A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
... tick-borne encephalitis virus, poliovirus, and most recently Zika virus, in both in vitro and animal models. Since it has ... March 2009). "Robust antiviral efficacy upon administration of a nucleoside analog to hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzees". ... September 2015). "Nucleoside inhibitors of tick-borne encephalitis virus". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (9): 5483- ... Subsequently it has been widely used in antiviral research and has shown activity against a range of viruses, including Dengue ...
Colorado tick virus), and henipaviruses.[10][11] The Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis.[citation needed] ... "Tick-borne Encephalitis: Vaccine". International travel and health. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 3 ... Certain types are preventable with vaccines.[5] Treatment may include antiviral medications (such as acyclovir), ... Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites.[1][2] ...
... has also been found to have antiviral activity against a number of other viruses including Tick-borne encephalitis virus, and ... Investigation of Triazavirin antiviral activity against tick-borne encephalitis pathogen in cell culture]". Antibiotiki I ... 2007). "[Investigation of triazavirin antiviral activity against influenza A virus (H5N1) in cell culture]". Antibiotiki I ... "New antiviral drug from Urals will help fight Ebola and other viruses". Russia Beyond the Headlines. Tikhonova, E. P.; Петровна ...
Gritsun TS, Lashkevich VA, Gould EA (January 2003). "Tick-borne encephalitis". Antiviral Res. 57 (1-2): 129-46. doi:10.1016/ ... Alkhurma virus, Louping ill virus and other viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) complex. The Langat virus does ... Langat virus (LGTV) is a virus of the genus Flavivirus. The virus was first isolated in Malaysia in 1956 from a hard tick of ... Smith, CE (15 September 1956). "A virus resembling Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus from an ixodid tick in Malaya". ...
"Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe and Russia: Review of pathogenesis, clinical features, therapy, and vaccines". Antiviral ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis. TBEV is a member of the genus ... Encephalitis+Viruses,+Tick-Borne at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Tick-borne encephalitis ... Pulkkinen, Lauri; Butcher, Sarah; Anastasina, Maria (2018-06-28). "Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus: A Structural View". Viruses. ...
... is also found in the warm climate across Eurasia, where it is part of the tick-borne encephalitis virus-complex ... It can cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. No approved vaccine or antiviral drug exists. Prevention of tick bites is ... Powassan Virus (POWV) is the only known tick-borne virus to be endemic in North America. POWV human illnesses have been ... Subbotina EL, Loktev VB (2012). "[Molecular evolution of the tick-borne encephalitis and Powassan viruses]". Molekuliarnaia ...
Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus (transmitted by I. persulcatus), and Far-Eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus, formerly ... There is no specific antiviral treatment for TBE. Symptomatic brain damage requires hospitalization and supportive care based ... Three virus sub-types also exist: European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus (transmitted by Ixodes ricinus), ... "Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern ...
Vaccination with 64TRP can protect against tick-borne encephalitis virus carried by a different type of tick, the castor bean ... With Norbert Fuchsberger, Valeria Hajnicka and others, Nuttall has shown that tick saliva suppresses the host's antiviral ... "Tick-borne encephalitis virus transmission between ticks cofeeding on specific immune natural rodent hosts", Virology, 235 (1 ... "Efficient transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus between cofeeding ticks", Journal of Medical Entomology, 30: 295-99, ...
Louis virus Tahyna virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Varicella-zoster virus, which causes both chickenpox and shingles ... Treatment of viral encephalitis is primarily supportive with intravenous antiviral therapy due to there being no specific ... virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus Nipah virus Powassan virus Rabies virus Rubella virus SARS-CoV-2 Snowshoe hare virus St ... California encephalitis virus Chandipura virus Chikungunya virus Cytomegalovirus Dengue virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus ...
Tick-borne encephalitis West Nile virus Measles Epstein-Barr virus Varicella-zoster virus Enterovirus Herpes simplex virus type ... HSV except other viral encephalitis Antiviral therapy, such as acyclovir and ganciclovir, work best when applied as early as ... Meningoencephalitis is a rare, late-stage manifestation of tick-borne ricksettial diseases, such as RMSF and Human ... Huntzinger, Amber (July 2007). "Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tick-Borne Rickettsial Diseases". American Family ...
... transition some projects to higher hazard viral hemorrhagic fevers and to develop projects on other viruses such as tick-borne ... SARS-CoV work includes antiviral drug development, model characterization, and interferon interactions. The Galveston National ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis) to control outbreaks. Since 2000, Peters has been the John Sealy Distinguished University ... He is noted for his efforts in trying to stem epidemics of exotic infectious diseases such as the Ebola virus, Hanta virus and ...
... fever virus Tick-borne viruses Mammalian tick-borne virus group Kyasanur forest disease virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus ... antibiotics are not an effective form of treatment and no effective antiviral drugs have yet been discovered. Treatment is ... Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Spondweni virus group Spondweni virus Zika virus Yellow fever virus group Yellow ... Flavivirus Mosquito-borne viruses Dengue virus group Dengue virus Japanese encephalitis virus group Japanese encephalitis virus ...
... tick-borne encephalitis, vesicular stomatitis virus and West Nile virus viruses. Transmission of DHOV by respiratory aerosol ... The antiviral drug ribavirin, which has a broad spectrum of activity that includes some other orthomyxoviruses, has been shown ... as well as the species or strains Araguari virus, Aransas Bay virus (ABV), Bourbon virus, Jos virus (JOSV) and Upolu virus ( ... a tick-borne influenza-like virus) following oral infection of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks" (PDF), Journal of General ...
Tetanus vaccine Recommendations for certain regions Japanese encephalitis vaccine Yellow fever vaccine Tick-borne encephalitis ... in combination with direct acting anti-viral medicines To be used in combination with ribavirin To be used in combination with ... For severe illness due to confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection in critically ill hospitalized patients For the ...
... and two viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis group that cause VHF: Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus and Kyasanur Forest disease ... Antiviral therapy with intravenous ribavirin may be useful in Bunyaviridae and Arenaviridae infections (specifically Lassa ... Lassa virus), Lujo virus, Argentine (Junin virus), Bolivian (Machupo virus), Brazilian (Sabiá virus), Chapare hemorrhagic fever ... Guanarito virus) and Whitewater Arroyo virus hemorrhagic fevers. The family Filoviridae include Ebola virus and Marburg virus. ...
Viruses carried by arthropods such as mosquitoes or ticks are known collectively as arboviruses. West Nile virus was ... Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River ... Zika virus vaccine clinical trials are to be conducted and established. There are efforts being put toward advancing antiviral ... Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by ...
... including tick and mosquito borne viruses like Yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. Sepik virus is much less well known and ... like neurotropic viruses and hemorrhagic disease viruses. Neurotropic viruses like Japanese encephalitis virus cause ... Antiviral Research. 87 (2): 125-148. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.11.009. ISSN 0166-3542. PMC 3918146. PMID 19945487. Murray, ... Sepik virus causes a fever in humans, much like other viruses in the genus Flavivirus like dengue virus and Yellow fever virus ...
... is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever endemic to South-western part of India. The disease is caused by a virus belonging to ... Holbrook, Michael (2012). "Kyasanur forest disease". Antiviral Research. 96 (3): 353-362. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.10.005. ... The similarity with Russian spring-summer encephalitis was noted and the possibility of migratory birds carrying the disease ... "Complete coding sequence of the Alkhurma virus, a tick-borne Flavivirus causing severe hemorrhagic fever in humans in Saudi ...
Even more dramatically, in most of its range in North America, the main vector for the Western equine encephalitis virus is ... Main article: Mosquito-borne disease. Mosquitoes can act as vectors for many disease-causing viruses and parasites. Infected ... "Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection". Viral ... It is now well recognized that feeding ticks, sandflies, and, more recently, mosquitoes, have an ability to modulate the immune ...
... cross-reactivity with dengue virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus". J. Med. Virol. 83 (10): 1861-5. doi:10.1002/jmv.22180. ... "Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection". Viral ... and tick-borne encephalitis virus; this necessitates caution when evaluating serologic results of flaviviral infections. Four ... of West Nile virus encephalitis as well as other viruses. As of 2019, six vaccines had progressed to human trials but none had ...
Likewise, well-known viruses may be introduced into new locales, as is illustrated by the outbreak of encephalitis due to West ... doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.01.003. PMID 23369672. S2CID 2440876. Zeiler FA, Jackson AC (January 2016). "Critical Appraisal of ... and ticks, may help direct the diagnosis. Almost all human exposure to rabies was fatal until a vaccine was developed in 1885 ... Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected bears, domestic farm animals, groundhogs, weasels, and other wild ...
West Nile virus, Zika virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kyasanur ... Antiviral Research. 85 (3): 450-62. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.12.011. PMID 20060421. "Neglected Tropical Diseases". cdc.gov ... arthropod-borne viruses). The dengue virus genome (genetic material) contains about 11,000 nucleotide bases, which code for the ... Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days ...
Sandfly fever Naples virus. *Lone Star virus. *Tete virus. Flaviviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis * ... Nonetheless, this was the largest study of antiviral treatment for La Crosse encephalitis.[5] ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector ( ...
Sandfly fever Naples virus. *Lone Star virus. *Tete virus. Flaviviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis * ... "Antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects of rosmarinic acid in an experimental murine model of Japanese encephalitis". ... Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus. The positive sense single- ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis *TBEV. *Powassan encephalitis *POWV. *Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Omsk ... Drosten C, Kümmerer BM, Schmitz H, Günther S (January 2003). "Molecular Diagnostics of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers". Antiviral Res ... Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West ...
Sandfly fever Naples virus. *Lone Star virus. *Tete virus. Flaviviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Tick-borne encephalitis * ... Crotty S, Cameron C, Andino R (2002). "Ribavirin's antiviral mechanism of action: lethal mutagenesis?". J. Mol. Med. 80 (2): 86 ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ...
Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine. *Typhoid vaccine. *Varicella vaccine. *Yellow fever vaccine. Panglemes otot (tumindak pèrifèr ... Potentially severe or complicated illness due to confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection in accordance with WHO ... For the treatment of hepatitis C, in combination with peginterferon or direct acting anti-viral medicines ...
The history of infection and disease were observed in the 1800s and related to the one of the tick-borne diseases, Rocky ... The cause of viral encephalitis was discovered in Russia based upon epidemiological clustering of cases. The virus causing this ... "Antiviral treatments reduce severity of diabetes in Ljungan virus-infected CD-1 mice and delay onset in diabetes-prone BB rats ... "BK Virus, JC Virus and Simian Virus 40 Infection in Humans, and Association with Human Tumors". Polyomaviruses and Human ...
Levels were higher in female patients than in male patients, but we found no association between virus load and several ... We observed no association between phylogenetic clades and virus load or disease severity. ... virus (TBEV) RNA in serum samples obtained from 80 patients during the initial phase of TBE in Slovenia. For most samples, ... suggesting that inefficient clearance of virus results in a more serious illness. To determine whether a certain genetic ...
... a recent report suggests increasing incidence and the possibility that POWV may be an emerging tick-borne zoonosis. Therefore, ... Seventeen of 1,335 (1.3%) of I. scapularis and 0 of 222 (0%) of D. variabilis ticks were infected. All isolated virus belonged ... a variant of Powassan virus (POWV), appears to be maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle between Ixodes scapularis ticks and ... Tick-borne encephalitis. Antiviral Res 57 : 129-146.. [Google Scholar] * McLean DM, Donahue W, 1959. Powassan virus: isolation ...
... tick-borne encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Prospects for antiviral therapy ... Virus Epidemiology, Ecology and Emergence. Japanese Encephalitis. Epidemiology of St Louis encephalitis virus. West Nile Virus ... Virus Epidemiology, Ecology and Emergence of Tick-borne flaviviruses. Vaccines and Antiviral Agents. Formalin-inactivated whole ... Dengue Epidemiology: Virus Epidemiology, Ecology and Emergence.. Epidemiology and Ecology of Yellow Fever virus. ...
"Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe and Russia: Review of pathogenesis, clinical features, therapy, and vaccines". Antiviral ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis. TBEV is a member of the genus ... Encephalitis+Viruses,+Tick-Borne at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Tick-borne encephalitis ... Pulkkinen, Lauri; Butcher, Sarah; Anastasina, Maria (2018-06-28). "Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus: A Structural View". Viruses. ...
Tick-borne encephalitis. Antiviral Research. 2003; 57(1-2):129-146.. Kharitonova, N. N. and Leonov, Yu. A. Omsk Hemorrhagic ... A Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Based on the European Prototype Strain Induces Broadly Reactive Cross-neutralizing ... Omsk Virus Ecology. References. Charrel RN, Attoui H, Butenko AM, et al. Tick-borne virus diseases of human interest in Europe ...
New antiviral nucleoside derivatives for inhibiting the reproduction of varicella-zoster virus and tick-borne encephalitis ... enveloped DNA herpesviruses varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human cytomegalovirus, enveloped RNA tick-borne encephalitis virus ... deoxyuridines as tick-borne encephalitis virus reproduction inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem 155, 77-83 ... copper-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition of the AZM derivative were prepared and evaluated against tick-borne encephalitis virus ...
... tick-borne encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis Prospects for antiviral therapy ... Virus Epi demiology, Ecology and Emergence of Tick-borne flaviviruses. Vaccines and Antiviral Agents. Formalin-inactivated ... Japanese Encephalitis< BR id=CRLF>Epidemiology of St Louis encephalitis virus. We st Nile Virus: epidemiology and Ecology in ... Chimeric Flaviviruses: novel vaccines against dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. ...
Non-nucleoside antiviral drug; effective against tick-borne encephalitis virus and forest-spring encephalitis virus. 1. ... Antiviral drugs that affect other RNA viruses (which include Ebola virus, rabies, influenza, hepatitis C, West Nile fever, ... Antiviral drugs that are effective against viruses such as HIV, whose action is mediated by DNA after conversion by reverse ... Other antiviral drugs. Baloxavir marboxil. Inhibitor of influenza virus cap-dependent endonuclease; to be combined with ...
... find that global warming has allowed disease-bearing insects to proliferate, increasing exposure to viral infections. ... Yellow fever and Tick-borne encephalitis.. For many of these diseases, there are as yet no specific antiviral agents or ... The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) has been found in several European countries, including Austria, the Czech Republic, ... Climate change promotes the spread of mosquito and tick-borne viruses. European Commission Joint Research Centre ...
... as clearly evident from the increase in Powassan encephalitis virus, Heartland virus, and Bourbon virus infections. Tick-borne ... In this review, we will highlight tick determinants of TBFV transmission with a special emphasis on tick-virus-host ... Successful tick feeding is facilitated by a complex repertoire of pharmacologically active salivary proteins/factors in tick ... These salivary factors create an immunologically privileged micro-environment in the hosts skin that influences virus ...
Interferons: cell signalling, immune modulation, antiviral response and virus countermeasures S. Goodbourn, L. Didcock and R. E ... The NS1 protein of tick-borne encephalitis virus forms multimeric species upon secretion from the host cell. J Gen Virol 1994; ... Intracellular degradation and localization of NS1 of tick-borne encephalitis virus affect its protective properties * Yulia V. ... Genetic vaccination of mice with plasmids encoding the NS1 non-structural protein from tick-borne encephalitis virus and dengue ...
The mosquito-borne viruses that cause encephalitis cannot be destroyed with antiviral or other medicines. Treatment for these ... This type of viral encephalitis is caused by a tick bite.. Most cases of mosquito-borne encephalitis occur during the warmest ... Encephalitis: Mosquitoes and Ticks. Skip to the navigation Topic Overview. Viruses and bacteria carried by mosquitoes and ... Encephalitis caused by mosquito-borne viruses is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. It also may be transmitted through ...
... positive-sense RNA virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). TBEV infection can lead to a variety of clinical manifestations ... The TBEVHostDB could potentially be used for assessment of risk factors for severe forms of tick-borne encephalitis and for the ... and IFNAR1 and their neighbors were a fragments of two key pathways functioning during the course of tick-borne encephalitis: ( ... Tick-borne encephalitis is caused by the neurotropic, ... antiviral responses and virus countermeasures. J Gen Virol. ...
Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Vaccines 300.00 € ... Feb 2016 Competitor Analysis: Dengue Virus Vaccines, Antibodies ... Feb 2016 Competitor Analysis: Flavivirus Vaccines: Zika, Dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis & ...
TRIM79α, an interferon-stimulated gene product, restricts tick-borne encephalitis virus replication by degrading the viral RNA ... have broad or virus-restricted antiviral effector functions (25, 48). We classified pIC-induced antiviral genes in CD8+ DCs ... Establishment of the antiviral state in CD8+ DCs. TLR3 activation by pIC or virus-derived dsRNA induces the expression of IFN-β ... Toll-like receptor 3 mediates establishment of an antiviral state against hepatitis C virus in hepatoma cells. J. Virol. 83: ...
MacDonald is also investigating cellular interactions of the tick-borne Powassan virus, a flavivirus causing severe ... This and other work by the lab was seminal to the development of antiviral drugs that are now used to cure HCV. Despite this ... encephalitis here in the US. She, in collaboration with others, also studies human antibody responses to Zika and other ... Many viruses resist conventional virus culture methods, and creative new approaches have been required to study them. Rice ...
... whether from cells infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) or from cells infected with a defective recombinant ... Unlike similar proteins from mosquito-borne viruses, NS1 from TBEV-infected cells cannot be dissociated at ambient temperatures ... Flaviviruses elicit a humoral immune response to two virus-encoded, membrane-associated glycoproteins. One is the major virion ... Interferons: cell signalling, immune modulation, antiviral response and virus countermeasures S. Goodbourn, L. Didcock and R. E ...
Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis and Characterization of Virus from Biting Tick.. Henningsson AJ, Lindqvist R, Norberg P, Lindblom ... Type I interferon protects mice from fatal neurotropic infection with Langat virus by systemic and local antiviral responses. ... Viperin Restricts Zika Virus and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Replication by Targeting NS3 for Proteasomal Degradation. ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus sequenced directly from questing and blood-feeding ticks reveals quasispecies variance. ...
Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Zika viruses. Samples from individuals vaccinated against flaviviruses other than TBEV ... These samples tested positive for e.g. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, or for flaviviruses ... is a potentially severe neurological disease caused by TBE virus (TBEV). In Europe and Asia, TBEV infection has become a ... Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe and Russia: Review of pathogenesis, clinical features, therapy, and vaccines. Antiviral Res. ...
... or tick-borne viruses. Time of year: as mosquito- and tick-borne diseases are more common during certain seasons. Encephalitis ... can be treated using antiviral medications (if caused by a virus), antibiotics (if caused by bacteria), steroids to reduce ... Louis, West Nile, La Crosse, western equine and eastern equine encephalitis. Tick-borne viruses Rabies virus Childhood ... A) Limbic encephalitis, (B) cortical/subcortical encephalitis, (C) striatal encephalitis, (D) diencephalic encephalitis, (E) ...
The major focus of investigation of tick-borne viruses has been the interaction with the mammalian host, particularly the ... The major focus of investigation of tick-borne viruses has been the interaction with the mammalian host, particularly the ... The assumption has been that the tick host and virus have evolved to reach an equilibrium whereby virus infection does not ... The assumption has been that the tick host and virus have evolved to reach an equilibrium whereby virus infection does not ...
... system is a robust tool to facilitate studies of flavivirus RC formation and is an ideal model for the screening of antiviral ... Model System for the Formation of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Replication Compartments without Viral RNA Replication. Yau, ... we used tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as a model for the flaviviruses and developed a stable human cell line in which ... Flaviviridae, Flp-In cell line, NS4B, flavivirus, replication compartment, replication vesicles, tick-borne cephalitis virus ...
West Nile virus in Africa, Central Europe, and most recently, North America; tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the ... There are no antiviral drug therapies for any of the flaviviruses, and effective human vaccines are in high demand for many of ... Chimeric tick-borne encephalitis and DEN type 4 viruses: effects of mutations on neurovirulence in mice. J. Virol. 67:4956-4963 ... Oligomeric rearrangement of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope proteins induced by an acidic pH. J. Virol. 69:695-700. ...
... tick-borne encephalitis virus, poliovirus, and most recently Zika virus, in both in vitro and animal models. Since it has ... March 2009). "Robust antiviral efficacy upon administration of a nucleoside analog to hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzees". ... September 2015). "Nucleoside inhibitors of tick-borne encephalitis virus". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (9): 5483- ... Subsequently it has been widely used in antiviral research and has shown activity against a range of viruses, including Dengue ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope Antibody (1004134) [Unconjugated]. Validated: ELISA. Tested ... Viral Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope protein was serially diluted 2-fold and captured by Mouse Anti-Viral Tick-borne ... Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope » Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope Research Products » Tick-borne Encephalitis ... European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne ...
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes more than 2.500 annual infections in central Europe with approx. 14% of severe ... Despite acyclovir as available specific antiviral drug, encephalitis patients still are at high risk to die (20%) and more than ... Neuroimaging Characteristics and Long-Term Outcome of Severe European Tick-Borne Encephalitis: A Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS ... Herpes simplex virus 1 and Varicella Zoster Virus, are the most frequent pathogens of sporadic encephalitis. The high sero- ...
Overby AK, Popov VL, Niedrig M, Weber F (2010) Tick-borne encephalitis virus delays interferon induction and hides its double- ... Virus Res 117: 17 37. 29. Ahlquist P (2006) Parallels among positive-strand RNA viruses, reverse- transcribing viruses and ... 2013) Hepatitis C virus-specific directly acting antiviral drugs. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 369: 289 320. 63. Dijkman R, ... K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the ...
The stress granule component TIA-1 binds tick-borne encephalitis virus RNA and is recruited to perinuclear sites of viral ... Alternatively, stress granules may not have an antiviral function against YFV, and thus the virus has no pressure to evolve an ... Most flaviviruses, such as dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and Zika virus (ZIKV), are arthropod-borne viruses ... and the related tick-borne encephalitis virus (34, 53-58), YFV does not seem to efficiently antagonize stress granule ...
Louis encephalitis. Researchers from Purdue University and the California Institute of Technology have solved the three- ... dimensional structure of the dengue virus, providing the first detailed view of a virus from the flavivirus family. The ... findings open new avenues for developing vaccines and antiviral compounds to target diseases caused by flaviviruses. ... Scientists now have a way to target a number of insect-borne diseases, including dengue, West Nile, yellow fever and St. ...
tick-borne encephalitis virus: Mechanisms of a potent antiviral protein2013Ingår i: Cytokine, ISSN 1043-4666, E-ISSN 1096-0023 ... The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus transmitted to humans, usually via tick bites. The virus causes tick- ... Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an illness caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection which is often limited to ... Vector-borne flaviviruses, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), West Nile virus, and dengue virus, cause millions of ...
