Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Fallopian Tube Diseases: Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Oligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Hysterosalpingography: Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Varicocele: A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Asthenozoospermia: A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Gametogenesis: The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Orchitis: Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Fallopian Tube Patency Tests: Methods for assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes.Abnormal Karyotype: A variation from the normal set of chromosomes characteristic of a species.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Andrology: A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Testicular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Surrogate Mothers: Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Fertility Agents: Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Tuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Acrosome Reaction: Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.Hysteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Social Alienation: The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.Sperm Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Klinefelter Syndrome: A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Vasovasostomy: Surgical anastomosis or fistulization of the spermatic ducts to restore fertility in a previously vasectomized male.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer: A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Time-to-Pregnancy: Time interval, or number of non-contraceptive menstrual cycles that it takes for a couple to conceive.Oceania: The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome: A type of male infertility in which no germ cells are visible in any of the biopsied SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES (type I) or in which germ cells are present in a minority of tubules (type II). Clinical features include AZOOSPERMIA, normal VIRILIZATION, and normal chromosomal complement.Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Gonadal Disorders: Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Spiritual Therapies: Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Salpingitis: Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Mycoplasma hominis: A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Fertility Preservation: A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Triploidy: Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Myoma: A benign neoplasm of muscular tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Sperm Agglutination: Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Genital Diseases, Male: Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Reproductive Tract Infections: Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Leiomyoma: A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male: Surgery performed on the male genitalia.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Epididymitis: Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.Feminine Hygiene Products: Personal care items for women.Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Extramarital Relations: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Directed Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
Spermatozoon is the male gamete. After ejaculation this cell is not mature, so it can't fertilize the oocyte. To have the ... oocyte maturation failure syndrome which results in infertility. Increasing our molecular knowledge of oocyte development ... Studies on men's health and fertility. New York: Humana Press. ISBN 978-1-61779-775-0. O'Flaherty, C; de Lamirande, E; Gagnon, ... ability to fertilize the female gamete, this cell suffers capacitation and acrosome reaction in female reproductive tract. The ...
... and infertility.[2][3] This syndrome is usually inherited via a new mutation in one of the parents' gametes, as those affected ... Because of this, XXXY syndrome only affects males. The additional two X chromosomes in males with XXXY syndrome causes them to ... Males with 48,XXXY are diagnosed anywhere from before birth to adulthood as a result of the range in the severity of symptoms.[ ... Males with 48,XXXY can have average or tall stature, which becomes more prominent in adulthood. Facial dysmorphism is common in ...
"Antioxidants in Male Infertility: A Guide for Clinicians and Researchers". "Clinical Embryology: A Practical Guide". "Gamete ... "Male Infertility: A Complete Guide to Lifestyle and Environmental Factors". "Understanding Male Infertility Global practices ... "Medical and Surgical Management of Male Infertility". "Male Infertility for the Clinician: A Practical Guide". " ... Varicocele and Male Infertility, 2016. The Azoospermic Male: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives, 2013. Advances in ...
Adjudin, a non-toxic analog of lonidamine has been shown to cause reversible infertility in rats. The drug disrupts the ... The sperm are released prematurely and never become functional gametes. A new targeted delivery mechanism has made Adjudin much ... Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control are methods of preventing pregnancy that primarily involve the male ... and male hormonal injections. Gossypol, an extract of cotton, has been studied as a male contraceptive pill. It decreased sperm ...
Males[edit]. Further information: Male infertility. The main cause of male infertility is low semen quality. In men who have ... ESHRE Capri Workshop Group (2013). "Failures (with some successes) of assisted reproduction and gamete donation programs". ... Cystic fibrosis can lead to infertility in men. Combined infertility[edit]. In some cases, both the man and woman may be ... There is now substantial evidence that coeliac sprue is associated with infertility both in men and women. (...) In men it can ...
Increasingly, Middle Eastern men are viewing male infertility as a medical condition to be overcome through ICSI, and are ... These ARTs include new forms of gamete donation, as well as surrogacy, which have been allowed by some Shia Islamic religious ... Inhorn, Marcia C., and Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli (2010) "Male Infertility, Chronicity, and the Plight of Palestinian Men in ... Inhorn, Marcia C. (2007). "Masculinity, Reproduction, and Male Infertility Surgeries in Egypt and Lebanon". Journal of Middle ...
... see Male infertility). Spermatogenesis produces mature male gametes, commonly called sperm but more specifically known as ... Spermatozoa are the mature male gametes in many sexually reproducing organisms. Thus, spermatogenesis is the male version of ... 20 October 2010). Male Infertility: Problems and Solutions. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 83-. ISBN 978-1-60761-193-6 ... Anisogamy Evolution of sexual reproduction Folliculogenesis Germ cells Male infertility Meiosis Oncofertility Oogenesis Origin ...
... gametes and ultimately provide insight into the dynamics of genetic recombination and its contribution to male infertility. ...
... (GIFT) is a tool of assisted reproductive technology against infertility. Eggs are removed from ... mixed with the man's sperm, and placed back into the woman's Fallopian tubes using a laparoscope. A woman must have at least ... Gamete intrafallopian transfer is not technically in vitro fertilisation because with GIFT, fertilisation takes place inside ... 1] Diario Clarin, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Jueves 15 de Mayo, 1986 Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) Haas JM, S.T.L. " ...
II leading to single chromatids and physiologically with the formation of aneuploid gametes that give rise to infertility. ... Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Twenty two tests were ... both male and female Sgol2-deficient mice from this line are infertile. By different approaches it was demonstrated that SGOL2 ...
