Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Enteroviruses, Porcine: Species of ENTEROVIRUS causing mild to severe neurological diseases among pigs especially in Eastern Europe. Mild strains are also present in Canada, U.S., and Australia. Specific species include Porcine enterovirus A and Porcine enterovirus B.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Orthoreovirus, Mammalian: A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are four serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DucksVirus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.DNA Virus InfectionsMutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Blood DonorsCytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.RNA Virus InfectionsLiver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus ... acute viral nasopharyngitis/. viral pneumonia. DNA virus. *Epstein-Barr virus *EBV infection/Infectious mononucleosis ... "tumor virus" or "cancer virus". The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of ... A minority of persons (or animals) will go on to develop cancers after infection. This has complicated efforts to determine ...
... hepatitis C virus, hantaviruses, rotaviruses, poliovirus type 1, human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and ... which play a crucial role in the early stages of viral infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). ... on a wide range of human and animal viruses based on DNA and RNA genomes, including the herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, ... Oral administration of lactoferrin to animals also reduced the number of pathogenic organisms in the tissues close to the ...
The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus ... which already carry the viral oncogene. Hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can induce a chronic viral ... "tumor virus" or "cancer virus". The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of ... or cause non-neoplastic diseases such as acute hepatitis for hepatitis B virus or mononucleosis for Epstein-Barr virus. A ...
The Lassa virus commonly spreads to humans from other animals, specifically a rodent known as a natal multimammate mouse ( ... is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus. Many of those infected by the virus do not develop symptoms. ... Infection in humans typically occurs by direct or indirect exposure to animal excrement through the respiratory or ... After an incubation period of six to 21 days, an acute illness with multiorgan involvement develops. Nonspecific symptoms ...
acute viral nasopharyngitis/. viral pneumonia. DNA virus. *Epstein-Barr virus *EBV infection/Infectious mononucleosis ... Animal reservoir[edit]. Hepatitis E due to genotypes other than 1 and 2 is thought to be a zoonosis, in that animals are ... One of five known human hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E, HEV is a positive-sense, single-stranded, nonenveloped ... Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
Viruses are also usually identified using alternatives to growth in culture or animals. Some viruses may be grown in ... "Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance". Nature. 461 (7262): 399-401. Bibcode: ... Several human activities have led to the emergence of zoonotic human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and ... Indirect contact such as airborne transmission, contaminated objects, food and drinking water, animal person contact, animal ...
... hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus, enterotoxogenic E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, Shigella, and various other viruses. More ... The major factor governing pathogen content of surface water is human and animal activity in the watershed. The risk of WAD ... Other bacterial and viral agents have shorter incubation periods, although hepatitis may require weeks. A suspected case of ... "Acute Diarrhea". (Backer 2007, p. 1371) (Backer 2007, p. 1369) EPA, OEI, OIAA, IAD, US. "Water Resources" (PDF). CS1 maint: ...
... human: acute respiratory illness; cattle: diarrhea and mild respiratory symptoms. Bocaviruses were first described in animals ... In Canine minute virus NP1 has been shown to be essential for an early step in viral replication and is also required for the ... Human bocaviruses were first isolated in 2005 in Sweden. They may be able to cause hepatitis in an immunosuppressed host. ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 12 June 2015. Manteufel J, Truyen U (2008) Animal bocaviruses: a brief review. ...
... as human or animal blood plasma or serum, as pooled human immunoglobulin for intravenous (IVIG) or intramuscular (IG) use, as ... Antibody therapy is also used to treat viral infections. In 1945, hepatitis A infections, epidemic in summer camps, were ... obtained from humans, horses, or other animals) are transferred to non-immune persons through blood products that contain ... varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The following immunoglobulins are the ...
Viruses portal Virus classification List of viruses Viral replication Positive/negative-sense Animal viruses Double-stranded ... The double-stranded (ds)RNA viruses represent a diverse group of viruses that vary widely in host range (humans, animals, ... includes Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue fever virus, Zika virus Family Fusariviridae Family ... Boutwell CL, Rolland MM, Herbeck JT, Mullins JI, Allen TM (October 2010). "Viral Evolution and Escape during Acute HIV-1 ...
