Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.GalactosamineLiver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningHepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Sorption Detoxification: Elimination of toxic or biologically active substances from body fluids by interaction with a sorbent medium. The types of media include absorbents, adsorbents, ion-exchange materials, and complexing agents. Detoxification can be extracorporeal (hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis), or occur inside the body (enterosorption, peritoneal dialysis).Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Mice, Inbred C57BLRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.Mushroom Poisoning: Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Mice, Inbred BALB CCinnamomum aromaticum: A plant species of the genus CINNAMOMUM that contains CINNAMATES and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Hepatolenticular Degeneration: A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Dysuria: Painful URINATION. It is often associated with infections of the lower URINARY TRACT.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Rats, Inbred F344Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Artificial Organs: Devices intended to replace non-functioning organs. They may be temporary or permanent. Since they are intended always to function as the natural organs they are replacing, they should be differentiated from PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS and specific types of prostheses which, though also replacements for body parts, are frequently cosmetic (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) as well as functional (ARTIFICIAL LIMBS).Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Amanita: A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Hepatorenal Syndrome: Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cross Circulation: The circulation in a portion of the body of one individual of blood supplied from another individual.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Camellia sinensis: Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vascular System Injuries: Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
2011). "Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Twenty Five Cases of Acute Hepatitis Following Ingestion of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb". ... "Reactivation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Patient with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb-Induced Hepatitis". Gut and Liver. 3 (1): ... "Polygonum multiflorum and liver reactions". MHRA. 2006. Archived from the original on 2014-12-05. Lin, Longfei; Ni, Boran; Lin ... Cárdenas, A; Restrepo, JC; Sierra, F; Correa, G (2006). "Acute hepatitis due to shen-min: A herbal product derived from ...
... citing three recent drug-induced liver injury cases likely due to telithromycin, one resulting in a liver transplant and one in ... and an additional 23 cases of acute, serious liver injury, among 5.2 million patients taking telithromycin through April 2006. ... Three different incidents were reported: one case of temporary drug-induced hepatitis, one ending in a liver transplant, and ... In the United States, the FDA's Office of Epidemiology and Surveillance identified 12 cases of acute liver failure, resulting ...
The spectrum of drug-induced liver injury varies from acute hepatitis to chronic hepatitis to acute liver failure. Toxins and ... The United-States-based Drug Induced Liver Injury Network linked more than 16% of cases of hepatotoxicity to herbal and dietary ... Of these, amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most common cause of drug-induced liver injury, and paracetamol toxicity the most ... Toxins, drugs, alcohol, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are metabolic causes of liver injury and inflammation. Autoimmune ...
"Amineptine induced liver injury. Report of two cases and brief review of the literature". Hepato-gastroenterology. 43 (10): ... Pessayre D, Larrey D (April 1988). "Acute and chronic drug-induced hepatitis". Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology. 2 (2): ... Greece reported two cases of drug induced hepatitis 18 and 15 days of treatment. One case of cytolytic hepatitis occurred after ... Acute pancreatitis (very rare) A case associating acute pancreatitis and mixed hepatitis after three weeks of treatment. In ...
... eight previously healthy individuals presented themselves at their center suffering from a drug-induced liver injury.[12][16] ... Doctors at the Liver Center at The Queen's Medical Center investigating the first cases in Hawaii reported that between May and ... "FDA Investigation Summary: Acute Hepatitis Illnesses Linked to Certain OxyElite Pro Products". US Food and Drug Administration ... Aegeline and liver injury[edit]. Aegeline is a known constituent of the bael leaf and consumed as a dietary supplement with the ...
Drug-induced liver injury is a cause of acute and chronic liver disease. The liver plays a central role in transforming and ... In most cases, liver function will return to normal if the offending drug is stopped early. Additionally, the patient may ... Drug-induced liver injury is responsible for 5% of all hospital admissions and 50% of all acute liver failures. Adverse drug ... but overdose is the most common cause of drug-induced liver disease and acute liver failure worldwide. Damage to the liver is ...
