Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous: A disease characterized by the chronic, progressive spread of lesions from New World cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by species of the L. braziliensis complex to the nasal, pharyngeal, and buccal mucosa some time after the appearance of the initial cutaneous lesion. Nasal obstruction and epistaxis are frequent presenting symptoms.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Leishmania braziliensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous: A form of LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS caused by Leishmania aethiopica in Ethiopia and Kenya, L. pifanoi in Venezuela, L. braziliensis in South America, and L. mexicana in Central America. This disease is characterized by massive dissemination of skin lesions without visceral involvement.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Antimony Sodium Gluconate: Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.Leishmania tropica: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Leishmania guyanensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals and causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS). Transmission is by Lutzomyia sandflies.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)BrazilParomomycin: An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.VenezuelaParasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.IndiaMice, Inbred BALB CProtozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.ColombiaArgentinaSkin UlcerDisease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.NepalPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)BoliviaPeruSkin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Benzethonium: Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).PanamaGeography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Immunochromatography: A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.Hyraxes: Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.AfghanistanMesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.IranFluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Military Facilities: Areas designated for use by the armed forces personnel.EcuadorSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Suriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Asymptomatic Infections: Infections that do not exhibit symptoms.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.BangladeshTopography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Eyelid DiseasesChagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.USSRAminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Rhinophyma: A manifestation of severe ROSACEA resulting in significant enlargement of the NOSE and occurring primarily in men. It is caused by hypertrophy of the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and surrounding CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The nose is reddened and marked with TELANGIECTASIS.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Facial DermatosesInsecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Leprosy, Lepromatous: A chronic communicable infection which is a principal or polar form of LEPROSY. This disorder is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE and produces diffuse granulomatous skin lesions in the form of nodules, macules, or papules. The peripheral nerves are involved symmetrically and neural sequelae occur in the advanced stage.Emaciation: Clinical manifestation of excessive LEANNESS usually caused by disease or a lack of nutrition (MALNUTRITION).DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).Sri LankaSeroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Leishmaniavirus: A genus of RNA protozoan viruses of the family TOTIVIRIDAE. Several different strains of Leishmania are infected by a variety of viral species. The type species is Leishmania RNA virus 1-1.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Trifluralin: A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Mice, Inbred C57BLDrug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Antimony Potassium Tartrate: A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
The three forms of leishmaniasis are visceral (Kala-azar), cutaneous, and mucocutaneous. There are an estimated 12 million ... At least 90 percent of visceral leishmaniasis occurs in Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan, and Sudan. Cutaneous ... It is fatal if untreated and 20,000 deaths from visceral leishmaniasis occur annually. It is a vector-borne disease that is ... For guinea worm, Buruli ulcer, or cutaneous leishmaniasis, wound management is needed to speed up healing and reduce disability ...
Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis usually lasts for 20 days and visceral and mucosal leishmaniasis for 28 days. The dose of ... It is recommend treating all forms of leishmaniasis with a full 20 mg/kg/day of pentavalent antimony. ... This includes leishmaniasis of the cutaneous, visceral, and mucosal types. Some combination of miltefosine, paramycin and ... It can also be given intralesionally when treating cutaneous leishmaniasis (i.e., injected directly into the area of infected ...
It is an option for both visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Pentamidine can be given by injection into a vein ... The inhaled form is minimally absorbed in the blood. Absorption is unreliable when given orally. Distribution: When injected, ... Common side effects of the inhaled form include wheezing, cough, and nausea. It is unclear if doses should be changed in those ... Common side effects of the injectable form include low blood sugar, pain at the site of injection, nausea, vomiting, low blood ...
Leishmaniasis* is spread by the sandfly, and in the dog as well as human has both cutaneous and visceral forms. The dog is ... The atypical form and the form caused by abrupt withdrawal of steroids do not need mineralocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are ... It is a form of meningoencephalitis. The disease is more common in female toy dogs of young and middle age. Facial nerve ... Forms of diabetes which may not be permanent, depending on the amount of damage to the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas, ...