  • TBEV, tick-borne encephalitis virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a virus associated with tick-borne encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other close relatives, members of the TBEV serocomplex, include Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, Kyasanur Forest disease virus, Alkhurma virus, Louping ill virus and Langat virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • TBEV is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus, contained in a 40-60 nm spherical, enveloped capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • TBEV in the blood of the host infects the tick through the midgut, from where it can pass to the salivary glands to be passed to the next host. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-adult ticks, TBEV is transmitted transtadially by infecting cells that are not destroyed during molting, thus the tick remains infectious throughout its life. (wikipedia.org)
  • A series of analogues of potent antiviral perylene nucleoside dUY11 with methylthiomethyl (MTM), azidomethyl (AZM) and HO-C1-4-alkyl-1,2,3-triazol-1,4-diyl groups at 3`-O-position as well as the two products of copper-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition of the AZM derivative were prepared and evaluated against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (ibch.ru)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis is caused by the neurotropic, positive-sense RNA virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The TBEVHostDB could potentially be used for assessment of risk factors for severe forms of tick-borne encephalitis and for the design of personalized pharmacological strategies for the treatment of TBEV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe neurological illness caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • TBEV is a neurotropic, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus , family Flaviviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and Anaplasma phagocytophilum , or for flaviviruses other than TBEV, i.e. dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Zika viruses. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Experiments reported here demonstrate that the secreted form of NS1, whether from cells infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) or from cells infected with a defective recombinant adenovirus containing the NS1 gene, occurs chiefly as a pentamer or hexamer and occasionally as a decamer or dodecamer. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Unlike similar proteins from mosquito-borne viruses, NS1 from TBEV-infected cells cannot be dissociated at ambient temperatures by extremes of pH. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here, we used tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as a model for the flaviviruses and developed a stable human cell line in which the expression of NS proteins can be induced without viral RNA replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • IMPORTANCE TBEV infection causes a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from mild fever to severe encephalitis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Especially members of the flavivirus family (e.g. dengue virus, WNEV, JEV, TBEV) represent both a medical and national economic challenge, expected to increase significantly in future also in Europe due to the aging society, climate changes and globalization. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes more than 2.500 annual infections in central Europe with approx. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • The group has isolated numerous wild-type viruses and mutants (TBEV, HSV-1) and has available a range of genetically modified HSV strains to address aspects of these questions in vitro and in animal models. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Three TBEV sub-types have been described: European or Western tick-borne encephalitis virus, Siberian tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Far eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus (formerly known as Russian Spring Summer encephalitis virus, RSSEV). (novusbio.com)
  • The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus transmitted to humans, usually via tick bites. (diva-portal.org)
  • We previously demonstrated the existence of TBEV variants with variable poly(A) tracts within a single blood-fed tick. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a potentially lethal neuroinfection in humans caused by TBE virus (TBEV). (uni-salzburg.at)
  • Sera from these individuals exhibit increased neutralization of TBEV and high binding to TBEV envelope protein by ELISA when compared to sera from TBEV vaccinated individuals or from the general population.Next to immunotherapy, treatment with small molecules interfering with the virus life cycle represents another promising approach to manage TBE in humans. (uni-salzburg.at)
  • TBEV-resistance to the C2' methylated inhibitors or galidesvir (BCX4430) was found to be conferred by a single conservative mutation that causes a structural change within the active site of viral NS5 RdRp that is subtle but associated with strong attenuation of the virus. (uni-salzburg.at)
  • In Western Europe, the castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus , is the principal vector of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to survey the I. ricinus tick populations of Canton Valais for TBEV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ticks were processed in pools and tested for TBEV using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TBEV was detected in tick populations at six of the 45 sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TBEV is a zoonotic pathogen that is maintained in nature by cycling between competent reservoir hosts and a tick vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The proportion (or prevalence) of TBEV-infected ticks in populations of I. ricinus is often low. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In European areas where TBEV is endemic, the prevalence of the virus in I. ricinus populations varies from 0.1 to 5.0% [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important flaviviruses that targets the central nervous system (CNS) and causes encephalitides in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The virus-infected mice were treated with the CC chemokine antagonist Met-RANTES or anti-RANTES mAb to determine the role of RANTES in affecting TBEV-induced neurological disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, IRF-3 was activated upon TBEV infection as evidenced by phosphorylation of TBK1 and IRF-3, while blockade of IRF-3 activation drastically reduced virus-induced RANTES expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first TBEV replication usually occurs in dendritic cells of the skin following tick bites, later in regional lymph nodes, and then virus can be detected in plasma [ 5 , 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We aimed to identify the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) associated with fatal meningoencephalitis in Mongolia. (who.int)
  • Ticks collected from Selenge and Bulgan provinces were also tested for TBEV by RT-PCR. (who.int)
  • The closest relatives of this virus are Far-Eastern TBEV isolates. (who.int)
  • Vector-borne flaviviruses, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), West Nile virus, and dengue virus, cause millions of infections in humans. (wustl.edu)
  • TBEV causes a broad range of pathological symptoms, ranging from meningitis to severe encephalitis or even hemorrhagic fever, with high mortality. (wustl.edu)
  • Here, we show that the type I interferon (IFN) system is essential for protection against TBEV and Langat virus (LGTV) in mice. (wustl.edu)
  • We have previously found that BALB/c mice exhibit intermediate susceptibility to the infection of TBE virus (TBEV), STS mice are highly resistant, whereas the recombinant congenic strain CcS-11, carrying 12.5% of the STS genome on the background of the BALB/c genome is even more susceptible than BALB/c. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae , which besides TBEV includes West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and several other viruses causing extensive morbidity and mortality in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ticks act as both the vector and reservoir for TBEV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TBEV may produce a variety of clinical symptoms, from an asymptomatic disease to a fever and acute or chronic progressive encephalitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) by bioinformatics tools. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The Group has a long-standing interest in HIV-1 transcriptional and post-transcriptional nuclear regulation and has recently become interested in hepatitis C virus (HCV) and in vector-borne viruses, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). (icgeb.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Langat virus (LGTV), West-Nile virus (WNV), or Kunjinvirus (KUNV) replicon with firefly luciferase gene as a reporter were expressed and characterized in cell culture studies. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a leading cause of viral encephalitis in Europe and Asia. (jimmunol.org)
  • We examined the maturation phenotype and function of murine bone marrow-derived DCs infected with Langat virus (LGTV), a naturally attenuated member of the TBEV serogroup. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae . (jimmunol.org)
  • Others are transmitted by ticks, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease (KFD), Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), Powassan encephalitis, and the recently discovered Heartland and Bourbon viruses. (lymedisease.org)
  • Antiviral activity was also observed against other flaviviruses such as the yellow fever virus and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (conicet.gov.ar)
  • In particular, potent antiviral activity was observed against TBEV. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Flaviviruses are globally significant human pathogens including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV) and the TBEV serocomplex of viruses. (utoledo.edu)
  • Select members of the TBEV serocomplex includes the highly pathogenic TBEV-Sofjin and Powassan virus (POWV) and require biosafety level (BSL)-4 and 3 facilities respectively. (utoledo.edu)
  • The group also includes the naturally attenuated Langat virus (LGTV), which greatly simplifies studies with TBEV under BSL-2 conditions. (utoledo.edu)
  • Viruses in the TBEV serocomplex span the clinical spectrum for flaviviruses. (utoledo.edu)
  • A major accomplishment of Dr. Taylor's work has been the identification of a previously unnamed mouse-specific tripartite motif (TRIM) protein (now designated TRIM79) that targets the nonstructural 5 protein (NS5) from TBEV to inhibit virus replication. (utoledo.edu)
  • Focus in the lab will characterize the TRIM79-NS5 interaction, and ultimately determine the importance of the antiviral molecule to host protection in a mouse model of TBEV infection. (utoledo.edu)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus distributed throughout Eurasia. (health.mil)
  • Chambers TJ , Diamond MS . Pathogenesis of flavivirus encephalitis. (cdc.gov)
  • The Flavivirus genus constitutes some of the most serious human pathogens including Japanese encephalitis, dengue and yellow fever. (indigo.ca)
  • MacDonald is also investigating cellular interactions of the tick-borne Powassan virus, a flavivirus causing severe encephalitis here in the US. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Flavivirus is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viral genus, with members causing severe diseases in humans such as tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue fever. (diva-portal.org)
  • This cell system is a robust tool to facilitate studies of flavivirus RC formation and is an ideal model for the screening of antiviral agents at a lower biosafety level. (diva-portal.org)
  • Human flavivirus infections stimulate virus species-specific as well as flavivirus cross-reactive immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Approximately half of the world's population is at risk of being infected with members of the genus Flavivirus , with 2.5 billion people at risk of infection from the dengue viruses alone ( 8 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Human infections by flaviviruses elicit humoral immune responses resulting in the production of virus species-specific as well as flavivirus cross-reactive antibodies ( 9 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • The flavivirus family includes a number of dangerous insect-borne diseases such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, tick-borne encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because all flavivirus are closely related, Kuhn says studying the structure of the dengue virus will reveal strategies that can be used to study other viruses in the family. (eurekalert.org)
  • The flavivirus family contains a number of medically important viruses that have proved to be difficult to control and study," he says. (eurekalert.org)
  • The causative pathogen is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the tick-borne flavivirus group (genus Flavivirus , family Flaviviridae ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dengue virus (DENV), together with other significant arthropod-borne human pathogens such as West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, belongs to the flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family of RNA viruses ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Flavivirus genus has been subdivided into the mosquito-borne viruses (e.g., dengue, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis), the tick-borne viruses, and those that do not use arthropod vectors ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Background & objectives: West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis. (bvsalud.org)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae . (asm.org)
  • We expect to generate new information at the cutting edge of West Nile Virus and flavivirus research and promising new antiviral drug candidates. (edu.au)
  • The broad-spectrum action of this class of inhibitors suggests a strategy for pan-flavivirus antivirals with low potential for resistance. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The Greek Goat Encephalitis (GGE) flavivirus belongs to the Flaviviridae family and specifically to the genus Flavivirus. (igi-global.com)
  • response in olfactory bulb, the site of tick-borne flavivirus accumulation, is primarily regulated by IPS-1. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • There are currently no specific therapies for the treatment of flavivirus infections, underscoring the importance of identifying therapeutic targets for development of novel antivirals. (jimmunol.org)
  • [ citation needed ] In 1978, ALS was reproduced in laboratory animals by inoculation of the Schu virus, a TBE flavivirus, taken from the CSF of a patient with ALS. (bionity.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a flavivirus with single-stranded RNA, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in most of southeast Asian countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of the genus Flavivirus are distributed globally and cause significant human disease and mortality annually. (bvsalud.org)
  • Flavivirus infections present a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to severe manifestations, including hemorrhage, encephalitis and death. (bvsalud.org)
  • Background: Zika virus is the family member of flavivirus with no reported clinically approved drugs or vaccines in the market till date. (ajmb.org)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) belongs to flavivirus family which was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest, Uganda in 1947 1 . (ajmb.org)
  • Because of the essential functions that the NS2BNS3 complex plays in the flavivirus life cycle, it is an attractive target for antiviral development. (springer.com)
  • Thus, virus suppression of IFN signaling renders IFN ineffective as a medicinal therapy for flavivirus infections. (utoledo.edu)