In Jan 2011 the FDA advised about cases of rare, but severe, liver injury, including two cases of acute liver failure leading ... inhibitor Concomitant use of drugs or herbal products that prolong the QT interval and may induce Torsade de Pointes Liver or ... "FDA Drug Safety Communication: Severe liver injury associated with the use of dronedarone (marketed as Multaq). Safety ... Dronedarone is also associated with rare cases of severe liver damage, including liver failure. Dronedarone has been termed a " ...
In some cases, acute kidney failure may be the primary clinical manifestation of toxicity. In these cases, it has been ... The liver glutathione values in mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of the ester are superimposable with the GSH levels ... In one study of patients with liver injury, 64% reported alcohol intakes of greater than 80 grams a day, while 35% took 60 ... Concomitant use of other drugs that induce CYP enzymes, such as antiepileptics including carbamazepine, phenytoin, and ...
Acute kidney injury Knee injury Anterior cruciate ligament injury Medial knee injuries Back injury Hand injury Liver injury ... Radiation-induced lung injury Microwave burn Injury from toxin or as adverse effect of a pharmaceutical drug Toxic injury ... These codes allow the identification of distributions of injuries in specific populations and case identification for more ... cartilage injuries Acute lung injury Pancreatic injury Thoracic aorta injury Biliary injury Chest injury Reverse bite injury ...
... eight previously healthy individuals presented themselves at their center suffering with drug-induced liver injury. All of ... Doctors at the Liver Center at The Queen's Medical Center investigating the first cases in Hawai'i reported that between May ... "FDA Investigation Summary: Acute Hepatitis Illnesses Linked to Certain OxyElite Pro Products". US Food and Drug Administration ... The number of such cases would ultimately rise to 43 in Hawai'i. In January 2014, leaders from the Queen's Liver Center ...
Drug-induced liver injury is responsible for 5% of all hospital admissions and 50% of all acute liver failures.[3][4] ... In most cases, liver function will return to normal if the offending drug is stopped early. Additionally, the patient may ... Toxin induced liver disease. Drug induced liver disease. Drug induced liver damage. Drug induced liver injury. Hepatogenous ... Toxin induced hepatitis. Drug induced hepatitis. Drug-induced hepatic necrosis. Drug induced hepatic fibrosis. Drug induced ...
"Use of Hy's law and a new composite algorithm to predict acute liver failure in patients with drug-induced liver injury", ... Hy's Law cases have three components: The drug causes hepatocellular injury, generally defined as an elevated ALT or AST by 3- ... and nR criteria to predict acute liver failure or transplantation in patients with drug-induced liver injury.", ... Hy's law is a rule of thumb that a patient is at high risk of a fatal drug-induced liver injury (DILI) if given a medication ...
Following an acute injury, the proximal tubule is damaged more, and the injured epithelial cells slough off the basement ... Resection of liver can induce the proliferation of the remaining hepatocytes until the lost mass is restored, where the ... who from the picture provided by Goldacre described the case as seemingly "an ordinary fingertip injury with quite unremarkable ... This is so that modelling and drug testing of the disease pathology can be carried out with the hope of regenerative medical ...
full citation needed] Mockenhaupt M (February 2009). "Severe drug-induced skin reactions: clinical pattern, diagnostics and ... But in worse cases, edema that does not disappear spontaneously within a few hours or after a walk, is described as ... Injuries can range from small to large plates composed of brown or pink, smooth or hyperkeratotic papules. The most typical ... Stasis Papillomatosis is similar to AGEP (Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis) from pustular psoriasis; criteria for ...
However, more serious drug eruptions may be associated with organ injury such as liver or kidney damage and are categorized as ... Drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), erythroderma and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These severe ... and the rash following ampicillin in cases of mononucleosis. Certain drugs are less likely to cause drug eruptions (rates ... In medicine, a drug eruption is an adverse drug reaction of the skin. Most drug-induced cutaneous reactions are mild and ...
