Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia: An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. Pathological features include prominent interstitial inflammation without collagen fibrosis, diffuse fibroblastic foci, and no microscopic honeycomb change. There is excessive proliferation of granulation tissue within small airways and alveolar ducts.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Meningitis, Listeria: Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)Meningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Pneumonia, Staphylococcal: Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated: Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis found mostly in Africa.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Pneumonia, Lipid: Pneumonia due to aspiration or inhalation of various oily or fatty substances.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Leukocytosis: A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Neisseria lactamica: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA commonly found in the NASOPHARYNX of infants and children, but rarely pathogenic. It is the only species to produce acid from LACTOSE.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup Y: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which, in the United States, causes disease in mostly adults and the elderly. Serogroup Y strains are associated with PNEUMONIA.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Streptococcus suis: A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Subdural Effusion: Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias: A group of interstitial lung diseases with no known etiology. There are several entities with varying patterns of inflammation and fibrosis. They are classified by their distinct clinical-radiological-pathological features and prognosis. They include IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS; CRYPTOGENIC ORGANIZING PNEUMONIA; and others.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.VietnamHospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Asthenia: Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assay: Procedures for identification and measurement of IMMUNOGLOBULINS in the blood that initiate lysis of bacteria.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Murine pneumonia virus: A species of the genus PNEUMOVIRUS causing pneumonia in mice.Pneumocystis jirovecii: A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.Limulus Test: Sensitive method for detection of bacterial endotoxins and endotoxin-like substances that depends on the in vitro gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), prepared from the circulating blood (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab, by the endotoxin or related compound. Used for detection of endotoxin in body fluids and parenteral pharmaceuticals.Alcoholics: Persons who have a history of physical or psychological dependence on ETHANOL.Neisseria: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.BrazilSerum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Enterovirus InfectionsTransferrin-Binding Proteins: A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.
In the US, it is the second-most-common bacterial sexually transmitted infections; chlamydia remains first.[62][63] According ... A study published in 2017 showed that MeNZB group B meningococcal vaccine provided a partial protection against gonorrhea.[77] ... meningitis, or endocarditis.[15] This occurs in between 0.6 and 3% of infected women and 0.4 and 0.7% of infected men.[15] ... Culture (growing colonies of bacteria in order to isolate and identify them) and Gram-stain (staining of bacterial cell walls ...
Most members of Enterobacteriaceae have peritrichous, type I fimbriae involved in the adhesion of the bacterial cells to their ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ... Rhinoscleroma, Pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. *Escherichia coli: ...
... such as meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis,[35] but neonatal sepsis also may be due to infection with ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... Charlotte Cleverley-Bisman, with sepsis from a meningococcal bloodstream infection. In addition to symptoms related to the ... Infections leading to sepsis are usually bacterial, but may be fungal or viral.[17] Gram-positive bacteria was the predominant ...
A39.) Meningococcal infection *(A39.0) Meningococcal meningitis. *(A39.1) Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome ... B95-B97) Bacterial, viral and other infectious agents[संपादित करें]. *(B95.) Streptococcus and staphylococcus as the cause of ... B20.6) HIV disease resulting in Pneumocystis pneumonia. *(B20.7) HIV disease resulting in multiple infections ... A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs[संपादित करें]. (A00-A09) Intestinal ...
Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ... Rhinoscleroma, Pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. *Escherichia coli: ... Bacterial disease: Proteobacterial G− *primarily A00-A79, 001-041, 080-109. α. ...
Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ... Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women.[17] They occur most frequently between the ages of ... Chronic prostatitis in the forms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and chronic bacterial prostatitis (not ...
... meningococcal infections, and pneumonia), and found a 56% decline over the same period.[34] Notable among these was a 75% ... hypothesized that an arsenic-containing dye with similar selective absorption properties could be used to treat bacterial ... and meningitis. ... in 1900 pneumonia, tuberculosis, and diarrhea were the three ... and their extension to an increasingly wide range of bacterial pathogens. Streptomycin, discovered during a Merck-funded ...
meningitis. DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing ... Strongyloidiasis - Parasitic pneumonia Strongyloides stercoralis intestines, lungs, skin (Larva currens) stool, blood skin ... Bacterial diseases: BV4 non-proteobacterial G- (primarily A00-A79, 001-041, 080-109) ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ...
