Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Coronavirus 229E, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronavirus, Feline: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus: A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Coronavirus OC43, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Coronavirus, Canine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Feline Infectious Peritonitis: Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Feline Panleukopenia: A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.Coronavirus NL63, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.Sarcoma Viruses, Feline: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Feline panleukopenia virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.Coronavirus, Rat: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Coronavirus, Turkey: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus: A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.Leukemia, Feline: A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Viverridae: The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Enteritis, Transmissible, of Turkeys: An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Lentiviruses, Feline: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cats.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Parvovirus, Canine: A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Nidovirales: An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Animals, ZooCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Saudi ArabiaHelper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Nandiniidae: A family in the suborder Feliformia, order CARNIVORA, comprising one genus Nandinia binotata.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Lynx: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising felines with long legs, ear tufts, and a short tail.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Arterivirus: A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Spumavirus: Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, Inbred BALB CDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Mucopolysaccharidosis VI: Mucopolysaccharidosis with excessive CHONDROITIN SULFATE B in urine, characterized by dwarfism and deafness. It is caused by a deficiency of N-ACETYLGALACTOSAMINE-4-SULFATASE (arylsulfatase B).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Alphaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Frameshifting, Ribosomal: A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.QatarVirus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Chondro-4-Sulfatase: An enzyme from the sulfuric ester hydrolase class that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase II reaction. EC 3.1.6.9.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cinanserin: A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Beluga Whale: The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.Mink: Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Torovirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) occurs in pigs resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.[88] It is ... Many of the same agents cause gastroenteritis in cats and dogs as in humans. The most common organisms are Campylobacter, ... Weese, JS (March 2011). "Bacterial enteritis in dogs and cats: diagnosis, therapy, and zoonotic potential". Veterinary Clinics ...
All the cases of SARS associated with the outbreak appeared to be part of the bat branch of the coronavirus phylogeny. Asian ... Qiu Quanlin (2006). Scientists prove SARS-civet cat link. China Daily, 2006-11-23 Caldwell, E. (2008). Evolutionary History of ... Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China. Science 302 (5643): ... Kong and the Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention established a direct genetic link between the SARS coronavirus ...
This systemic syndrome has been compared to Feline infectious peritonitis in cats. Aleutian disease virus (ADV) is a parvovirus ... The coronavirus which causes ECE has a counterpart strain that has more systemic effects with a higher mortality rate. ... Similar to domestic cats, ferrets may also be affected by hairballs, or dental problems. Adrenal disease, a growth of the ... Hairballs can occur in ferrets, but are not readily expelled by vomiting like the way cats deal with them. One or more ...
They are the cause of a wide range of diseases in cats, dog, pigs, rodents, cattle and humans. Transmission is by the faecal- ... Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. They infect ... diarrhea and immunosuppression but cerebellar hypoplasia is only seen in cats that were infected in the womb or at less than ...
"The molecular genetics of feline coronaviruses: comparative sequence analysis of the ORF7a/7b transcription unit of different ... Alphacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus NL63 Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 ... Betacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 ... Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 Munia coronavirus HKU13 Thrush coronavirus HKU12 Genus: Gammacoronavirus Avian coronavirus Beluga ...
... coronavirus, feline MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.210 --- coronavirus 229e, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.220 --- coronavirus oc43 ... coronavirus, canine MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.190 --- coronavirus, feline MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.210 --- coronavirus ... coronavirus MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.150 --- coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.160 --- coronavirus, canine MeSH ... feline MeSH B04.820.650.589.530.400 --- immunodeficiency virus, feline MeSH B04.820.650.589.600 --- lentiviruses, ovine-caprine ...
... inactivated feline coronavirus QI07AH06 Live canine parainfluenza virus + inactivated feline coronavirus QI07AI01 Live canine ... canine parainfluenza virus QI07AD11 Canine coronavirus QI07AD12 Canine coronavirus + canine parvovirus QI07AD13 Canine parapox ... inactivated canine coronavirus QI07AH05 Live canine distemper virus + live canine adenovirus + live canine parvovirus + live ... inactivated canine coronavirus Empty group QI07AL01 Rabies virus + leptospira QI07AL02 Rabies virus + canine parvovirus + ...
Feline coronavirus , Canine coronavirus , Human coronavirus 229E, Human coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, ... Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 and Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512. Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus Coronavirus ... This genus contains what were previously considered phylogroup 1 coronaviruses. Both the alpha- and beta-coronavirus lineages ... "Isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14, from domestic ...
... coronavirus infections MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.325 --- enteritis, transmissible, of turkeys MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.360 --- ... feline infectious peritonitis MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.400 --- gastroenteritis, transmissible, of swine MeSH C02.782.600.550. ... feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.400 --- hiv infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.040 --- acquired ... feline panleukopenia MeSH C02.256.721.500 --- leukoencephalopathy, progressive multifocal MeSH C02.256.743.175 --- cowpox MeSH ...
"Coronaviruses". pathmicro.med.sc.edu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2005. Retrieved 8 March 2018.. ... "WHO: More evidence of civet cat-SARs link". CNN. January 17, 2004. Archived from the original on December 1, 2004. Retrieved ... Coronaviruses similar to SARS have been found in bats in China, suggesting they may be their natural reservoir.[19] However ... The SARS coronavirus is novel, they say, but this only implies it has mutated or was previously undiscovered, not that it is ...