ISBN 0-632-03906-X. S. Lee (2003). "Myths and reality in male infertility". In J. Haynes; amp; J. Miller. Inconceivable ... S Lee (1987). "Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT); A great leap forward?". Human Reproduction. 2 (6): 541. PMID 3667909. M. ... His book Counselling in Male Infertility was published in 1996; he contributed to major newspaper articles and appeared on ... S Lee (1996). Counselling in male infertility. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Press. ...
"Human testis specific protein 1 expression in human spermatogenesis and involvement in the pathogenesis of male infertility". ... 2005). "Human testicular protein TPX1/CRISP-2: localization in spermatozoa, fate after capacitation and relevance for gamete ...
This procedure is most commonly used to overcome male infertility problems, although it may also be used where eggs cannot ... This technique is used in order to prepare the gametes for the obtention of embryos that may be transferred to a maternal ... During the past decade, ICSI has been applied increasingly around the world to alleviate problems of severe male infertility in ... Although certain severe forms of male infertility have a genetic origin, others may be the result of environmental factors. ...
Infertility and Related Reproductive Disorders. 2003. Ted Schettler, MD. The collaborative on health and the environment.. ... Intersexuality - A person who has genitalia and/or other sexual traits which are not clearly male or female. Examples of ... Hypogonadism - A lack of function of the gonads, in regards to either hormones or gamete production. Ectopic pregnancy - When a ... Examples of functional problems of the reproductive system include: Impotence - The inability of a male to produce or maintain ...
The smaller gamete is the sperm cell and is produced by males of the species. The larger gamete is the ovum and is produced by ... In the Eppin trial that attained 100% infertility, a small sample size (only 9 monkeys) was used, and even among this small ... Gamete function After gametes are produced in sexual reproduction, two gametes must combine during fertilization to form a ... The production of gametes is induced in both male and female mammals by the same two hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone ( ...
Gunes S, Al-Sadaan M, Agarwal A (2015). "Spermatogenesis, DNA damage and DNA repair mechanisms in male infertility". Reprod. ... and the subsequent creation of male gametes, namely spermatozoa. The epithelium of the tubule consists of a type of ... Deficiencies in the enzymes employed in these repair processes may lead to infertility. Seminiferous tubule (right) with sperm ... "Semen characteristics and sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile men with low and high levels of seminal reactive oxygen species ...
When DNA damage is done in gamete cells (sperm and egg cells) then the future generations will all be affected. The damage may ... Studies have shown that safety recautions and regulations tend to focus on the male's work because of the traditional idea that ... Greenlee, A.R.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Chyou, P.H. (2003). "Risk Factors for Female Infertility in an Agricultural Region". ... Women in agriculture are poisoned by pesticides at twice the rate of their male counterparts. Exposure to pesticides can also ...
In diploid organisms, specialised cells called meiocytes (gamete mother cells) undergoes meiosis & form gametes.meiocyte is a ... The Arabidopsis MALE MEIOCYTE DEATH1 gene encodes a PHD-finger protein that is required for male meiosis. The Plant Cell 15, ... By viewing live mammalian meiosis, one can observe the behavior of mutant meiocytes that may possibly compromise infertility ... Through meiosis, the diploid meiocyte divides into four genetically different haploid gametes. The control of the meiocyte ...
... male infertility. Gene expression shows that in normal human subjects MGC50722 is expressed, while in subjects with ... it could play an important role in gamete cells. Due the recent identification of this gene and its protein, interaction ... A significant GEO Profile relating to MGC50722 was a study done on male fertility in humans looking at the disease ... Machev N, Gosset P, Viville S (2005). "Chromosome abnormalities in sperm from infertile men with normal somatic karyotypes: ...
... and the female gamete takes place within this structure. In Oomycota and some other organisms, the female oogonia, and the male ... and oogonia in the adult female could be very useful in the advancement of fertility research and treatment of infertility. ... The haploid nuclei (gametes) are formed by meiosis within the antheridia and oogonia, and when fertilization occurs, a diploid ... A haploid nucleus (gamete) from the antheridium will then be transferred through the fertilization tube into the oosphere, and ...
Thus what was called gamete and embryo donation, came into being. A careful reading of the 1983 clinical report often cited as ... Embryo donation can be carried out as a service of an individual infertility clinic (where donor and recipient families ... clinicians reasoned that more couples could be helped toward parenthood by substituting donor sperm for men who have no viable ... Again, however, these were embryos made from donor gametes specifically for the recipients. No one knows for sure when the ...
Both for male factor testing and in order to use sperm for IUI or IVF the couple must first collect a sperm sample. For many ... Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) is not technically in vitro fertilisation because with GIFT, fertilisation takes place ... Spouses who still suffer from infertility after exhausting legitimate medical procedures should unite themselves with the ... IVF and gamete donation in Sunni versus Shi'a Islam", Cult Med Psychiatry, 30 (4): 427-50, doi:10.1007/s11013-006-9027-x, PMC ...
Infertility: One of the would-be parents carries a balanced translocation, where the parent is asymptomatic but conceived ... ISBN 978-0-07-352526-6. E. Anton; J. Blanco; J. Egozcue; F. Vidal (April 29, 2004). "Sperm FISH studies in seven male carriers ... However, carriers of balanced reciprocal translocations have increased risks of creating gametes with unbalanced chromosome ... Chromosomal translocations between the sex chromosomes can also result in a number of genetic conditions, such as XX male ...