Conditions having susceptibility to suxamethonium-induced high blood potassium are burns, closed head injury, acidosis, ... as is the case in liver failure or in neonates. It is recommended that the vials be stored at a temperature between 2°-8 °C, ... Deliberate induction of conscious apnea using this drug led to its use as a form of aversion therapy in the 1960s and 1970s in ... acute rhabdomyolysis with high blood levels of potassium, transient ocular hypertension, constipation and changes in cardiac ...
Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 21 (11): 921-2. PMID 3678069. Mercieca JE, Clarke MF, Phillips ME, Curtis JR (4 Sep 1982). "Acute ... Phenazopyridine does not treat infections or injury; it is only used for symptom relief. It is recommended that it be used for ... In at least one case the patient had pre-existing low levels of methemoglobin reductase, which likely predisposed her to the ... Rat models have shown its half-life to be 7.35 hours, and 40% is metabolized hepatically (by the liver). Phenazopyridine's ...
... phenylbutazone was shown superior to ketoprofen in cases of experimentally-induced synovitis when both drugs were used at ... Vultures feeding on the carcasses of recently treated livestock suffer acute kidney failure within days of exposure.[19] ... and soft tissue injury, as well as laminitis. It is also used to control fevers and prevent endotoxemia. It is also used as a ... Ketoprofen undergoes metabolism in the liver via conjugation with glucuronic acid, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 hydroxylation of the ...
"Danaparoid sodium inhibits systemic inflammation and prevents endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats". Crit Care. 12 (2): ... It has been used in Kasabach-Merritt syndrome in one case report. On August 14, 2002, this drug was withdrawn by Organon ... "Kasabach-Merritt syndrome associated with giant liver hemangioma: the effect of combined therapy with danaparoid sodium and ... "Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia" Uptodate www.uptodate.com retrieved on 2/6/2009 "Schering-Plough - Products and Care - A-Z ...
"Sirolimus-induced pneumonitis complicated by pentamidine-induced phospholipidosis in a renal transplant recipient: a case ... Paris A, Goupil F, Kernaonet E, Foulet-Rogé A, Molinier O, Gagnadoux F, Lebas FX (January 2012). "[Drug-induced pneumonitis due ... "Comprehensive lung injury pathology induced by mTOR inhibitors". Clinical & Translational Oncology. 11 (8): 499-510. doi: ... Das BB, Shoemaker L, Subramanian S, Johnsrude C, Recto M, Austin EH (March 2007). "Acute sirolimus pulmonary toxicity in an ...
"Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review". Canadian Journal of ... FDA has received multiple reports of persons who developed liver injury or liver failure while using Lipokinetix. The product ... Hsu, LM; Huang, YS; Chang, FY; Lee, SD (Jul 2005). "'Fat burner' herb, usnic acid, induced acute hepatitis in a family". J ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. November 20, 2001. Retrieved 5 December 2012. ...
In the case of overdoses, the storage of GSH will not be enough for NAPQI detoxication, thereby resulting in acute liver injury ... "Drug-induced liver injury: insights from genetic studies". Pharmacogenomics. 10 (9): 1467-1487. doi:10.2217/pgs.09.111. Michaut ... "Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease". Liver International. 34 (7): e171-e179. ... Hepatotoxicity indicates the drug's toxicity to liver. Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is converted into the hepatotoxic ...
... and which was not induced), severe cases of acute or chronic renal failure or end stage renal disease (where dialysis and other ... One is if the patient has a do not resuscitate ("no code") order, such as in a living will. Another is if the patient, family ... which are not responding to antiretroviral and drug therapy and/or the white blood cell count is too low), or those who are ... is also a low probability of success for patients with severe hypotension that resulted from shock or severe illness or injury ...
Severe liver injury can result from hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Elevated levels of bilirubin, hepatomegaly and fluid ... and in some cases multiple myeloma. However, it is less effective in rapidly growing acute leukemias.[38] ... or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) can be induced by GCSF in susceptible individuals.[46] ... Drug risks[edit]. Filgrastim is typically dosed in the 10 microgram/kg level for 4-5 days during the harvesting of stem cells. ...
