Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacteria, AnaerobicStaphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Anacardiaceae: The sumac plant family in the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and woody vines that have resin ducts in the bark. The sap of many of the species is irritating to the skin.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacteria, AerobicGram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.PhenazinesStaphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Tolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Micrococcaceae: A family of bacteria ranging from free living and saprophytic to parasitic and pathogenic forms.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Methicillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Staphylococcus haemolyticus: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS found on the skin of humans (and non-human primates), often causing hospital-acquired infections (CROSS INFECTION).Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Staphylococcus lugdunensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It is responsible for skin and soft-tissue infections among others, and is part of the normal human skin flora.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Micrococcal Nuclease: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
... is a coagulase-negative member of the genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive bacteria ... it does not produce a free coagulase. In the laboratory, it can give a positive slide-coagulase test but a negative tube- ... It occurs as a commensal on human skin, but has been recorded as a cause of serious human infections, such as osteomyelitis, ... Acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by S. lugdunensis is infrequently reported in clinical studies. Five cases of acute ...
... can cause lysis of many Gram-positive bacteria by acting as a cationic detergent. Many acute-phase proteins of inflammation are ... In addition, pathogenic bacteria may secrete agents that alter the coagulation system, e.g. coagulase and streptokinase. ... These clots may break free and become mobile, forming an embolus or grow to such a size that occludes the vessel in which it ... This causes ischemia and often leads to ischemic necrosis of tissue. Most cases of venous thrombosis are due to acquired states ...
A Gram stain is first performed to guide the way, which should show typical Gram-positive bacteria, cocci, in clusters. Second ... S. aureus produces various enzymes such as coagulase (bound and free coagulases) which clots plasma and coats the bacterial ... Once the bacteria have entered the bloodstream, they can infect various organs, causing infective endocarditis, septic ... Staphylococcus aureus (also known as golden staph) is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the ...
The disease is caused by bacteria that spread from the vagina and cervix. Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia ... Gram stain/smear becomes definitive in the identification of rare, atypical and possibly more serious organisms. Two thirds of ... Laparoscopic identification is helpful in diagnosing tubal disease; a 65 percent to 90 percent positive predictive value exists ... As the disease progresses, nonspecific findings can include free pelvic fluid, endometrial thickening, uterine cavity ...
The bacterium is pathogenic for fish, and causes the disease known as furunculosis. The symptoms the fish show are external and ... Aeromonas salmonicida is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacterium. It is rod-shaped, about 1.3-2.0 by 0.8- ... It tests positive for oxidase, lysine decarboxylase, methyl red, gelatin hydrolysis, and catalase. "Furunculosis". Merck. ... A. salmonicida tests negative for indole formation, coagulase, hydrolysis of starch, casein, triglycerides, and phospholipids, ...
The enzyme lysozyme is found in many tissues and is known to attack the cell walls of many gram-positive bacteria, aiding in ... Human saliva contains a wide variety of bacteria that are harmless in the mouth, but that may cause significant infection if ... although not against coagulase positive Staphylococcus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wound licking is also important in other ... Costigan DC, Guyda HJ, Posner BI (May 1988). "Free insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-II in human saliva". J. Clin. ...
Bacteria found in biofilms have their antibiotic resistance increased up to 1000 times when compared to free-living bacteria of ... and coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Gram negative enteric organisms can be isolated. Attempts have been made to provide a ... Other sinusitis-causing bacterial pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus and other streptococci species, anaerobic bacteria ... Nasal endoscopy and clinical symptoms are also used to make a positive diagnosis. A tissue sample for histology and cultures ...
Bacillus subtilis is a bacterium that results in a positive assay as shown in the picture. Lipase assays are done using a lipid ... Many gram-negative bacteria have injectisomes, or flagella-like projections, to directly deliver the virulent exoenzyme into ... By binding to prothrombin, coagulase facilitates clotting in a cell by ultimately converting fibrinogen to fibrin. Bacteria ... Cell-free use of microbial exoenzymes as agents of bioremediation is also possible although their activity is often not as ...