... gamete - gametophyte - gastrula - gel electrophoresis - gene - genetic drift - gene duplication - gene pool - genetic code - ... male - Malpighi layer - monophyletic - marburg virus - Marcello Malpighi - Marfan syndrome - marine biology - mass extinction ... infertility - inner matrix - insect - insectivores - insulin - intermediate filament - intermembrane space - interphase - ...
The primary direct function of the male reproductive system is to provide the male sperm for fertilization of the ovum. The ... The production of gametes takes place within the gonads through a process known as gametogenesis. Gametogenesis occurs when ... The best known type of functional problems include sexual dysfunction and infertility which are both broad terms relating to ... The male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside of the body and around the pelvis region of a male that ...
... (born 1947) is an Indian-born healthcare consultant, focussing on women's healthcare and infertility management in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Govindarajan was born in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Her father was a lawyer, freedom fighter and politician focussing on organic farming. Govindarajan's mother was a doctor in Coimbatore. Her early education was in Coimbatore, India and then she moved on to the alma mater of her mother, Stanley Medical College in Chennai to obtain her medical degree. On completion of her medical studies in Chennai, she moved to New York and then to Winnipeg, Canada. She later became a Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons of Canada in 1977 and a lecturer at the University of Manitoba, Canada. On her return to India in 1981, Mirudhubashini joined Sri Ramakrishna Hospital and started their Obstetrics and Gynecology department. She was instrumental in the formation of Womens Center. In early 2011, she moved into a new facility of her own ...
The Centers for Disease Control requires outcome data be reported to the Society of Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) which is the organization that compiles statistics.[2] Fertility clinics are often compared by these IVF success rates. However, it's important to note that SART puts a caution at bottom of each report that reads "Patient characteristics vary among programs; therefore, these data should not be used for comparing clinics." A consultation with many fertility clinics is always a good option to get a more complete comparison for a patients specific situation and needs. ...
In-vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures are effective in improving fertility in many women with endometriosis. IVF makes it possible to combine sperm and eggs in a laboratory and then place the resulting embryos into the woman's uterus. The decision when to apply IVF in endometriosis-associated infertility cases takes into account the age of the patient, the severity of the endometriosis, the presence of other infertility factors, and the results and duration of past treatments. In ovarian hyperstimulation as part of IVF in women with endometriosis, using a standard GnRH agonist protocol has been found to be equally effective in regard to using a GnRH antagonist protocol in terms of pregnancy rate.[7][needs update] On the other hand, when using a GnRH agonist protocol, long-term (three to six months) pituitary down-regulation before IVF for women with endometriosis has been estimated to increase the odds of clinical pregnancy by fourfold.[7] ...
... is the natural capability to produce offspring. As a measure, fertility rate is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or population. Fertility differs from fecundity, which is defined as the potential for reproduction (influenced by gamete production, fertilization and carrying a pregnancy to term)[citation needed]. A lack of fertility is infertility while a lack of fecundity would be called sterility. Human fertility depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior, consanguinity, culture, instinct, endocrinology, timing, economics, way of life, and emotions. In demographic contexts, fertility refers to the actual production of offspring, rather than the physical capability to produce which is termed fecundity. While fertility can be measured, fecundity cannot be. Demographers measure the fertility rate in a variety of ways, which can be broadly broken into "period" measures and "cohort" measures. "Period" measures refer to a cross-section of the ...
Gynaecworld is a women's health centre. It is located in Mumbai, India and is one of several Mumbai IVF clinics that also provides surrogacy. The Gynaecworld clinic is founded and led by MD Dr Duru Shah Here are some of the services available at Gynaecworld Obstetrics and Gynaecology consultation Fertility Services Premarital counselling Pre-pregnancy Counselling Pregnancy Care Antenatal exercise program Family Planning Services Endoscopy (Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy) Teencare Dermatologist Dietician Ultrasound Laboratory services Akanksha Infertility Clinic, Anand, Gujarat Commercial surrogacy in India http://www.antya.com/detail/Gynaecworld/42361 http://www.hindustantimes.com/Don-t-ignore-warning-signs/Article1-554150.aspx Gynaecworld - Global Doctor Options Infertility Clinic In Mumbai,India, Infertility Center In Mumbai,India - GynaecWorld. ...
... is a commercial preparation of synthetic somatropin (growth hormone, a.k.a. GH). Manufactured by Merck Serono, Saizen is produced by recombinant DNA technology from a mammalian cell line (mouse C127) that was modified by the addition of the human GH gene, resulting in an identical 191-amino acid sequence and structure. Saizen is injected. It is intended for long-term treatment of individuals who are growth hormone deficient. Saizen, like all synthetic somatropin, has special importance for children and adolescents whose growth failure is due to inadequate production of growth hormone. Studies have shown that somatropin usage fails to produce athletic performance enhancement despite claims to the contrary. More recently, Saizen has been used in IVF protocols by a few physicians for female patients undergoing infertility treatment in an attempt to increase the number and quality of oocytes retrieved. It affects: Tissue growth Skeletal growth Cell growth ...