Horn M, Fritsche TR, Linner T, Gautom RK, Harzenetter MD, Wagner M (2002). "Obligate bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba ... which cause gonorrhea and meningitis respectively, as well as Bordetella pertussis which causes whooping cough. Other members ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ... Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. *Escherichia coli: ...
Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M-. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ... Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. *Escherichia coli: ... Bacterial disease: Proteobacterial G− *primarily A00-A79, 001-041, 080-109. α. ...
... , also known simply as paratyphoid, is a bacterial infection caused by one of the three types of Salmonella ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ... Those diagnosed with Type A of the bacterial strain rarely die from it except in rare cases of severe intestinal complications ... Diagnosis may be based on symptoms and confirmed by either culturing the bacteria or detecting the bacterial DNA in the blood, ...
are other common bacterial pathogens. Campylobacter, Yersinia, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas spp. are less frequently found. ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ... Bacterial TD typically begins abruptly, but Cryptosporidium may incubate for seven days, and Giardia for 14 days or more, ... Bacterial enteropathogens cause about 80% of cases. Viruses and protozoans account for most of the rest.[9] ...
Spanish physician Jaume Ferran i Clua developed a cholera inoculation in 1885, the first to immunize humans against a bacterial ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ... This article is about the bacterial disease. For the dish, see Cholera (food). ... Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. *Escherichia coli: ...
Meningitis[edit]. Meningococcal meningitis is a form of bacterial meningitis. Meningitis is a disease caused by inflammation ... Meningococcal pneumonia can appear during influenza pandemics and in military camps. This is a multilobar, rapidly evolving ... Meningitis[edit]. The patient with meningococcal meningitis typically presents with high fever, nuchal rigidity (stiff neck), ... Meningococcal sepsis has a greater mortality rate than meningococcal meningitis, but the risk of neurologic sequelae is much ...
It causes coughing and sneezing and thereby produces airborne droplets that contain bacterial cells and are likely to infect ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ... In septicemic plague, bacterial endotoxins cause disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), causing tiny clots throughout ... Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. *Escherichia coli: ...
Bacterial pneumonia multiple bacteria Bacterial vaginosis List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Bacteroides infection ... Meningitis multiple Meningococcal disease Neisseria meningitidis Metagonimiasis usually Metagonimus yokagawai Microsporidiosis ... meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV ... Bacterial diseases: BV4 non-proteobacterial G- (primarily A00-A79, 001-041, 080-109) ...
Type strain of Klebsiella aerogenes at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... Meningococcal disease, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Meningococcal septicaemia. M−. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae/gonococcus * ... Rhinoscleroma, Klebsiella pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. *Escherichia coli: ...
Meningococcal meningitis. Meningococcal vaccine. Serotype C: Neisvac C and Meningitec. Serotypes A/C/W-135/Y: Mencevax, ... Epiglottitis, meningitis, pneumonia. Hib vaccine. Hiberix, Pentacel, ActHIB, Pedvax HIB, Tetramune, Quinvaxem, Pentavac PFS, ... Bacterial diseases[edit]. Bacterium. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax. Anthrax vaccines. ... Pneumococcal pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pneumovax, Prevnar Vibrio cholerae ...
Main article: Meningococcal disease. Meningococcus can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease.[3] It ... It causes the only form of bacterial meningitis known to occur epidemically, mainly Africa and Asia. It occurs worldwide in ... "Meningococcal , Prevention , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-17.. *^ "Meningococcal Vaccination". U.S. Centers for Disease ... Symptoms of meningococcal meningitis are easily confused with those caused by other bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae ...
... pneumonia. In adults, too, meningococcal meningitis has a lower mortality (3-7%) than pneumococcal disease. In children there ... With appropriate treatment the risk of death in bacterial meningitis is less than 15%. Outbreaks of bacterial meningitis occur ... In 2010 it was estimated that meningitis resulted in 420,000 deaths, excluding cryptococcal meningitis. Bacterial meningitis ... particularly of meningococcal meningitis. In cases of meningococcal meningitis, preventative treatment in close contacts with ...
... meningitis, bacterial MeSH C01.252.200.500.400 --- meningitis, escherichia coli MeSH C01.252.200.500.450 --- meningitis, ... meningococcal infections MeSH C01.252.400.625.549.449 --- meningitis, meningococcal MeSH C01.252.400.625.549.449.800 --- ... pneumonia, mycoplasma MeSH C01.252.620.530 --- pneumonia of calves, enzootic MeSH C01.252.620.540 --- pneumonia of swine, ... haemophilus MeSH C01.252.200.500.500 --- meningitis, listeria MeSH C01.252.200.500.550 --- meningitis, meningococcal MeSH ...