The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis. The cutaneous form presents ... Leishmaniasis may be divided into the following types: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form, which causes an open ... The visceral form of leishmaniasis has an estimated incidence of 500,000 new cases. More than 90% of the world's cases of ... Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar ('black fever') is the most serious form, and is potentially fatal if untreated. Other ...
... causing the visceral, cutaneous or mucocutaneous forms of the disease depending on the Leishmania species. The human-sand fly- ... In southern Brazil, for example, levels of cutaneous leishmaniasis are increasing as a result of the adaptation of three, ... Similar increases in risk factors are also driving higher rates of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. Increased ... Peterson, A. T. & Shaw, J. (2003). "Lutzomyia vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Southern Brazil: ecological niche models, ...
This includes leishmaniasis of the cutaneous, visceral, and mucosal types. It may be used together with liposomal amphotericin ... a 2005 survey concluded that miltefosine is the only effective oral treatment for both forms of leishmaniasis. In addition, it ... Miltefosine is primarily used for the treatment of visceral and New World cutaneous leishmaniasis, and is undergoing clinical ... launches Impavido® (miltefosine), the first and only oral Rx treatment for visceral, mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in ...
... and other diseases such as leishmaniasis. Paromomycin was demonstrated to be effective against cutaneous leishmaniasis in ... "Injectable paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis in India". N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (25): 2571-81. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa066536. PMID ... In India the injectable form is about 4.19 to 8.38 pounds for a course of treatment as of 2007. In the United States a typical ... 2013). "Topical Paromomycin with or without Gentamicin for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis". N. Engl. J. Med. 368 (6): 524-32. doi: ...
"Does the Leishmania major paradigm of pathogenesis and protection hold for New World cutaneous leishmaniases or the visceral ... Neapolitan Mastiff submission forms[25]. Also in the United States, the CDC is monitoring Italian Spinones, with no end date ... 2009). "Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a study of possible animal reservoirs". International Journal of Infectious ... Suspected causes of canine visceral leishmaniasis are geographic variants of the Leishmania donovani complex, including[7] L. ...
... (VL), also known as kala-azar[2] (UK: /ˌkɑːlə əˈzɑːr/), is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and, ... This disease is not the same as cutaneous leishmaniasis, a milder disease caused by another protozoan of the Leishmania genus ... Today, the name kala-azar is used interchangeably with the scientific name visceral leishmaniasis for the most acute form of ... "WHO , Visceral leishmaniasis". www.who.int. Retrieved 2015-10-05.. *^ a b c d Das, Aritra; Karthick, Morchan; Dwivedi, Shweta; ...
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasisEdit. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is an especially disturbing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis, ... Some species tend to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis (e.g., L. major and L.tropica), whereas some species tend to cause visceral ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of leishmaniasis affecting humans.[4] It is a skin infection caused by a single ... Old World cutaneous leishmaniasisEdit. Similar to ACML, the treatment recommendations for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis ( ...
On the Clinical Manifestations and Parasites of Old World Leishmaniases and Leishmania Tropica Causing Visceral Leishmaniasis. ... causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in the lower Amazon region, western Pará state, Brazil, reveals a putative hybrid parasite, ... The promastigote form is found in the alimentary tract of sandflies. It is an extracellular and motile form. It is considerably ... The first written reference to the conspicuous symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis surfaced in the Paleotropics within oriental ...
Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is an especially disturbing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis, because it produces destructive and ... Some species tend to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis (e.g., L. major and L.tropica), whereas some species tend to cause visceral ... Besides humans, cutaneous leishmaniasis often affects other animals, notably in dogs as canine leishmaniasis. Calvopiña, M; ... "Leishmaniasis (cutaneous and visceral)" (PDF). Ames, Iowa: College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University. Retrieved ...