In March 1984, Mary Beth Whitehead responded to an ad placed by the Infertility Center of New York in the Asbury Park Press seeking women willing to help infertile couples have children. She was a high school drop-out who had married Richard Whitehead, a truck driver with whom she had two children, Ryan and Tuesday. At roughly the time of her pregnancy with Baby M, Richard was in an accident. He failed to notice that a trailer carrying a full-sized bulldozer had detached from the large dump truck he was driving, as he passed through South Jersey's largest traffic circle.[1][2][3] Elizabeth Stern was not infertile, but had multiple sclerosis and she and her husband William Stern were worried about the potential health implications of pregnancy, including temporary paralysis,[4] and transmitting genes that might put a child who shared them at risk of developing the same illness. The Sterns and Mary Beth Whitehead entered into a "surrogacy contract," according to which ...
... is a 1973 Canadian independent comedy horror film directed by Ivan Reitman and stars Eugene Levy, Andrea Martin, and Ronald Ulrich. It is about three young women being led by a Reverend who preaches cannibalism. The story gives off an urban legend feel, and was made as a spoof of traditional horror films. This film is known for the 'warning bell' gimmick, which rang in theatres to warn the more squeamish members of the audience for impending gory scenes. The film's setting, Farnhamville, may be a reference to Robert A. Heinlein's 1964 science fiction novel Farnham's Freehold, about a dystopian future in which cannibalism figured prominently. A couple are relaxing in a snowy forest near a small town in Ontario called Farnhamville. Suddenly, an axe wielding female assailant kills the boyfriend, rips the girlfriend's shirt open, and puts a dab of blood between her female victim's breasts. Then, we see the protagonists, Clifford Sturges (Eugene Levy), and Gloria Wellaby ...
... is the fertility that exists without birth control. The control is the number of children birthed to the parents and is modified as the number of children reaches the maximum. There is evidence that there is little birth control is used in non-European countries. Natural fertility tends to decrease as a society modernizes. Women in a pre-modernized society typically have given birth to a large number of children by the time they are 50 years old, while women in post-modernized society only bear a small number by the same age. However, during modernization natural fertility rises, before family planning is practiced. Historical populations have traditionally honored the idea of natural fertility by displaying fertility symbols. Natural fertility is a concept developed by the French historical demographer Louis Henry to refer to the level of fertility that would prevail in a population that makes no conscious effort to limit, regulate, or control fertility, so that fertility ...
Terms oligospermia and oligozoospermia refer to semen with a low concentration of sperm and is a common finding in male infertility. Often semen with a decreased sperm concentration may also show significant abnormalities in sperm morphology and motility (technically oligoasthenoteratozoospermia). There has been interest in replacing the descriptive terms used in semen analysis with more quantitative information. The diagnosis of oligozoospermia is based on one low count in a semen analysis performed on two occasions. For many decades sperm concentrations of less than 20 million sperm/ml were considered low or oligospermic, recently, however, the WHO reassessed sperm criteria and established a lower reference point, less than 15 million sperm/ml, consistent with the 5th percentile for fertile men. Sperm concentrations fluctuate and oligospermia may be temporary or permanent. Sources usually classify oligospermia in 3 classes: Mild: concentrations 10 million ...
In-vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures are effective in improving fertility in many women with endometriosis. IVF makes it possible to combine sperm and eggs in a laboratory and then place the resulting embryos into the woman's uterus. The decision when to apply IVF in endometriosis-associated infertility cases takes into account the age of the patient, the severity of the endometriosis, the presence of other infertility factors, and the results and duration of past treatments. In ovarian hyperstimulation as part of IVF in women with endometriosis, using a standard GnRH agonist protocol has been found to be equally effective in regard to using a GnRH antagonist protocol in terms of pregnancy rate.[7][needs update] On the other hand, when using a GnRH agonist protocol, long-term (three to six months) pituitary down-regulation before IVF for women with endometriosis has been estimated to increase the odds of clinical pregnancy by fourfold.[7] ...
Deleted in azoospermia-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAZL gene. The DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) gene family encodes potential RNA binding proteins that are expressed in prenatal and postnatal germ cells of males and females. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm of fetal germ cells and to the cytoplasm of developing oocytes. In the testis, this protein is localized to the nucleus of spermatogonia but relocates to the cytoplasm during meiosis where it persists in spermatids and spermatozoa. Transposition and amplification of this autosomal gene during primate evolution gave rise to the DAZ gene cluster on the Y chromosome. Mutations in this gene have been linked to severe spermatogenic failure and infertility in males. DAZL has been shown to interact with DAZ1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000092345 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". Saxena R, Brown ...
The Centers for Disease Control requires outcome data be reported to the Society of Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) which is the organization that compiles statistics.[2] Fertility clinics are often compared by these IVF success rates. However, it's important to note that SART puts a caution at bottom of each report that reads "Patient characteristics vary among programs; therefore, these data should not be used for comparing clinics." A consultation with many fertility clinics is always a good option to get a more complete comparison for a patients specific situation and needs. ...
A technique in which the male and female germ cells required to begin formation of a human embryo are injected into a woman s ... Gametes (germ cells) in males are the spermatozoa, or sperm, and those in females are ova, or eggs. After a sperm fertilizes an ... gamete intrafallopian transfer - noun Date: 1984 a method of assisting reproduction in cases of infertility that involves ... Gamete intrafallopian transfer - (GIFT) is a tool of assisted reproductive technology against infertility. Eggs are removed ...
Predictors of pregnancy and live birth after insemination in couples with unexplained or male-factor infertility. Fertil Steril ... A multicenter prospective study of 221 couples undergoing IVF or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) found a 13% decrease in ... Alcohol and male reproductive health: a cross-sectional study of 8344 healthy men from Europe and the USA. Hum Reprod. 2014;29: ... While a moderate level of drinking does not appear to alter outcomes in men, male partners should be advised to at least avoid ...