As a more modest example, infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae, a major cause of bacterial meningitis and other serious ... An immunocompromised woman in Washington State was infected and later died of pneumonia due to measles. In spring 2017, a ... Because disease follows soldiers, they had to receive vaccines preventing cholera, influenza, measles, meningococcal, plague, ... Vaccine burden: Miller E, Andrews N, Waight P, Taylor B (2003). "Bacterial infections, immune overload, and MMR vaccine". Arch ...
Rehmus J, Johnson C, Marchant C, Carlin S, Super D, Van Hare G, Siber G, Jones P and Shurin P. Bacterial Polysaccharide Immune ... Hemophilus influenzae pneumonia: A prospective study demonstrating the utility of latex agglutination for diagnosis. Pediatric ... Caputo, GL; Baldwin, G; Alpert, G; Parsonnet, J; Gillis, ZA; Siber, G; Fleisher, G (Feb 1992). "Effect of meningococcal ... meningitis. Pediatric Research 1982, 16:250A. (Abstract #1028). Schreiber JR, Ambrosino DM, Daum RS, and Siber GR. Prevention ...
Meningococcal infection (A39.0) Meningococcal meningitis (A39.1) Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (A39.2) Acute ... Bacterial intestinal infection, unspecified Bacterial enteritis NOS (A05) Other bacterial foodborne intoxications (A05.0) ... Varicella meningitis (B01.1) Varicella encephalitis (B01.2) Varicella pneumonia (B01.8) Varicella with other complications ( ... Other bacterial infections of unspecified site (A49.9) Bacterial infection, unspecified Bacteraemia NOS (A50) Congenital ...
People with this condition may also contract more serious infections such as pneumonia and meningitis. Depending on the type of ... Genetic susceptibility to invasive meningococcal disease: MBL2 structural polymorphisms revisited in a large case-control study ... C4b tends to bind to bacterial cell membranes. If it is not then inactivated, it will combine with C2b to form the classical C3 ...
Ramakrishnan M, Ulland AJ, Steinhardt LC, Moïsi JC, Were F, Levine OS (2009). "Sequelae due to bacterial meningitis among ... expanding the company's meningococcal disease portfolio of drugs. In May 2016, the company announced it would acquire Anacor ... by the Infectious Disease Society of America as a first line treatment for certain cases of community-acquired pneumonia. ... In 1996, an outbreak of measles, cholera, and bacterial meningitis occurred in Nigeria. Pfizer representatives traveled to Kano ...
For the treatment of acne) Dynacin Sebomin Mino-Tabs Acnamino Minopen (In Japan) Maracyn 2 (For treatment of bacterial ... Fraser A, Gafter-Gvili A, Paul M, Leibovici L (March 2005). "Prophylactic use of antibiotics for prevention of meningococcal ... 2007). "Minocycline-induced hypersensitivity syndrome presenting with meningitis and brain edema: a case report". Journal of ... HIV-for use as an adjuvant to HAART Periodontal disease Perioral dermatitis Respiratory infections such as pneumonia Rocky ...
This method was pioneered for the vaccine against type B meningococcal bacteria, a major cause of meningitis and blood ... the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia globally and has greatly reduced the number of childhood infections. A major ... "Pneumonia is a huge threat to health worldwide, responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people a year, with ... Improving the Pneumonia vaccine. Over the last ten years, many countries have introduced the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine ( ...
... meningococcal meningitis; HD=hydatid diseases; H5N=avian influenza H5N1; H7N9=avian influenza H7N9; H1N1=influenza A H1N1; SARS ... Tuberculosis remained the most common bacterial infection, although cases of scarlet fever doubled between 2008 and 2017. ... Pneumonia, Viral Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Session II: CDC subject matter experts for bacterial VPDs (meningococcal disease, pertussis, invasive pneumococcal disease, ... Coverage increased for vaccines to protect adolescents against pertussis, meningococcal meningitis, and human papillomavirus- ... Pneumonia Polio Respiratory Infections Respiratory Infectious Diseases Vaccine-preventable Diseases Vaccines Viruses ...