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. "POONAM SALOTRA, SCIENTIST G & DIRECTOR INCHARGE". "Biodata Poonam ... drug resistance and immune responses for patients suffering from Leishmaniasis in some form. Poonam Salotra received her Ph.D ... Salotra's research is centered on parasitology and infectious diseases like Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), Anthrax, Tuberculosis ... whose work is centered on infectious diseases like Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), Anthrax, Tuberculosis and Cholera. Her research ...
visceral leishmaniasis - worldwide; cutaneous leishmaniasis - Old World; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis - New World Phlebotomus, ... sexually transmitted infection - only trophozoite form (no cysts) Sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei brain and blood ... Leishmaniasis Leishmania spp. cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral visual identification of lesion or microscopic stain with ... liver, brain, eyes (Toxocara canis - visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans) blood, ocular examination worldwide ...
... (VL), also known as kala-azar, black fever, and Dumdum fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis ... This disease is not the same as cutaneous leishmaniasis, a milder disease caused by another protozoan of the Leishmania genus ... Today, the name kala-azar is used interchangeably with the scientific name visceral leishmaniasis for the most acute form of ... post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Brahmachari's cure for visceral leishmaniasis was the urea salt of para-amino-phenyl ...
Dye C; Killick-Kendrick R; Ben Ismail R; al-Gindan Y. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Saudi Arabia: results of a ... Dispersal of Phlebotomus ariasi Tonnoir, 1921 as a factor in the spread of visceral leishmaniasis in the Cévennes. Annales de ... I. Discovery of a new latent form of Plasmodium cynomolgi (the hypnozoite), and failure to detect hepatic forms within the ... Middle slopes of hillsides as sites of maximum risk of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the Cévennes (author's transl ...
Leishmaniasis (B55.0) Visceral leishmaniasis (B55.1) Cutaneous leishmaniasis (B55.2) Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (B55.9) ... Cutaneous and mucocutaneous bartonellosis (A44.8) Other forms of bartonellosis (A44.9) Bartonellosis, unspecified (A46) ... Other forms of plague (A20.9) Plague, unspecified (A21) Tularaemia (A22) Anthrax (A23) Brucellosis (A24) Glanders and ... Cutaneous amoebiasis (A06.8) Amoebic infection of other sites (A06.9) Amoebiasis, unspecified (A07) Other protozoal intestinal ...
Visceral leishmaniasis (dumdum fever, kala-azar) Visceral schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) Viscerotropic leishmaniasis Wheat ... In the embryo, the epidermis, hair, and glands form from the ectoderm, which is chemically influenced by the underlying ... cutaneous larva migrans) Cutaneous leishmaniasis (Aleppo boil, Baghdad boil, bay sore, Biskra button, Chiclero ulcer, Delhi ... necrotic cutaneous loxoscelism) Mal morando Millipede burn Mosquito bite Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (espundia, leishmaniasis ...
Toxocariasis (Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM)) Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii ... cutaneous. (dermatomycosis):. Tinea = skin;. Piedra (exothrix/. endothrix) = hair. Ascomycota. Dermatophyte. (Dermatophytosis) ... Leishmaniasis Leishmania species Leprosy Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis Leptospirosis Leptospira species ... Clostridium (spore-forming). motile:. *Clostridium difficile *Pseudomembranous colitis. *Clostridium botulinum *Botulism. * ...
Goto, H (2009). "Immunoactivation and immunopathogeny during active visceral leishmaniasis". Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 51: ... They take various forms (with various names) throughout the body (e.g., histiocytes, Kupffer cells, alveolar macrophages, ... 2003). The phases of cutaneous wound healing Archived 17 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. 5: 1. Cambridge University ... There are several activated forms of macrophages. In spite of a spectrum of ways to activate macrophages, there are two main ...
... sandflies are notorious as transmitters of species of Leishmania protozoa that cause visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in ... This form of parasitism is essential for these types of fly, and causes obligate myiasis (obligate = necessary or essential). ... 2009) Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum transmitted by Phlebotomus tobbi. International Journal for ... 1987) Human cutaneous myiasis - a review and report of three cases due to Dermatobia hominis. Clinical and Experimental ...
In his recently founded section he studied Chagas disease, Trypanosoma rangeli, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, ... The experiment is designed to help scientists understand how the universe formed and why neutrinos change form, especially when ... A vaccine for leishmaniasis was later developed using Convit's method. He also worked on mycosis, onchocerciasis, and other ... Due to his extensive performance in the chair, he formed several generations of students in his specialty and was considered ...