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes mild enteritis in cats as well as severe Feline infectious peritonitis (other variants of the ... Feline Coronavirus: two forms, Feline enteric coronavirus is a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous ... Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus OC43 SARS-CoV Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus) Human ... Bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 diverged in 1899. Bovine coronavirus diverged from the equine coronavirus species ...
... incurable disease caused by Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV), which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats, also known as feline influenza, caused by feline ... Feline calicivirus (FCV), in addition to FHV-1, is the other common viral cause of respiratory infection in cats. Feline ... Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) ASPCA: Pet Care: Cat Care: Feline Infectious Peritonitis "What should the revaccination ( ...
... is typically shed in feces by healthy cats and transmitted by the fecal-oral route to other cats. In ... "Feline Coronavirus Type II Strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 Originate from a Double Recombination between Feline Coronavirus Type I ... concentration in non-symptomatic cats with feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection". Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery. 9 (4): ... Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that is infectious to cats worldwide. This virus is part of the ...
Virus was also later found in raccoon dogs (Nyctereuteus sp.), ferret badgers (Melogale spp.), and domestic cats. In 2005, two ... SARS-Coronavirus follows the replication strategy typical of the Coronavirus genus. The morphology of the SARS coronavirus is ... The SARS coronavirus is a positive and single stranded RNA virus belonging to a family of enveloped coronaviruses. Its genome ... The sequence of the SARS coronavirus has since been confirmed by other independent groups. The SARS coronavirus is one of ...
... and Coronavirus Website Feline Infectious Peritonitis from vetinfo.com Research on Feline ... Addie: FIP and Coronavirus. 2013. ISBN 978-1480208971 Addie DD, le Poder S, Burr P, et al. Utility of feline coronavirus ... J Feline Med Surg 2017; 19: 344-350. Longstaff L, Porter E, Crossley VJ, et al. Feline coronavirus quantitative reverse ... Feline vaccination Feline leukemia virus Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, et al. Feline infectious peritonitis. ABCD ...
Other coronaviruses belonging to Alphacoronavirus 1 species include Feline coronavirus, Canine coronavirus and Feline ... Coronaviruses also infect the respiratory tract, and they can be used to target antigens to that area and generate some immune ... Coronaviruses enter the host by first attaching to the host cell using the spike glycoprotein. The S protein interacts with the ... The same cell receptor is also a point of contact for Human Coronaviruses. A domain in the S spike protein is recognized by ...
Feline acne Feline asthma Feline cognitive dysfunction Feline coronavirus Feline cystitis Feline cutaneous asthenia Feline ... Aspergilloisis Avian influenza in cats Bone cancer in cats and dogs Bladder cancer in cats and dogs Cancer in cats Cat flu, an ... distemper Feline foamy virus Feline hepatic lipidosis Feline hyperaldosteronism Feline hyperesthesia syndrome Feline ... Mycobacterium lepraemurium Feline leptosprosis Feline leukemia virus Feline lower urinary tract disease Feline lymphoma Feline ...
"Characterization of determinants involved in the feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor function of feline aminopeptidase ... Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for one strain of human coronavirus that is an important cause of upper respiratory tract ... Kolb AF, Maile J, Heister A, Siddell SG (October 1996). "Characterization of functional domains in the human coronavirus HCV ... Kolb AF, Hegyi A, Siddell SG (November 1997). "Identification of residues critical for the human coronavirus 229E receptor ...
... which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV/FeCoV). H5N1. See: Global spread of H5N1#Felidae (cats) Ringworm ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). Feline ... Epilepsy in cats is rare likely because there is no hereditary component to epilepsy in cats. Feline asthma Flat-chested kitten ... Zoonotic Disease: What Can I Catch From My Cat? Vegetarian dogs and cats: Kibble doesn't cut it anymore Nutrition for Cats ...
... of the cats testing positive. Feline coronavirus was the next most common infection, found in 18.3% of the cats, although they ... A feral cat advocacy organization's explanation of feral cats Stray Cat Alliance Feral cat control in the UK Study of the feral ... and unowned cats who rely on humans as semi-feral or stray. Farm cats (also called barn cats) are cats that live on ... "History of domestic cats and cat breeds". In Pedersen, Niels C. Feline Husbandry: Diseases and Management in the Multiple Cat ...
SARS is caused by a type of coronavirus, which can cause mild to moderate upper respiratory illness, such as the common cold. ... Toxoplasmosis - A zoonotic disease spread from cat feces, undercooked meat and fresh unwashed vegetables. Lists of diseases - A ...
... parainfluenza viruses Human rhinovirus Measles MERS coronavirus Human respiratory syncytial virus Rubella SARS coronavirus ... Anthrax Brucellosis Cat scratch fever Legionellosis Leptospirosis Listeriosis Lyme disease Lymphogranuloma venereum Mastitis ...
Osterhaus played an important role in the identification of the SARS coronavirus. In February 2004, his team found that ... He received his PhD degree in 1978 at the same university for a dissertation entitled "Feline infectious peritonitis: ...