Preparation and handling of gametes. Experiments were carried out with mouse eggs in Hepes-buffered saline [H-KSOM (Hepes- ... Male infertility-linked point mutation disrupts the Ca2+ oscillation-inducing and PIP2 hydrolysis activity of sperm PLCζ ... Male infertility-linked point mutation reveals a vital binding role for the C2 domain of sperm PLCζ Biochem J (March, 2017) ... A male infertility-linked human PLCζ (phospholipase Cζ) mutation introduced into mouse PLCζ completely abolishes both in vitro ...
... due to male factors alone, 20% due to a combination of female and male factors, and 15% unexplained. ... Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. An estimated 15% of ... Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). These procedures allow the placement of semen ... Male Infertility) and Male Infertility What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Male Infertility ...
Infertility Evaluation. Risk of Idiopathic Male Infertility. Artificial Gametes and Ovarian Stimulation. Session 12: Assessment ... Session 11: Infertility and Birth Defects. Infertility implies not having the capacity to imagine and also being not able ... Barrenness in men is because of liquor utilization, poisons, smoking and medical issues. There are a few medicines that are ... A hazard factor is the possibility that something will hurt or generally influence a mans wellbeing. There are diverse hazard ...
Adjudin, a non-toxic analog of lonidamine has been shown to cause reversible infertility in rats.[43] The drug disrupts the ... The sperm are released prematurely and never become functional gametes. A new targeted delivery mechanism has made Adjudin much ... Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control, are methods of preventing pregnancy that solely involve the male ... "A Pill for Men-Still Five Years Away - Ms. Magazine".. *^ a b Parry, Wynne "New Male Birth Control Concept Shows Promise", ...
We explore the different kinds of infertility, what can be done, costs involved, and the tricky ethical and legal issues that ... Male infertility. Sperm defects. A low sperm count is the most common cause of male infertility. Abnormalities in sperm shape ... Where legislation exists, donor gametes (eggs and sperm) can only be used if defects in the gametes will not allow ... But the swimming ability of a mans sperm declines as the man ages. The older a man gets the greater the chance of genetic ...
Male Infertility Program. The Massachusetts General Hospital Male Infertility Program helps couples conceive by using the least ... Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). This is done with a fiber-optic instrument called a laparoscope to guide the transfer of ... Male Infertility Program. The Massachusetts General Hospital Male Infertility Program helps couples conceive by using the least ... To diagnose infertility, both the man and the woman are tested.. Some healthcare providers can do a basic infertility ...
A gamete produced by the man. Millions of these are present in ejaculation with one half carrying X chromosomes and the other ... It affects both men and women equally and can cause long term damage such as infertility if left untreated. ... Men with this condition have a rounded body shape, breast development (gynecomastia), small genitals and infertility. ... The most commonly known infertility technique. Eggs from the woman are combined with sperm from the man and fertilised under ...
Cytoplasmic removal from late-elongated spermatids is important to the generation of functional gametes. Although the ... males display fertility comparable to WT males, whereas Spem1 −/− males were completely infertile (SI Table 1). Spem1 −/− ... Lack of Spem1 causes aberrant cytoplasm removal, sperm deformation, and male infertility. Huili Zheng, Clifford J. Stratton, ... Targeted Disruption of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3a (Gsk3a) in Mice Affects Sperm Motility Resulting in Male Infertility ...
Some of the causes of infertility are for men, a sperm disorder. Infertility causes in women can be an ovulation disorder, ... Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), involves transferring eggs and sperm into the womans fallopian tube. Fertilization ... Infertility Quiz: Test Your IQ of Infertility. Learn about the signs and causes of infertility in women and men. Get facts on ... this equals 3.3-4.7 million men. Of men who sought help, 18% were diagnosed with a male-related infertility problem, including ...
Fertility see Infertility; Preconception Care * Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer see Infertility * Homosexuality see LGBTQ+Health ...
Men are considered infertile if they produce too few sperm cells, sperm cells of poor quality, or have chronic problems with ... Gamete or Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT or ZIFT). An egg is removed from the womans body and mixed with sperm in a ... Male Infertility Treatment. Treatment will depend on the cause of the infertility. Infertility treatments can be costly and ... Male Infertility Overview. Men are considered infertile if they produce too few sperm cells, sperm cells of poor quality, or ...
It could be caused by a problem with the mans system, the womans system, or both. ... Infertility is a problem of the reproductive system. It impairs the bodys ability to reproduce. ... Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). This is done with a fiber-optic instrument called a laparoscope to guide the transfer of ... To diagnose infertility, both the man and the woman are tested.. Some healthcare providers can do a basic infertility ...
the form ofMEIOSIS producing male gametes. see GAMETOGENESIS.. Spermatogenesis. The process by which sperm develop to become ... Mentioned in: Infertility. spermatogenesis. the development of mature spermatozoa from spermatogonia; it includes ... Physiology The production of male sex gametes; the maturational changes that transform spermatids into spermatozoa. See Sperm. ...
multiple factors, male and female --- diagnosis of one or more female cause and male factor infertility. ... Although a typical ART procedure includes in vitro fertilization (IVF) of gametes, culture for ,2 days and embryo transfer into ... male factor infertility, or unexplained infertility usually had higher than average live-birth rates. Women aged ,40 years with ... The proportion of procedures in which the couple was diagnosed with male factor infertility declined with the age of the woman ...
multiple factors, male and female --- diagnosis of one or more female cause and male factor infertility. ... Although a typical ART procedure includes IVF of gametes, culture for ,2 days, and embryo transfer into the uterus (i.e., ... or male factor infertility, and for procedures among women aged ,42 years with an infertility diagnosis of ovulatory ... Unexplained infertility was reported in 9%--15% of ART transfer procedures, multiple female factors in 9%--16%, and both male ...