利什曼原蟲症 Leishmaniasis. *表皮幼蟲移行症Cutaneous larval migrans ... 髓血液病(D50-D77, 280-289(英語:List of ICD-9 codes 280-289: diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs)). *貧血 ... 內臟幼蟲移行症
Diagnosis of cutaneous toxoplasmosis is based on the tachyzoite form of T. gondii being found in the epidermis. It is found in ... Klaus, Sidney N.; Shoshana Frankenburg, and A. Damian Dhar (2003). "Chapter 235: Leishmaniasis and Other Protozoan Infections ... with bradyzoites in visceral tissues". The Journal of Parasitology. 92 (3): 658-9. doi:10.1645/GE-749R.1. PMID 16884019. Nawaz ... After proliferating, tachyzoites convert into bradyzoites, which take the form of latent intracellular tissue cysts that form ...
... (VL), also known as kala-azar, black fever, and Dumdum fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and, without proper diagnosis and treatment, is associated with high fatality. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. The parasite migrates to the internal organs such as the liver, spleen (hence "visceral"), and bone marrow, and, if left untreated, will almost always result in the death of the host. Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen. Of particular concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), is the emerging problem of HIV/VL co-infection. This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world (after malaria), responsible for an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 infections each year worldwide. Response to infection by Leishmania donovani varies a great deal, not only by the ...
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a recurrence of kala-azar that may appear on the skin of affected individuals months and up to 20 years after being partially treated, untreated or even in those considered adequately treated.[5][6] In Sudan, they can be demonstrated in up to 60% of treated cases. They manifest as hypopigmented skin lesions (such as macules, papules, nodules), or facial redness. Though any organism causing kala-azar can lead to PKDL, it is commonly associated with Leishmania donovani which gives different disease patterns in India and Sudan. In the Indian variant, nodules enlarge with time and form plaques but rarely ulcerate, but nodules from the African variety often ulcerate as they progress. Nerve involvement is common in African variety but rare in Indian subcontinent.[7] Histology demonstrates a mixture of chronic inflammatory cells; there can be macrophage or epitheloid granuloma.[8] Parasite concentration is not consistent among studies, ...
Out of 200 countries and territories reporting to WHO, 97 countries and territories are endemic for leishmaniasis.[23] The settings in which leishmaniasis is found range from rainforests in Central and South America to deserts in western Asia and the Middle East. It affects as many as 12 million people worldwide, with 1.5-2.0 million new cases each year.[24] The visceral form of leishmaniasis has an estimated incidence of 500,000 new cases.[25] In 2014, more than 90% of new cases reported to WHO occurred in six countries: Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan.[26] As of 2010, it caused about 52,000 deaths, down from 87,000 in 1990.[10] Different types of the disease occur in different regions of the world.[2] Cutaneous disease is most common in Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Colombia, and Iran, while mucocutaneous disease is most common in ...
Kala-azar first came to the attention of Western doctors in 1824 in Jessore, India (now Bangladesh), where it was initially thought to be a form of malaria. Assam gave kala-azar one of its common names, Assam fever.[72] Another common name, kala-azar (Hindustani: काला आज़ार (Devanagari) کالا آزار (Nastaleeq) kālā āzār), is derived from kala which means black in Sanskrit, as well as in the languages descended from it, including Assamese,[73] Hindi and Urdu;[74] the word azar means Fever in Persian and Hindustani;[73][75] as such the disease is named for the darkening of the skin on the extremities and abdomen that is a symptom of the Indian form of the disease. The agent of the disease was also first isolated in India by Scottish doctor William Leishman (who observed the parasite in spleen smears of a soldier who died of the disease in Dumdum, Calcutta, India[76] - hence the name dumdum fever) and Irish physician Charles Donovan, working independently of each other. ...
