Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Clostridium botulinum type A: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces BOTULINUM TOXINS, TYPE A which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium botulinum type E: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type E which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium botulinum type B: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Botulinum Antitoxin: Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Clostridium botulinum type D: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type D which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans.Clostridium botulinum type F: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type F which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Clostridium botulinum type C: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Anti-Dyskinesia Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Clostridium butyricum: Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Clostridium botulinum type G: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type G. Though it has been isolated from soil, no outbreaks involving this type have been recognized.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Clostridium sordellii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25: A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Sodium Nitrite: Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Clostridium septicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. Infections have a strong association with malignancies and also with GAS GANGRENE.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Blepharospasm: Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Tilia: A plant genus of the family TILIACEAE. Some species in this genus are called Limetree which is nearly the same as the common name for lime (CITRUS AURANTIIFOLIA). Some people are allergic to the POLLEN.Clostridium beijerinckii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Thioglycolates: Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Botulism is a rare disease caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. A small number of the bacteria can cause severe poisoning ... Further testing showed that the bacteria found were Clostridium sporogenes, which do not produce botulism toxins. There was no ... On 31 July 2013, tests revealed signs of Clostridium botulinum, leading to the recall. The contamination was blamed on ... In infants, the toxin also affects the intestinal system. On 3 August 2013, the Ministry for Primary Industries announced a ...
The latter causes tetanus and is vaccinated against by the DTaP vaccine. Botulin is produced by Clostridium botulinum and ... Toxoids are used as vaccines because they induce an immune response to the original toxin or increase the response to another ... The toxoid does not have virulence as the toxin did before inactivation. Multiple doses of tetanus toxoid are used by many ... A toxoid is a bacterial toxin (usually an exotoxin) whose toxicity has been inactivated or suppressed either by chemical ( ...
... which causes tetanus. A related bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, produces botulinum toxin that also hydrolyzes synaptobrevin. ... Synaptobrevin is degraded by tetanospasmin, a protein derived from the bacterium Clostridium tetani, ...
Certain strains of Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism, express botulinum toxin from phage-tranduced genes. Strategies ... In this case, the gene that codes for the toxin is carried by the phage, not the bacteria. Vibrio cholerae is a non-toxic ... Shigella dysenteriae, which produces dysentery has toxins that fall into two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, whose genes are ... Another approach could be to cause an overexpression of CI repressor since prophage induction only occurs when the ...
The Clostridium botulinum bacteria are the cause of botulism. Vegetative cells of C. botulinum may be ingested. Introduction of ... This happens because C. botulinum produces a toxin which blocks the release of acetylcholine. Botulism toxin blocks the ... If its effects reach the respiratory muscles, then it can cause respiratory failure, leading to death. Curare is a poison that ... Idris M, Elahi M, Arif A (Jan-Mar 2007). "Guillain Barre syndrome: the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Hazara ...
... produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[9] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ... Toxin production[edit]. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ... Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] ... Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of problems. Muscle spasticity[edit]. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of ...
If the apple butter is improperly canned, Clostridium botulinum can survive and multiply in the jar. This germ produces a toxin ... It is a critical step in minimizing the potential growth of spoilage-causing and illness-causing microorganisms in the product ... This is because high-acid foods prevent the growth of spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can't be killed by ... Once the jar is unsealed, the product must be refrigerated to slow down or inhibit the growth of microorganisms that cause ...
Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The disease ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... In all cases, illness is caused by the botulinum toxin produced by the bacterium C. botulinum in anaerobic conditions and not ...
The cause remains unknown, however the toxin produced from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum type C may be involved. ... It may cause grass sickness when the spores of C. botulinum type C are ingested and produce their toxin locally within the ... Clostridium botulinum is a soil-borne bacterium, which may be better known for producing clinical signs of botulism. ... Differential diagnoses for grass sickness are varied and include any other cause of colic and weight loss, tying-up, laminitis ...