... and viral hepatitis among others. Non-infectious diseases that may result in symptoms similar to those of EVD include acute ... The virus spreads by direct contact with body fluids, such as blood, of an infected human or other animals. This may also occur ... Animals may become infected when they eat fruit partially eaten by bats carrying the virus. Fruit production, animal behavior ... EVD in humans is caused by four of five viruses of the genus Ebolavirus. The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus ( ...
"Acute West Nile virus neuroinvasive infections: cross-reactivity with dengue virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus". J. Med. ... "Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection". Viral ... The virus became recognized as a cause of severe human meningoencephalitis in elderly patients during an outbreak in Israel in ... NS1 protein of MVE and KUN viruses serve as targets for a blocking ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animal ...
Hepatitis C virus. miR-122 Antiviral. pHIV7-shI-TAR-CCR5RZ. HIV. HIV Tat protein, HIV TAR RNA, human CCR5 ... Voinnet O (Mar 2005). "Induction and suppression of RNA silencing: insights from viral infections". Nature Reviews Genetics. 6 ... piRNAs represent the largest class of small non-coding RNA molecules expressed in animal cells, deriving from a large variety ... synthetic and natural small RNAs have proven to be an important tool for studying gene function in cells as well as animals.[57 ...
After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Corona Virus-Erasmus Medical ... Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially ... The virus can spread to different organs throughout the chicken. Coronaviruses also cause a range of diseases in farm animals ... Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among ...
Immunoglobulin M antibody to hepatitis C virus core antigen: Correlations with viral replication, histological activity, and ... allergy and other emerging infectious diseases in both humans and animals. She is the founder of United Biomedical, Inc. (UBI) ... Highly Specific Severe acute respiratory syndrome Antibody Test for Serosurveillance. Emerg. Infect. Diseases 2004, 10:1558- ... Immunogenicity and protection in small-animal models with controlled-release tetanus toxois microparticles as a single-dose ...
... of disease among non-human animals. During the 20th century significant epizootics of viral diseases in animals, particularly ... There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ... but such zoonotic infections are rare and subsequent human-to-human transmission of animal viruses is even rarer, although ... When viruses jump to other species the diseases caused in humans are called zoonoses or zoonotic infections. Severe acute ...
Antiviral applications for therapies targeting human viruses such as HIV, herpes, and hepatitis B virus are under research. ... It has been demonstrated that this strategy can be used to promote a process of angiogenesis in animals. It is also possible to ... The first clinical use of TALEN-based genome editing was in the treatment of CD19+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia in an 11-month ... They consist of short sequences that originate from viral genomes and have been incorporated into the bacterial genome. Cas ( ...
... the major and minor variants of smallpox virus, and hepatitis B virus. Although he discovered the cause of hand, foot and mouth ... "Preliminary Characterisation of Torovirus-Like Particles of Humans: Comparison With Berne Virus of Horses and Breda Virus of ... See Flewett T H, Bryden A S, Davies H, Woode G N, Bridger J C, Derrick J M. (1974) Relation between viruses from acute ... Flewett was educated at a time when very little was known about viruses and viral illness and when there were no laboratory ...
Whole wild type viruses, recombinant viruses or viral products may be generated in cell types other than their natural hosts ... In addition, chemically defined media can be used to eliminate any serum trace (human or animal), but this cannot always be ... transformed Human Carcinoma (HEp-2), and Mink Lung Epithelium (MLE) would adhere to and proliferate upon polycarbonate fibers. ... "Animals and alternatives in testing". Archived from the original on 2006-02-25. Retrieved 2006-04-19. Schiff J (February 2002 ...
... is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells ... When an animal has been slaughtered, the animal's neck is cut in a way to ensure that the spine is not severed, hence the brain ... HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is transmitted through contact with blood, semen or other body secretions of an infected ... Hepatitis B and C are transmitted primarily through blood contact. Owing to blood-borne infections, bloodstained objects are ...
... hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Influenza virus, and Measles virus. The other strategy is to block the initial viral entries by ... 6(2):141-5. Jiang, M; Milner, J (2002). "Selective silencing of viral gene expression in HPV-positive human cervical carcinoma ... Although animals generally express fewer variants of the dicer enzyme than plants, RNAi in some animals produces an antiviral ... "Animal virus replication and RNAi-mediated antiviral silencing in C elegans". Nature. 436 (7053): 1040-3. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
... in understanding viral immunology: Past, Present and Future". Viruses. 4: 2650-69. doi:10.3390/v4112650. Virus Pathogen ... The only documented cases of transmission from animals have occurred between humans and mice or hamsters. Cases of lymphocytic ... Morbidity and mortality rates vary with the species of animal and its age at infection, as well as the strain of the virus and ... This is referred to as acute (Armstrong) LCMV infection. On the other hand, Clone 13 is a variant of the Armstrong viral strain ...