Coronavirus felin. *▪ Virusul leucozei feline. *▪ Filovirus. *▪ Flavivirus. G *▪ Virusuri GB. *▪ Virusul Febrei Galbene ...
severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) bats, pangolins, felines, minks respiratory transmission 2019 ... Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae cats bites or scratches from infected cats ... Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis ... Further information: Feline zoonosis. Pets can transmit a number of diseases. Dogs and cats are routinely vaccinated against ...
... coronavirus, notavirus, etc.) supergroup of RNA viruses. The mechanism has been best studied for the enteroviruses (which ... "Structures of the Compact Helical Core Domains of Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus VPg Proteins". J. Virol. 87 (10): ...
... or Feline Enteric Infection Virus (FECV). The method involves determining t ... Provided is a method for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) ... 1. A method for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) or Feline ... A kit for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) or Feline Enteric ...
Feline coronavirus is typically shed in feces by healthy cats and transmitted by the fecal-oral route to other cats. In ... "Feline Coronavirus Type II Strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 Originate from a Double Recombination between Feline Coronavirus Type I ... concentration in non-symptomatic cats with feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection". Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery. 9 (4): ... Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that is infectious to cats worldwide. This virus is part of the ...
Learn the transmission, symptoms and treatment of feline coronavirus and FIP in cats. ... is a big cause of infectious death in young cats. ... Feline Coronavirus and FIP in Cats. Note: If you are looking ... Most cats in catteries and rescues are infected with feline Coronavirus.. *Separate new litters of kittens and any cats that ... Remember older cats are more resistant to a Coronavirus infection than a new kitten. Bringing in an older cat has less risk and ...
The Chinese city of Shenzhen has banned the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since ... Scientists suspect the coronavirus passed to humans from animals. Some of the earliest infections were found in people who had ... "Dogs and cats as pets have established a much closer relationship with humans than all other animals, and banning the ... the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since the emergence of the new coronavirus. ...
This disease is comparatively high in multi-cat households as compared to those with a single cat. Learn more about the causes ... is a viral disease in cats which carries a high mortality due to its characteristic aggressiveness and nonresponsiveness to ... Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) in Cats. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease in cats which carries a ... it cannot distinguish the type of coronavirus, or even whether it is the cause of your cats condition, only that your cat has ...
... The role of antibody in the pathogenesis of FIP is complex. Local antibody in the gut ...
... she said she contracted the novel coronavirus. Her sharing that she tested positive for coronavirus comes after comments in ... Doja Cat has spent the last few months in hot water over her comments on COVID-19. In a recent interview on the United ... Doja Cat, Who Made Fun of People Worried About Coronavirus, Has COVID-19. ... she said she contracted the novel coronavirus. Her sharing that she tested positive for coronavirus comes after comments in ...
... scientists investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and other species that have close contact with humans to the coronavirus ... But in my opinion, people who are asymptomatic could infect their cats, so I urge all cat owners to keep their cats indoors ... Jianzhong Shi et al, "Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus-2," Science, ... Cats are susceptible to airborne infection and can infect each other, with extensive lung damage evident in young cats. Ferrets ...
Cat Chat Feline Forum. Cat Chat, the Cat Rescue Resource. Charity no. 1100649 ... Im really sorry to hear you lost a cat to FIP.. I will be keeping my boy as an only cat - I wouldnt want to risk another cat ... VIP Cat Chatter!. Posts: 2256. Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2014 1:36 pm. Re: FIV+ and coronavirus. * Quote ... VIP Cat Chatter!. Posts: 2256. Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2014 1:36 pm. Re: FIV+ and coronavirus. * Quote ...
The Chinese city of Shenzhen has banned the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since ... China coronavirus: Authorities in the southern Chinese technology hub said the ban on eating dogs and cats would come into ... Track Coronavirus pandemic in India and get the latest COVID-19 news from around the world on ndtv.com/coronavirus ... Chinese city of ShenzhenDogs and catseating of dogs and cats ... "Dogs and cats as pets have established a much closer ...
A pet cat has fallen ill with coronavirus in the UK after apparently catching Covid-19 from its owners. The infection was ... A pet cat has fallen ill with coronavirus in the UK after apparently catching Covid-19 from its owners. ... A private vet initially diagnosed the pet with feline herpes virus, a common cat respiratory infection, but the sample was also ... coronavirus) and were presumed to be infected from their owners, but this is the first report of an infected cat in the UK. ...
Last week, another feline turned out to have the virus in Belgium. ... A pet cat has tested positive for the dreaded Covid-19 coronavirus in Hong Kong, after apparently contracting the disease from ... Cat-astrophe in the making? ANOTHER feline tests positive for coronavirus, this time in Hong Kong 31 Mar, 2020 21:10 ... Cat contracts coronavirus FROM sick owner in new case of human-to-animal transition As of Tuesday, 27 dogs and 15 cats had been ...
Dogs, cats cant pass on coronavirus, but can test positive Health Posted: Mar 5, 2020 / 02:43 AM EST. / Updated: Mar 5, 2020 ... Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus on to humans, but they can test positive for low levels of the pathogen if ... HONG KONG (AP) - Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus on to humans, but they can test positive for low levels of ... Deputies searching for man who stole cat blood from clinic Slipping Under the Radar: New rib surgery fights chronic pain, ...