... such as Staphylococcus aureusand Clostridium botulinum are food borne pathogens that secrete toxins into the host to cause ... causing disease by being there and causing a homeostatic imbalance in the body, or by secreting toxins which cause symptoms to ... Microbes and fungi cause symptoms due to their high rate of reproduction and tissue invasion. This causes an immune response, ... This term is most commonly used to refer to disease-causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. ...
... since ingestion of toxin in food produced by Clostridium botulinum can cause death. Because of the high risk of illness or ...
As with the yellow perch, this predator-prey relationship could cause toxins and microorganisms to move up the food chain. ... notably Clostridium botulinum. Redear sunfish, a specialized mollusc-eating fish, are now being stocked in the Colorado River ... It causes many of the same problems (stripping life-supporting algae, damaging boats, power plants, and harbors and destroying ... Although quaggas are edible for humans, eating them is not recommended due to the accumulation of toxins, pollutants, and ...
Botulinum toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum is the most powerful toxic protein. It prevents release of ... This causes smaller EPPs due to less vesicles being released. Often the smaller EPPs do not reach threshold which causes muscle ... Acetylcholine Action potential Alpha-latrotoxin Alzheimer's disease Botulinum toxin Motor neuron Muscarinic receptors ... During repolarization, the sodium channels begin to become inactivated, causing a net efflux of potassium ions. This causes the ...
Properly cured sauerkraut is sufficiently acidic to prevent a favorable environment for the growth of Clostridium botulinum, ... the toxins of which cause botulism. A 2004 genomic study found an unexpectedly large diversity of lactic acid bacteria in ...
In extreme cases, anaerobic conditions ensue, promoting growth of bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum that produces toxins ... Eutrophication may cause competitive release by making abundant a normally limiting nutrient. This process causes shifts in the ... Other marine animals can be vectors for such toxins, as in the case of ciguatera, where it is typically a predator fish that ... An example of algal toxins working their way into humans is the case of shellfish poisoning. Biotoxins created during algal ...
The potassium nitrate in saltpeter kills Clostridium botulinum, the deadly bacterium that causes botulism while the acidity of ... therefore the toxin will not be formed in acidic foods. The antimicrobial properties of certain spices have also been drawn ... The vinegar serves as a primary inhibitor of Clostridium botulinum bacteria, according to WHO (World Health Organisation); ... According to the World Health Organization, C. botulinum will not grow in acidic conditions (pH less than 4.6), ...
... including Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum. The latter toxin has been traced to pre-made, packaged coleslaw ... One of the most common bacterial diseases to affect cabbage is black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris, which causes ... Clubroot, caused by the soilborne slime mold-like organism Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in swollen, club-like roots. Downy ... Rhizoctonia solani causes the post-emergence disease wirestem, resulting in killed seedlings ("damping-off"), root rot or ...
Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens (which causes gas gangrene) and several viruses (including enterovirus 17 [i. ... e., human conjunctivitis], rotavirus and camel pox). The program also purified biological toxins, including botulinum toxin, ... It produced large quantities of botulinum toxin and anthrax from 1989 to 1996. The name derives from the common Arabic name or ...
... the risks of food poisoning from anaerobic bacteria such as species of Clostridium that release botulinum toxin that can cause ... There are many other organisms that can also cause food poisoning. There are also safety guidelines available for the correct ... An unvarying diet of staple foods prepared in the same manner can cause appetite exhaustion, leading to less caloric intake. ...
... caused by Brucella suis Q-fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii botulism, botulin toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum ... anti-crop bomb M143 bomblet M33 cluster bomb SUU-24/A dispenser anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis Ames strain tularemia, ... Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB), toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus, used as an incapacitating agent Stem rust, both ...
... and poor hygiene allowing contamination of canned food by the obligate anaerobe Clostridium botulinum, which produces an acute ... This causes micro-organisms to die off on the surface. High-pressure food preservation or pascalization refers to the use of a ... Its toxin is denatured by cooking, however. Cooked mushrooms, handled poorly and then canned, can support the growth of ... Most such failures are rapidly detected as decomposition within the can causes gas production and the can will swell or burst. ...