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal meningitis (MM) is a life-threatening disease associated with approximately 10% case fatality rates ... A Review of Newly Approved Antibiotic Treatment for Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: Lefamulin. ... Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , ... Combined therapy with ceftriaxone and doxycycline does not improve the outcome of meningococcal meningitis in mice compared to ...
Bacterial meningococcal disease is a bacterial illness that can cause inflammation in the protective layer of tissue ... Meningococcal conjugate. This traditional meningitis vaccine protects against serogroup types A, C, W, and Y. ... pneumonia vaccines. *tetanus boosters. Other vaccines list. Your doctor may suggest you receive additional vaccines or boosters ... Two different Meningococcal vaccines exist. Youll want to talk to your doctor to find out which one is right for you.* ...
... pneumonia exhibited similar severity to children with other non-bacterial pneumonia; whereas children with bacterial pneumonia ... Incidence of meningococcal disease before and after implementation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in the ... Animals that died after clindamycin had a greater incidence of meningitis compared to those given ciprofloxacin or ... pneumonia. However, in children, PIV pneumonia was less severe than bacterial pneumonia. ...
From Mangoes to Meningitis: A Tale of One Laboratory Scientist in Burkina Faso - Raising our voices to improve health around ... In additional to our role supporting the care of patients, we also support surveillance of bacterial meningitis. Surveillance ... However, in recent years, there continues to be the threat of meningococcal disease due to other serogroups such as C, W and X ... Meningitis in Burkina Faso. The problem of meningitis in Burkina Faso is a long story. ...
... the British public had never heard of pneumococcus-the name suggested pneumonia not meningitis, and people thought pneumonia ... Borrow R, Goldblatt D, Finn A, et al. Immunogenicity of, and immunologic memory to, a reduced primary schedule of meningococcal ... at the discovery of a tool that works in infants who are the most common victims of invasive community acquired bacterial ... Ramsay ME, Andrews NJ, Trotter CL, et al. Herd immunity from meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination in England: ...
Is it easy to tell clinically whether meningitis in a child is due to a bacterial or viral infection? ... What are the symptoms and signs of pneumonia?. *Should all children with pneumonia have chest X-rays? ... What is meningococcal septicaemia?. *What is the typical presentation of meningococcal septicaemia? ... How is the clinical diagnosis of meningitis confirmed?. * ... What is the correct management of bacterial meningitis?. *Can ...
Outbreaks due to meningococcal meningitis remain a major public health challenge in Ghana since the first recorded outbreak in ... All national efforts and resources are now directed towards the novel viral pneumonia while Meningitis whose case fatality far ... Bacterial caused meningitis, however, is responsible for the highest global burden and mortality. ... The change in epidemiology of the meningitis and the way it is occurring and spreading beyond the traditional meningitis belt ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia in a times strong herself that is contracted utmost of the hospital ... NTDs, neonatal meningitis, trauma, tumors, or Chiari malformations almost always terminate in this sort of hydrocephalus. ... Updated recommendations payment handle of meningococcal conjugate vaccines - Advisory Commission on Immunization Practices ( ... treatment bacterial vaginosis. As a help to these goals a fresh observe recording EEG from scalp electrodes found gamma (40В-80 ...
... or pneumonia. Meningococcal vaccines containing unconjugated purified capsular polysaccharides (A, C, Y and W) have been ... a bacterium that causes meningitis, meningococcemia, septicemia, and rarely carditis, septic arthritis, or pneumonia. Six ... Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Humans generally acquire the disease from infected animals or as a ... Meningococcal A/C. Meningococcal vaccine refers to any one of a number of vaccines used against Neisseria meningitidis, a ...
They found that lab analysis didnt point to a new kind of Streptococcus bacterial strain that might explain the new scarlet ... Early treatment with antibiotics is important and can help reduce the risk of complications such as pneumonia and the spread of ... Antibiotics are linked to learning delays in children (like vaccines), an increased risk of cancer, meningococcal septicemia, ... https://www.meningitis.org/news/shortage-of-the-pneumococcal-vaccine-for-people-ov (and a shortage could be about increased ...
Study 2.4 Acute Bacterial Meningitis flashcards from James Walters ... College students living in dormitories and military personnel are at increased risk for meningococcal meningitis ... Pneumonia. • Skin & soft-tissue infections. • Bone & joint infections. • Sepsis. • Meningitis (rarely) 31 ... 2.4 Acute Bacterial Meningitis Flashcards Preview NMSK B Test 1 , 2.4 Acute Bacterial Meningitis , Flashcards ...