Males[edit]. Further information: Male infertility. The main cause of male infertility is low semen quality. In men who have ... ESHRE Capri Workshop Group (2013). "Failures (with some successes) of assisted reproduction and gamete donation programs". ... Cystic fibrosis can lead to infertility in men. Combined infertility[edit]. In some cases, both the man and woman may be ... There is now substantial evidence that coeliac sprue is associated with infertility both in men and women. (...) In men it can ...
of male gametes chimpanzee: EPI-1 96% pig: EP4 HE2 10 E:CO. Acrosomal region. unique. Absent in rat, mouse, cat, pig and ... Ubiquitin-based sperm assay for the diagnosis of male factor infertility. Human Reprod 16: 250-258. [ Links ]. SYLVESTER SR, ... In: The male gamete: from basic science to clinical applications. C.Gagnon (ed)., pp 268-272 Cache River Press, Viena IL USA ... The acquisition of sperm fertilizing ability has been associated to metabolic and structural changes in the male gamete, ...
Mentioned in: Infertility Therapies. gamete. a haploid germ cell; one of two cells, male (spermatozoon) and female (ovum), ... gamete. /gam·ete/ (gam´ēt) 1. one of two haploid reproductive cells, male (spermatozoon) and female (oocyte), whose union is ... In animals where oogamy occurs male gametes are called sperm, the female gametes eggs. The situation in higher plants is more ... but essentially the male gamete is the generative nucleus found in the POLLEN GRAIN while the female gamete is the egg cell ...
... our understanding of the reproductive system in both men and women has progressed in an exponential manner.Along with this ... Discusses the clinical diagnosis and management of male and female infertility. *Provides new information on the state-of-the- ... Micromanipulation of Human Gametes, Zygotes, and Embryos. Quality Control: A Framework for the ART Laboratory ... With the advent of Assisted Reproductive Technologies, our understanding of the reproductive system in both men and women has ...
Low sperm count; low motility or blocked ducts are common causes of male infertility. More and more couples are turning to ... 1385 words - 6 pages physiological conditions preventing gamete production or fertilisation. Blocked oviducts are the leading ... picking the one that better fit our infertility type, considering age also and how long we had infertility issues. In. ... picking the one that better fit our infertility type, considering age also and how long we had infertility issues. In vitro ...
Malpani Infertility Clinic is one of the best IVF Clinic in India for Infertility Treatment. This ivf clinic in mumbai has ... Gonads: The glands that make the gametes (the testicles in the male and the ovaries in the female). ... Gamete: The male or female reproductive cells- the sperm or the ovum (egg). ... Androgens:Male sex hormones. Testosterone is one example.. * Andrology:The science of diseases peculiar to the male sex, ...
Malpani Infertility Clinic is one of the best IVF Clinic in India for Infertility Treatment. This ivf clinic in mumbai has ... Gamete:. The male or female reproductive cells- the sperm or the ovum (egg). ... See idiopathic infertility.. Urethra:. The tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside. In men it also carries ... Male sex hormones. Testosterone is one example.. Andrology:. The science of diseases peculiar to the male sex, particularly ...
In reality, approximate about 90% of male infertility are as result of sperm abnormalities. ... c) Gamete intra Fallopian tube transfer (GIFT). Gamete intra fallopian tube (GIFT) is simple ART (Assisted Reproductive ... we will focus the infertility on the other partner-male infertility. In reality, approximate about 90% of male infertility are ... Male Infertility -Sperm abnormality In Conventional Perspective View article disclaimer and terms Tags: Male Infertility, Sperm ...