"Glial response in the central nervous system of cats with feline infectious peritonitis," Journal of Feline Medicine and ... A. S. Hora, P. O. Tonietti, S. A. Taniwaki, K. M. Asano, P. Maiorka, L. J. Richtzenhain, and P. E. Brandão, "Feline Coronavirus ... Intrahost Diversity of Feline Coronavirus: A Consensus between the Circulating Virulent/Avirulent Strains and the Internal ... 2Coronavirus Research Group, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, Avenida Professor Dr. Orlando Marques de ...
What is feline enteric coronavirus (FECV)? Meaning of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) as a legal term. What does feline ... Definition of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... feline. (redirected from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV)). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. See: ... Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) legal definition of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) https://legal-dictionary. ...
With at least 11 different pharmaceutical and vaccine companies now working on new vaccines for the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19 ... More news about the Big Pharma fat cats who are making out like bandits from the plandemic is available at Pandemic.news. ... badhealth, badmedicine, badscience, Big Pharma, billions, biotech, coronavirus, covid-19, Dangerous Medicine, deception, ... With at least 11 different pharmaceutical and vaccine companies now working on new vaccines for the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19 ...
Cats can catch coronavirus, study finds, prompting WHO investigation. *. U.S. approves Google request to use segment of U.S.- ... Cats can catch coronavirus, study finds, prompting WHO investigation. Posted on April 9, 2020. By Saumya Joseph ... Reuters) - Cats can become infected with the new coronavirus but dogs appear not to be vulnerable, according to a study ... They also found cats can infect each other via respiratory droplets. Infected cats had virus in the mouth, nose and small ...
Feline coronaviruses occur as 2 pathotypes: nonvirulent feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs), which replicate in intestinal ... severe acute respiratory syndrome and feline coronaviruses, respectively, are the most recognized examples. ... Coronaviruses are well known for their potential to change their host or tissue tropism, resulting in unpredictable new ... epithelium cells, and lethal feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs), which replicate in macrophages. Evidence indicates ...
A Siberian cat named Mir that Russian President Vladimir Putin gifted to the Governor of Japans Akita prefecture has been ... Not kitten around: Cat that Putin gifted to Japanese governor placed in isolation over coronavirus 29 Apr, 2020 08:48 ... "We were very alarmed by the news that cases of infection of domestic cats with the new coronavirus were noted in the USA," ... Also on rt.com Cat gifted by Putin understands Japanese, Akita prefecture governor says Like this story? Share it with a friend ...
Shenzhen has banned consumption of dogs and cats as part of a clampdown on the wildlife trade since the emergence of the novel ... Cats can spread coronavirus to other cats: Study. A team of Chinese researchers has revealed that cats can pass coronavirus to ... VIDEO: Even dogs and cats are wearing face masks in China over coronavirus fears. Fearing that their pets could contract the ... Scientists suspect the coronavirus passed to humans from animals.. Some of the earliest infections were found in people who had ...
The causative agent was found to belong to the coronaviruses [1]. Between 5 and 12 % of all cats seropositive for feline ... feline coronaviruses. In contrast, type 2 viruses are known to be the product of recombination between canine and feline ... while few cats hardly every shed, the majority of cats shed low to intermediate amounts and few individual cats have very large ... Feline infectious peritonitis viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline enteric coronaviruses. Virology 1998, 243(1), 150- ...
Dont abandon us, we dont transmit coronavirus, say Cairo dogs and cats. Posted on May 27, 2020. By Nancy Lapid ... We dont spread the coronavirus.. "We started this campaign after noticing that there were many people leaving dogs and cats ... Dont abandon us, we dont transmit coronavirus, say Cairo dogs and cats ... Poosey, a 3-year-old long-haired cat, and Snowy, a white Griffon dog, took turns posing with a sign saying: "I love you. Please ...
... ... The coronavirus spike protein is a critical determinant of cell tropism and pathogenicity. It is expressed on the viral surface ... into the genetic and biochemical properties of spike that influence the in vivo pathogenesis of feline and canine coronaviruses ... mutations in a key viral activation site that correlate with the development of systemic disease after feline coronavirus ...
Cats can infect other cats with the novel coronavirus, but they may not show any symptoms, according to a study published ... cats can infect other cats with the novel coronavirus, but they may not show any symptoms, according to a study published ... Cats can infect other cats with the novel coronavirus, but they may not show any symptoms, according to a study published ... Cats can infect other cats with the novel coronavirus, but they may not show any symptoms, according to a study published ...