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botox is a specific form of botulinum ... Botulinum toxin treats wrinkles by immobilizing the muscles which cause wrinkles. It is not appropriate for the treatment of ... Botulinum toxin Injectable filler Danby, FW (Jul-Aug 2010). "Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation". Cln Dermatol. 4. ... In 2010, another form of botulinum toxin, one free of complexing proteins, became available to Americans. Xeomin received FDA ...
... secreted by Clostridium tetani and the botulinum toxin secreted by Clostridium botulinum. Exotoxins are also produced by a ... The mislocalization of RhoA causes downstream effectors to not work. A major group of virulence factors are bacterial toxins. ... As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... this toxin can cause serious liver damage. Examples of virulence factors for Staphylococcus aureus are hyaluronidase, protease ...
Well-known exotoxins include: botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum; Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin, produced ... and to eliminate it before it can cause harm to the host. Toxins of this type include cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, Shiga ... AB5 toxin) By domain architecture of the toxin (for example, polymorphic toxins) By the ability of the toxin to endure in ... One example is the α toxin of C. perfringens, which causes gas gangrene; α toxin has phospholipase activity. Type III exotoxins ...
... s are toxins produced by Clostridium species. Clostridial species are one of the major causes of food ... Among the family are: Clostridium botulinum, which produces one of the most potent toxins in existence; Clostridium tetani, ... The use of toxins to damage the host is a method deployed by many bacterial pathogens. The major virulence factor of C. ... Clostridium enterotoxin is a nine-stranded beta sheet sandwich in shape. It has been determined that it is very similar to ...
Clostridia. Clostridium (spore-forming). motile:. *Clostridium difficile *Pseudomembranous colitis. *Clostridium botulinum * ... List of conditions caused by problems with junctional proteins. References[edit]. *^ Rapini RP, Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL (2007 ... Epidermolytic toxin-producing staphylococci as the etiologic agent of the fourth childhood exanthem". American Journal of ... The syndrome is induced by epidermolytic exotoxins (exfoliatin)[2] A and B, which are released by S. aureus and cause ...
It is caused by a toxin that is usually produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, but other Clostridium bacteria (Clostridium ... Botulism toxins are among the most potent toxins found in nature; tiny quantities can cause life-threatening illness. The ... Foodborne botulism is caused by eating foods that contain the botulism toxin. It is considered a public health emergency, as ... Infant botulism is caused by consuming the spores of botulism bacteria, which then grow in the intestines and release toxin. ...
Know the causes, symptoms, treatment, pathophysiology of benign essential blepharospasm. ... Botulinum Toxin Injections: The Botox injections are obtained from Clostridium botulinum bacteria. The extract is injected in ... Causes of Benign Essential Blepharospasm. The exact reason behind benign essential blepharospasm still remains a mystery, but ... A significant amount of relief can be achieved by botulin toxin treatment, but some side effects are a part and parcel of it ...
... causing tetanus. All mammals are susceptible to the disease [1]. The toxins action can be prevented with tetanus toxoid ... This cluster includes other pathogenic Clostridium species such as Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens.[5] The ... "tetanus toxin") is one of the most potent toxins known, with an estimated lethal dose of less than 2.5 nanograms per kilogram ... Clostridium tetani is a common soil bacterium and the causative agent of tetanus. When growing in soil, C. tetani are rod- ...
Botulism Botulism is a disease caused by the ingestion of a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium. All domestic ... Botulism Botulism is a disease caused by the ingestion of a toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacterium. All domestic ... Many human deaths have also been attributed to the consumption of food or water containing the toxin. Botulism is not a ... Botulism - Botulism Botulism is a disease caused by the.... This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full ...
the toxin is obtained from the clostridium botulinum ... ... the toxin is obtained from the clostridium botulinum bacterium ... the toxin is obtained from the clostridium botulinum bacterium. this bacterium causes botulism, a form of bacterial food ... clostridium botulinum, cosmetic, cosmetic surgeon, cosmetic surgery, doctor, drug, duo, face, fifties, forehead, forties, ... clostridium botulinum, cosmetic, cosmetic surgeon, cosmetic surgery, doctor, drug, duo, face, fifties, forehead, forties, ...