... meningitis and Tdap vaccines induce comparable immune responses when administered together Co-administration of a meningococcal ... Advances in man made biology allow us to engineer bacterial collectives * Dengue computer virus (. D. E. N. V) and Zika ... The pathogen also causes non-invasive infections of respiratory system such as for example otitis pneumonia and media. An HIV ... Menactra protects against meningococcal serogroups A C Y and W and Adacel is usually a Tdap vaccine. Co-administration could be ...
Meningitis: analysis of the long-term protection of the MenAfriVac vaccine. *Meningococcal infection: bacterial aggregates form ... Antibiotics are used to combat infections caused by bacteria, including pneumonia, bronchitis, ear infections, meningitis, ... Meningitis: analysis of the long-term protection of the MenAfriVac vaccine. *Meningococcal infection: bacterial aggregates form ... Meningococcal meningitis: stomach pain should be seen as a warning sign. *Message from the Chairman of the Institut Pasteur ...
An interesting case presentation: peripartum meningococcal meningitis. J of Perinatology 1992 Mar; 12(1):78-80 117. *Chan GL, ... Blastoschizomyces capitatus pneumonia in an immunocompetent male. South Med J 2004 Jul; 97(7):702-4 25. Elko L, Rosenbach K, ... Bacterial infection following blood product transfusion: some bad blood bugging you? Infect Med 1995; 4:165 76. Houston SH, ... Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in a cardiac transplant patient. J Infect Dis 1988 Sep; 158(3):650-1 155. *Sinnott JT, ...
Meningococcus meningitis bacterial). Mostly tropical Africa and Brazil. Airborne respiratory droplets, especially close contact ... Contamination of school buildings by micro-organisms can cause severe health conditions such as pneumonia, upper respiratory ... Infectious diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, streptococcal and meningococcal infections, rubella, cytomegalovirus and ... A major cause of primary atypical pneumonia; mainly affects children aged 5 to 15 years. ...
Control of serogroup C meningococcal meningitis by mass vaccination in Catalonia (Spain). The Romanian fennel herbal tea ... Amoxicure is a high-class medication which is taken in treatment and termination of serious bacterial diseases such as ... Amoxicure successfully wards off and terminates other dangerous infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, salmonella ... In particular, the architectures of several bacterial secretion systems have revealed the presence of filamentous architectures ...
Meningococcal (meningitis) Pneumococcal (pneumonia) Polio Rotavirus Varicella (chicken pox). The links below provide specific ... Bacterial conjunctivitis (pink eye). ● Staphylococcus infections (impetigo, MRSA). ● Streptococcal infections (strep throat). ...
036) Meningococcal meningitis * (037) Tetanus * (038) Septicaemia * (038.2) Pneumococcal septicemia * (038.4) Septicemia, gram- ... 041) Bacterial infection in conditions classified elsewhere Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (042-044) * (042) ... 011.6) [Tuberculous pneumonia] * any form * (011.7) [Tuberculous pneumothorax] * (011.8) [Other specified pulmonary ... meningitis DNA virus JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy RNA virus MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis LCV ...
Pericarditis complicating meningococcal meningitis in a 7-month-old boy. First-line treatment with imatinib mesylate in ... This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any ... Cytomegalovirus interstitial pneumonia in autologous bone marrow transplant recipients. Therapeutic effects of the tetracycline ... Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is a combination penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. ...
The CSF pleocytosis of meningococcal meningitis is typical of most acute bacterial meningitides with a predominance of PMNs. ... Meningitis most common, but bacteremia, pneumonia, and other syndromes can occur in absence of meningitis. ... Pneumonia from N meningitidis is reported in as many as 15-20% of patients with meningococcemia or meningitis and may occur by ... The fatality rate in meningococcal meningitis may be as low as 7% in industrialized countries and as high as 70% for ...
Bacterial: Meningococcal meningitis, CA-MRSA (Panton Valentine leukocidin),. * Rickettsial: Rocky Mountain spotted fever ... Infection, such as from bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia; these may include:. *. community acquired ... Purulent meningitis in a 34-year-old man with acute bacterial pyarthrosis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. View Media Gallery ... Purulent meningitis in a 34-year-old man with acute bacterial pyarthrosis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. ...