  • Founded in March 2020 by Jimmy Wu and Lambert Wang, Cat Person is the company behind the subscription shaving company Harry's . (dezeen.com)
  • Wet cat food current value sales are predicted to continue seeing a recovery in 2020, following the trend seen in 2019. (euromonitor.com)
  • Cat food in Israel continued to experience increasing current value and volume growth in 2020, a trend that is predicted to strengthen over the forecast period. (euromonitor.com)
  • This behaviour is benefitting cat treats and premium wet cat food which both recorded impressive performances in 2020, with the latter generally perceived to be an indulgent treat in itself. (euromonitor.com)
  • On July 3, 2020 the J.M. Smucker company issued a voluntary recall of a Natural Balance canned cat food produced by Big Heart Pet Brands a subsidiary of J. M. Smucker. (catfaeries.com)
  • Coronavirus Mask N95 , Mexico holds big music festival despite coronavirus concerns, Is Feline Coronavirus Contagious Masks for Sale 2020 , Welcome to Buy Is Feline Coronavirus Contagious Online . (berrinkirimlioglu.com)
  • But in my opinion, people who are asymptomatic could infect their cats, so I urge all cat owners to keep their cats indoors during this global pandemic. (tulsaworld.com)
  • The installation, unveiled today, has seen its debut delayed from March due to the coronavirus pandemic. (aol.co.uk)
  • More news about the Big Pharma fat cats who are making out like bandits from the plandemic is available at Pandemic.news . (newstarget.com)
  • Now Vederas, Lemieux and virologist Lorne Tyrrell are combining their labs' efforts to test the inhibitor against the new coronavirus that is causing the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. (folio.ca)
  • Since killing the cats wasn't stopping the pandemic, the frightened population felt that co-conspirators must be involved, and hence dogs were also soon singled out and many were exterminated. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Experience designer Bompas & Parr has launched a design competition to rethink hand sanitisers to encourage hand-washing during the coronavirus pandemic while raising money for charity. (dezeen.com)
  • The charity is setting up a fund to help people around the world without access to good healthcare to deal with the coronavirus pandemic. (dezeen.com)
  • If the coronavirus pandemic prevents a physical exhibition taking place at the Design Museum, it will be replaced by a digital exhibition. (dezeen.com)
  • But the COVID-19 pandemic has been fuelling fears for the health of humans and animals alike since it is unclear how - and even if - the virus that causes it affects pets such as cats and dogs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Note: If you are looking for information regarding COVID-19 in pets, please check out our blog post Coronavirus in Humans vs. Dogs and Cats written by Dr. Greer, DVM. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Coronavirus is spread through litter pans, grooming, toys and humans moving from area to area. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Scientists suspect the coronavirus passed to humans from animals. (reuters.com)
  • Dogs and cats as pets have established a much closer relationship with humans than all other animals, and banning the consumption of dogs and cats and other pets is a common practice in developed countries and in Hong Kong and Taiwan," the city government said in an order posted on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
  • Chinese scientists investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and other species that have close contact with humans to the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. (tulsaworld.com)
  • It has not yet been determined if cats can transmit COVID-19 to humans, but fearing that possibility, some people may start killing free-roaming cats - like some people in Peru, who have been reported to be slaughtering bats. (tulsaworld.com)
  • Their policy states that "keeping owned cats confined, such as housing them in an enriched indoor environment or in an outdoor enclosure, or exercising leash-acclimated cats, can minimize the risks to the cats, wildlife, humans and the environment. (tulsaworld.com)
  • Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus on to humans, but they can test positive for low levels of the pathogen if they catch it from their owners. (wboy.com)
  • Reuters) - Cats can become infected with the new coronavirus but dogs appear not to be vulnerable, according to a study published on Wednesday, prompting the WHO to say it will take a closer look at transmission of the virus between humans and pets. (metro.us)
  • Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 in cats should be considered as an adjunct to elimination of COVID-19 in humans," the authors wrote. (metro.us)
  • It's both interesting and not terribly surprising in the sense that with the original SARS epidemic, civet cats were implicated as one of the vectors that may have transmitted virus to humans," said Daniel Kuritzkes, head of infectious diseases at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital. (metro.us)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which emerged suddenly in 2002 and caused severe acute respiratory disease in humans, is the most notorious coronavirus. (cdc.gov)
  • There is currently no evidence that cats can pass Covid-19 on to humans. (rt.com)
  • Eight lions and tigers at the Bronx Zoo also tested positive.Related video: Two New York cats are first in U.S. with COVID-19 diagnosisThe team behind the new study, led by international virus expert Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Tokyo and scientists from the University of Wisconsin, said more research is needed to better understand whether cats could transmit the virus to humans as well. (wmtw.com)
  • a better understanding of the role cats may play in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to humans is needed," they wrote in a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine.The American Veterinary Medical Association noted that the new research was conducted in a lab -- and it's unclear whether cats can be as easily infected in the real world. (wmtw.com)
  • The team behind the new study, led by international virus expert Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Tokyo and scientists from the University of Wisconsin, said more research is needed to better understand whether cats could transmit the virus to humans as well. (wmtw.com)
  • Evidence suggests that COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus, may have first infected humans via transmission at an animal market in Wuhan, China. (telegram.com)