Pulmonary injury appears rare,[15] but can present with two clinical patterns: an early, acute pneumonitis and a chronic, ... Adverse drug reactions from cyclophosphamide are related to the cumulative medication dose and include chemotherapy-induced ... in the liver to active metabolites.[32][33] The main active metabolite is 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, which exists in ... Insights from three cases complicating autoimmune diseases". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 59 (7): 1034-9. doi:10.1002/art.23822. ...
... is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice), and indicates that the liver has sustained severe damage (loss of function of 80-90% of liver cells). The complications are hepatic encephalopathy and impaired protein synthesis (as measured by the levels of serum albumin and the prothrombin time in the blood). The 1993 classification defines hyperacute as within 1 week, acute as 8-28 days, and subacute as 4-12 weeks. It reflects the fact that the pace of disease evolution strongly influences prognosis. Underlying cause is the other significant determinant of outcome. The main features of acute liver failure are rapid-onset jaundice, weakness, and eventually, changes in mental status that can begin as mild confusion but progress to coma.[citation ...
... or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology. Two forms are recognised, acute and chronic. Recently a third form of liver failure known as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is increasingly being recognized. Acute liver failure is defined as "the rapid development of hepatocellular dysfunction, specifically coagulopathy and mental status changes (encephalopathy) in a patient without known prior liver disease".:1557 The disease process is associated with the development of a coagulopathy of liver aetiology, and clinically apparent altered level of consciousness due to hepatic encephalopathy. Several important measures are immediately necessary when the ...
Acute liver failure is defined as "the rapid development of hepatocellular dysfunction, specifically coagulopathy and mental status changes (encephalopathy) in a patient without known prior liver disease".[3]:1557. The disease process is associated with the development of a coagulopathy of liver aetiology, and clinically apparent altered level of consciousness due to hepatic encephalopathy. Several important measures are immediately necessary when the patient presents for medical attention.[4] The diagnosis of acute liver failure is based on physical exam, laboratory findings, patient history, and past medical history to establish mental status changes, coagulopathy, rapidity of onset, and absence of known prior liver disease respectively.[3]:1557. The exact definition of "rapid" is somewhat questionable, ...
... is measures used to carry out liver function that are outside the body. The Molecular Adsorbent Recirculation System (MARS) is an example of artificial extracorporeal liver support. MARS banks on the recycling of albumin solution via an anion exchanger and active charcoal. The patient's blood is led through the hollow fibre capillaries of a high-flux dialysis filter. Albumin solution, which is circulated in the extracorporeal circuit, passes the membrane counter directionally, allowing albumin-bound toxins in the blood to cross the membrane and bind to the albumin of the MARS circuit. The membrane is, however, impermeable to albumin. When passing the adsorber and filter cartridges, the toxins are cleared by the filter and albumin is regenerated and able to accept new toxins when passing the membrane again. Additionally, the albumin circuit itself is dialysed in the method of continuous veno-venous haemodialysis (CVVHD) or continuous ...
... or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with the healthy liver from another person (allograft). Liver transplantation is a treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure, although availability of donor organs is a major limitation. The most common technique is orthotopic transplantation, in which the native liver is removed and replaced by the donor organ in the same anatomic position as the original liver. The surgical procedure is complex, requiring careful harvest of the donor organ and meticulous implantation into the recipient. Liver transplantation is highly regulated, and only performed at designated transplant medical centers by highly trained transplant physicians ...
... is a medical food consisting of plant derived flavonoids which have anti-inflammatory activity and are used to provide nutritional support to people with chronic osteoarthritis. Flavocoxid has been linked to occasional minor elevations in serum enzyme levels during therapy and to rare instances of clinically apparent liver injury. In clinical trials, serum aminotransferase elevations occurred in up to 10% of patients on flavocoxid therapy, but elevations above 3 times the upper limit of normal occurred in only 1% to 2% of recipients. However, there have been several reports of clinically apparent acute liver injury attributed to flavocoxid. Most cases have occurred in women (who are more likely to take flavocoxid). The time to onset has been 1 to 5 months and the pattern of enzyme elevations was usually hepatocellular or mixed. Most cases have been ...