Jia F, Zhang Y, Liu C (2006). "A retrovirus-based system to stably silence hepatitis B virus genes by RNA interference". ... Jiang M, Milner J (2002). "Selective silencing of viral gene expression in HPV-positive human cervical carcinoma cells treated ... "Animal virus replication and RNAi-mediated antiviral silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature 436 (7053): 1040-3. PMC ... "Caspase 8 small interfering RNA prevents acute liver failure in mice". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100 (13): 7797-802. PMC 164667 ...
Influenza A virus, Hepatitis C, and the Vaccinia virus. Sulfatide shows involvement in HIV-1 infection. gp120-gp41 are specific ... and it causes diarrheal diseases in humans and many other species of animals. STb also binds strongly to sulfatide as ... When warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, is added to an animal model system, sulfatide synthesis is impaired. However, when ... Experimentation has also demonstrated that if binding is inhibited between sulfatide and hemagglutinin that viral particle ...
S. mansoni infection often occurs along side those of viral hepatitis, either hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV ... Onset of egg laying in humans is sometimes associated with an onset of fever (Katayama fever). This "acute schistosomiasis" is ... ISBN 978-94-010-5358-7. Disease info at CDC Taxonomy at ITIS Report Species profile at Animal Diversity Web Profile at WormBase ... Wilmer, Pat; Stone, Graham; Johnston, Ian (2005). Environmental Physiology of Animals. Blackwell. pp. 677-692. ISBN ...
... , also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and ... Animals may become infected when they eat fruit partially eaten by bats carrying the virus.[82] Fruit production, animal ... and viral hepatitis among others.[104]. Non-infectious diseases that may result in symptoms similar to those of EVD include ... "The Ebola epidemic ravaging parts of West Africa is the most severe acute public health emergency seen in modern times. Never ...
... acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibody reduces disease severity and viral ... had a lung virus titer similar to that of animals that received normal serum. This animal was the only animal that had ... Previous studies have reported that coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-1, and mouse hepatitis viruses could enter the central ... more virus antigen-positive cells were detected in the lungs of virus-infected animals on day 3 than on day 6 postinfection ( ...
These viruses caused an acute to subacute panencephalitis and/or demyelination in the infected animals. The course of ... viral RNA and antigen was dependent both on animal species and virus strain but the results clearly showed that these viruses ... were inoculated intracerebrally with either the neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus JHM or the putative multiple sclerosis brain ... This study suggests that human CNS may be susceptible to coronavirus infection. ...
... which is most often caused by a viral infection. ... washed their hands and water contaminated by animal or human ... Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of the illness.. Hepatitis A and E are acute (short-term) viral infections ... News Tech Health Planet Earth Strange News Animals History Culture Space.com ... Most acute hepatitis infections brought on by the hepatitis A, B, C and E virus will resolve on their own over several weeks or ...
... animal viruses are associated with a variety of human diseases. Some of them follow the classic pattern of acute disease, where ... Some animal-infecting viruses, including the hepatitis C virus discussed above, are known as oncogenic viruses: They have the ... Viral Assembly, Viral Replication, Virus Attachment, Virus Entry, Virus Infection Log in to add tags to this item. ... human herpesviruses 6 and 7). Oncogenic viruses in animals have the ability to cause cancer by interfering with the regulation ...
... hepatitis, and poliomyelitis, with serious impacts on human health and economic losses in animal husbandry. Thus far, research ... Viroporins are viral proteins containing at least one amphipathic α-helical structure, which oligomerizes to form transmembrane ... which plays vital roles in the life cycle of the viruses and exhibits a viroporin or viroporin-like activity, has been ... Picornaviruses are associated with acute and chronic diseases. The clinical manifestations of infections are often mild, but ...
... and other animals, and in humans. The virus is transmitted from an animal to a person, or from one animal to another, via ... acute viral infection of the central nervous system in dogs, foxes, raccoons, skunks, bats, ... Click the link for more information. , canine hepatitis, leptospirosisleptospirosis. , febrile disease caused by bacteria of ... classification used by breeders and kennel clubs to designate dogs raised by humans to herd cattle and sheep, as draft animals ...