  • Leyi Wang, a veterinary virologist at the University of Illinois who studies coronaviruses in animals and received the test sample, said genetic tests showed the virus in the cat matched more than 99% to the virus in humans. (telegram.com)
  • ACE-2 receptors are similar in felines and humans, Terio said, but there are differences. (telegram.com)
  • Can Humans Become Infected with the Coronavirus from an Animal Source? (thedoctorstv.com)
  • Dear Vet, If a cat is a corona virus carrier but not affected with FIP, can the carrier cat transmit the corona virus to humans? (petmd.com)
  • A. Cat corona virus cannot be transmitted to humans. (petmd.com)
  • Although animal testing does not affect the availability of coronavirus tests for humans, widespread testing in animals isn't recommended by the USDA, The Associated Press reports. (granitefallsnews.com)
  • Cats are able to adapt to a variety of environments including forests, deserts, urban and the homes of humans. (reference.com)
  • Due to their adaption abilities, cats can easily adjust from an outside living environment to an indoor home environment surrounded by humans. (reference.com)
  • Biochemist Joanne Lemieux is working with U of A colleagues to find out whether a compound known to cure a deadly coronavirus-caused disease in cats might also work against COVID-19 in humans. (folio.ca)
  • It is very exciting that the drug was effective and tolerated in cats," said Lemieux, while cautioning that it still must be proven and tested in humans. (folio.ca)
  • Dear B.C.: Some cats carry a bacterium that does not make cats sick but does make humans sick when it enters the skin through a scratch or bite. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The coronaviruses are what we as humans have in the common cold. (stylisticat.com)
  • While humans use direct eye contact to convey affection and warmth, cats often feel threatened by these intense stares. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • In short, the new coronavirus has been feeding intense emotions and responses of many kinds, upturning the lives of humans and animals alike. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • So, this Special Feature will present what we know, so far, about the impact of the new coronavirus on animals, such as cats and dogs, and consider what humans can do to continue to keep these faithful friends healthy and happy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But the fact remains that dogs and cats age more quickly than humans. (yahoo.com)
  • When 4 kittens (6 cats in total) are born into this house, the risk increases exponentially from 2 to 30 (62−6). (wikipedia.org)
  • such as younger kittens, old cats, immunosuppression due to viral-FIV (Feline immunodeficiency virus) and/or FeLV Feline leukemia virus and stress, including the stress of separation and adoption. (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest incidence is found in kittens three months to three years of age, with incidence decreasing sharply after cats reach three years of age, when the immune system is stronger. (petmd.com)
  • Morbidity, mortality and coronavirus antigen in previously coronavirus free kittens placed in two catteries with feline infectious peritonitis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Serologically coronavirus free kittens were placed in 2 catteries with a history of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), each cattery representing 1 of the 2 different predominant clinical characteristics of FIP--effusive and granulomatous. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The bowl can be used directly on the tray by kittens or on the stand for adult cats, to avoid them having to crouch or hunch when feeding. (dezeen.com)
  • Most cats will sleep up to 17 hours each day, with kittens and older cats napping for even longer. (dezeen.com)
  • Caracal kittens are young animals of the species Caracal, a kind of wild cat that lives in Africa and southwest Asia. (reference.com)
  • However, cats with weak immune systems are most likely to develop the disease, including kittens, cats already infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV), and geriatric cats. (snapcats.org)
  • The most common transmission of feline coronavirus occurs when infected female cats pass along the virus to their kittens, usually when the kittens are between five and eight weeks of age. (snapcats.org)
  • Kittens are more likely to be carriers than older cats. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A study of British cat owners, for example, found that 84 percent of the 715 people surveyed thought cats couldn't get pregnant before the age of 6 months, which isn't true - kittens can actually get pregnant as early as 3 to 4 months of age. (livescience.com)
  • To help prevent unplanned litters, cat owners should get their kittens spayed or neutered at 4 months of age, Levy said. (livescience.com)
  • I'm trying to find out if older cats with coronovirus can have symptoms that are more mild and live longer than kittens. (qarantino.com)
  • GODFREY, Ill. - A woman in Illinois faces animal cruelty charges after admitting to killing a cat and four kittens because her grandchildren would not clean their rooms, the Madison County Sheriff's Office told KTVI . (wgntv.com)
  • The deputy asked the child what happened to the cat, at which point the child's grandmother, 71-year-old Josephine Bell, said she killed the cat and four kittens. (wgntv.com)
  • She told the deputy she didn't feel like she should have to take care of the cat and kittens, so she killed them all with a hammer. (wgntv.com)
  • This sound is also used by mothers to communicate with their kittens, and if you have more than one cat, according to the Humane Society, they will use these sounds to speak to one another. (bestlifeonline.com)
  • The virus is shed in feces and cats become infected by ingesting or inhaling the virus, usually by sharing cat litter trays, or by the use of contaminated litter scoops or brushes transmitting infected microscopic cat litter particles to uninfected kittens and cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-effusive FIP diagnosis should be considered when the following criteria are met: History: the cat is young (under 2 years old) and purebred: over 70% of cases of FIP are in pedigree kittens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Masterfoods' position as the largest player in cat food remained undisputed in 2019, with its share seeing only slight erosion despite intense competition from premium private label ranges. (euromonitor.com)
