Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Meningitis, Listeria: Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)Meningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Bacteria, AnaerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Bacteria, AerobicPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enterovirus InfectionsStreptococcus suis: A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Echovirus 9: A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC).Meningeal Carcinomatosis: Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Cronobacter sakazakii: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CHRONOBACTER, found in the environment and in foods.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Streptococcus bovis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.Arachnoiditis: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Meningocele: A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.PhenazinesGene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Tuberculosis, Miliary: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The bacterium is the main cause of the onset of meningeal syphilis and other treponemal diseases, and it consists of a ... Meningeal syphilis (as known as syphilitic aseptic meningitis or meningeal neurosyphilis) is a chronic form of syphilis ... Bacterial meningitis is normally caused by a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and enters the blood-brain barrier ... Treponema pallidum, which is a spirochate bacterium, is the main cause of syphilis, which spreads drastically throughout the ...
In serious cases, kidney or liver failure, aseptic meningitis, and fatal pulmonary hemorrhages have occurred in humans. As it ... Leptospira noguchii is another pathogenic bacteria that causes Leptospirosis. Leptospirosis can be transferred in a multitude ... Some complications are Weil's syndrome which is a multi-system organ complication causing jaundice, meningitis, pulmonary ... L noguchii is famous for causing the febrile illness in Fort Bragg, NC during World War II. There was 40 cases of this fever ...
... may cause aseptic meningitis. Aseptic meningitis may also result from infection with spirochetes, a type of bacteria that ... it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied ... It may identify bacteria in bacterial meningitis and may assist in distinguishing the various causes of viral meningitis ( ... It may also result from various non-infectious causes. The term aseptic meningitis refers to cases of meningitis in which no ...
... can result from non-infectious causes as well. it can be a relatively infrequent side effect of medications ... The absence of bacteria found in the spinal fluid upon spinal tap, either through microscopic examination or by culture, ... Terms such as viral meningitis, bacterial meningitis, fungal meningitis, neoplastic meningitis and drug-induced aseptic ... Viral meningitis Drug-induced aseptic meningitis Neoplastic meningitis Lyme disease Mumps meningoencephalitis Neurosarcoidosis ...
Viruses are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. Most cases of viral meningitis are caused by enteroviruses (common ... although viral meningitis typically follows a more benign clinical course. Viral meningitis has no evidence of bacteria present ... people infected with viruses that may cause meningitis do not actually develop meningitis. Viruses that can cause meningitis ... Viral meningitis, also known as aseptic meningitis, is a type of meningitis due to a viral infection. It results in ...
Viruses are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis.[2] Most cases of viral meningitis are caused by enteroviruses (common ... although viral meningitis typically follows a more benign clinical course. Viral meningitis has no evidence of bacteria present ... Viral meningitis, also known as aseptic meningitis, is a type of meningitis due to a viral infection. It results in ... CausesEdit. The most common causes of viral meningitis in the United States are non-polio enteroviruses. The viruses that cause ...
... and meningitis in all patients. Complications associated with CAUTI cause discomfort to the patient, prolonged hospital stay, ... Bacteria and yeast, including those naturally occurring as part of the human microbiome, can travel along urinary catheters and ... Urinary catheters should be inserted using aseptic technique and sterile equipment (including sterile gloves, drape, sponges, ... cause an infection in the bladder, kidneys, and other organs connected to the urinary tract. CAUTI can lead to complications ...
Neurological involvements range from aseptic meningitis to vascular thrombosis such as dural sinus thrombosis and organic brain ... The primary cause is not well known. In fact, no one knows yet why the immune system starts to behave this way in Behçet's ... Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are present in some bacteria and serve as a "danger signal" to the immune system. However, some HSPs ... The cause is unknown. It is believed to be partly genetic. Behçet's is not contagious. Diagnosis is based on at least three ...
The non-invasive infections caused by GAS tend to be less severe and more common. They occur when the bacteria colonizes the ... Note that meningitis, sinusitis and pneumonia can all be caused by Group A Strep, but are much more commonly associated with ... Further endocarditis can develop with aseptic vegetations along the valve closure lines, in particular the mitral valve. ... These occurs when the bacterium is able to infect areas where bacteria are not usually found, such as blood and organs. The ...