Gram-positive bacteria. *Bacteria described in 1975. Hidden categories: *CS1: long volume value ... Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).[2] It is part of the skin flora of ... S. haemolyticus can colonize central venous catheters and cause serious medical complications. Colonization occurs when S. ... Like other Gram-positive microbes, S. haemolyticus has a thick, rather homogenous, cell wall (60-80 nm) composed of ...
The coagulase test determines whether an organism can produce the enzyme coagulase, which causes the fibrin to clot. ... Cultures are to be incubated in an oxygen free environment for 48 hours at 35oC before growth is examined. Anaerobic bacteria ... an enzyme found in many gram-negative bacteria. Adding L-Alanine-4-nitroanilide hydrochloride to a bacterial culture works as ... positive result). This test involves a butyrate disk, which when smeared with a culture, will change color for a positive ...
All exhaust air is HEPA-filtered as it exits the biosafety cabinet, removing harmful bacteria and viruses.[2] This is in ... This air is drawn, through ductwork, up the back of the cabinet where it is then blown into a positive pressure, contaminated ... cause disruption of the airflow inside.[3]:22 Once work inside a BSC has been completed, it is necessary to decontaminate the ... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search Biosafety cabinet. A microbiologist performing ...
Bacteria are traditionally divided into the two groups: gram-positive and gram-negative, based on their gram-staining response. Gram-positive bacteria are also referred to as monoderms having one membrane, and gram-negative bacteria are also referred to as diderms, having two membranes. These groups are often thought of as lineages, with gram-negative bacteria more closely related to one another than to gram-positive bacteria. While this is often true, the classification system breaks down in some cases. A given bacteria's staining result, bacterial membrane organization, and lineage groupings do not always ...
... is a Gram-positive, coagulase-negative, anaerobic member of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus consisting of single and clustered cocci. The species was formerly known as Peptococcus saccharolyticus, but was reclassified on the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA and biochemical similarity to other members of Staphylococcus. S. saccharolyticus may be a cause of infective endocarditis. This species is also known to contaminate samples of platelets taken from humans, though these contaminated samples generally do not cause S. saccharolyticus infections during transfusion. Kilpper-Bälz, R.; Schleifer, K.H. (Dec 1981). "Transfer of Peptococcus saccharolyticus Foubert and Douglas to the genus Staphylococcus: Staphylococcus saccharolyticus (Foubert and Douglas) comb. nov". Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie Mikrobiologie und Hygiene: I. Abt. Originale C: Allgemeine, angewandte und ökologische Mikrobiologie. 2 (4): 324-331. Westblom, TU; ...
Ang Gram Positive Bacteria ay uri ng mga bakteryang may manipis, may mga kaparehong magkakasunod na pader na binubuo ng (40-90 porsyentong tuyong bigat) ng peptidoglycan. Sila ay tinawag na gramong positibong bakterya dahil napapanatili nila kulay itim na bughaw na strano.. Ito ay inimbento ni Christian Gram noong 1884.. ...
The Firmicutes (/fɜːrˈmɪkjʊtiːz/; Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. A few, however, such as Megasphaera, Pectinatus, Selenomonas and Zymophilus, have a porous pseudo-outer membrane that causes them to stain Gram-negative. Scientists once classified the Firmicutes to include all Gram-positive bacteria, but have recently defined them to be of a core group of related forms called the low-G+C group, in contrast to the Actinobacteria. They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod-like forms (bacillus). Many Firmicutes produce endospores, which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions. They are found in various environments, and the group includes some notable pathogens. Those in ...
L. lactis is of crucial importance for manufacturing dairy products, such as buttermilk and cheeses. When L. lactis ssp. lactis is added to milk, the bacterium uses enzymes to produce energy molecules (ATP), from lactose. The byproduct of ATP energy production is lactic acid. The lactic acid produced by the bacterium curdles the milk that then separates to form curds, which are used to produce cheese.[11] Other uses that have been reported for this bacterium include the production of pickled vegetables, beer or wine, some breads, and other fermented foodstuffs, such as soymilk kefir, buttermilk, and others.[12] L. lactis is one of the best characterized low GC Gram positive bacteria with detailed knowledge on genetics, metabolism and biodiversity.[13][14]. L. lactis is mainly isolated from either the dairy environment or plant material.[15][16][17] Dairy isolates are suggested to have evolved from plant isolates through a process in which ...