  • While Masterfoods remains strong in cat treats with Whiskas and Dreamies, the company however lost the lead in this area to Vitakraft in 2019, indicating the impact of growing competition. (euromonitor.com)
  • The third largest branded cat food player in 2019, Vitakraft, strongly benefited from cat treats' growth, as the leading player in the category. (euromonitor.com)
  • BioPet Ltd retained is leadership of cat food in 2019, as it offers a wide product portfolio which caters to all price segments. (euromonitor.com)
  • Whilst premium cat food Royal Canin, which offers both wet and dry products, retained its leadership of the category in brand terms in 2019, it continued to suffer from strong loss of share as global owner Mars decided to shift distribution from local player Beit Erez Havat Milatin. (euromonitor.com)
  • In the 1970s, Abysinnian cat breeders began testing for FeLV and eliminated it from their breed, other cat clubs followed suite. (catvirus.com)
  • Now, at least in the UK, it is extremely rare for a pedigree kitten to be sold with FeLV, thanks to the dedicated testing of cat breeders. (catvirus.com)
  • A tiger at the Bronx Zoo in New York City who developed a dry cough and loss of appetite after contact with an infected zookeeper tested positive for the coronavirus on Sunday. (metro.us)
  • Two pet cats in New York state have tested positive for the coronavirus, marking the first confirmed cases in companion animals in the United States, federal officials said. (freepressjournal.in)
  • Cats living in groups can infect each other with different strains of the virus during visits to a communal litter tray. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses are covered with several types of "S proteins" (or E2) forming a crown of protein spikes on the surface of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because feline Coronavirus survives in the environment for several weeks after recovery, the potential to transmit the virus directly is high. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Most feline practitioners do not test, except to confirm virus outside the GI in face of FIP clinical signs. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Her sharing that she tested positive for coronavirus comes after comments in March poking fun at those concerned about the virus. (yahoo.com)
  • This will help reduce the chances of this highly infectious virus from spreading in local, free-roaming domestic cat populations. (tulsaworld.com)
  • According to the BVA, it is possible that outdoor cats may carry the virus on their fur, just as the virus can live on other surfaces. (tulsaworld.com)
  • I'm dreading the thought of watching our cat succumb to the virus(es) in the same way as his companion. (catchat.org)
  • A private vet initially diagnosed the pet with feline herpes virus, a common cat respiratory infection, but the sample was also tested for Covid-19 part of a research programme. (aol.co.uk)
  • The UK's chief veterinary officer, Christine Middlemiss, said: "Tests conducted by the Animal and Plant Health Agency have confirmed that the virus responsible for Covid-19 has been detected in a pet cat in England. (aol.co.uk)
  • Last week, another feline turned out to have the virus in Belgium. (rt.com)
  • The department suggested any pets, including dogs and cats, from households where someone has tested positive for the virus should be put into quarantine. (wboy.com)
  • Infected cats had virus in the mouth, nose and small intestine. (metro.us)
  • What these data do provide is support for the recommendation that people who are with COVID-19 should be distancing themselves, not only from other household members but also from their household pets, so as not to transmit the virus to their pets, particularly to cats or other felines," he said. (metro.us)
  • And even big cats aren't immune from the disease, with a tiger in New York's Bronx Zoo becoming a confirmed carrier of the virus. (rt.com)
  • But experts say there is no evidence felines are contributing to the spread of COVID-19.In the study, researchers infected three cats and found that all of them were shedding the virus after three days. (wmtw.com)
  • The findings add to a growing body of research showing how cats, big and small, can contract the virus. (wmtw.com)
  • In the study, researchers infected three cats and found that all of them were shedding the virus after three days. (wmtw.com)
  • When the infected cats were paired with healthy ones -- housed together for a few days -- the healthy cats developed the virus, too. (wmtw.com)
  • A tiger at the Bronx Zoo tested positive for the new coronavirus, a first that experts said underscores how much remains unknown about the virus and how it affects animals. (telegram.com)
  • The UK's Chief Veterinary Officer confirmed that the virus responsible for Covid-19 was detected in the domestic cat. (londragazete.com)
  • seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. (uzh.ch)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization , at this time, there are no reports of pets or animals becoming sick with coronavirus or spreading the virus . (thedoctorstv.com)
  • The WHO adds, "There is no evidence that companion animals or pets such as cats and dogs have been infected or could spread the virus that causes COVID-19. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • they can be distinguished by an in vitro virus neutralization assay using either type-specific feline sera ( 39 ) or monoclonal antisera directed against the S protein ( 18-20 ). (asm.org)
  • Fifty-six cats ceased shedding virus, although they were susceptible to reinfection, and 44 shed intermittently or were being continuously reinfected. (bmj.com)
  • There was a correlation between shedding and antibody titre but the cats could remain seropositive for some time after they had ceased shedding virus. (bmj.com)
  • A cat should be shown to be negative over five months, or to have become seronegative, to ensure that it has ceased shedding virus. (bmj.com)
  • The cats, which had mild respiratory illnesses and are expected to recover, are thought to have contracted the virus from people in their households or neighbourhoods, the US Department of Agriculture and the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said. (freepressjournal.in)
  • FIP is not a highly contagious disease, since by the time the cat develops clinical disease only a small amount of virus is being shed. (snapcats.org)
  • The compounds, known as protease inhibitors, have since been further developed in the United States, tested and shown to also stop a fatal virus in cats. (folio.ca)