  • Identifying ISGs with virus-specific antiviral activity may reveal new methods for treating flavivirus infections. (utoledo.edu)
  • The Flaviviridae family consists of 3 genera which include the Flavivirus genus (type species, yellow fever virus) as the largest genus, the Hepacivirus (type species, hepatitis C virus) and the Pestivirus (type species, bovine virus diarrhea). (eurekaselect.com)
  • The flaviviruses (Flavivirus genus) are small RNA viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks that take over host cell machinery in order to propagate. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Despite the extensive research and public health concern associated with flavivirus diseases, to date, there is no specific treatment available for any flavivirus infections, though commercially available vaccines for yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-born encephalitis exist. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is caused by a flavivirus usually transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected Ixodes ricinus tick. (health.mil)
  • An animal model for the tick-borne Flavivirus Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. (utmb.edu)
  • Detection, Diagnosis and Vaccine Development , the third volume of The Flaviviruses details the current status of technologies for detection and differentiation of these viruses, their use in surveillance and outbreak investigation, and also reviews the latest clinical research. (indigo.ca)
  • Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) are transmitted to the mammalian host along with the infected tick saliva during blood-feeding. (mdpi.com)
  • Tick-Borne Flaviviruses and the Type I Interferon Response. (nih.gov)
  • Flaviviruses elicit a humoral immune response to two virus-encoded, membrane-associated glycoproteins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • There are no antiviral drug therapies for any of the flaviviruses, and effective human vaccines are in high demand for many of the medically important species. (asm.org)
  • Opening doors to the possibility of developing new vaccines and antiviral agents to fight a host of insect-borne diseases, scientists have, for the first time, determined the structure of a family of viruses known as the flaviviruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • The discovery may help scientists develop antiviral compounds and other strategies to target dengue and other diseases caused by flaviviruses, says Richard Kuhn, associate professor of biological sciences and lead author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Flaviviruses have been especially difficult to study in part because their properties make it difficult to produce the large amounts of undamaged particles needed for the high-resolution techniques used to study virus structures. (eurekalert.org)
  • To do these experiments, we need large amounts of undamaged virus, and the flaviviruses are difficult to culture," he says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Zika belongs to a family of viruses called flaviviruses, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitic viruses. (teknoscienze.com)
  • The team led by Purdue also identified regions within the Zika virus structure where it differs from other flaviviruses, the family of viruses to which Zika belongs that includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitic viruses. (purdue.edu)
  • Mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFVs) are of public and animal health concern because they cause millions of human deaths annually and impact domestic animals and wildlife globally. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although genetic systems have been developed for many flaviviruses, their usage in antiviral HTS assays has not been well explored. (asm.org)
  • By studying the enzyme in the laboratory we can design small molecules that block its function and these are potential leads for developing drug treatments for people infected, not only by this virus but potentially also other flaviviruses. (edu.au)
  • Grard G , Moureau G , Charrel RN , Lemasson JJ , Gonzalez JP , Gallian P , Genetic characterization of tickborne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy. (cdc.gov)
  • Perhaps most excitingly, Frydman said, the compounds are effective against different types of DENV and even different insect-borne flaviviruses, including West Nile virus, yellow fever and tick-borne encephalitis. (technologynetworks.com)
  • As there are not much experimental data available about AHFV, computer-aided study and comparison of E protein of this virus with two closely related flaviviruses can help in better understanding of medical properties of the virus. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Other emerging tick-borne flaviviruses include Kyasanur Forest disease virus and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus that cause hemorrhagic fever, also with relatively high mortality rates ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The TBE virus belongs to a closely related group of viruses called flaviviruses. (travelhealthpro.org.uk)
  • Flaviviruses are positive-sense RNA viruses, and many are important human pathogens. (springer.com)
  • Pathogens of particular interest for this project include hepatitis C and E viruses, flaviviruses (tick born encephalitis, yellow fever, zika), and alphaviruses (sindbis, chikungunya). (ofir.dk)
  • Though flaviviruses are highly sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFN, viral antagonism of IFN signal transduction prevents the expression of ISGs in infected cells. (utoledo.edu)
  • NS5 is the major IFN antagonist for flaviviruses and is an essential component of the virus replication complex and as such is a prime candidate for antiviral drug design. (utoledo.edu)
  • He then completed his postdoctoral training at the NIH Rocky Mountain Laboratories where he studied the biosafety level (BSL)-4 tick-borne flaviviruses in the laboratories of Drs. Marshall Bloom and Sonja Best. (utoledo.edu)
  • Restriction of tick-borne flaviviruses in the natural host. (utoledo.edu)
  • Genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy. (ijbm.org)
  • Although POWV infection of human beings is rare, a recent report suggests increasing incidence and the possibility that POWV may be an emerging tick-borne zoonosis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Adult I. scapularis and Dermacentor variabilis were collected from Hayward and Spooner, Wisconsin, screened for infection by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and virus was isolated. (ajtmh.org)
  • Infection of the vector begins when a tick takes a blood meal from an infected host. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the infection begins in the skin (with the exception of foodborne cases, about 1% of infections) at the site of the bite of an infected tick, where Langerhans cells and macrophages in the skin are preferentially targeted. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature viruses are noninfectious as the E proteins are not fusion competent, partially mature viruses are still capable of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of food-borne cases, infection begins in the skin at the site of the tick bite. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that TLR3-ligand polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and human rhinovirus infection induced a potent antiviral protection against Sendai and vesicular stomatitis virus in a TLR3 and type I IFN receptor-dependent manner. (jimmunol.org)
  • This mechanism is likely to shield the priming of antiviral responses against inhibition or abrogation by the viral infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Rice's lab works to understand virus replication and innate immune responses that limit infection. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Rice's group has developed high-throughput screens to identify interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that limit or, in some cases, enhance virus infection. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The major focus of investigation of tick-borne viruses has been the interaction with the mammalian host, particularly the mechanisms underlying disease and the development of vaccines to prevent infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The assumption has been that the tick host and virus have evolved to reach an equilibrium whereby virus infection does not impede the tick life cycle and conversely, the tick does not restrict virus replication and through blood-feeding on vertebrates, disseminates the virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • But does Toll signaling play a similar role in detection of virus infection in ticks, and if it does, how does this affect the maintenance of viruses within the tick? (frontiersin.org)
  • The interaction of most tick-borne viruses with vertebrate hosts leads to a transient infection that causes morbidity and mortality. (frontiersin.org)
  • Infection with a virulent virus in a vertebrate host is usually short-lived and, if the host survives, eliminated by the rapid induction of antibodies and subsequent development of cell-mediated responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Purdue University researchers, working with scientists at the California Institute of Technology, have solved the three-dimensional structure of the dengue virus, which is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes more than 50 million cases of infection and 24,000 deaths worldwide each year. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our findings provide new molecular insights into the process of infection used by these viruses and a structural basis for targeting those activities. (eurekalert.org)
  • The high sero-prevalence of both viruses with over 95% and the potential severity of brain infection make them key targets for public health. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • The human granulocytic anaplasmosis is the second-most-common tick-borne infection in the United States. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers have determined the structure of a human antibody bound to the Zika virus, revealing details about how the antibody interferes with the infection mechanism - findings that could aid in development of antiviral medications. (teknoscienze.com)
  • Those findings showed that the antibody, which was isolated from a person previously infected with Zika virus, neutralizes Zika strains that belong to African, Asian and American lineages and is able to reduce fetal infection and death in mice. (teknoscienze.com)
  • As the virus attaches to a host cell's outer membrane a difference in pH, or acidity, in the membrane causes these "trimers" to expose "fusion peptides," leading to the transfer of the viral RNA genome, a step critical to infection. (teknoscienze.com)
  • In vitro, the coumarins are capable of inhibiting infection by DENV and CHIKV (with inhibition percentages above 50% in different experimental strategies), which could indicate that these two compounds are potential antivirals for treating Dengue and Chikungunya fever. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, lupeol acetate and voacangine efficiently inhibit infection with DENV, also turning them into promising antivirals for Dengue fever. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The DENV infection process is initiated through the binding of the virus to receptors on the cell surface via the E protein, followed by endocytosis, in which variations in pH trigger the fusion of this protein with the endosomal membrane, releasing the nucleocapsid (RNA bound to the C protein) into the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viral encephalitis can occur either as a direct effect of an acute infection, or as one of the sequelae of a latent infection . (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of viral cases of encephalitis have an unknown cause, however the most common identifiable cause of viral encephalitis is from herpes simplex infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be caused by a bacterial infection, such as bacterial meningitis , [12] or may be a complication of a current infectious disease syphilis (secondary encephalitis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis is the most common tick-borne viral infection in Europe with 3,000 human cases reported each year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through in vitro studies, we show that virus infection up-regulated RANTES production at both mRNA and protein levels in human brain-derived cell lines and primary progenitor-derived astrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diagnosis of WNV infection is primarily based on serodiagnosis, followed by virus isolation and identification. (bvsalud.org)
  • An indirect IgM microplate ELISA using purified rWNV-CprM protein was optimized having no cross-reactivity with healthy human serum and serum samples obtained from patients with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • The alimentary infection of humans via TBE virus-contaminated milk is also shown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has developed multiple mechanisms to sense invading viruses, and subsequent signal transduction pathways are targeted at the initial containment of infection in the body. (mdpi.com)
  • It's the fastest-growing and most prevalent mosquito-borne virus in the world, and although a third of the world's population is at risk of infection, there currently aren't any effective antiviral treatments or vaccines. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Drugs targeting this pathway could prevent virus infection in human and mosquito cells without eliciting drug resistance, the main problem in most antiviral therapies. (technologynetworks.com)
  • By studying how the virus manipulates this machinery, the Frydman lab obtained insights into a new strategy to fight viral infection. (technologynetworks.com)
  • DENV, like many other viruses, also relies on Hsp70, to help replicate the viral genome, and ultimately produce the viral proteins it needs to take control of the host cells and spread infection. (technologynetworks.com)
  • GGE virus, which is endemic in Greece, is the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), an infection of the central nervous system that can be transmitted from animals to humans by ticks. (igi-global.com)
  • Although, there are very limited data regarding the GGE virus and its epidemiology in Greece, there have been few reported cases of GGE viral infection of goats in northern Greece. (igi-global.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the main tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Latent infection in African species that can infect Asian primates and U.S. born African primates. (humanitarian.net)
  • IFITM3, an cellular surface antiviral factor, is underexpression in PT cell after JEV infection. (medworm.com)
  • In peripheral tissues such as the skin, immature DCs recognize RNA virus infection through expression of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) in the cytosol, such as the RNA helicases retinoic acid inducible gene I and melanoma differentiation associated gene-5, and in the endosome, through TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The data suggest a possible association between these 5 OAS single nucleotide polymorphisms and the outcome of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in a Russian population. (cdc.gov)
  • Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain, most commonly caused by a viral infection. (adam.com)
  • The best way to prevent infection with a mosquito-borne virus is to avoid being bitten. (adam.com)
  • The most common cause of encephalitis is infection by a virus. (adam.com)
  • In very rare cases, encephalitis can also be caused by bacterial infection, protozoa, or as a complication from other infectious diseases. (adam.com)
  • Are the primary cause of acute encephalitis (sudden-onset encephalitis caused by direct infection). (adam.com)
  • Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. (bionity.com)
  • This is important because the TBE virus may be a coinfection with a Borrelia Burgdorferi infection, Lyme disease , which needs treatment with antibiotics. (bionity.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection leads to Japanese encephalitis (JE) in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of experiments comparing the pathogenesis of West Nile virus (WNV) following infection by mosquito bite, needle inoculation, and ingestion are reported. (ajtmh.org)