Neurological involvements range from aseptic meningitis to vascular thrombosis such as dural sinus thrombosis and organic brain ... Cause[edit]. The cause is not well-defined, but it is primarily characterized by auto-inflammation of the blood vessels. ... However, some HSPs share a similarity in bacteria and humans.[13] The anti-HSP60 and anti-HSP65 antibodies that target HSPs ... The cause is unknown.[2] It is believed to be partly genetic.[1] Behçet's is not contagious.[2] Diagnosis is based on at least ...
Cause. Pathogenic viruses. Pathogenic bacteria Pathophysiology[edit]. There is a general chain of events that applies to ... In addition, locations of inflammation where infection is the most common cause include pneumonia, meningitis and salpingitis. ... Aseptic technique was introduced in medicine and surgery in the late 19th century and greatly reduced the incidence of ... and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis ...
More rare manifestations are acute confusional state, Guillain-Barré syndrome, aseptic meningitis, autonomic disorder, ... which can cause a false positive test for syphilis.[citation needed] SLE may cause pericarditis - inflammation of the outer ... Thus triggers may include viruses, bacteria, allergens (IgE and other hypersensitivity), and can be aggravated by environmental ... The cause of SLE is not clear. It is thought to involve genetics together with environmental factors. Among identical twins, if ...
... s are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms ... locations of inflammation where infection is the most common cause include pneumonia, meningitis and salpingitis. The symptoms ... Aseptic technique was introduced in medicine and surgery in the late 19th century and greatly reduced the incidence of ... and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis ...
Cause. Pathogenic viruses. Pathogenic bacteria ৰোগ প্ৰক্ৰিয়া[সম্পাদনা কৰক]. There is a general chain of events that applies to ... In addition, locations of inflammation where infection is the most common cause include pneumonia, meningitis and salpingitis. ... Aseptic technique was introduced in medicine and surgery in the late 19th century and greatly reduced the incidence of ... and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis ...
The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause.[2] Risk factors ... using aseptic technique for insertion, and maintaining unobstructed closed drainage of the catheter.[33][34][35] ... Cause. Uropathogenic E. coli from the gut is the cause of 80-85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections,[22] with ... The bacteria that cause urinary tract infections typically enter the bladder via the urethra. However, infection may also occur ...
Viral meningitis is usually less serious than meningitis that is caused by bacteria or fungi. ... Meningitis means inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Viral meningitis can be caused by several ... How is viral meningitis diagnosed? If meningitis is suspected, doctors will take samples of blood and/or fluid near the spinal ... The laboratory will run tests on the samples to confirm that a virus is causing the meningitis. Doctors may also order tests to ...
... a form of meningitis not caused by bacteria. We look at what causes it, the symptoms, and treatment options. ... However, unlike bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis is not usually life-threatening.. While still rare, aseptic meningitis ... Causes. Aseptic meningitis can be caused by a range of viruses. High fever may be one symptom. ... Aseptic meningitis is when something other than a bacterial infection causes meningitis. Most often, it is the result of a ...
Aseptic meningitis is a disease involving inflammation in the area between the middle and inner tissue layers covering the ... Bacterial meningitis is caused by bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid. Aseptic meningitis is brought on by infection from other ... can cause infection resulting in aseptic meningitis. If you think you have any symptoms of aseptic meningitis, see your doctor ... Viruses causing encephalitis can also cause aseptic meningitis though this is relatively rare. ...
... "aseptic meningitis." The term "aseptic" is used to differentiate this type of meningitis from those caused by bacteria. The ... The term aseptic is used to differentiate this type of meningitis from those caused by bacteria. The patient usually recovers ... When poliovirus causes only the minor illness or simple aseptic meningitis, the patient can be expected to recover completely. ... When poliovirus causes only the minor illness or simple aseptic meningitis, the patient can be expected to recover completely. ...
A variety of factors have been identified as causes of aseptic meningitis, including viruses, such as entero-, mumps, herpes ... and an absence of bacteria on examination and culture (Berkow, 1987). Others consider the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis to ... ASEPTIC MENINGITIS. Clinical Description. Aseptic meningitis is defined as inflammation of the meninges characterized by ... Thus, many cases reported as meningitis" may, in fact, be cases of aseptic meningitis. Case reports of meningitis in ...
Which three other bacteria also cause meningitis in children under 3 months? ... Most cases of meningitis occur in _______, but there is higher ______ in older individual. The case fatality is 47%, and those ... When the brain is not immobilised at the time of injury, so the sudden change of momentum freely moves the brain, causing ... a small haemorrhage not large enough to cause significant tissue destruction, which resolves slowly and form a slit-like scar ...