They were shown to inhibit the main viral fusing protein in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 target cells. Hydroxytyrosol ... However, there have also been several animal and human studies that do show the benefits of EVOO for infection. ... In rabbits, acute pyelonephritis, a kidney infection caused by bacteria was induced. Doses of 21 mg oleuropein were injected to ... Oleuropein has been shown to have anti-hepatitis B activity.. Although all of the above benefits have been discovered, these ...
As such, prolonged glial activation, as is thought to occur during a persistent viral infection of the CNS, may contribute to ... However, the effects of virus-induced glial activation on oligodendrocytes are not fully understood. To determine the effects ... These data indicate that during an ongoing viral infection of the CNS, microglial TNFα may be detrimental to oligodendrocytes. ... on oligodendrocyte viability we treated primary glial cultures isolated from neonatal rats or mice with the RNA viral mimic ...
... other viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis virus, and rotaviruses were not present. We used the inoculum as ... Experimental animals and inocula.Gnotobiotic pigs were delivered and maintained as previously described (29). All animal ... Most virus-inoculated pigs developed diarrhea, and nearly half shed virus in the feces or seroconverted. In addition, viral ... Twenty-one percent of the IC from virus-inoculated pigs euthanized in the acute phase (PID 2 to 3 or 4 to 5; Table 1) were ...
... is an acute viral disease of domestic animals (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels), but it also affects humans. It is ... means an uptick in mosquito populations that cause infections of domestic livestock and human populations with the RVF virus. ... World Organisation for Animal Health/Organisation mondiale de la santé animale (OIE).
  • Normalized Difference ... it is manifests as mild influenza-like illness to severe hemorrhagic manifestations and hepatitis; retinitis (inflammation of ...
  • ... and yellow fever virus, its vaccine, and the importance of curiosity-driven research. ... The history of learning to grow hepatitis C virus in culture, ... Alter the genetics of the animal to mimic the human state. * ... in Japan with acute fulminant disease was able to replicate without adaptive mutations and production of infectious viral ... That means its kind of like a furry test tube - you can infect the animals, but they dont have the immune response we think ...
    RNA viruses are responsible for important acute, chronic as well as emerging human infections. While some of these viruses - ... Project Viral frontiers - species barriers of hepatitis C virus replication Researcher (PI) Thomas Pietschmann ... These latter viruses cause zoonotic infections, i.e. infections of animal hosts that are transmitted to humans by unintentional ... Summary Herpesviruses cause serious diseases in humans and animals. After initial lytic infection, herpesviruses establish a ...
    RNA viruses are responsible for important acute, chronic as well as emerging human infections. While some of these viruses - ... There are two fundamental questions on the interaction of animal species that intrigue me: 1) What knowledge do animals have ... Project Viral frontiers - species barriers of hepatitis C virus replication Researcher (PI) Thomas Pietschmann ... Also, the mechanisms by which cytopathic viruses (e.g. rabies virus in humans and vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV] in mice) ...
    Viral hepatitis E is considered to be an important issue for public health in developing countries. The aim of the present ... Hepatitis E is the fifth known human viral hepatitis and is probably the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the ... Hepatitis, Viral, Animal. INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection. ... Hepatitis, Viral, Human. INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types ...
    Human monoclonal antibody to hepatitis C virus El glycoprotein that blocks virus attachment and viral infectivity JOURNAL OF ... to prevent acute infection. However, earlier efforts with the selected antibodies led to RAVs in animal and clinical studies. ... were capable of inhibiting HCV infection of human liver fragments and of reducing the mean viral load in HCV-positive animals. ... a related human virus was identified [named GBV-C or hepatitis G virus (HGV)], and recently a more distantly related virus ( ...
    ... human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus) by providing evidence that a reservoir of virus- ... Recurrence of hepatitis C virus after loss of virus-specific CD4+ T-cell response in acute hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 117: ... as SMARTA cells from Armstrong-infected animals continued to expand through viral clearance and peaked at 9 days postinfection ... These cell mixtures were then added to T-cell-depleted APC from an animal that had been infected with Armstrong 3 days ...