  • West Nile virus infection in mice following exposure to a viral aerosol. (ajtmh.org)
  • West Nile virus infection of adult mice by oral route. (ajtmh.org)
  • Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Virus infection was completely inhibited at concentrations that had no adverse effect on the host cells. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Using a microsopy-based binding and fusion assay employing DiD-labeled viruses, it was shown that LCTA-949 targets the early stage (binding/entry) of the infection. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infection usually transmitted through the bite of an infected tick. (travelhealthpro.org.uk)
  • Ixodid ticks are the main guardians and carriers of infection. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • These insects contain the causative agent of the disease for life, lay infected eggs, from which then infected ticks appear (transovarial transmission of infection). (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Together with tick saliva, the virus enters the baby's blood (and the likelihood of infection increases when the infectious tick is crushed). (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Nevertheless, RNAi represents a potent response to VSV infection, as illustrated by the high susceptibility of RNAi-defective mutant flies to this virus. (pnas.org)
  • The importance of this pathway for the control of viral infections is illustrated by the strong susceptibility of Dcr-2 , AGO2 , and R2D2 mutant flies to infection by positive-strand and dsRNA viruses ( 3 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Stem cells lacking their protective genes are susceptible to infection by the dengue virus, in red. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Treatment of infection with these viruses is hindered by the lack of effective antiviral therapies and few available vaccines. (utoledo.edu)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis is a viral infection of the central nervous system passed on by bites of certain ticks. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In rural areas, arboviruses that are carried by mosquitoes or ticks are the most common cause of arboviral infection. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The infection is often mild, but it can progress to encephalitis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • But the infection may progress to inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Our report summarizes the available data on the TBE virus influence on immune response impairments with focus on comparison of cytokine genes expression levels after infection and immunization. (ijbm.org)
  • These data mean that pJRi has the inhibitory activity against JEV infection in vivo, and could be used as an antiviral drug to treat JEV infection. (scirp.org)
  • West Nile encephalitis. (uwhealth.org)
  • West Nile encephalitis happens mostly in North and Central America, Africa, parts of Asia, the Middle East, and southern Europe. (uwhealth.org)
  • Antiviral drugs that affect other RNA viruses (which include Ebola virus, rabies, influenza, hepatitis C, West Nile fever, polio, and measles), some of which have also been shown to have in vitro activity against 2019-nCoV, might be effective in COVID-19. (cebm.net)
  • This means that more humans are exposed to viral infections such as Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Zika, West Nile fever, Yellow fever and Tick-borne encephalitis. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have every expectation that the West Nile virus and others from this family will be very similar in structure to this one," he says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Additional possible viral causes are arbovirus ( St. Louis encephalitis , West Nile encephalitis virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse strain), arenavirus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), reovirus (Colorado tick virus), and henipaviruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • West Nile Virus (WNV) can result in clinically severe neurologic disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • West Nile Virus (WNV), an emerging and re-emerging RNA virus, is the leading source of arboviral encephalitic morbidity and mortality in the United States. (bvsalud.org)
  • ZIKV is a mosquito-borne virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile and yellow fever viruses. (biotechniques.com)
  • West Nile virus and other nationally notifiable arboviral diseases-United States, 2016. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we compare three cell-based HTS assays for West Nile virus (WNV) drug discovery: (i) an assay that uses a cell line harboring a persistently replicating subgenomic replicon (containing a deletion of viral structural genes), (ii) an assay that uses packaged virus-like particles containing replicon RNA, and (iii) an assay that uses a full-length reporting virus. (asm.org)
  • The West Nile Virus (WNV) was first isolated from a woman in the West Nile region of Uganda in 1937. (edu.au)
  • Dengue fever, Yellow fever, West Nile, Kunjun, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, Australian encephalitis and the related hepatitis C virus) which annually infect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and cause major public health problems. (edu.au)
  • This project focuses on a viral enzyme, known as the West Nile Virus NS3 protease, that is essential for replication of the virus. (edu.au)
  • This strategy could offer novel therapies against the dengue fever virus, also known as DENV, as well as other related human pathogens, such as West Nile virus, yellow fever and tick-borne encephalitis. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Specifically, the aim is to identify and develop antiviral drugs against Dengue, Hepatitis C, West Nile, and Yellow fever viruses. (worldcommunitygrid.org)
  • Unfortunately, for most other viruses causing encephalitis, including cases caused by West Nile virus and other arboviruses, antiviral medications are not available or not effective. (adam.com)
  • In the U.S., West Nile virus is the most common mosquito-borne cause of encephalitis. (adam.com)
  • West Nile virus: a growing concern? (ajtmh.org)
  • An outbreak of West Nile virus-associated disease in domestic geese ( Anser anser domesticus ) upon initial introduction to a geographic region, with evidence of bird to bird transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • West Nile virus in farmed alligators. (ajtmh.org)
  • Juvenile American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ) as amplifiers of West Nile virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Transmission of West Nile (B956 strain) and Semliki Forest virus (MBB2646-M-404744-958 strain) to suckling hamsters during lactation. (ajtmh.org)
  • Fatal encephalitis and myocarditis in young domestic geese ( Anser answer domesticus ) caused by West Nile virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • a model for West Nile encephalitis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe and the Middle East. (ajtmh.org)
  • Here we report on initial efforts to develop and screen DNA aptamers against recombinant envelope proteins or synthetic peptides and whole inactivated viruses from several virulent arboviruses including Chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), dengue, tickborne encephalitis and West Nile viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some of these infections are transmitted by mosquitos, such as dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis, West Nile virus, and the newer Chikungunya and Zika viruses. (lymedisease.org)
  • When Wu deleted IFITM genes from stem cells, they became susceptible to dengue, flu, West Nile, and Zika viruses. (rockefeller.edu)
  • This review discusses the strategies used towards the discovery of antiviral drugs, focusing on rational drug design against Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). (eurekaselect.com)
  • There have been outbreaks in recent years in the U.S. of several types of encephalitis, such as West Nile encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Besides understanding host antiviral responses to these pathogens, the lab seeks a broad knowledge of how host factors facilitate virus replication. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Herpes simplex virus 1 and Varicella Zoster Virus, are the most frequent pathogens of sporadic encephalitis. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Our research group aims at resolving pathomechanisms of virus infections with focus on the neurotransmission of pathogens at the blood-brain barrier and on the host-virus interaction (Lenhard Brain Res 2013). (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • A single blood test called the Tick-borne Disease Serochip (TBD Serochip) helps in identifying the pathogen that is responsible for causing Lyme disease and seven other tick-borne pathogens. (medindia.net)
  • Other bacterial pathogens, like Mycoplasma and those causing rickettsial disease, cause inflammation of the meninges and consequently encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this chapter, viruses are considered emerging pathogens if their incidence has increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. (asmscience.org)
  • Positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses comprise many (re-)emerging human pathogens that pose a public health problem. (mdpi.com)
  • The positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses (+ssRNA) comprise many pathogens that are a serious threat to human health. (mdpi.com)
  • Ticks are important vectors for the transmission of pathogens including viruses. (virosin.org)
  • Currently, there is limited data to indicate which tick-borne pathogens (TBP) can infect coyotes. (medworm.com)
  • The negative-strand RNA viruses include some of the most important human pathogens, such as the hemorrhagic fever viruses Ebola and Lassa (up to 80% mortality), the Rabies virus (100% mortality), and the influenza virus. (pnas.org)
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an RNA virus primarily targeting the liver. (asm.org)
  • This family of arboviruses includes dengue and yellow fever virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herein, we describe 3 case reports of cerebrovascular involvement in patients infected by dengue and Zika viruses in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, a hyperendemic area for arbovirus circulation, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • These include yellow fever, dengue and Japanese encephalitis. (travelhealthpro.org.uk)
  • Zika virus has received a lot of media attention due to its association with neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and the development of microcephaly (abnormally small head) in foetuses. (eurekalert.org)
  • Subsequently it has been widely used in antiviral research and has shown activity against a range of viruses, including Dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis virus, poliovirus, and most recently Zika virus, in both in vitro and animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • This color-coded image depicts the surface view of the Zika virus bound to fragments of a human antibody, shown as red knobs. (teknoscienze.com)
  • In the new findings, researchers determined the combined three-dimensional structure of the Zika virus while attached to a key binding site on the antibody known as the antigen binding fragment, or a Fab molecule. (teknoscienze.com)
  • The genome of the Zika virus is housed inside a protective shell that includes 60 repeating units, each containing three envelope proteins, or E proteins. (teknoscienze.com)
  • The new findings show the antibody's binding to Zika inhibits this pH-triggering mechanism, neutralizing the virus by "cross-linking" the E proteins, tying them up and preventing their reorganization into "fusogenic" trimers. (teknoscienze.com)
  • The Zika virus has been associated with a birth defect called microcephaly that causes brain damage and an abnormally small head in babies born to mothers infected during pregnancy. (teknoscienze.com)
  • Following the March 31 announcement that a Purdue-led team is the first to determine the structure of the Zika virus, a crowdfunding campaign has been launched to support ongoing Zika research. (purdue.edu)
  • Human +ssRNA viruses that currently have a large impact on public health include dengue virus (DENV) and the more recent (re-)emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The envelope protein of Zika virus is associated with virulence, tropism, mediation of receptor binding and membrane fusion. (ajmb.org)
  • Results: As per in silico based analysis, the envelope protein of Zika virus is highly hydrophilic with the least number of amino acid deletions compared to rest of the family members. (ajmb.org)
  • During docking studies, it was observed that compounds like NITD, compound 6, P02, Doxytetracycline and Rolitetracycline show better binding affinity with Zika envelope protein compared to dengue virus. (ajmb.org)
  • Interestingly, Aedes mosquitoes remain the common vector for transmitting both dengue and Zika virus 2. (ajmb.org)
  • The Zika virus can also be transmitted by sexual contact. (lymedisease.org)
  • Diversity of tick species biting humans in an emerging area for Lyme disease. (ajtmh.org)
  • A Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Based on the European Prototype Strain Induces Broadly Reactive Cross-neutralizing Antibodies in Humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Humans can be infected by a tick bite or through consuming unpasteurised dairy products that do not meet EU safety standards and have come from infected animals. (eurekalert.org)
  • They initially discovered that K22 had antiviral activity against a relatively harmless coronavirus that causes mild cold-like symptoms in humans. (slideshare.net)
  • The dengue virus is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes and is most often found in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. (eurekalert.org)
  • Humans who have to travel all over the world face different climatic change, thus prompting the spread of disease-bearing insects to wider parts of the world. (medindia.net)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infectious disease caused by TBE virus and is transmitted by the bite of an infected tick to humans. (medindia.net)
  • The virus causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans, and symptoms range from mild flu-like symptoms to severe and long-lasting sequelae, including permanent brain damage. (diva-portal.org)
  • Transmission of zoonotic influenza A viruses to humans is commonly the cause of new pandemics, which typically result in high disease burden and increased symptomatic severity and mortality. (hindawi.com)
  • As humans have a body temperature of 37 °C, the bumpy form of the virus would be the form present in humans. (pnas.org)
  • A precedent is the success of inhibitors of HIV-1 protease that are the most effective treatment for humans with HIV-infections, and other viral proteases are now becoming recognized as viable antiviral targets for pharmaceutical development. (edu.au)
  • Although Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) does not infect large numbers of people like the afore-mentioned viruses, 35% of diagnosed patients die of MERS [ 2 ], and considering the virus' genetic possibilities, any change that increases transmissibility between humans would mean a serious public health threat that is considered worth preparing for. (mdpi.com)
  • Herein, we review the current knowledge of TBVs with emphases on the history of virus isolation and identification, tick vectors, and potential pathogenicity to humans and animals, including assigned species as well as the recently discovered and unassigned species. (virosin.org)
  • Publication date: Available online 18 January 2020Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Serene Yu, Joseph Modarelli, John M. Tomeček, Justin T. French, Clayton Hilton, Maria D. Esteve-GasentAbstractDetermining which wildlife hosts are involved in the enzootic cycles of tick-borne diseases (TBD) enables enhanced surveillance and risk assessment of potential transmission to humans and domestic species. (medworm.com)