In areas where the known vector is a sandfly, deltamethrin collars worn by the dogs has been proven to be 86% effective.[16] The sandfly is most active at dusk and dawn; keeping dogs indoors during those peak times will help minimize exposure. Unfortunately, there is no one answer for leishmaniasis prevention, nor will one vaccine cover multiple species. "Different virulence factors have been identified for distinct Leishmania species, and there are profound differences in the immune mechanisms that mediate susceptibility/resistance to infection and in the pathology associated with disease."[17] In 2003, Fort Dodge Wyeth released the Leshmune vaccine in Brazil for L. donovani (also referred to as kala-azar in Brazil).[18] Studies indicated up to 87% protection.[19] Most common side effects from the vaccine have been noted as anorexia and local swelling.[19] The president of the Brazil Regional Council of Veterinary Medicine, Marcia Villa, warned since vaccinated dogs develop ...
... (17 April 1982-23 August 2004) was a British-bred Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. His reputation as a racehorse rested almost entirely on his upset win in the 1984 Dewhurst Stakes, which was sufficient to see him rated the best two-year-old of that year in Europe. He failed in his only start of 1985 and failed to make any impression when raced in the United States in 1986. He was subsequently exported to Australia, where he proved to be a successful breeding stallion. Kala Dancer was a "big, rangy" grey horse bred in Britain by the Italian-based Scuderia Gibierre. He was from the first crop of foals sired by Niniski, the winner of the Irish St Leger and Prix Royal Oak. Niniski also sired the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes winner Petoski in the same year as Kala Dancer and was the leading first-season sire in Great Britain and Ireland in 1984. Kala Dancer's dam Kalazero also produced Our Eliaso, an Italian-trained colt who won the Listed Prix de Claireforntaine and was ...
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are an epithelial cell line derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, often used in biological and medical research and commercially in the production of therapeutic proteins. They have found wide use in studies of genetics, toxicity screening, nutrition and gene expression, particularly to express recombinant proteins. CHO cells are the most commonly used mammalian hosts for industrial production of recombinant protein therapeutics. The Chinese hamster had been used in research since 1919 where they were used in place of mice for typing pneumococci. They were subsequently found to be excellent vectors for transmission of kala-azar (a.k.a. visceral leishmaniasis), facilitating leishmania research. In 1948, the Chinese hamster was first used in the United States for breeding in research laboratories. In 1957, Theodore T. Puck obtained a female Chinese hamster from Dr. George Yerganian's laboratory at the Boston Cancer ...
... is an administrative division of Northern Liech, South Sudan. The administrative center is the town of Rubkona, across the Bahr el Ghazal River from the state capital Bentiu and the town of Yoynyang, which are also in Rubkona County. Large villages in the county include Thangoro, Nhialdiu, Kuey, Bielli and Meshra Bentiu. Rubkona County has a sub tropical climate, with a rainy season from May to September and a dry season from October to April. The region is swampy, flooding in the rainy season. Malaria, Kala Azar and Bilharzia are endemic. Most of the population are Nuer people, agropastoralists for whom cattle are the measure of wealth and prestige. The county lies on the migration route of Baggara tribes, which is an ongoing cause of tension. During the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005) some of the rural population fled to the towns of Rubkona and Bentiu. Others moved north to Khartoum or escaped to bordering countries. As of 2008, three years after the peace agreement had ...
... is a moth in the Crambidae family. It was described by Charles Swinhoe in 1886. It is found in India, and Sri Lanka. Wingspan is about 30 mm in male and 40 mm in female. Antennae of male bipectinate, with short branches dilated at extremity. Head, thorax and forewings uniform blackish brown. The last with diffused long black scales with pale bases in interspaces of inner and outer areas. Abdomen and hindwings pale fuscous. "GlobIZ search". Global Information System on Pyraloidea. Retrieved 2014-07-15. Ahmet Ömer Koçak; Muhabbet Kemal (2012). "Preliminary list of the Lepidoptera of Sri Lanka". Centre for Entomological Studies Ankara. Retrieved 27 August 2016. Hampson G. F. (1896). The Fauna of British India Including Ceylon and Burma: Moths. IV. Taylor & Francis. Retrieved 19 August 2017 ...