Learn more about Aseptic Meningitis at Medical City Dallas DefinitionCausesRisk ... Mycoplasma, an usual bacteria that can cause pneumonia. * Partially treated bacterial meningitis ... Causes. The most common causes of aseptic meningitis are:. * Viral infections: * Enteroviruses (most common), such as Coxsackie ... Aseptic meningitis occurs when there are signs of meningitis without an identifiable disease-causing agent. ...
Is aseptic meningitis caused by bacteria? No. Causes: viruses, funghi, TB, infections near the CNS ... Viral infections of the CNS cause meningitis, encephalitis, or both, and have many common symptoms. What is a distinguishing ... Mental status remains normal in meningitis;. Intracerebral hemorrhage can happen in encephalitis but not meningitis. Symptoms ... Sign of meningitis. Neck is so stiff that knees flex when neck is flexed ...
Aseptic meningitis is an older term referring to meningitis not caused by easily cultured bacteria. The term has become ... Pneumonia in adults can be caused by influenza virus, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and RSV. B. Viral Meningitis 1. Caused by ... Polio is caused by a picornavirus, and 2. CMV can be identified with a high level of rabies is caused by the rhabdovirus. ... b. Coxsackie B viruses cause about one-third of all cases of myocarditis. They are also associated with meningitis. ...
... meningitis; see the image below) and those primarily confined to the parenchyma (encephalitis).{file37574}Meningitis is a ... Table 1. Infectious Agents Causing Aseptic Meningitis Category. Agent. Bacteria. Partially treated bacterial meningitis ... Aseptic meningitis. In contrast to patients with bacterial meningitis, patients with aseptic meningitis syndrome usually appear ... See Aseptic Meningitis.) In many cases, a cause for meningitis is not apparent after initial evaluation, and the condition is ...
It can be caused by viruses, parasites, fungi, and bacteria. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is common; most people recover fully. ... There are two common types of bacteria that cause meningitis:. *Strep pneumoniae causes pneumococcal meningitis; there are over ... How is bacterial meningitis spread?. Fortunately, none of the bacteria that cause meningitis are as contagious as diseases like ... The bacteria rarely overcomes the bodys immune system and causes meningitis or another serious illness. ...
What is Meningitis, aseptic? Meaning of Meningitis, aseptic medical term. What does Meningitis, aseptic mean? ... aseptic in the Medical Dictionary? Meningitis, aseptic explanation free. ... see viral meningitis.. bacterial meningitis meningitis caused by bacteria; common pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae, ... See also aseptic meningitis.. aseptic meningitis. an inflammation of the meninges that is caused by one of a number of viruses ...
This set of slides will discuss the signs, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of meningitis. ... Meningitis is a potentially fatal disease that can be bacterial or viral. ... Viral meningitis is the most common type of meningitis. It is also called aseptic meningitis. Another form of meningitis is ... Infectious meningitis is caused by a variety of organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Bacterial meningitis is a ...
aseptic meningitis any of several mild types of meningitis, most of which are caused by viruses; see viral meningitis. ... bacterial meningitis meningitis caused by bacteria; common pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, ... Enteroviruses are the most common causes of aseptic meningitis.. Bacterial Meningitis. This form occurs when pathogenic ... meningitis. [men″in-ji´tis] (pl. meningi´tides) inflammation of the meninges, usually by either a bacterium (bacterial m.) or a ...
Skin AND skin structure infections caused by Bacteroides species including the. Aseptic Meningitis Cases of aseptic meningitis ... These drugs are made to kill and overcome bacteria in human body. And the flagyl refusal to give me Ponzuril in place of with ... Aseptic meningitis Cases of aseptic meningitis have been reported with metronidazole. Risk of Hepatotoxicity and Death in ... Diarrhoea may be caused by antibiotics and this is with a buying clear sign of a new infection especially if diarrhoea is ...
Meningitis Definition Meningitis is a potentially fatal inflammation of the meninges, the thin, membranous covering of the ... cause about 90 percent of cases of aseptic meningitis. Two types of bacteria that are most likely to cause septic meningitis ... most often with viruses or bacteria. Meningitis caused by bacteria is known as septic meningitis. Meningitis caused by other ... Viral meningitis -Meningitis caused by a virus. Also called aseptic meningitis.. Vaccines are available for both meningococcal ...