  • The herpes virus family includes at least 8 distinct viruses that cause infections in humans. (adam.com)
  • Dr. Eva Sapi has found filarial worms in Ixodes scapularis ticks, and Zhang and colleagues found them in lone star ticks, so it is possible that filarial worms are being regurgitated from the gut of the tick into humans after a tick bite. (lymedisease.org)
  • It is not known if the tick can transmit the virus to humans. (lymedisease.org)
  • Ticks are important vectors in the transmission of a broad range of micropathogens to vertebrates, including humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ticks are haematophagous ectoparasites of both domestic and wild animals as well as humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • This result is of particular interest in view of the frequent transmission of medically relevant negative-strand RNA viruses to humans by insect vectors. (pnas.org)
  • Apart from these viruses, which are transmitted between mammalian hosts, several negative-strand RNA viruses are transmitted to humans by insect vectors (arthropod-borne viruses or arboviruses). (pnas.org)
  • Another member of the Bunyavirus family, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, vectored by ticks and causing severe disease in humans (30% mortality), is endemic in many countries in Africa, Europe, and Asia. (pnas.org)
  • The virus has a normal transmission cycle between mosquitoes and pigs and/or water birds, but also has a zoonotic transmission cycle with swine serving as the amplifier hosts from which the infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to humans. (scirp.org)
  • Steps of the tick-borne encephalitis virus replication cycle that affect neuropathogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • Model System for the Formation of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Replication Compartments without Viral RNA Replication. (nih.gov)
  • Rice pioneered novel methods for growing and studying hepatitis C virus (HCV), including a mouse with a human liver that allowed the first studies of HCV replication and tests of candidate drugs in a small animal model. (rockefeller.edu)
  • K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. (slideshare.net)
  • Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. (slideshare.net)
  • Nonstructural (NS) proteins are not part of the virus coat and are thought to participate in the formation of these viral replication compartments (RCs). (diva-portal.org)
  • All of these possibilities would provide a unified mechanism for viperin antiviral function, as each proposed mechanism relies on the radical-based enzymatic properties of viperin to modulate fundamental processes (replication, membrane dynamics and signaling) critical to all viral species. (elsevier.com)
  • Given their genetic flexibility, these viruses have therefore developed multiple strategies to evade the innate immune response in order to optimize their replication capacity. (mdpi.com)
  • By defining how Hsp70 helps the virus replicate, the Frydman lab identified a strategy to block viral replication with very little toxicity to the host cell. (technologynetworks.com)
  • It has been shown that RNA helicases, which are involved in duplex unwinding during viral RNA replication, represent promising antiviral targets. (igi-global.com)
  • The stress granule component TIA-1 binds Tickborne Encephalitis Virus RNA and is Recruited to Perinuclear Sites of Viral Replication to inhibit viral translation. (icgeb.org)
  • Three dimensional architecture of tick-borne encephalitis virus replication sites and trafficking of the replicated RNA. (icgeb.org)
  • For instance, to find 25 small molecules that stop dengue virus replication in the laboratory, we would need to synthesize and test either 250-500 Phase 1 hits or ~30 Phase 2 hits. (worldcommunitygrid.org)
  • with vesicular stomatitis virus by specific inhibition of viral replication in neurons. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Hepatitis C virus replication in mouse cells is restricted by IFN-dependent and -independent mechanisms. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • There is an urgent need for potent inhibitors of dengue virus (DENV) replication for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of infections with this virus. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • The N-terminal region of NS3, and its cofactor NS2B fold into a protease that is responsible for viral polyprotein processing, and the C-terminal domain of NS3 possesses NTPase/RNA helicase activities and is involved in viral RNA replication and virus particle formation. (springer.com)
  • Novel benzoxazole inhibitor of dengue virus replication that targets the NS3 helicase. (springer.com)
  • Double-stranded (ds)RNA, produced during viral replication, is a well-known activator of antiviral defenses and triggers interferon production in vertebrates and RNAi in invertebrates and plants. (pnas.org)
  • A central molecular pattern betraying the presence of viruses in cells is double-stranded (ds)RNA, present in the viral genome, in viral replication complexes, or resulting from bidirectional transcription in DNA viruses. (pnas.org)
  • The class III PI4Ks have recently been implicated in the replication of numerous (+)ssRNA viruses including members of the Picornaviridae, Coronaviridae and Flaviviridae family. (cas.cz)
  • NS5, for instance is necessary for virus replication and immune evasion. (utoledo.edu)
  • Here, we examined JEV replication in mouse and used a short hairpin RNA JRi as the antiviral agent. (scirp.org)
  • The features of virus replication in neuron and survival rates of mice infected with JEV were different between virus strains. (scirp.org)
  • Deer tick virus (DTV), a variant of Powassan virus (POWV), appears to be maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle between Ixodes scapularis ticks and small mammals. (ajtmh.org)
  • Powassan virus in Ixodes cookei and Mustelidae in New England. (ajtmh.org)
  • This includes the release of the first draft of a tick genome, that of Ixodes scapularis , and the availability of tick-cell lines as convenient models to investigate interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The dog can serve as host for all three life stages of the Ixodes tick, i.e. the larvae, the nymph and the adult tick. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genus PCR amplification and sequence analysis of Bartonella and Borrelia 16SsRNA-23SsRNA intergenic regions were performed on DNA extracted from 929 questing adult ticks (671 Ixodes scapularis, 155 Ixodes affinis, and 103 Ixodes pacificus). (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • Overall, 129/929 (13.9%) Ixodes ticks were PCR positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, 48/929 for B. bissettiae whereas 23/929 (2.5%) were PCR positive for a Bartonella henselae. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • For both bacterial genera, PCR positive rates were highly variable depending on geographic location and tick species, with Ixodes affinis (n = 155) collected from North Carolina, being the tick species with the highest prevalence's for both Borrelia spp. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • People can be infected by the bite of infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • the subtype most prevalent in Germany is the European subtype, most commonly transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. (health.mil)
  • For example, brain irradiated individuals are more susceptible to and develop more severe herpes simplex encephalitis (Jakob Crit Care Med 2012) or diabetes mellitus serves as risk factor to develop severe encephaloradiculitis in TBE (Lenhard PLOS One 2016). (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • We measured the presence of I. ricinus tick nymphs at 159 stratified random lowland forest and meadow sites in Denmark, Norway and Sweden by dragging 400 m transects from August to September 2016, representing a total distance of 63.6 km. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • 2016) suggesting that the host could lack relevant proviral factors or express effective antiviral factors. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Powassan virus: isolation of virus from a fatal case of encephalitis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Powassan and Silverwater viruses: ecology of two Ontario arboviruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • Powassan encephalitis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Outbreak of Powassan encephalitis-Maine and Vermont, 1999- 2001. (ajtmh.org)
  • Increased recognition of Powassan encephalitis in the United States, 1999-2005. (ajtmh.org)
  • Phylogeny of North American Powassan virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Nucleotide sequencing and serological evidence that the recently recognized deer tick virus is a genotype of Powassan virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of Powassan-related viruses of North America. (ajtmh.org)
  • Powassan encephalitis happens mostly in the North America (especially the states in New England in the United States, and Canada) and Asia. (uwhealth.org)
  • Tick-borne viral diseases continue to emerge in the United States, as clearly evident from the increase in Powassan encephalitis virus, Heartland virus, and Bourbon virus infections. (mdpi.com)
  • [10] [11] The Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Powassan encephalitis and Colorado tick fever. (cdc.gov)
  • DNA vaccines against dengue virus based on the ns1 gene: the influence of different signal sequences on the protein expression and its correlation to the immune response elicited in mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • DNA immunization with Japanese encephalitis virus nonstructural protein NS1 elicits protective immunity in mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Evaluation of protective efficacy and immune mechanisms of using a non-structural protein NS1 in DNA vaccine against dengue 2 virus in mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Timofeev AV , Butenko VM , Stephenson JR . Genetic vaccination of mice with plasmids encoding the NS1 non-structural protein from tick-borne encephalitis virus and dengue 2 virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • High-level expression of the tick-borne encephalitis virus NS1 protein by using an adenovirus-based vector: protection elicited in a murine model. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Proper processing of dengue virus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 requires the N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence and the downstream nonstructural protein NS2a. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Studies led by research associate professor Margaret R. MacDonald are revealing how an ISG called zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) potently inhibits some viruses but not others. (rockefeller.edu)
  • One such protein family is Toll and Toll-like receptors that in vertebrates play a key role in detection of microorganisms, including viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have produced a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), ZX10, recognizing the NTPase/helicase domain of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 3 protein (NS3), from which we designed a single-chain variable fragment (ScFv). (asm.org)
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 3 protein (NS3) performs vital enzymatic functions in the HCV life cycle. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, these properties suggest that the NS3 protein may be a suitable target for antiviral therapy. (asm.org)
  • The mechanisms underlying viperin?s sweeping antiviral activity remain enigmatic and it is unclear how a single protein (i.e., viperin) can participate in such a broad playlist of interactions to inhibit this wide array of viruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the E protein switches among different oligomeric assemblies, from a trimer of prM-E heterodimers in immature virus, to a dimer in mature virus, and then to a trimer in the fusogenic state ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The aim of this study was prediction of epitopes and medically important structural properties of protein E of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) and comparing these features with two closely relates viruses, i.e. (eurekaselect.com)
  • According to the results, the evolutionary distance of E protein of AHFV and two other viruses was almost equal. (eurekaselect.com)
  • To this end, the lab has developed a platform of tools for the study of the virus-host crosstalk: from single protein-protein interactions to the 3D dynamics of host and viral components. (icgeb.org)
  • Hepatitis C virus NS5A targets the nucleosome assembly protein NAP1L1 to control the innate cellular response, J Virol. (icgeb.org)
  • The RNA helicase, nucleotide 5′-triphosphatase, and RNA 5′-triphosphatase activities of Dengue virus protein NS3 are Mg2+-dependent and require a functional Walker B motif in the helicase catalytic core. (springer.com)
  • 2011). Many ISGs function to prevent virus pathogenesis by acting in a broad or specific manner through protein-protein interactions (Duggal and Emerman, 2012). (bio-protocol.org)
  • Identification of virus-specific antiviral or proviral molecules by characterizing virus and host protein interactions. (utoledo.edu)
  • Understanding how the virus protein can maintain different functions and protein interactions in distinct cellular regions may again lead to new therapeutic targets. (utoledo.edu)
  • Růžek D , Dobler G , Donoso Mantke O . Tick-borne encephalitis: pathogenesis and clinical implications. (cdc.gov)
  • These salivary factors create an immunologically privileged micro-environment in the host's skin that influences virus transmission and pathogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe and Russia: Review of pathogenesis, clinical features, therapy, and vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • Following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and ongoing sporadic avian-to-human transmission of H5N1 viruses, an emphasis has been placed on better understanding the determinants and pathogenesis of severe influenza infections. (hindawi.com)
  • Gaining insight into the pathogenesis of these viruses is thus relevant to thoroughly understand them and identify new treatment and prevention options. (mdpi.com)
  • Control of Dengue Virus Pathogenesis by Host Restriction. (utoledo.edu)
  • I have a long-standing interest in the study of pathogenesis of infectious diseases, particularly experimental animal models of acute viral diseases including viral hemorrhagic fevers and arbovirus encephalitides. (utmb.edu)
  • A single-site mutant and revertants arising in vivo define early steps in the pathogenesis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. (utmb.edu)
  • The spectrum of clinical presentations ranges from simple fever to severe encephalitis with or without myelitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lenhard T, Ott D, Jakob NJ, Pham M, Bäumer P, Martinez-Torres F, Meyding-Lamadé U. Predictors, Neuroimaging Characteristics and Long-Term Outcome of Severe European Tick-Borne Encephalitis: A Prospective Cohort Study. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus, avian influenza virus, and Nipah virus are examples of viruses for which food-borne transmission was not considered immediately but that illustrate the potential and the difficulty in assessing the potential for food-borne transmission. (asmscience.org)
  • Third, in the case of DENV, the antiviral dampened the release of small virally-induced proteins called cytokines, which can contribute to severe disease and create the "cytokine storm" associated with hemorrhagic fever forms of dengue. (technologynetworks.com)
  • There is evidence that the emergence of EV-D68 as a cause of severe respiratory disease and AFP was due to recent genetic virus evolution. (springer.com)
  • It can potentially cause severe brain damage, but can be treated with antiviral medication. (adam.com)
  • Such severe encephalitis can be fatal. (adam.com)