In Bihar, attempts have been made to establish a well-functioning department of public health. National efforts like the National Health Mission, the Clinical Establishments Act of 2010, and the formation of the Empowered Action Group (EAG) catalyze the disbursement of federal funds by expanding healthcare access and improving the quality of healthcare services to states in need. However, Bihar's ability to fully utilize this funding is lacking. Bihar's health care system has the appropriate policies in place to allow for the implementation of comprehensive healthcare treatment. However, it is in the execution and management of the funding and services where it falls behind. Overall, the lack of consistent monitoring tools for policy evaluation explain why a strategic, evidence based public health system has been slow to take root in the state of Bihar. Consequently, Bihar generally ranks weakest in health outcomes in comparison to other Indian states and even among its EAG counterparts.[90][91] ...
Erraietako leishmaniasia edo "kala-azar". Gizonaren, animalien -batez ere, zakurraren- bizkarroi den Leishmania donovani-k eragina. Odola xurgatzen duen intsektu mota batek (Phlebotomus) zabaltzen du oso hedatua den leishmaniasi mota hau. Ezaugarri nagusiak sukarra, gibelaren eta, batez ere, barearen hantura, eta anemia dira. Eritasunak aurrera ahala, gris ilun bilakatzen da larruazalaren kolorea, eta horregatik hartzen du "kala-azar" hindierazko izena, "eritasun beltza" esan nahi duena ...
Hatásos a betegségeket, például maláriát okozó protozoonok ellen. Bizonyított, hogy gyógyszerimmunis protozoonok ellen is hatásos lehet.[14] Főzetét gégegyulladás enyhítésére használják.[15] A szíriai rutafű egy másik összetevője, a vasicin (peganin) a Leishmania donovani nevű, zsigeri leishmaniasist okozó protozoon ellenszere.[20] „A peganinhidrklorid-dihidrát úgy tűnik - amellett, hogy biztonságos - sejtelhalást okoz az L. donovani mindkét stádiumában a mitokondriális membránpotenciál csökkentésével."[21] A növény egy másik alkaloidája, a harmin „a sejten helüli paraziták elleni figyelemre méltó hatása, valamint májra és vesére egyaránt ártalmatlan természete miatt a harmin - kötött formáiban - emberek kezelésére is alkalmas lehet."[22] Egy tanulmány szerint a szíriai rutafű életmentő lehet a theileriosis-szal fertőzött marhák számára.[23] A betegség teljes állományokat is kiirthat: Afrikában 2007-ben 1,1 millió ...
Hiel Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 mayul 19 in Thessaloniki, Grikän - 1938 novul 10 in İstanbul) äbinom militafiziran, levolutan e bolitan Türkänik. Äbinom fünönan de Republik Türkäna, dünetön as ons 1id presidan de 1923 jü 1938. Hiel Atatürk äbinom id balid-ministeran Türkäna (1920-1921). ...
Leishmaniasis or leishmania, also known as Kala-azar is a parasitic disease spread by the bite of infected sand flies. ... There are several different forms of leishmaniasis. The most common are cutaneous and visceral. The cutaneous type causes skin ... Travelers Health: Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Travelers Health: Leishmaniasis, ... The visceral type affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. People with this form usually have fever ...
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease spread by the bite of the female sandfly. ... Kala-azar; Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Visceral leishmaniasis; Old world leishmaniasis; New world leishmaniasis ... The different forms of leishmaniasis are:. *Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects the skin and mucous membranes. Skin sores usually ... Systemic, or visceral, leishmaniasis affects the entire body. This form occurs 2 to 8 months after a person is bitten by the ...
Although leishmaniasis, the disease caused by the parasite, has been on the radar of scientists for a long time, the quest for ... There are three main forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. "These are diseases that destroy lives--when they do not ... According to the most recent estimates, 12 million people are currently affected by one form of leishmaniasis or another. ... Leishmaniasis, the disease caused by the parasite, has been on the radar of scientists for a long time, not only because of ...