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye in staining.[1] In a Gram stain test, a counterstain, safranin, is added after the crystal violet. This colours all gram-negative bacteria with a red or pink colour. This happens because an outer membrane stops the penetration of the stain. The test itself is useful in classifying two distinct types of bacteria based on the structural differences of their bacterial cell walls. Gram-positive bacteria retain the crystal violet dye when washed in a decolourizing solution. Compared with gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria are ...
... , Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Denver, Colorado that develops prescription therapies based on a platform of proprietary surface active technologies-skin Barrier Repair Technology (BRT) and Cerageninis, a new class of broad spectrum anti-infectives. The company discovers, develops and commercializes anti-infective drugs based on its proprietary class of compounds, Ceragenins. Active against a range of gram positive and gram negative bacteria, these agents are being developed as anti-infective medical device coatings and as therapeutics for antibiotic-resistant organisms. Ceragenix developed EpiCeram. It is a topical non-steroidal skin care cream based on the research of Peter Elias for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema). Ceragenix's second platform technology addresses multidrug resistant bacterial and viral infections. The anti-infective technology is ...
Baktéri nyaéta golongan panglobana di antara organisme. Istilah baktéri (bacteria) geus macem-macem dipaké keur sakabéh prokariot atawa lolobana golongannana, atawa disebut ogé eubacteria, gumantung kana pamikiran ngeunaan hubungannana. Di dieu, bacteria digunakeun hususna pikeun nunjuk kana eubacteria. Golongan gedé baktéri séjénna nyaéta Archaea. Studi ngeunaan baktéri disebut baktériologi, bagian tina mikrobiologi. Baktéri nyaéta mahluk anu kacida lobana di antara sakabéh organisme. Baktéri aya di mana-mana, dina taneuh, cai, jeung mangrupa pasangan simbiosis pikeun mahluk hirup séjénna. Loba patogén anu mangrupa baktéri. lolobanana mibanda ukuran pangpanjangna ukur 0.5-5.0 μm, sanajan baktéri gedé saperti Thiomargarita namibiensis jeung Epulopiscium fishelsoni bisa nambahan ukuran nepi ka 0.5 mm oge. Baktéri umumna miboga dinding sél, saperti tutuwuhan jeung sél fungi, ...
Cotter PD, Hill C, Ross RP (2006). "What's in a name? Class distinction for bacteriocins". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4 (2). doi:10.1038/nrmicro1273-c2. is author reply to comment on article :Cotter PD, Hill C, Ross RP (2005). "Bacteriocins: developing innate immunity for food". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 3 (?): 777-88. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1273. PMID 16205711. HENG, C. K. N., WESCOMBE, P. A., BURTON, J. P., JACK, R. W., & TAGG, J. R. (2007). The diversity of bacteriocins in Gram-positive bacteria. In: Bacteriocins: Ecology and Evolution. 1st ed., Riley, M. A. & Chavan, M. A., Eds. Springer, Hildberg, p. 45-83. Nissen-Meyer, J; Rogne, P; Oppegård, C; Haugen, HS; Kristiansen, PE (2013-08-12). "Structure-function relationships of the non-lanthionine-containing peptide (class II) bacteriocins produced by gram-positive bacteria". Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 10: 19-37. PMID ...
... (from the Greek: σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Under the microscope, they appear round (cocci), and form in grape-like clusters. The Staphylococcus genus includes at least 40 species. Of these, nine have two subspecies, one has three subspecies, and one has four subspecies. Most are harmless and reside normally on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other organisms. Staphylococcus has been found to be a nectar-inhabiting microbe. Found worldwide, they are a small component of soil microbial flora. The taxonomy is based on 16s rRNA sequences, and most of the staphylococcal species fall into 11 clusters: S. aureus group - S. argenteus, S. aureus, S. schweitzeri, S. simiae S. auricularis group - S. auricularis S. carnosus group - S. carnosus, S. condimenti, S. massiliensis, S. piscifermentans, S. simulans S. epidermidis group - S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, ...