  • For men with very few sperm (oligozoospermia), or spermatozoa with poor progressive motility (asthenozoospermia), the only option for fatherhood is intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), in which a sperm is injected into an egg and the embryo put back into the uterus. (bmj.com)
  • Endometriosis is diagnosed by inserting into the abdomen a laparoscope (a small, lighted instrument), through which the doctor can actually see the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and any displaced endometrial tissue that may be causing the infertility. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The World Health Organization estimates that there are about 60 to 80 million cases of infertility around the world. (ferring.com)
  • My doctoral study was dedicated to understanding the mechanisms behind human sperm-egg recognition with a particular focus on investigating the molecules that jeopardise this process in cases of infertility. (edu.au)
  • HMG + HCG is not better than placebo in cases of infertility with normal levels of gonadotrophins (Knuth, JCEM 65:1081,1987). (gfmer.ch)
  • The ongoing efforts to define the function of all of the genes essential for spermiogenesis are of great significance because they allow for the identification of the causative genes for human infertility and thus will make genetic diagnosis available in the future. (pnas.org)
  • Breast and Bowel Cancers Intellectual disability Hearing or visual disability Infertility or multiple miscarriages or infant deaths Genetic defects occurring frequently in special ethnic and rational groups e.g. (slideshare.net)
  • 3. Genetic basis in cases of abnormal sexual development, infertility, recurrent abortion & congenital malformations. (slideshare.net)
  • The classification methods and types of plant male sterility was concluded;Classic genetic researches and molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS),classic genetic researches and molecular-marked sterile genes of genetic male sterility (GMS) were reviewed in this paper. (cnki.com.cn)
  • While the idea of a biological parent seems self-evident, modern reproductive technology complicates it, as a child can have genetic parents (gamete providers, who supply the sperm or egg) and a third, gestational, parent. (stanford.edu)
  • Most patients would clearly prefer genetic parenthood, currently possible only via the use of donated gametes or, in future, via the clinical use of artificial gametes (AGs) incorporating parental DNA. (bioone.org)
  • to treat male infertility, to avoid genetic disorders carried by the male partner, or for single women. (adoptionattorneys.org)
  • Some of them grew into cells resembling sperm, known as gametes, which were themselves singled out and highlighted using a genetic marker. (rxpgnews.com)
  • However, the importance of this finding for helping azoospermic men with testicular failure have their own genetic child, was not readily apparent until the era of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (Palermo et al. (infertile.com)
  • Male infertility is a complex disease caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Men need to provide a semen sample this allows specialists to assess the number of sperm, how well they swim (known as 'motility') and the presence of sperm antibodies. (abc.net.au)
  • Male infertility is most commonly due to deficiencies in the semen , and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three American studies have reported an increased risk of prostate cancer in men with impaired semen quality, 3 4 5 whereas three Scandinavian studies and one American study indicated a lower risk of prostate cancer in childless men. (bmj.com)
  • Infertility is defined by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) as a disease of the reproductive system that impairs the body's ability to perform the basic function of reproduction. (massgeneral.org)
  • 1. one of two haploid reproductive cells, male ( spermatozoon ) and female ( oocyte ), whose union is necessary in sexual reproduction to initiate the development of a new individual. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Objective To compare the risk and severity of prostate cancer between men achieving fatherhood by assisted reproduction and men conceiving naturally. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Men who achieved fatherhood through assisted reproduction techniques, particularly through ICSI, are at increased risk for early onset prostate cancer and thus constitute a risk group in which testing and careful long term follow-up for prostate cancer may be beneficial. (bmj.com)
  • Written by leading, internationally renowned clinicians and basic scientists with expertise in sperm DNA, Sperm Chromatin: Biological and Clinical Applications in Male Infertility and Assisted Reproduction provides readers with a thoughtful and comprehensive review of the biological and clinical significance of sperm DNA damage. (springer.com)
  • Unlike any other title on the topic, Sperm Chromatin: Biological and Clinical Applications in Male Infertility and Assisted Reproduction is an invaluable addition to the literature and will serve as an indispensable resource for basic scientists with an interest in sperm biology and for urologists, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, and embryologists working in the field of infertility. (springer.com)
  • The research - published in the journal Reproduction: Gamete Biology - could also provide a valuable insight into male infertility, a condition traditionally hard to study. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The purpose of this FOA is to announce the re-competition of the National Centers for Translational Research in Reproduction and Infertility (NCTRI). (nih.gov)
  • Natural male reproduction depends on several things. (cedars-sinai.org)
  • At the recently concluded meeting of the Asian Pacific Initiative on Reproduction in Malaysia in March 2017, additional focus was placed on male infertility. (punchng.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that aberrant imprinting in spermatozoa in a subset of infertile men is a risk factor for congenital diseases in children conceived via assisted reproduction techniques. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to announce the re-competition of the Specialized Cooperative Centers Program in Reproduction and Infertility Research (SCCPIR). (nih.gov)
  • The centers also serve as a national resource for the training and career development of new scientists electing to pursue careers conducting translational research in high priority areas of reproduction and infertility. (nih.gov)
  • PURPOSE: At the start of the implementation of TESE-ICSI for Klinefelter men in the Netherlands, we aimed to evaluate their wish to father children and their attitudes towards this artificial reproduction technique. (biomedsearch.com)
  • About 6% of married women 15-44 years of age in the United States are unable to get pregnant after one year of unprotected sex (infertility). (medicinenet.com)
  • Updated NICE guidelines do not include a specific definition, but recommend that "A woman of reproductive age who has not conceived after 1 year of unprotected vaginal sexual intercourse, in the absence of any known cause of infertility, should be offered further clinical assessment and investigation along with her partner, with earlier referral to a specialist if the woman is over 36 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • When conception does not occur after one year of unprotected intercourse, after six months in women over age 35, or if there are known problems causing infertility, a medical evaluation of both the male and female is recommended. (nyhq.org)
  • The candidate must have a PhD degree in biological sciences (or related field) and prior training and experience with mammalian germ cells and gametes, mammalian cell culture, and molecular biology techniques (molecular cloning, vector construction, lentiviral technology, PCR, qRT-PCR, protein biochemistry). (srf-reproduction.org)