Botulinum Toxin, Side Effects, Infectious Diseases, Food Poisoning, Clostridium Botulinum, Botulism Bacteria, Botulism Symptoms ... The intestinal tracts of fish, mammals, crabs, and other shellfish may contain C botulinum and its spores. The bacteriums ... Botulism Testing, Botulism Treatment, Botulism Vaccine, Causes Of Botulism, Prevention Of Botulism, Signs Of Botulism, Symptoms ... Treatment of Botulism is a potentially deadly illness that is caused by a toxin produced by a bacterium called Clostridium ...
Botulism results from eating preformed toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism begins with cranial nerve paralysis, ... All patients were Alaska Natives, and all cases with known causes were associated with eating fermented foods (1,2). ... Clinical specimens from the 14 exposed persons were tested for botulinum toxin at CDC. Type E toxin was detected in serum ... The video also suggests boiling fermented foods for 10 minutes to destroy botulinum toxin. Both an English and an Alaska Native ...
C. botulinum produces a toxin that causes botulism, a rare but serious condition in humans. Clostridium botulinum is a type of ... This germ can cause disease in stressed fish and amphibians. Aeromonas spp. can cause discoloration of the limbs of amphibians ... In people, Vibrio can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Some types of Vibrio can also cause skin infections from contact ... The most common diseases associated with wildlife that can cause human illness are:. ExternalCdc-pdf. Aeromoniasis (Aeromonas ...
Clostridium tetani Toxins cause tetanus 15 Clostridium botulinum Botox 16 Bacilus Anthracis ...
Clostridium Botulinum, a source of botulinum toxin.. * Histoplasma Capsulatam, cause of a disease attacking lungs, brain, ... Clostridium Perfringens, a highly toxic bacteria causing systemic illness.. * Clostridium tetani, a highly toxigenic substance. ... which made seventy shipments of the anthrax-causing germ and other pathogenic agents, according to a 1996 Newsday story. ...
Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[17] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ... Toxin production[edit]. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ... Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] It ... Botulinum toxin A is marketed under the brand names Jeuveau, Botox and Xeomin. Botulinum toxin B is marketed under the brand ...
Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[9] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ... Toxin production[edit]. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ... Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.[1] ... Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of problems. Muscle spasticity[edit]. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of ...
... a rare but serious form of food poisoning which is caused by a toxin released by the clostridium botulinum bacterium. ... Treatment involves a botulinum anti-toxin which prevents the spread of the toxin throughout the bloodstream. Intravenous fluids ... These bacteria form part of the Clostridium genus which includes clostridium perfringens and clostridium difficile. ... Clostridium botulinum bacteria This bacterium is part of a group of rod shaped organisms which are usually found in soils, the ...
Some of these bacteria, such as C. botulinum, C. difficile, C. perfringens and C. spiroforme, cause enteric problems in animals ... In summary, these protein toxins aid diverse enteric species within the genus Clostridium. ... Some of these bacteria, such as C. botulinum, C. difficile, C. perfringens and C. spiroforme, cause enteric problems in animals ... In summary, these protein toxins aid diverse enteric species within the genus Clostridium. ...
... clinicaltrials.gov Botulinum A toxin (BoNT/A) injections in patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS) associated with ... It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.. Clostridium Botulinum Type D. Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces ... Clostridium Botulinum Type C. Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ... Clostridium Botulinum Type B. Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to ...
A strain of bacteria called Clostridium botulinum causes botulism. It produces toxins that impact the nervous system. Botulism ... What causes the stomach bug?. Several different viruses may cause the stomach bug. Viruses that most frequently cause it ... If youre unsure about whats causing your symptoms, check in with your doctor to be safe. Other health issues can cause ... The norovirus alone causes 21 million cases of the stomach virus in the United States each year. Other viruses such as the ...
Wound botulism is caused by toxin produced from a wound infected with Clostridium botulinum . ... What kind of germ is Clostridium botulinum?. Clostridium botulinum is the name of a group of bacteria commonly found in soil. ... is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum . There ... Infant botulism is caused by consuming the spores of the botulinum bacteria, which then grow in the intestines and release ...