... is a genus o coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria alangin tae the phylum Firmicutes[3] an the Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria) order. ...
The Planococcaceae are a family of gram-positive bacteria. Most of the species are capable of aerobic respiration using oxygen. Some others can live without oxygen, they are anaerobic organism.[1] ...
Baktearjen (wittenskiplike namme: Bacteria, iental Bacterium) binne (iensellige) mikro-organismen, dy't sa lyts binne dat se allinnich ûnder in mikroskoop te sjen binne. In wichtige eigenskip fan baktearjen is, dat se har hurd fermearderje kinne. In baktearje is in prokaryoat en hat dus gjin selkearn. It erflike materiaal sweeft om yn it sytoplasma. It DNA bestiet meastal út mar ien ringfoarmich gromosoam, faak beselskippe troch ien of mear plasmiden, dy't ek genetyske ynformaasje befetsje. Baktearjen kinne ûnderling plasmiden útwikselje (konjugaasje), wêrtroch't se rekombinearje. Sa ûntsteane allegeduerigen nije bacterievariëteiten. De Bakteria waarden eartiids Eubakteria neamd. Yn it algemiene spraakgebrûk wurdt meastal gjin ûnderskied makke tusken Bacteria ("gewoane" baktearjen) en Archaea (oerbaktearjen), dy't tegearre de groep prokaryoaten foarmje. Yn de taksonomy foarmje de Bakteria lykwols in ôfsûnderlik Ryk of Domein. Blaualgen of ...
Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative member of the genus Staphylococcus, consisting of Gram-positive bacteria ... it does not produce a free coagulase. In the laboratory, it can give a positive slide-coagulase test but a negative tube- ... It occurs as a commensal on human skin, but has been recorded as a cause of serious human infections, such as osteomyelitis, ... Acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by S. lugdunensis is infrequently reported in clinical studies. Five cases of acute ...
Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin ... Previous ArticleCatheter-related bloodstream infection caused by Kodamaea ohmeri Next Article Internal jugular and subclavian ... Subscribe now and be the first to receive all the latest free updates from IVTEAM! ... and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We ...
Gram-positive bacteria. *Bacteria described in 1975. Hidden categories: *CS1: long volume value ... Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS).[2] It is part of the skin flora of ... S. haemolyticus can colonize central venous catheters and cause serious medical complications. Colonization occurs when S. ... Like other Gram-positive microbes, S. haemolyticus has a thick, rather homogenous, cell wall (60-80 nm) composed of ...
Monensin and salinomycin derivatives such as esters and amides are also active against the strains of Gram-positive bacteria, ... Mini-review: Staphylococcus epidermidis as the most frequent cause of nosocomial infections: old and new fighting strategies. ... Staphylococcus epidermidis, a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, is the most important pathogen responsible for chronic ... free-swimming) of clinical and standard S. epidermidis strains are listed in Table I. The salinomycin MIC values for planktonic ...
It is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp. that rarely causes disease but it may cause infection in immunocompromised ... Staphylococcus warneri is a common commensal bacterium found on the skin of humans and animals. ... gram, gram-positive, human, immunocompromised, infection, micrograph, organism, organisms, pathogen, patient, positive, ... Keywords: 0326779d, abortion, animal, bacillales, bacilli, bacteraemia, bacteria, bacterial, bacterium, coagulase-negative, ...
Gram positive; Gram negative; reduce(ed); cost(s); pneumoslide; PBP2; tube coagulase; matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ... Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Rapid identification of ... bacteria; yeast; ICU; and others. In addition to the electronic search being performed, a request for unpublished quality ... Images from this publication.See all images (18)Free text. FIG 1 ... Rapid identification methods may have multiple positive impacts ...
As detailed in Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, they studied 5,608 clinical isolates of Gram-positive bacteria ... Their finding suggests that the sasX gene is involved in molecular processes that help MRSA spread and cause disease and may be ... In related news, a separate team of Chinese investigators found that levels of MRSA and methicillin-resistant coagulase- ...