Leishmaniasis[edit]. Main article: Leishmaniasis. The three forms of leishmaniasis are visceral (Kala-azar), cutaneous, and ... At least 90 percent of visceral leishmaniasis occurs in Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan, and Sudan. Cutaneous ... For guinea worm, Buruli ulcer, or cutaneous leishmaniasis, wound management is needed to speed up healing and reduce disability ... and visceral leishmaniasis. Migration paths to Europe, most notably to Spain, have brought diseases to Europe as well. As many ...
Cutaneous leishmaniasis, the most common form, produces bumpy and cratered lesions. "People suffer a lot because [leishmaniasis ... Visceral leishmaniasis, which attacks internal organs, is deadly. With mucosal leishmaniasis, the parasite spreads along the ... If you are infected with the visceral variety of Leishmaniasis and dont treat it, you will likely die within a few months. ... Leishmaniasis is caused by a parasite transmitted by the sandlfy resulting in a harsh-looking ulcer. Photo by Paula Bronstein/ ...
"Does the Leishmania major paradigm of pathogenesis and protection hold for New World cutaneous leishmaniases or the visceral ... Neapolitan Mastiff submission forms[25]. Also in the United States, the CDC is monitoring Italian Spinones, with no end date ... 2009). "Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a study of possible animal reservoirs". International Journal of Infectious ... Suspected causes of canine visceral leishmaniasis are geographic variants of the Leishmania donovani complex, including[7] L. ...
Make research projects and school reports about leishmaniasis easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... around the world contract cutaneous leishmaniasis each year and half a million people experience the more serious visceral form ... cutaneous l. leishmaniasis that affects the tissues of the skin. See espundia, oriental sore. visceral l. leishmaniasis in ... and a hypo-immune response results in visceral and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. In Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis, the ...
Two common forms of leishmaniasis are cutaneous and visceral.. The most common symptom of cutaneous leishmaniasis is skin sores ... Common symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis are fever and weight loss. People with visceral leishmaniasis can also have an ... Leishmaniasis is disease caused by a parasite. Sand flies can spread this parasite to people when they bite them. ... There is no vaccine or medicine that prevents leishmaniasis. Travelers can protect themselves from infection by preventing sand ...
... and mucosal forms. Infections can result in two main forms of disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis (kala ... Antibody detection can prove useful in visceral leishmaniasis but is of limited value in cutaneous disease, since most patients ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterized by one or more cutaneous lesions on areas where sandflies have fed. Persons who have ... Human Leishmaniasis encompasses multiple clinical syndromes, most notably visceral, cutaneous, ...
There are four major forms of Leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis ... There are two epidemiological forms of cutaneous Leishmaniasis which are arthroponotic: cutaneous Leishmaniasis and zoonotic ... The main vector in arthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis are P. sergenti and P. papatasi [ ... Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: After the onset of cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis occurs and it is ...
In its most severe (visceral) form, it attacks the internal organs. The most prevalent (cutaneous) form causes face ulcers, ... The target to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis was met 100% in the districts of Nepal, 97% of subdistricts in Bangladesh, and ... Leishmaniases: transmitted through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandfly-a tiny, 2-3 mm long insect vector. ... Schistosomiasis: infection is acquired when people come into contact with freshwater infested with the larval forms (cercariae ...
Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor-Induced Visceral and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Case Report and Review of the Literature ... There are three major forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral. We report the first case of visceral leishmaniasis with ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis Adalimumab Anti-tumour necrosis factor Tumour necrosis factor-α Rheumatoid arthritis ... Supplementary Material for: Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor-Induced Visceral and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Case Report and Review of ...
Leishmaniases are diseases with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) forms. ... The respondents were unclear as to the difference between the cutaneous and visceral forms of the disease. ... to the fatal visceral form (VL) [1]. In Latin America, especially Brazil, both forms are widely distributed and are transmitted ... E. S. Silva, C. M. F. Gontijo, R. S. Pacheco, V. O. P. Fiuza, and R. P. Brazil, "Visceral Leishmaniasis in the Metropolitan ...
Leishmaniases are diseases with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) forms. ... Public Knowledge about and Detection of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Urban Divinópolis, Brazil. Carina Margonari,1,2 Júlia ...