... may cause aseptic meningitis. Aseptic meningitis may also result from infection with spirochetes, a group of bacteria that ... it may indicate a particular cause of meningitis; for instance, meningitis caused by meningococcal bacteria may be accompanied ... Meningitis caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (known as "meningococcal meningitis") can be differentiated from ... It may identify bacteria in bacterial meningitis and may assist in distinguishing the various causes of viral meningitis ( ...
... drug side effect causes. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Meningitis. ... List of 160 disease causes of Meningitis, patient stories, diagnostic guides, ... Meningitis can also be caused by infections with several types of bacteria or fungi. (Source: excerpt from Viral (Aseptic) ... Meningitis and Pain (96 causes) *Meningitis and Sensory symptoms (96 causes) *Meningitis and Sensations (93 causes) *Meningitis ...
The most serious form of meningitis is bacterial meningitis. Several bacteria have been implicated as a cause of meningitis, ... The meningitis caused by viruses is called aseptic meningitis because the cerebrospinal fluid when tested does not contain any ... Meningitis may result from a variety of causes including viruses, bacteria, chemicals or drugs, and tumors. The latter two are ... The bacterium which causes the most cases of meningitis in the university age population is Neisseria Meningitidis. There are ...
The bacteria which causes Tetanus is called Clostridium tetani. This bacterium is everywhere and usually grows in a wound to ... More details Cause/transmission The infection is caused by a bacterium called Bordetella pertussis. It is transmitted from ... More details Cause and symptoms Hepatitis A is one of the many viruses that cause an infection of the liver. It is transmitted ... Cause/Transmission Yellow Fever is caused by an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus (similar to the West Nile and Dengue fever ...
Meningitis, viral (Aseptic meningitis): Rarely serious. Usually caused by common viruses such as herpes simplex, adenovirus, or ... Meningitis, bacterial: Readmit after a physicians certificate or health permit is obtained. Depending on which bacteria are ... causing the illness, prophylactic antibiotics may be recommended for family members. Occasionally, close contacts at a school ...
... caused by normal mouth flora after spinal injection procedures performed by a common provider suggests a breach in aseptic ... Four of the cases were confirmed to be infections with S. salivarius, a bacterium that is part of the normal mouth flora. ... Two small clusters of bacterial meningitis caused by S. salivarius after spinal anesthesia occurred during 2008--2009, despite ... The cause of death was determined by autopsy to be suppurative meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus salivarius. CSF was ...
... notwithstanding the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. Besides encephalitis and death, other complications (such as aseptic ... Tests for bacteria, Dengue virus, Rotavirus, and Plasmodium spp. were negative; however, HEV71 was isolated from his throat and ... Aseptic meningitis manifested by headache and terminal neck stiffness developed in an 8-year-old girl with characteristic ... The other clinical presentations of the non-HFMD patients included aseptic meningitis, herpangina, and Guillain-Barré syndrome ...
The bacterium is the main cause of the onset of meningeal syphilis and other treponemal diseases, and it consists of a ... Meningeal syphilis (as known as syphilitic aseptic meningitis or meningeal neurosyphilis) is a chronic form of syphilis ... Bacterial meningitis is normally caused by a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and enters the blood-brain barrier ... Treponema pallidum, which is a spirochate bacterium, is the main cause of syphilis, which spreads drastically throughout the ...
Medical treatment for bacterial/vital meningitis in children, teenagers, adults includes a combination of antibiotics and ... Spinal meningitis causes could include viruses, as well as bacteria. Viral spinal meningitis, also known as aseptic meningitis ... Acute bacterial meningitis causes include the entry of certain bacteria into the bloodstream. These bacteria then migrate to ... Meningitis Causes. There are several different microorganisms that could lead to meningitis, such as bacteria, viruses and ...
  • Acid-fast stain - The cells of some bacteria and parasites are impervious to crystal violet and other dyes, so heat or detergents are used to force dye into this type of cell. (slideserve.com)
  • What are commonly referred to as "symptomatic cases" are those in whom a presumed cause can be identified. (nih.gov)
  • Other signs commonly associated with meningitis include photophobia (intolerance to bright light) and phonophobia (intolerance to loud noises). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Kernig's sign and Brudzinski's sign are both commonly used to screen for meningitis, the sensitivity of these tests is limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with disoid lupus, commonly developed scarred alopecia causing permanent skin loss (following discoid rash over the scalp). (explainmedicine.com)
  • Although it is commonly accepted that swimming pools can cause certain illnesses it can be difficult to directly link an outbreak with pool water as the evidence is largely circumstantial. (holidayaccidentclaims.com)