    Diseases caused by viruses Rift valley fever (RVF) RVF is an acute viral disease of sheep, cattle, goats and humans. It is ... Carcass of an animal showing clinical signs of Rift Valley fever is condemned. Reactors and recovered animals are approved. ... perfringens type I Infectious necrotic hepatitis (Black disease) Black disease causes acute necrotic hepatitis in sheep and ... It is caused by a viral agent called viroid or prion , which has some of the characteristics of the virus, a slow virus like ...
    ... represent a highly valuable model of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic hepatitis (CH), and virus induced-primary ... Among others, liver biopsies from acute hepatitis (AH) and CH showed significantly augmented expression of the majority of TLRs ... their expression profiles in different forms of infection and stages of hepatitis, and in healthy animals remain essentially ... Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important mediators of immune responses playing pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of viral ...
    The new virus makes possible the development of a nonprimate animal model of viral persistence that can be used for testing ... The dog days of summer have finally arrived-for scientists who study human hepatitis C virus (HCV); these researchers have long ... of people who contract an acute HCV infection develop chronic viral hepatitis with subsequent risk of cirrhosis and liver ... In a study focused on the viral flora found in companion animals, Kapoor et al. found a previously unidentified hepacivirus ( ...
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans and the leading cause for acute viral hepatitis ... of the virus increased our ability to identify and characterize animal strains and animals that are amenable to model human- ... Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute hepatitis and jaundice. The number of human infections is approximated to ... Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Most HEV infections are asymptomatic, but ...
    The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus ... acute viral nasopharyngitis/. viral pneumonia. DNA virus. *Epstein-Barr virus *EBV infection/Infectious mononucleosis ... "tumor virus" or "cancer virus". The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of ... A minority of persons (or animals) will go on to develop cancers after infection. This has complicated efforts to determine ...
    Trafficking of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein during Virus Particle Assembly * The Anti-interferon Activity of Conserved Viral ... Most of the viral pathogens that have emerged in humans during the last decades have originated from various animals, either ... Článek Hepatitis C Virus Reveals a Novel Early Control in Acute Immune Response ... as an Animal Model for the Study of Biofilm Infections * Homeostatic Proliferation Fails to Efficiently Reactivate HIV-1 ...
    h) Hepatitis B infection;. (i) Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); ... 5) Animal exhibitors and other persons legally responsible for animals in public settings shall:. (a) Observe animals daily for ... 28) "Sexually transmitted disease (STD)" means a bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic disease or condition which is usually ... a) Acute pelvic inflammatory disease;. (b) Chancroid;. (c) Chlamydia trachomatis infection;. (d) Genital and neonatal herpes ...
    hepatitis (viral acute) type b * hepatitis b hepatitis b * human human * hus hus ... jamestown canyon virus disease jamestown canyon virus disease * la crosse virus disease la crosse virus disease ... hepatitis (viral acute) type a hepatitis (viral acute) type a * hepatitis (viral acute) type b ... hepatitis (viral hepatitis (viral * hepatitis (viral acute) hepatitis (viral acute) * hepatitis (viral acute) type c hepatitis ...