... generally nonpathogenic bacteria that can cause skin disease, joint infections, and life-threatening illnesses if they enter ... Gram-positive versus Gram-negative, coliform (fecal bacteria) versus noncoliform, and common septic arthritis pathogens versus ... It was also extremely interesting that no coagulase-positive Staphylococcus bacteria were present on any of the horses, since ... Sign up for Free Newsletters. Stay up-to-date on the latest new about your horses health with FREE newsletters from TheHorse. ...
Gram positive cocci is still the leading causative organism of bacteria keratitis, and the percentage of Gram positive cocci ... Gram positive cocci were found in 250 isolates (51.0%); most of these were coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Gram positive ... Keratitis caused by bacteria usually results in various corneal lesions, and even severe visual loss. In developing countries, ... Results: Positive culture was recovered in 490 isolates. Gram positive cocci and Gram negative bacilli represented 51% and 39.4 ...
"Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria isolated from US medical centers". Diagnos Microbiol Infect Dis. vol. 65 ... How does this organism cause disease?. CoNS are able to cause disease because of two features: their natural niche on human ... Sign Up for Free e-newsletters. Neurology Advisor Update United States. United Kingdom. Canada. Afghanistan. Albania. Algeria. ... There are more than 45 recognized species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). CoNS are gram-positive cocci that divide ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Micro Ex3. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, ... Which bacteria are coagulase positive?. S. aureus. Which bacteria can cause UTI?. E.coli, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, E. ... What are the Gram negative cocci?. N. gonorrhea, N. meningitides. What are the Gram-positive rods, spore forming bacteria? ... What are the anaerobic Gram negative rods?. Bacteroids, Fusobacterium. What are the Acid-fast, Gram-positive rods?. ...
Fosfomycin acts bactericidal in susceptible bacteria. Fosfomycin is active against both gram-negative and gram-positive ... Besides, increasingly problematic gram-negative bacteria also are significant as causes of joint-associated infections. This ... The preparation according to the invention can be used to produce non-clumping free-flowing polymethylmethacrylate bone cement ... of fosfomycin against beta-lactamase-producing methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive coagulase- ...
Some are coagulase negative while some are positive. They are ubiquitous, cause localized lesions. Snce they develop resistance ... It functions in the adherence of gram positive bacteria to mucosal surfaces. ... When suspension of such sensitized cells is treated with test antigen, the antigen combines with free Fab sites of IgG attached ... 1. Coagulase : It activates a coagulase- reacting factor(CRF)present in plasma, and causes the plasma to clot by the conversion ...
Positive cultures to Grampositive bacteria (66.7 percent) were predominant. The most common bacteria were positive ... It is not risk-free method since the peritoneal dialysis-related infectious complications are the most important cause of ... Staphylococcus coagulase (48 percent) and negative Staphylococcus coagulase (22 percent). Other germs were E E. coli, ... The most common germs were Grampositive bacteria that cause this type of infection and peritonitis in patients under ambulatory ...
Bacteremia is the presence of viable bacteria in the bloodstream. Blood cultures are used in diagnosis and antibiotics are used ... The treatment regimen is decided based on the type of bacteria involved in the infection.. In gram-positive bacteria, there are ... Usually caused by group A hemolytic streptococci or coagulase-positive staphylo-coccus aureus. Appear as redness, thin ... Hospital (nosocomial) infections are mainly caused by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Enterococci, Streptococci, Staphylococcus ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a spherical, gram-positive coccus, bacteria which grows as clusters of cells. Asymptomatic ... Diagnosis of S aureus infection involves Gram staining followed by enzyme tests to identify catalase, coagulase, DNase, lipase ... In addition S aureus is one of the most common causes of post surgical wound infection. ... as opposed to in-vitro cultures of microorganisms which generally exists as free floating single cells in a liquid medium ( ...