  • The Ministry of Health must intensify efforts in surveillance, laboratory case detection, case management and public education," he noted, adding, "This can be done through early health alerts to health facilities in the meningitis belt, line listing of suspected cases and monitoring of alert and epidemic thresholds. (catholiccomgh.org)
  • Meningococcal meningitis is prevalent in the northern part of the country and the meningitis belt, because of the hot weather, where the annual rainfall ranges between 300mm and 1100mm,"Dr Ibijoke Campbell, a consultant pediatrician at Oni Memorial Hospital disclosed. (tribuneonlineng.com)
  • Immunization campaigns using the landmark MenAfriVac vaccine began five years ago in Africa's so-called meningitis belt, which stretches across the continent from Senegal to Ethiopia. (medindia.net)
  • Since 2010, the Meningitis Vaccine Project - a partnership between WHO and US non-profit PATH and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation - has helped vaccinate more than 237 million people aged one through 29 in 16 of the 26 countries in the belt. (medindia.net)
  • The MenAfriVac™vaccine was rolled out in 26 nations across Africa's "meningitis belt" over the course of seven years. (cdc.gov)
  • Outbreaks of bacterial meningitis occur between December and June each year in an area of sub-Saharan Africa known as the meningitis belt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reports recorded that it had resulted in 379,000 deaths from 464,000 deaths in 1990 but currently, appropriate treatment has reduced the mortality rate in bacterial meningitis to less than 15 per cent. (tribuneonlineng.com)
  • Meningococcal meningitis, a form of meningitis caused by N. meningitidis, can spread easily wherever a large number of people live, such as among college students in dormitories. (uwmedicine.org)
  • The CDC now recommends that children ages 11 and 12, teens, and college freshmen who live in dorms be vaccinated against this particular form of meningitis. (uwmedicine.org)
  • In 1987, serogroup A, subgroup III meningococci caused a meningitis epidemic during the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia ( 12 ), and healthy pilgrims carried these bacteria throughout the world. (cdc.gov)
  • N. meningitidis is also unique in that it can cause both epidemic and endemic cases of meningitis. (kenyon.edu)
  • Epidemic outbreaks of meningitis have become a serious issue in developing nations where the supply of vaccines and medication is limited and confined living situations result in increased transmission of virulent strains of the bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • The Hib vaccines currently available for immunizing infants are based on purified or synthetic PRP conjugated either to the non-toxic mutant diphtheria toxin CRM 197, tetanus toxoid, or the meningococcal outer membrane protein. (dcvmn.org)
  • It is also looking to provide a new meningitis vaccine, Two fundamental challenges surround vaccine the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine that helps access and R&D: First, the newest vaccines are often prevent cervical cancer, and several others. (msf.org.uk)
  • Although meningitis A has almost been eradicated in Africa, it could stage a "catastrophic" comeback if countries fail to include the vaccine. (medindia.net)
  • Meningococcal A meningitis, affected 26 countries in Africa for over a century, killing and disabling young people every year, but the vaccine became a boon. (medindia.net)
  • Today, I am looking with pride at what has been accomplished by CDC scientists and global partners who years ago made the professional and personal commitment to fight meningitis in Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • MenAfriVac™ was developed as the first vaccine developed specifically for use in sub-Saharan Africa for children and young adults between ages 1 and 29 years against serogroup A meningococcal meningitis. (cdc.gov)
  • This vaccine protects children against meningitis and disseminated tuberculosis (TB). (dcvmn.org)
  • Every year, around 700,000 people die across the globe as a result of resistance to the various antimicrobial drugs currently available to treat bacterial infections such as tuberculosis, HIV, malaria and fungal infections. (pasteur.fr)
  • As laboratory scientists, we contribute first to making the diagnosis of meningitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral, or aseptic, meningitis is usually caused by enteroviruses-common viruses that enter the body through the mouth and travel to the brain and surrounding tissues where they multiply. (nih.gov)
  • The recent outbreak of meningitis in Ghana, with over 30 reported deaths in three months, is a worrying situation in the West African nation, according to Catholic medics in the country. (catholiccomgh.org)
  • MenAfriVac was developed in response to a plea from African health ministers after a meningitis A outbreak in 1996 infected more than 250,000 people, killing more than 25,000 in just a few months. (medindia.net)