    • There are five main types of viral hepatitis - A, B, C, D and E. Of those, Hepatitis A, B and C are the most common types in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (livescience.com)
    • The history of learning to grow hepatitis C virus in culture, and yellow fever virus, its vaccine, and the importance of curiosity-driven research. (asm.org)
    • He also talks about yellow fever virus, its vaccine, and the importance of curiosity-driven research. (asm.org)
    • Due to the absence of a robust cell culture model for HEV infection, the analysis of the viral life cycle, the development of effective antivirals and a vaccine is severely limited. (bvsalud.org)
    • 9 In the past, high-risk occupational groups in South Africa could receive an unlicensed, inactivated whole-virus vaccine against RVF. (scielo.org.za)
    • However, animal models that can be infected with HCV and thus are suitable for testing of vaccine candidates are sparse ( Table 3 ). (medscape.com)
    • Learning the viral genome sequences led to recategorization of Togaviridae, which were previously grouped based on similar viral structure. (asm.org)
    • In contrast to the liver tissue, significant upregulation of TLR3, TLR4, and TLR10, but downregulation of TLR7, characterized hepatocytes derived from livers of animals with resolved AH accompanied by secondary occult infection. (frontiersin.org)
    • The results showed that the profiles of TLRs' expression in circulating lymphomononuclear cells do not mirror accurately those of livers and hepatocytes from infected animals. (frontiersin.org)
    • Efficient infection of primary human and swine hepatocytes using the developed protocol could be observed and was inhibited by ribavirin. (bvsalud.org)
    • Finally, RNA sequencing studies of HEV-infected primary human hepatocytes demonstrated a temporally structured transcriptional defense response. (bvsalud.org)
    • Predominant type III IFN response was observed in the liver tissues of pigs experimentally infected with HEV as well as in HEV RNA PAMP-induced human hepatocytes in vitro . (asm.org)
    • These findings are of importance to the understanding of immune process operating at different sites targeted by virus in the course of hepadnaviral infection and evaluation of future therapies modifying antiviral innate responses in the woodchuck model. (frontiersin.org)
    • Another mushroom recognized for its antiviral activity is Fomes fomentarius , a hoof-shaped wood conk growing trees, which inhibited the tobacco mosaic virus (Aoki et al. (justia.com)
    • 1999) found antiviral activity from the methanol-soluble fractions of Reishi mushrooms ( Ganoderma lucidum ), selectively inhibiting Herpes simplex and the vesicular stomatitus virus (VSV). (justia.com)
    • To determine the effects of glial activation on oligodendrocyte viability we treated primary glial cultures isolated from neonatal rats or mice with the RNA viral mimic poly(I:C) and in some cases other TLR ligands. (biomedcentral.com)
    • Given its ability to robustly mimic in vivo hepatitis B virus (HBV) production in liver, HGD has become a fundamental and important technology on HBV studies in our group and many other groups. (frontiersin.org)
    • Pigs from postinoculation days (PID) 1 to 4 tested positive for HuNoV by reverse transcription-PCR of rectal swab fluids (29/65) and IC (9/43) and by antigen (Ag) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using antiserum to virus-like particles of HuNoV GII/4. (asm.org)
    • The World Health Organization 's International Agency for Research on Cancer estimated that in 2002, infection caused 17.8% of human cancers, with 11.9% caused by one of seven viruses. (wikipedia.org)
    • Hence, many new anti-viral drugs have never made it past preliminary screening studies as they have failed to prove non-toxicity and are unsafe to consume. (justia.com)
    • New viruses can be identified based on their homologs to existing viral sequences, but many new viruses encode genes with no known homologs - the dark matter of viral sequences! (asm.org)
    • The viral origin of the amplified sequences matched with the history reported by the hunters, most of which (83%) are aged 20 to 40 years and acquired the infection during the last twenty years. (prolekare.cz)
    • Double-stranded RNA, presumably functioning as replicative intermediate during viral RNA synthesis, has been detected at the double-membrane vesicle interior. (mdpi.com)
    • Canine parvovirus type 2, or CPV-2, is a virus that attacks the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of both domesticated and wild puppies and adult dogs. (mercola.com)
    • Canine distemper, which is also known as Carre's disease and was once called hard pad disease, is a highly contagious virus that primarily affects young dogs, both domesticated and wild, between the ages of 2 and 6 months. (mercola.com)
    • An in-depth analysis of antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses using transgenic cells showed that these cells were fully functional (i.e., able to produce interleukin-2 [IL-and proliferate upon ex vivo stimulation) for at least 60 days during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection ( 30 ). (asm.org)
    • This method, involving intravenous injection (i.v.) of massive DNA in a short duration, gives a transient but high in vivo gene expression especially in the liver of small animals. (frontiersin.org)
    • A direct oncogenic viral mechanism involves either insertion of additional viral oncogenic genes into the host cell or to enhance already existing oncogenic genes ( proto-oncogenes ) in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
    • Coronaviruses are also one of the few RNA viruses with a genomic proofreading mechanism - which keeps the virus from accumulating mutations that could weaken it. (nature.com)
    • To validate their findings, the authors performed similar experiments on nasal swabs from an additional 33 dogs that had become ill during five separate respiratory outbreaks and demonstrated a high degree of genetic relatedness to CHV among viruses isolated from the infected animals. (sciencemag.org)
    • In susceptible dogs, the virus first reproduces in the respiratory tract and then moves on to the lymph nodes and the lymph and blood circulatory systems throughout the body. (mercola.com)
    • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), and the novel virus we are most concerned about right now SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 (7). (rehis.com)