  • Coronavirus is probably one of the most common infection in cats, as with the human cold, since they are the same kind of virus. (stylisticat.com)
  • Cats ususally contract the virus again, through faeces. (stylisticat.com)
  • Some cats shed the virus in their faeces repeatedly and will not stop shedding it. (stylisticat.com)
  • Others may shed the virus periodically and another group of cats may shed the virus altogether and no longer be infected - but get recurrent infections or have developed a strong immunity and be completely resistant to future infections, even potentially more dangerous strains. (stylisticat.com)
  • It can be said that a cat infected with corona may be more resistant to different or dangerous strains in a multi-cat environment and that it may even be beneficial for a cat to have come into contact with the virus to develop a form of immunity. (stylisticat.com)
  • Rachael Bale, ANIMALS Executive Editor We have another coronavirus first: Two cats in New York state are the first in the U.S. to test positive for the virus. (vivacatcat.com)
  • In April, two cats from separate households in New York tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (interaksyon.com)
  • The CDC cited recent research "that animals such as ferrets, cats and golden Syrian hamsters can be experimentally infected with the virus and can spread the infection to other animals of the same species in laboratory settings. (interaksyon.com)
  • I read that some/most cats live with corona virus and only 1% mutate to FIP. (bengalcatforums.com)
  • FIP in symptomatic pet cats is not very transmittable, because by the time a feline shows clinical indicators of the infection, he is losing just a small amount of the virus. (cat-illnesses.org)
  • A positive outcome on an ELISA, IFA, or a virus neutralization examination merely indicates the feline has had direct exposure to the coronavirus, yet not always a strain of the infection that causes FIP. (cat-illnesses.org)
  • Direct, cat-to-cat, virus transmission does not commonly occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one case study, a female cat diagnosed with FIP survived 26 months from the date of definitive diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When I queried the FIP results the vet admitted that this is actually only an indication of being exposed to the coronavirus and not necessarily a confirmed diagnosis of FIP. (catchat.org)
  • Nineteen cats had a definitive histopathological diagnosis of FIP (seven of these with neurological and/or ocular signs), and 15 cats had other diseases but similar clinical signs (three of these with neurological and/or ocular signs). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We are hoping that our new test will save cats from being put through invasive biopsies in order to achieve a diagnosis of dry FIP. (catvirus.com)
  • Non-effusive FIP can be ruled out as a diagnosis if the cat is seronegative, provided the antibody test has excellent sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) present an example of pathogenetic change apparently associated with tropism switching. (cdc.gov)
  • Persistently infected, healthy cats play the most important epidemiologic role in FIP, because by harbouring FcoVs in their intestines and blood, they act as a constant source of infection. (vin.com)
  • Recent findings suggest that homologous RNA recombination may also be an important factor in the evolution of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) ( 16 , 37 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • The prevalence of these serotypes has not been studied extensively but according to a recent sero-survey, type II FCoVs may account for 20 to 30% of the feline infectious peritonitis cases in Japan ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • This disease is comparatively high in multi-cat households as compared to those with a single cat. (petmd.com)
  • It is more likely to infect every cat in the household or cattery, like colds do in human households. (stylisticat.com)
  • According to some statistical reports, as many as 63.4 million households in the United States include a dog, and 42.7 million households include a cat, making these furry friends the two most popular nonhuman family members in the country. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Recombination of coronavirus genomes has been observed in tissue culture ( 30 , 33 ), in experimentally infected animals ( 23 ), and in embryonated eggs ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • SHENZHEN, China (Reuters) - The Chinese city of Shenzhen has banned the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since the emergence of the new coronavirus. (reuters.com)
  • Authorities in the southern Chinese technology hub said the ban on eating dogs and cats would come into force on May 1. (reuters.com)
  • Provincial and city governments across the country have been moving to enforce the ruling but Shenzhen has been the most explicit about extending that ban to dogs and cats. (reuters.com)
  • We started this campaign after noticing that there were many people leaving dogs and cats outside our clinic," explained veterinarian Corolos Majdi at the Animalia clinic in the Egyptian capital. (metro.us)
  • They began photographing dogs and cats wearing signs explaining that keeping them is safe. (metro.us)
  • A very complete drug formulary provides practical recommendations, including adverse effects and precautions, or the treatment of dogs and cats. (powells.com)
  • The method involves determining the presence or absence of intact or mutated S1/S2 and S2′ cleavage sites in the spike protein of serotype 1 feline coronaviruses (FCoV1). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A. S. Hora, P. O. Tonietti, S. A. Taniwaki, K. M. Asano, P. Maiorka, L. J. Richtzenhain, and P. E. Brandão, "Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker? (hindawi.com)
  • The coronavirus spike protein is a critical determinant of cell tropism and pathogenicity. (cornell.edu)
  • If the only source of protein for a person is a cat and they are available, I really don't care if they decide to eat them or not. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • The most consistent clinicopathologic finding in cats with FIP was an increase in total serum protein concentration (mainly, globulins) with a decrease in the albumin to globulin ratio, a finding in about 50 percent of the cats with effusion and 70 percent of cats without effusion. (vetcontact.com)
  • Vitakraft also continued to boost its share of cat treats thanks to successful new product launches, notably the Premium Filet range containing a high protein content and the Triggles range. (euromonitor.com)