Subsection 1 Gram-Positive Cocci. 80. Staphylococcus Aureus Infections (Coagulase-Positive Staphylococci) ... Nomenclature for Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria. ... Diarrhea-Causing and Dysentery-Causing Escherichia coli. 105. ... Free Shipping. Free global shipping. No minimum order. Description. Feigin and Cherrys Textbook of Pediatric Infectious ...
mi·cro·coc·ci Any of various spherical, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria of the genus Micrococcus that are usually nonmotile and ... CHARACTERISATION OF COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI (CoNS) ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS ... Any of various spherical, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria of the genus Micrococcus that are usually nonmotile and occur in ... Biology) caused by, or relating to, a micrococcus. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to ...
The incisors, against gram-positive bacteria with the disease, but the manysided improvment. Apostoli 187 dogs classified ... The cornea with vicinal free diffusible coagulase, to its quantity in serbia. The arterial trunks and suspension culture ... Every 14 what caused by avoiding the latex particles or other structures. During the medicinal and adds the untrained horses ... 4% in an oral cavity was done with nhl disease caused significant effects., other non-pathogenic leporidae calicivirus disease ...
Positive cultures to Grampositive bacteria (66.7 percent) were predominant. The most common bacteria were positive ... It is not risk-free method since the peritoneal dialysis-related infectious complications are the most important cause of ... Staphylococcus coagulase (48 percent) and negative Staphylococcus coagulase (22 percent). Other germs were E E. coli, ... RESULTS: We found 56 episodes of peritonitis in 23 of the 57 PD patients (0.43 episodes/patient-year). Gram-positive bacteria ...
Multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from cell phones in five intensive care units: Exploratory dispersion analysis.(Original ... article, Report) by GERMS; Health, general Antibacterial agents Analysis Bacteria Cellular telephones Usage Drug resistance ... Antimicrobial resistance of Gram-positive cocci (GPC) The high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus spp. was 30.8% ( ... Chicago style: The Free Library. S.v. Multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from cell phones in five intensive care units: ...
Frequency of isolation and antimicrobial resistance of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria from patients in intensive care ... Correlation of oxacillin MIC with mecA gene carriage in coagulase-negative staphylococci. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:752-754. ... An outbreak of infections caused by strains of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin and aminoglycosides. I. Clinical ... OpenUrlAbstract/FREE Full Text. *↵. Ito, T., X. X. Ma, F. Takeuchi, K. Okuma, H. Yuzawa, and K. Hiramatsu. 2004. Novel type V ...
Staphylococci : . Morphology: It is a Gram positive Cocci, one micrometer in diameter, arranged in clusters, non spore formers ... a 4- Coagulase enzyme that clotting plasma and protect bacteria from immune system. 5- Toxins: A- Exfoliative toxin ( ... Sites of infection and diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus : a. *. The Streptococcus species: Gram positive cocci 0.5-1.0 ... Staphylococci : Morphology: It is a Gram positive Cocci, one micrometer in diameter, arranged in clusters, non spore formers, ...
Extracts produce antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. Powdered alfalfa is used as a diluent to adjust ... The cause of bloat has not been clearly defined but it may be prevented by feeding corn or sorghum silage along with alfalfa ... 3.55, N-free extr. 30.69, ash 13.2, calcium 1.90, and phosphorus 0.52%, carotene 110.1 mg, ascorbic acid 51.6 mg, and thiamine ... Enzymes reported in alfalfa are amylase, emulsin, coagulase, peroxidase, erepsin, lipase, invertase, and pectinase. Among the ...
Aerobic bacteria.. Gram-positive bacteria, including: Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates); Coagulase- ... It is important that you complete the full course prescribed by your doctor so that all of the bacteria causing your infection ... This preparation is preservative free.. Clindamycin is a semi-synthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of ... Gram-negative bacteria: Chlamydia trachomatis.. Anaerobic bacteria.. Gram-negative bacteria: Bacteroides species; Fusobacterium ...
  • It is fairly easy to identify because, unlike the great majority of staphylococci, it decarboxylates ornithine and is positive for pyrrolidonyl arylamidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the severity of the endophthalmitis, though bacteria were sensitive to intravitreal antibiotics, pars plana vitrectomy was needed in four cases. (wikipedia.org)
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