No animal species is immune to the acute toxic effects of aflatoxins. Adult humans have a high tolerance for aflatoxin exposure and rarely succumb to acute aflatoxicosis,[23] but children are particularly affected, and their exposure can lead to stunted growth and delayed development, in addition to all the symptoms mentioned below.[4] High-level aflatoxin exposure produces an acute hepatic necrosis (acute aflatoxicosis), resulting later in cirrhosis or carcinoma of the liver. Acute liver failure is made manifest by bleeding, edema, alteration in digestion, changes to the absorption and/or metabolism of nutrients, and mental changes and/or coma.[23] Chronic, subclinical exposure does not lead to symptoms so dramatic as acute aflatoxicosis. Chronic exposure increases the risk of developing liver and ...
... (often abbreviated HRS) is a life-threatening medical condition that consists of rapid deterioration in kidney function in individuals with cirrhosis or fulminant liver failure. HRS is usually fatal unless a liver transplant is performed, although various treatments, such as dialysis, can prevent advancement of the condition. HRS can affect individuals with cirrhosis, severe alcoholic hepatitis, or liver failure, and usually occurs when liver function deteriorates rapidly because of a sudden insult such as an infection, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, or overuse of diuretic medications. HRS is a relatively common complication of cirrhosis, occurring in 18% of people within one year of their diagnosis, and in 39% within five years of their diagnosis. Deteriorating liver function is believed to cause changes in the circulation ...
... may present completely asymptomatic (12-35% of the cases), with signs of chronic liver disease, or acute or even fulminant hepatic failure.[5][6]. People usually present with one or more nonspecific symptoms, sometimes of long lasting duration, as fatigue, general ill health, lethargy, weight loss, mild right upper quadrant pain, malaise, anorexia, nausea, jaundice or arthralgia affecting the small joints. Rarely, rash or unexplained fever may appear. In women, amenorrhoea is a frequent feature. Physical examination may be normal, but it may also reveal signs and symptoms of chronic liver disease. Many people have only laboratory abnormalities as their initial presentation, as unexplained increase in transaminases and are diagnosed during an evaluation for other reasons. Others have already developed cirrhosis at diagnosis.[6] Of note, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are usually normal. Autoimmune ...
... , formerly called lupoid hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells causing the liver to be inflamed. Common initial symptoms include fatigue or muscle aches or signs of acute liver inflammation including fever, jaundice, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Individuals with autoimmune hepatitis often have no initial symptoms and the disease is detected by abnormal liver function tests. Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells,[citation needed] possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute liver infection, causes a cell-mediated immune response against the body's own liver, resulting in ...
Cangkok ati mangrupa salah sahiji pilihan pikeun nu ngarandapan gagal ati permanén, di antarana kasakit ati kronis nu ngabalukarkeun sirosis, kayaning hépatitis C kronis, kacanduan alkohol, hépatitis otoimun, jsb. Lian ti éta, cangkok ati ogé kungsi dilarapkeun ka nu ngalaman fulminant hepatic failure. Allograft ati pikeun nyangkok ilaharna mah asalna ti donor nu tos maot alatan tatu otak parna. Cangkok ati donor hirup mangrupa téhnik nyangkokkeun sabagian ati jalma nu hirup kénéh pikeun ngaganti sakabéh ati pasén. Téhnik ieu munggaran dijalankeun taun 1989 pikeun cangkok ati murangkalih. Ukur 20% ati sawawa (ségmén Couinaud 2 jeung 3) nu diperlukeun salaku allograft pikeun orok atawa budak leutik. Nu leuwih anyar, cangkok ati ti nu sawawa ka sawawa deui ngagunakeun daun katuhu ati donor (60%-na). ku sabab ati mah bisa regenerasi, fungsi ati boh donor atawa nu nampana bakal tetep normal. Prosedur ieu téh beurat, nepi ka kungsi aya donor nu pupus ti sababaraha ratus kasus awal. ...