  • Many survivors of severe encephalitis have long-term mental or physical problems, depending on the specific areas of the brain affected. (adam.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe and potentially fatal neurological disease among population of endemic areas from northern China and Japan, through Russia to more than 16 European countries. (ijbm.org)
  • The Flaviviridae are a diverse family of enveloped viruses that infect both arthropods and vertebrates. (asm.org)
  • Virus families causing human encephalitis include the flaviviridae and alphaherpesviridae. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • The Flaviviridae family of viruses infects vertebrates and is primarily spread through arthropod vectors. (igi-global.com)
  • Previously, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in interleukin 28B (IL28B) and interleukin 10 (IL10) genes were associated with predisposition to chronic hepatitis C (caused by a structurally similar virus from the same Flaviviridae family) in a number of human populations. (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family primarily spread through arthropod vectors, and are the major causes of illness and death around the globe. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Aida Baharuddin, Asfarina Amir Hassan, Gan Chye Sheng, Shah Bakhtiar Nasir, Shatrah Othman, Rohana Yusof, Rozana Othman and Noorsaadah Abdul Rahman, "Current Approaches in Antiviral Drug Discovery Against the Flaviviridae Family", Current Pharmaceutical Design (2014) 20: 3428. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These are the findings of a JRC report that aims to raise awareness about the threat posed by the spread of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses). (eurekalert.org)
  • Arboviruses, one of the most common causes of encephalitis, are transmitted by blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes and, less commonly, ticks. (adam.com)
  • In the United States, the most common viral causes of encephalitis are arboviruses, herpes viruses, enteroviruses, and coxsackieviruses. (adam.com)
  • Arboviruses, short for "arthropod-borne viruses," are spread by mosquitoes and ticks. (adam.com)
  • There is no treatment for encephalitis caused by arboviruses. (adam.com)
  • The arboviruses cause encephalitis and are passed on to people and animals by insects. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Ticks are important vectors of viruses that infect and cause disease in man, livestock, and companion animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The virus can infect the brain ( encephalitis ), the membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord ( meningitis ) or both ( meningoencephalitis ). (bionity.com)
  • Ticks in the wild infect rodents, hedgehogs, chipmunks and other animals and birds. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis can infect pets. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Tick-borne virus diseases of human interest in Europe. (cdc.gov)
  • For many of these diseases, there are as yet no specific antiviral agents or vaccines. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since it has already failed in human clinical trials previously, it is unlikely MK-608 itself will be developed as an antiviral medication, but the continuing lack of treatment options for these emerging viral diseases means that much research continues using MK-608 and related antiviral drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Union Health Minister J.P. Nadda directed health officials to conduct regular supervisory visits to hospitals to check the preparedness against vector-borne diseases, and if needed, provide on the spot technical guidance. (medindia.net)
  • Infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomine bugs, sandflies, and blackflies are known as vector-borne diseases. (medindia.net)
  • Emerging Food-Borne Viral Diseases, p 117-145. (asmscience.org)
  • Our research team plans to continue its work to try to pinpoint different regions of the virus as targets for treatment and to develop potential therapeutic responses," said Richard Kuhn, director of the Purdue Institute for Inflammation, Immunology and Infectious Diseases. (purdue.edu)
  • Data on fatal TBE cases were documented by the National Center for Zoonotic Diseases (NCZD), which has registered tick-borne diseases since 2005. (who.int)
  • We herein review the history of TBVs identification and isolation, classification, geographic distribution, and related diseases and epidemics, and discuss the novel viral sequences discovered in ticks recently. (virosin.org)
  • Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu and warts. (icdlist.com)
  • This project has the potential to yield novel antiviral drugs for infectious diseases that greatly impact global health. (worldcommunitygrid.org)
  • Tick-borne diseases have become increasingly common in recent decades and present a health problem in many parts of Europe. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The ecology of tick-borne diseases. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis refers to such diseases. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • These reports have provided information relating to the transmission of diseases, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, bovine anaplasmosis and tick typhus (caused by Rickettsia spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • We aim at elucidating molecular mechanisms responsible for how different RNA viruses develop resistance to novel and potent broad-spectrum antivirals, which are promising strategies to fight virus diseases, including emerging and re-emerging viruses. (ofir.dk)
  • Update In case that ticks are a vector for different diseases in different parts of the world, I expect to get bitten in the southern parts of Germany and the eastern parts of France. (stackexchange.com)
  • One of the more recently reported vectors for the virus, the Dermacentor reticulatus tick species, is rapidly spreading through Europe. (eurekalert.org)
  • We report on a conformational transition of dengue virus when changing the temperature from that present in its mosquito vectors to that of its human host. (pnas.org)
  • The present study integrates knowledge regarding MBFVs, and it may help to understand their transmission dynamics between viruses, vectors, and mammal hosts. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our innate immune system and, in particular, the interferon response form the important first line of defence against these viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • The 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5'-OAS) family members are interferon-induced antiviral proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Most cells in the body stick to a relatively low-alert status until they detect a virus, at which point they pump out a molecule called interferon. (rockefeller.edu)
  • But the stem cells, Wu observed, persistently turned on many of the antiviral genes that other cells activate in response to interferon, even if there was no interferon around. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Regular, differentiated cells wait for a virus to come, and interferon to signal, before they maximize their defenses. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Stem cells ignore interferon and keep their antiviral systems on all the time. (rockefeller.edu)
  • IFN treatment induces the expression of hundreds of genes (interferon stimulated genes or ISGs), many of which are antiviral molecules. (utoledo.edu)
  • Comprehensive at-arrival transcriptomic analysis of post-weaned beef cattle uncovers type I interferon and antiviral mechanisms associated with bovine respiratory disease mortality. (wroc.pl)
  • Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells at the crossroad of type I interferon-regulated B cell differentiation and antiviral response to tick-borne encephalitis virus. (wroc.pl)
  • In this paper, we report that the difference in virulence between JEV strains and the antiviral activity of the JRishRNA in mice, and show its effect on interferon (IFN) production in vivo. (scirp.org)
  • Süss J . Tick-borne encephalitis 2010: epidemiology, risk areas, and virus strains in Europe and Asia-an overview. (cdc.gov)
  • The disease may be caused by any one of four different strains of the dengue virus, and vaccinating against only one or two of the viruses can increase the risk of more serious forms of the disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Experiments in cultured cells showed that one antibody, named ZIKV-117, broadly neutralized several different strains of the virus. (biotechniques.com)
  • First, because Hsp70 is involved in so many steps of the viral cycle, the virus could not produce mutant strains resistant to the drug, even after multiple attempts. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Vaccines are based on Far Eastern and European strains of TBE virus in spite of evident prevalence of Siberian genetic subtype in endemic regions of Russia and surrounding countries. (ijbm.org)
  • Genetic analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains from West Siberia. (ijbm.org)
  • We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections. (slideshare.net)
  • The objective of this study was to identify some of the compounds that are present in Mammea americana ( M. americana ) and Tabernaemontana cymosa (T. cymosa) plants and, subsequently, to evaluate their cytotoxicity in VERO cells and their potential antiviral effects on DENV and CHIKV infections in those same cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several reports have demonstrated that intracellularly expressed ScFvs may reduce the susceptibility of transfected cells to viral infections or disturb viral enzymes within the life cycles of human immunodeficiency virus type ( 9 , 20 ), tick-borne encephalitis virus ( 5 ), and murine coronavirus ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • In the USA alone there were 4,156 infections and 284 deaths in 2002, 9122 infections and 223 deaths in 2003, and this mosquito borne virus has quickly spread since 1999 through all USA states and into Canada and Mexico (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/ westnile/index.htm). (edu.au)
  • Its manifestations range from inapparent infections and fevers with complete recovery to debilitating or fatal encephalitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For most viral infections, treatments can only help with symptoms while you wait for your immune system to fight off the virus. (icdlist.com)
  • There are antiviral medicines to treat some viral infections. (icdlist.com)
  • Chronic liver disease, resulting from Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis D virus (HDV), or Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, contributes to a major health burden worldwide. (diva-portal.org)
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis combined with reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to measure the level of RNA virus infections. (jove.com)
  • Nucleic acid aptamers have long demonstrated the capacity to bind viral envelope proteins and to inhibit the progression of pathogenic virus infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some Morgellons patients report noticing help using antiparasitic drugs in combination with regimens against Lyme and tick-borne co-infections (like Bartonella), and some neuropsychiatric Lyme patients have seen improvement in cognition and behavior with antiparasitic drugs. (lymedisease.org)
  • Vector-borne viral infections can affect those with Lyme-MSIDS. (lymedisease.org)
  • Chronic viral infections (non-tick-borne) may also explain some of the resistant symptomatology that we see among the Lyme-MSIDS population for whom antibiotic therapy fails. (lymedisease.org)
  • The transmission of Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has increased worldwide, due in part to the lack of a specific antiviral treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment for it. (biotechniques.com)
  • No specific antiviral treatment is available. (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses and bacteria carried by mosquitoes and sometimes ticks are some of the most common causes of encephalitis throughout the world. (uwhealth.org)
  • Dobler G , Gniel D , Petermann R , Pfeffer M . Epidemiology and distribution of tick-borne encephalitis. (cdc.gov)
  • De ngue Epidemiology: Virus Epidemiology, Ecology and Emergence. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Todate, there are very limited data regarding GGE virus and its epidemiology. (igi-global.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalopathies : epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. (bionity.com)
  • Identification of host genetic polymorphisms contributing to altered susceptibility or disease severity has several benefits: identification of high-risk populations at greater need of prophylactic intervention, elucidation of host proteins important in virus-host interactions, and new targets for therapeutic interventions or vaccine development [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Is this so for the vaccine against tick encephalitis? (stackexchange.com)
  • How long do I have to wait after my last tick bite until it is safe to get the vaccine? (stackexchange.com)
  • The U.S. recommended primary immunization schedule for Ixiaro , the Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus Vaccine (Inactivated) is one week prior to exposure [1]. (stackexchange.com)
  • A vaccine for Japanese encephalitis is currently available in the U.S. through most travelers' clinics. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The potential for use of the TBE virus vaccine, not Food and Drug Administration-approved in the U.S. but available in Europe, is discussed. (health.mil)
  • Are the other major cause of encephalitis in the U.S. This virus family includes herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, and varicella-zoster. (adam.com)
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (JEV) is an important cause of encephalitis in children of South and Southeast Asia. (rupress.org)
  • Characterizing the cellular attachment receptor for Langat virus. (nih.gov)
  • with Langat virus by systemic and local antiviral responses. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Fig 1: NaTHNaC Tick-borne encephalitis country risk map April 2017. (travelhealthpro.org.uk)
  • 2017). Our studies involved resolving the sequence of antiviral gene homologs in P. leucopus and targeting components of the IFN response pathway. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is responsible for over 30,000 annual cases of encephalitis worldwide, causing 30% mortality. (scirp.org)
  • Successful tick feeding is facilitated by a complex repertoire of pharmacologically active salivary proteins/factors in tick saliva. (mdpi.com)
  • We found that the Fabs do not lock the E-proteins in the native-like arrangement, but rather prevent the virus proteins from inducing membrane fusion in the endosome and thus from releasing the viral nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. (uni-salzburg.at)
  • Viperin has been suggested to elicit these far-reaching antiviral activities through interaction or co-localization with a large number of functionally unrelated host and viral proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • In the presence of viral structural proteins, the plus-sense RNA is packaged to form progeny viruses. (asm.org)
  • In particular, the infected host's cellular machinery is essential to produce and manage the viral proteome - the proteins that the virus expresses in order to survive and thrive in an infected host. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Some of the reported aptamers may also be able to bind viral envelope proteins in vivo and therefore may have antiviral potential in passive immunity or prophylactic applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such is the case with the following body of aptamer sequence, screening, and structural data for aptamers developed against recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides and whole inactivated viruses that were developed as part of several Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with the U.S. Defense Department (see the Acknowledgments section for contract numbers) for diagnostic applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enzymatic defects of the nsP2 proteins of Semliki Forest virus temperature-sensitive mutants. (springer.com)