  • The text encompasses the basic science of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mammalian spermatozoa, the way in which these highly reactive molecules are processed by the germ line and the physiological significance of this redox activity in the generation of a functional gamete. (fishpond.com.au)
  • COURSE GOAL 4: Students will be able to identify the possible causes of infertility in the human body, analyze the effects of reproductive tract disorders, recognize the risks and symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases, and discuss the field of oncofertility in relation to sexual and holistic health. (coursera.org)
  • An organ in the male reproductive tract that lies above and behind the testicles. (malefertility.md)
  • β-defensin peptides are a family of antimicrobial peptides present at mucosal surfaces, with the main site of expression under normal conditions in the male reproductive tract. (prolekare.cz)
  • Normozoospermic fertile men ( N = 60) were recruited as controls. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the exact causes of sperm DNA damage are unknown, it is clear that infertile men possess substantially higher levels of sperm DNA damage than do fertile men. (springer.com)
  • Prostaglandin inhibitors, such as Indomethacin, may increase sperm density and motility in sub-fertile men with elevated seminal levels of prostaglandins. (urologyweb.com)
  • Certain antioxidants such as glutathione, when administered to oligospermic sub-fertile males, may improve sperm motility and morphology. (urologyweb.com)
  • In this study, we examined the DNA methylation status of CpG sites within the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of three imprinted genes, H19, GNAS, and DIRAS3, using combined bisulfite PCR restriction analysis and bisulfite sequencing in sperm obtained from 135 men with idiopathic male infertility, including normozoospermia (n = 39), moderate oligozoospermia (n = 45), and severe oligozoospermia (n = 51), and fertile controls (n = 59). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • How many sperm are really necessary for a man to be fertile? (infertile.com)
  • 20 male germ cell-specific genes or gene isoforms that play essential roles in spermiogenesis ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In our efforts to identify male germ cell-specific genes, we found a previously uncharacterized gene encoding a protein exclusively expressed in the cytoplasm of steps 14-16 spermatids (the last three steps of spermiogenesis, see Results ). (pnas.org)
  • The strategy that wtf selfish genes employ is to poison all the developing gametes, but then keep the antidote for themselves," says Zanders, a Stowers assistant investigator. (eurekalert.org)
  • The gametes that inherit the selfish genes are also exposed to the poison, but they don't succumb to it because they have the antidote. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers discovered the actions of multiple independent meiotic drivers in fission yeasts in an earlier study, reported in 2014 in eLife, but didn't know which genes were responsible, or how they destroyed gametes that didn't inherit the genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Gametes lacking the wtf genes died. (eurekalert.org)
  • We show here that homozygous deletion of a cluster of nine β-defensin genes ( DefbΔ9 ) in the mouse results in male sterility. (prolekare.cz)
  • Zanders became interested in selfish genes while investigating meiotic recombination, a critical step in the formation of gametes, as a graduate student at Cornell University. (stowers.org)
  • Prostate cancer and male infertility are both very common disorders, affecting approximately 10% and 8%, respectively, of all men in Western societies. (bmj.com)
  • 1 2 As prostate cancer and many forms of infertility are androgen related, the possible link between these disorders has been investigated previously. (bmj.com)
  • Our daily today contains more meats and high levels of saturated fat and trans fat which interfere the liver function, leading to over production of certain hormone disrupting normal function of male reproductive organ such as low sperm count, erectile dysfunction. (worldwidehealth.com)
  • In addition to infertility management, the fellowship will include weekly experiences in a variety of men's health evaluations and procedures to include medical and surgical management of erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, prostatitis syndromes, hypogonadism, and orchialgia. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Recent advances in medical therapies for erectile dysfunction has raised public awareness of the condition, however many men shy away from conventional therapies due to concerns of side effects and lack of efficacy. (pulsemed.org)
  • The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to the history of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and the basic philosophy and principles used to understand male erectile dysfunction and infertility from an Eastern medical perspective. (pulsemed.org)
  • Although previous studies have shown that embryonic stem cells grown in the laboratory can become germ cells that give rise to cells resembling sperm cells or gametes, this is the first time scientists have tested whether the gametes really work in real life. (rxpgnews.com)
  • However, 40% of azoospermic men with germinal failure have no sperm recoverable during an extensive TESE-ICSI procedure. (infertile.com)
  • Many infertility clinics have attempted ICSI with ROSNI (round spermatid nucleus injection) or ROSI (round spermatid injection). (infertile.com)
  • Attitudes of Klinefelter men and their relatives towards TESE-ICSI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 70% of Klinefelter men and 74% of their partners would (probably) opt for TESE-ICSI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: The majority of Dutch Klinefelter men and their partners desire to have children and have a positive attitude towards TESE-ICSI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the Netherlands, TESE-ICSI has been permitted on a limited scale and restricted to infertile men with a normal (46,XY) karyotype since June 2007. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ICSI is used in extreme cases of male infertility, where there are not enough sperm in the ejaculate, or when it is thought that sperm will not be able to fertilse an egg on its own using conventional IVF techniques (spontaneous fertilisation in a dish). (essentialbaby.com.au)
  • Therefore, data estimating the prevalence of infertility cited by various sources differs significantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The male gamete: from basic science to clinical applications. (springer.com)
  • Cleveland Clinic is one of the first institutions in the United States to offer a clinical fellowship in Male Infertility. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The clinical fellow will spend the majority of his/her time in the clinic and in the operating room, evaluating and managing patients with infertility problems. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Here we discuss the various clinical parameters used to assess gamete and embryo viability and discuss markers of gamete function that may be used within future studies attempting to derive AGs. (bioone.org)
  • From a clinical perspective there are chapters setting out the methods we should be using to diagnose oxidative stress in the male germ line, a clinical perspective on the aetiology of this condition and detailed considerations of the most suitable means of ameliorating such stress from a therapeutic point of view. (fishpond.com.au)
  • There is now no doubt that these cells actively generate ROS, that oxidative stress is a major contributor to defects in male reproductive health and that the successful clinical management of this condition depends on developing a deeper understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Oxidative Stress and Male Infertility-A Clinical Perspective. (fishpond.com.au)
  • These centers provide an arena for multidisciplinary interactions between basic and clinical scientists interested in establishing high quality translational research programs in the area of reproductive health and infertility. (nih.gov)