... was born 4 May 1900 in Dunedin, New Zealand, into a family of four.[2] His father was John McIndoe, a printer and his mother was the artist Mabel McIndoe née Hill. He had three brothers and one sister. McIndoe studied at Otago Boys' High School and later medicine at the University of Otago. After his graduation he became a house surgeon at Waikato Hospital. In 1924 McIndoe was awarded the first New Zealand Fellowship at the Mayo Clinic in the United States to study pathological anatomy. The fellowship was for an unmarried doctor and as McIndoe had recently married Adonia Aitkin they had to keep their marriage secret and he sailed without her. When it was no longer possible to maintain the secret she joined him 12 months later. He worked in the clinic as First Assistant in Pathological Anatomy 1925-1927 and published several papers on chronic liver disease. Impressed with his skill, Lord Moynihan suggested a career in Britain, and in 1930 McIndoe moved to London. When ...
... er et kollegieuniversitet i London, England. Det er et av verdens største universiteter, med omkring 115 000 studenter, det vil si rundt 5 % av alle studenter i Storbritannia. Universitetet har også et meget omfattende program for fjernundervisning, spesielt tilknyttet tidligere kolonier som idag er medlem av Commonwealth, hvor det tas opp mer enn 50 000 studenter årlig.[trenger referanse] Det er også flere britiske universiteter som nå er selvstendige men som tidligere var en del av University of London. Universitetet ble grunnlagt i 1836. Det bestod da av bare to kollegier, University College London (UCL) og King's College London (KCL), men består nå av 17 kollegier og ni forskningsinstitutter. Blant de mest kjente og største er University College London, King's College London, London Business School, London School of Economics (LSE), Birkbeck, University of London, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway (RHUL), Goldsmiths College og School of Oriental and African Studies ...
Acute liver injury and acute liver failure from mushroom poisoning in North America, Liver International, 2016, 36, 7, 1043. ... François Durand, Dominique Valla, Drug-Induced Liver Disease, 2013, 621. CrossRef. *8. Rafael Bañares, Frederik Nevens, Fin ... The study was a retrospectively analyzed case series. Ten adult patients with accidental Amanita poisoning of varying severity ... This treatment has been used in acute liver failure to enable native liver recovery and as a bridging treatment to liver ...
Orlistat and the risk of acute liver injury: self controlled case series study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. ... "drug"[All Fields] AND "induced"[All Fields] AND "liver"[All Fields] AND "injury"[All Fields]) OR "drug induced liver injury"[ ... "induced"[All Fields] AND "liver"[All Fields] AND "injury"[All Fields]) OR "chemical and drug induced liver injury"[All Fields] ... Good outcome of living donor liver transplantation in drug-induced acute liver failure: A single-center experience. ...
Case series.. Setting:. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Prospective Study ongoing at multiple academic medical centers since ... Acute Liver Injury due to Flavocoxid (Limbrel), a Medical Food for Osteoarthritis: A Case Series Naga Chalasani, MD; Raj ... Acute Liver Injury due to Flavocoxid (Limbrel), a Medical Food for Osteoarthritis: A Case Series. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:857- ... All developed symptoms and signs of liver injury within 1 to 3 months after initiating flavocoxid. Liver injury was ...
... we tested samples from persons seronegative for acute hepatitis A and B whose clinical specimens were referred to the Centers ... To investigate characteristics of hepatitis E cases in the United States, ... Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN). Acute hepatitis E infection accounts for some cases of suspected drug-induced liver ... a trend consistent with the finding recently reported by the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network of 9 patients seropositive for ...