Clostridium Botulinum, a source of botulinum toxin. It was sold to Iraq right up until 1992. (Blum 8/20/2002; Mackay and ... Our cause is just! Now you must be the thunder and lightning of Desert Storm. May God be with you, your loved ones at home, and ... Clostridium tetani, highly toxigenic. (Blum 8/20/2002; Mackay and Arbuthnot 9/8/2002) Also, Escherichia Coli (E.Coli); genetic ... Histoplasma Capsulatam, cause of a disease attacking lungs, brain, spinal cord and heart. (Blum 8/20/2002) Brucella Melitensis ...
Clostridium Botulinum, a source of botulinum toxin. It was sold to Iraq right up until 1992. (Blum 8/20/2002; Mackay and ... Histoplasma Capsulatam, cause of a disease attacking lungs, brain, spinal cord and heart. (Blum 8/20/2002) Brucella Melitensis ... May 2, 1986: US Ships Toxins to Iraq Ministry. Two batches each of bacillus anthracis and bacterium clostridium botulinum are ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sends samples of botulinum toxin and botulinum toxiod "directly to the Iraqi ...
Clostridium Botulinum, a source of botulinum toxin. It was sold to Iraq right up until 1992. (Blum 8/20/2002; Mackay and ... The report causes a brief media sensation in the British and US press. Later, more intensive analysis of the data by British ... Clostridium tetani, highly toxigenic. (Blum 8/20/2002; Mackay and Arbuthnot 9/8/2002) Also, Escherichia Coli (E.Coli); genetic ... Histoplasma Capsulatam, cause of a disease attacking lungs, brain, spinal cord and heart. (Blum 8/20/2002) Brucella Melitensis ...
Botulism is a rare but serious illness caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. The bacteria may enter the body through wounds ... Botulism is a rare but serious illness caused by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. The bacteria may enter the body through wounds ... Blood tests can be done to identify the toxin. A stool culture may also be ordered. Lab tests can be done on the suspected food ... Botulism (Clostridium botulinum). In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of ...
o Botulinum Toxin. The most powerful poison known. Cause of botulism, produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. Symptoms ... Iraqs biological weapons were understood to include anthrax bacilli and botulinum toxin.3 ... botulinum toxin (the poison released by botulism organisms) and staphylococcus enterotoxin B (released by certain staph ... Although toxins are inanimate products of microorganisms, they are treated as biological agents under the terms of the 1972 ...
Immunodiffusion detection of Clostridium botulinum colonies.. Botulinum toxin: bioweapon & magic drug. Production of ... Endovascular infections caused by histoplasma capsulatum: a case series and review of the literature ...
Find out more about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments, and how to prevent botulism. ... Botulism is a serious illness that can cause paralysis. ... The toxin is produced by Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum), ... Causes. The botulinum toxin, a poison produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum), is common in soil and ... Botulism is a serious illness caused by the botulinum toxin. The toxin causes paralysis. Paralysis starts in the face and ...
Find out about symptoms, causes, how to prevent it. ... Botulism is caused by a bacteria. It can be serious. ... The cause is a toxin (poison) made by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. It occurs naturally in soil. ... Article: Decoy toxin harnessed to fight botulism. * Article: Characterization of immune response induced against catalytic ... Wound botulism happens when a wound infected with the bacteria makes the toxin. It is more common in heroin users. Infant ...
  • Tetanospasmin (also called "tetanus toxin") is one of the most potent toxins known, with an estimated lethal dose of less than 2.5 nanograms per kilogram of body weight, and is responsible for the symptoms of tetanus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other Clostridium species can be divided into a number of genetically related groups, many of which are more closely related to members of other genera than they are to C. tetani . (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant amount of relief can be achieved by botulin toxin treatment, but some side effects are a part and parcel of it like blurred vision , drooping eyelids, double vision and dryness in the eye . (epainassist.com)
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