There are several different forms of leishmaniasis--- cutaneous and visceral. The cutaneous type causes skin sores, while the ... Leishmaniasis is also found in Mexico, Central America, and South America. Visceral leishmaniasis can be lethal if untreated. ... More than 90% of the worlds cases of visceral leishmaniasis are in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, and Brazil. ... About Leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a severe, geographically widespread parasitic disease caused by a protozoan flagellate ...
The disease comes in three main forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, the deadliest of the three. ... Cutaneous leishmaniasis. This Afghan woman is seen being treated for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Afghanistan saw a major outbreak ... of this form of the parasitic disease in 2009, which is disfiguring but treatable. Visceral leishmaniasis, on the other hand, ... This tiny fly can transmit a parasitic disease called leishmaniasis. ...
Unlike cutaneous leishmaniasis, the visceral form is potentially fatal, with case-fatality rates as high as 85%. Large-scale ... Visceral leishmaniasis in Afghanistan: Although several hundreds of cases of visceral leishmaniasis are reported every year ... visceral leishmaniasis.. Epidemiology: Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic, systemic disease characterized by fever, (hepato) ... The increased detection of visceral leishmaniasis in Afghanistan will require a reassessment of leishmaniasis prevention and ...
... or visceral forms. Currently ~12 million people in 98 countries infected with the disease. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the ... Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by infections of Leishmania spp.; It can be classified into cutaneous, ... most severe form of the disease and is almost always fatal if left untreated. VL is caused by Leishmania donovani and there is ...
It is an option for both visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Pentamidine can be given by injection into a vein ... The inhaled form is minimally absorbed in the blood. Absorption is unreliable when given orally. Distribution: When injected, ... Common side effects of the inhaled form include wheezing, cough, and nausea. It is unclear if doses should be changed in those ... Common side effects of the injectable form include low blood sugar, pain at the site of injection, nausea, vomiting, low blood ...
Leishmaniasis is presented mainly under three clinical forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral. The cutaneous form causes ... Does Leishmaniasis kill? The cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms are not fatal, but the visceral form of the disease may cause ... approximately 1.5 million cases are of the cutaneous form of Leishmaniasis and about 500,000 cases are of the visceral form. A ... The mucocutaneous form causes cell death in mucous membranes, especially the nose and also the throat. The visceral form is ...
What are the 3 forms of leishmaniasis?. cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral. Describe cutaneous leishmaniasis. skin sores that ... Describe visceral leishmaniasis. in spleen, liver and bone marrow. What cells do the Leishmania parasites invade?. macrophages ... Describe mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. multiple lesions, parasite attacks mucosal-dermal junctions of nose and mouth and can ... What are the 3 clinical forms of polio?. absorptive, asceptic/non-paralytic, paralytic. ...
The cutaneous form occurs in 70.5% of men, and nearly 2,000 cases have forms that can cause deformities. Visceral leishmaniasis ... Leishmaniasis. Endemic countries set targets to reduce the incidence from visceral leishmaniasis and mortality from visceral ... increase in the clinically important forms of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and 8.7% increase in visceral leishmaniasis in the ... Control of the leishmaniases. Report of a meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on the control of leishmaniases, Geneva, 22-26 ...
1997). HIV infection can reactivate either visceral (Badaró et al. 1986, Cortés et al. 1997) or cutaneous leishmaniasis ( ... Co-infection with HIV lead to atypical forms of clinical presentation (Gradoni & Gramiccia 1994, Michiels et al. 1994). The ... Disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis in patient with AIDS: a case report. Mem Inst ... Murine cutaneous leishmaniasis: resistance correlates with the capacity to generate interferon-g in response to Leishmania ...
  • The increase in U.S. cases was significant enough to trigger the country's first-ever guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis. (newsweek.com)
  • Our diagnostic is simple and easy to use in the field, requiring a single drop of blood to quickly diagnose leishmaniasis, rather than the previous method of diagnosis which was invasive and painful. (idri.org)