p53-dependent pathway constitutes a critical checkpoint for SOX2-mediated reprogramming of resident glial cells in the adult mouse spinal cord. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • While it has no effect on the reprogramming efficiency, the p53 pathway promotes cell-cycle exit of SOX2-induced adult neuroblasts (iANBs). (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Other cells that contain hemoglobin include the A9 dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra , macrophages , alveolar cells , and mesangial cells in the kidney. (ipfs.io)
  • Granule and pyramidal cell neurons within the dentate gyrus and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus exhibited significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density, and immature and mature spine types following chemotherapy, adverse effects that were eradicated by stem cell transplantation. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Our findings provide the first evidence that cranial transplantation of stem cells can reverse the deleterious effects of chemobrain, through a trophic support mechanism involving the attenuation of neuroinflammation and the preservation host neuronal architecture. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • In this study, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) homozygous for the naturally occurring CCR5Δ32 mutation through genome editing of wild-type iPSCs using a combination of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 together with the piggyBac technology. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are selectively enriched after chemotherapy through enhanced survival. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Further analyses demonstrate the recruitment of a quiescent label-retaining pool of CSCs into cell division in response to chemotherapy-induced damages, similar to mobilization of normal stem cells during wound repair. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Hemoglobin in the blood carries oxygen from the respiratory organs ( lungs or gills ) to the rest of the body (i.e. the tissues). (ipfs.io)
  • We are delighted to have been able to recruit Jason X.-J. Yuan, MD, PhD, Professor of Medicine and Physiology as well as Chief of the Division of Translational and Regenerative Medicine and Associate Vice President for Translational Health Sciences at the University of Arizona, who has assumed responsibility for some cell physiology and cardiovascular topics, as well as the respiratory physiology section. (b-ok.org)
  • A number of causes of LVAD thrombosis have been postulated, including under-anticoagulation, inadequate antiplatelet therapy, platelet activation by device materials or shear stress, decreased flow rates with bearing heating and denaturation of coagulation proteins, abnormal angulation of the inflow cannula, new materials in the device, infection, overestimation of the level of anticoagulation using the activated partial thromboplastin time, and right ventricular failure (7-9) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • Furthermore, the presence of multiplex gRNAs within Cas9-expressing cells prevented HIV-1 infection. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • This can be catastrophic in clinical settings involving extracorporeal circulation such as during heart lung bypass where blood is circulated in polyvinyl chloride tubing. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • It looks for antibodies that are present in the blood of people who may have the disease. (metro.com.my)
  • In these tissues, hemoglobin has a non-oxygen-carrying function as an antioxidant and a regulator of iron metabolism . (ipfs.io)
  • There can also be significant morbidity from iron overload in the thalassemias both due to chronic transfusions and from increased absorption of iron in the setting of ineffective red blood cell production. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • In the case of hemoglobin S, this occurs because heterozygotes have an adaptive advantage above that of the homozygote. (blogspot.com)
  • These experiments provide evidence, for the first time, that modification of surfaces with nanomaterials modulates blood biocompatibility in extracorporeal circulation. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • The presence of cell-culture media did not alter shear thinning behavior of CNF hydrogel and showed increased thixotropicity with respect to the control gel. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Gilbert Smithson Adair confirmed Engelhard's results in 1925 by measuring the osmotic pressure of hemoglobin solutions. (ipfs.io)
  • Homozygotes aren't likely to survive long because blood cells are deformed, leading to various medical problems. (blogspot.com)
  • In transplanted animals, grafted cells survived (8%) and differentiated along neuronal and astroglial lineages, where improved cognition was associated with reduced neuroinflammation and enhanced host dendritic arborization. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Cas9/gRNAs caused neither genotoxicity nor off-target editing to the host cells, and completely excised a 9,709-bp fragment of integrated proviral DNA that spanned from its 5′ to 3′ LTRs. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • New strategies are needed to ablate the viral genome from latently infected cells, because current methods are too inefficient and prone to adverse off-target effects. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Any in vitro methods based on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived renal cells had not been developed, so far. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Stem cell transplantation significantly reduced the number of activated microglia after cyclophosphamide treatment in the brain. (regenerativemedicine.net)