  • They encode proteins that prevent viruses from entering a cell and are often turned on in the stem cells. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Finally, viral proteins have evolved the capacity to perform many important functions during the virus life cycle. (utoledo.edu)
  • Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced antiviral genes were identified by mass spectrometry-based proteomics and transcriptomics in the CD8 + DC line. (jimmunol.org)
  • Nanostring nCounter experiments confirmed that these antiviral genes were induced by TLR3 engagement in primary CD8 + DCs, and indicated that many are secondary TLR3-response genes requiring autocrine IFN-β stimulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms located within the OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, and OASL genes were analyzed in 142 patients with Russian tick-borne encephalitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Human genes encoding crucial components of antiviral immune response are most likely involved in protective mechanisms against TBE virus. (cdc.gov)
  • As these stem cells settled into final, differentiated cell types, they switched off the antiviral genes. (rockefeller.edu)
  • To confirm that these antiviral genes really were protecting the stem cells, Wu focused on one set of antiviral genes, called IFITM . (rockefeller.edu)
  • TLR3-activation thus establishes a type I IFN-dependent antiviral program in a DC subtype playing crucial roles in priming adaptive antiviral immune responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • 1 Reported case fatality rates (CFR) differ based on virus subtypes: 20-40% for the Far-Eastern subtype, 6-8% for the Siberian subtype and 1-2% for the European subtype. (who.int)
  • The ICD-10-CM code A84.1 might also be used to specify conditions or terms like encephalitis caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus or encephalitis due to european subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus. (icdlist.com)
  • The TBE virus may be present in a seronegative strain or subtype. (bionity.com)
  • Equine Amplification And Virulence Of Subtype IE Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses Isolated During The 1993 And 1996 Mexican Epizootics. (utmb.edu)
  • H1N1 influenza viruses emerged as a result of a presumed or documented reassortment of segments from viruses of zoonotic origin with human-adapted influenza virus to cause pandemic spread in 1918 and again in 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, however, this chapter presents a number of examples of viruses that would be considered unlikely candidates for food-borne transmission based on their physical characteristics but still were reported to be food borne, such as avian influenza (AI) and Nipah viruses. (asmscience.org)
  • The project will be supervised by Professor Jens Bukh, research director of CO-HEP and whose work has focussed on positive-stranded RNA viruses with major contributions to the development of in vitro and in vivo experimental systems to study hepatitis C virus (HCV) and related viruses, including the study of antiviral resistance. (ofir.dk)
  • Our ultimate goal is to design a series of novel anti-helicase compounds as drug candidates against the endemic GGE virus while the inhibitory activity of our novel compounds will be evaluated biologically. (igi-global.com)
  • Greek Goat Encephalitis (GGE) virus was discovered as an endemic virus species in Greece. (igi-global.com)
  • This information all seems to come from the review After a tick bite in a tick-borne encephalitis virus endemic area: Current positions about post-exposure treatment . (stackexchange.com)
  • Distribution of virus RNA load in patients with tick-borne encephalitis, Slovenia, by A) virus phylogenetic clades and B) disease severity scores according to Bogovic et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Mickiene A , Laiskonis A , Günther G , Vene S , Lundkvist A , Lindquist L . Tickborne encephalitis in an area of high endemicity in lithuania: disease severity and long-term prognosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Spurred on by climate change, international travel and international trade, disease-bearing insects are spreading to ever-wider parts of the world. (eurekalert.org)
  • Global warming has allowed mosquitoes, ticks and other disease-bearing insects to proliferate, adapt to different seasons, migrate and spread to new niche areas that have become warmer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Correlation of Severity of Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Disease and Pathogenicity in Mice. (nih.gov)
  • The virus also has been associated with the autoimmune disease Guillain-Barré syndrome, which can lead to temporary paralysis. (teknoscienze.com)
  • Lyme disease or Bartonella henselae may also cause encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Limbic encephalitis refers to inflammatory disease confined to the limbic system of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infectious disease that is transmitted by a bite from an infected tick and can progress to death. (who.int)
  • 4 Department of Plant Sciences and Entomology, Center for Vecto-Borne Disease, College of the Environment and Life Sciences, University of Rhode Island, 231 Woodward Hall, Kingston, RI 02881. (lymediseaseassociation.org)
  • Variability in the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene cluster is associated with human predisposition to tick-borne encephalitis virus-induced disease. (cdc.gov)
  • [ citation needed ] The disease is incurable once manifest, but the virus can be inactived and prevented by vaccination . (bionity.com)
  • [ citation needed ] The former Soviet Union did a great deal of research on all tick borne disease including TBE viruses. (bionity.com)
  • As inventories of disease-carrying mosquitoes in the region are very scarce, mainly in residential environments, our results suggest high potential for mosquito-borne disease transmission in Pará State. (bvsalud.org)
  • Researchers have also isolated the Tacaribe virus, which can cause hemorrhagic disease, from 11.2 percent of Amblyomma americanum ticks in Florida. (lymedisease.org)
  • In some parts of the disease, other tick species can cause the disease. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Because of the role of ticks in disease transmission, identifying and characterizing the micropathogen profiles of tick populations have become increasingly important. (frontiersin.org)
  • Duration of treatment with antiviral drugs depends on the severity of symptoms, forms of the disease, age, affected cells or tissues. (ahefv.com)
  • TBFVs contribute to the global burden of disease by causing encephalitis or hemorrhagic fevers in infected individuals. (bio-protocol.org)
  • That would give viruses in the vicinity the opportunity to sample cellular defenses, possibly leading to the selection of a rare, genetically different virus that could overcome those defenses and cause disease. (rockefeller.edu)
  • In all of these areas, Japanese encephalitis is mainly a rural disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Walling DM, Andritsos LA, Etienne W, Payne DA, ARONSON JF, Flaitz CM, Nichols CM: Molecular markers of clonality and identity in Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disease. (utmb.edu)
  • This diverse genus includes approximately 70 distinct virus species ( 8 , 33 , 49 ). (asm.org)
  • RNA viruses are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, worldwide. (ofir.dk)
  • This and other work by the lab was seminal to the development of antiviral drugs that are now used to cure HCV. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The findings primarily will aid in the development of antiviral drugs but also will help researchers identify important sites on the virus for human antibodies to hook onto, which could be useful in developing vaccines down the road, Kuhn said. (teknoscienze.com)
  • Therefore, by showing the uncoupling of the cytokine response from the stress granule formation, our model challenges the current view in which stress granules are required for the mounting of the acute antiviral response. (asm.org)
  • Adult patients with encephalitis present with acute onset of fever, headache, confusion, and sometimes seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Other causes of acute viral encephalitis are rabies virus , poliovirus , and measles virus . (wikipedia.org)
  • A non-infectious cause includes acute disseminated encephalitis which is demyelinated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection of Colorado Tick Fever viral RNA in acute human serum samples by a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. (cdc.gov)
  • design and synthesis of antiviral compounds. (ibch.ru)
  • For this reason, the search for compounds with antiviral potential, either as licensed drugs or in natural products, is a research priority. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This unusual lack of DENV drug-resistance to Hsp70-targeting compounds opens the way to both therapeutic and prophylactic use for short courses of treatment without losing effectiveness due to resistance, the major concern of most existing antivirals," Frydman said. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Second, because these compounds modulate Hsp70 rather than fully block its activity, they exhibit negligible toxicity to the relevant human target cells at concentrations that completely block virus production. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Our proposed research will be directed towards the computer-aided development of a series of drug-like low molecular weight compounds capable of inhibiting the helicase enzyme of GGE virus. (igi-global.com)
  • Finally, chemical compounds synthesized in collaborating laboratories are tested for antiviral activity. (icgeb.org)
  • Among others we have been dealing with synthesis of compounds against HIV, Hepatitis B and C and tick-born encephalitis. (cas.cz)
  • Certain parasitic or protozoal infestations, such as toxoplasmosis , malaria , or primary amoebic meningoencephalitis , can also cause encephalitis in people with compromised immune systems . (wikipedia.org)
  • An outbreak of tick-borne encephalitis associated with raw goat milk and cheese consumption, Croatia, 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • It is also recommended where there is a known outbreak of Japanese encephalitis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • One of these, the Chelicerata, contains the order Acari, which in turn contains species that obtain nutrition through blood feeding on vertebrates, collectively termed ticks. (frontiersin.org)
  • The sRNA deep-sequencing approach used in this analysis provides an intuitive method to survey micropathogen prevalence in ticks and other vector species. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), a Bunyavirus that is transmitted by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, optimal dengue virus vaccines should induce antibodies that preferentially recognize epitopes exposed on the bumpy form of the virus. (pnas.org)
  • One potential strategy to combat the dangerous virus is the use of neutralizing antibodies. (biotechniques.com)
  • Travelers abroad are most at risk for Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Japanese encephalitis also occurs less often in Republic of China (Taiwan), Singapore, and Hong Kong. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • For those who do develop encephalitis, symptoms may develop within a few days or up to 2 weeks after the mosquito bite occurred, depending on which virus the mosquito was carrying. (uwhealth.org)
  • Encephalitis caused by mosquito-borne viruses is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. (uwhealth.org)
  • This type of viral encephalitis is caused by a tick bite. (uwhealth.org)
  • This type of bacterial encephalitis is caused by a tick bite. (uwhealth.org)
  • It is transmitted by the bite of infected deer ticks or (rarely) through the non-pasteurized milk of infected cows. (bionity.com)
  • The virus can be brought from the bite to the mucosa. (anti-viral-meds.com)
  • Do I have to wait after a tick bite to get vaccinated for encephalitis? (stackexchange.com)
  • 4,5 About half of patients diagnosed with TBE recall a tick bite. (health.mil)
  • Though vaccines have been developed for dengue, control of the virus by vaccination has proved to be elusive. (eurekalert.org)
  • Heinz FX , Kunz C . Tick-borne encephalitis and impact of vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccination with vaccinia virus is protective in both man and nonhuman primates. (humanitarian.net)
  • Thinking of my plans for the summer (which involve frequently changing clothes in the wilderness), I realized I'd like to get a vaccination against tick borne encephalitis. (stackexchange.com)
  • There is a section on "Post exposure vaccination" in the (long) World Health Organization Background Document on Vaccines and Vaccination against Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) . (stackexchange.com)
  • Because of their unique capacity to cross-present Ags to CD8 + T cells, mouse lymphoid tissue-resident CD8 + dendritic cells (DCs) and their migratory counterparts are critical for priming antiviral T cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • TLR3 engagement in CD8 + DCs promotes cross-presentation and the acquisition of effector functions required for driving antiviral T cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD8 + DCs, and the functionally and developmentally related CD103 + DCs, are specialized for inducing antiviral cytotoxic CTL responses because they are particularly efficient at cross-presenting peptides derived from exogenous Ags in the context of MHC class I molecules ( 1 , 6 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Activated CD8 + DCs secrete cytokines, such as IL-12, IL-6, and type I and III IFNs, promoting immune responses against viruses and parasitic protozoans ( 10 - 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Activation of innate antiviral responses in multicellular organisms relies on the recognition of structural differences between viral and cellular RNAs. (pnas.org)
  • and the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4) in tropical and subtropical regions of the world ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Currently, there are neither licensed vaccines nor effective antiviral drugs against DENV. (pnas.org)
  • Like all viruses, DENV relies heavily on the host to replicate. (technologynetworks.com)
  • A constant challenge with developing preventive therapies for DENV and other viruses, however, is that they can rapidly produce a mutant strain that becomes resistant to the drug. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The mosquito-borne viruses that cause encephalitis cannot be destroyed with antiviral or other medicines. (uwhealth.org)
  • K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. (slideshare.net)
  • By identifying the structure, the researchers revealed insights critical to the development of effective antiviral treatments and vaccines. (purdue.edu)
  • Logar M , Bogovic P , Cerar D , Avsic-Zupanc T , Strle F . Tick-borne encephalitis in Slovenia from 2000 to 2004: comparison of the course in adult and elderly patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite acyclovir as available specific antiviral drug, encephalitis patients still are at high risk to die (20%) and more than 50% survive with considerable neuropsychiatric sequelae. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • A new segmented RNA virus discovered by researchers in northeastern China is linked to febrile illness in dozens of patients. (medindia.net)
  • Regimens including Biltricide, ivermectin, pyrantel pamoate (Pin-X), paromomycin, Alinia, and Albenza have been effective in certain patients with not only persistent GI symptoms but also fatigue, headaches, and myalgias resistant to classical tick-borne therapy. (lymedisease.org)
  • Viruses do not respond to antibiotics, and some of these viruses can cause illness in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. (lymedisease.org)