Acute Hepatitis E Infection Accounts for Some Cases of Suspected Drug-Induced Liver Injury Gastroenterology, November 2011, Vol ... FGF Receptors 1 and 2 Control Chemically Induced Injury and Compound Detoxification in Regenerating Livers of Mice ... Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Mobilizes CD34+ Cells and Improves Survival of Patients With Acute-on-Chronic Liver ... Improvement in Liver Pathology of Patients With β-Thalassemia Treated With Deferasirox for at Least 3 Years Gastroenterology, ...
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2018 Nov;27(11):1174-1181. doi: 10.1002/pds.4640. Epub 2018 Aug 16. Research Support, Non-U.S. ... case-population study; drug-exposed hepatotoxicity; drug-induced liver injury (DILI); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( ... Case-population study in the 1/97 sample of the French population claims database. Acute liver injury was identified from ... The objective of EPIHAM was to identify the risks of hospital admission for acute liver injury (ALI) associated with NSAIDs and ...
Assessing the potential of a new drug to cause drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry ... Keisu M, Andersson TB (2010) Drug-induced liver injury in humans: the case of ximelagatran. Handb Exp Pharmacol (196):407-418. ... Assessing the potential of a new drug to cause drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry ... Bell LN, Chalasani N (2009) Epidemiology of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. Semin Liver Dis 29(4):337-347. doi: ...
... of patients with previously indeterminate etiology of acute liver failure using a systematic analysis strategy that included ... Twenty-four cases received a new diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury. In many cases, review of patient history included ... Twenty-four cases received a new diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury. In many cases, review of patient history included ... Expert strategy identifies etiology in indeterminate acute liver failure cases. Ganger DR, et al. Am J Gastroenterol. 2018;doi: ...
We report a case of an elderly woman who began taking Move Free Advanced for arthritis, which in addition to glucosamine and ... Liver biopsy at that time was consistent with acute drug induced liver injury. She, once again, recovered after discontinuation ... Next Document: Acute autoimmune hepatitis mimicking metastatic liver disease: A case report.. ... 1363639 - Xanthomonas maltophilia bacteremia: an analysis of 32 cases.. 15729549 - A rare case of nasal glioma in the sphenoid ...
Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network database and identified six well-characterized cases of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in ... Gastroenterology »Hepatology »drug-induced liver injury »educational program »inflammatory disease »liver injury ... drug-induced liver injury , educational program , inflammatory disease , liver injury ... Etanercept and adalimumab have also been linked to drug-induced liver injury. So far, there are no published cases found to be ...
New findings from the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) in their most... ... Numerous publications contributed to the expanding knowledge base about drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in 2015. ... Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN), et al. Acute hepatitis E infection accounts for some cases of suspected drug-induced ... United States Drug Induced Liver Injury Network, et al. Features and outcomes of 899 patients with drug-induced liver injury: ...
"Acute and clinically relevant drug-induced liver injury: a population based case-control study," British Journal of Clinical ... "Liver transplantation for acute liver failure from drug induced liver injury in the united states," Liver Transplantation, vol ... Other than skin injury, hepatic failure, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), is rare but life threatening. DILI is ... 57:01 in abacavir hypersensitivity and flucloxacillin induced drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In this review, we summarized ...
Acute liver failure and drug induced liver injury: case report. Case report. First Online: 07 April 2018. ... Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole induced liver failure in an infant. Journal of Investigative Medicine 66: 539, No. 2, Feb 2018. ...
A free source of evidence-based information for health care professionals and for researchers studying liver injury associated ... with prescription and over-the-counter drugs, herbals, and dietary supplements is now available from the National Institutes of ... Drug-induced liver injury is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the United States, accounting for at least half of ... An interactive section, allowing users to report cases of drug-induced liver injury to the LiverTox website. Reports will be ...
... contribution to an evidence base that is currently limited to case reports and registries of drug-induced liver injury.19,23-26 ... Whether chronic liver disease increases a patients risk for drug-induced liver injury is unknown. However, preexisting liver ... Ciprofloxacin-induced acute liver injury: case report and review of literature. Virchows Arch 2004;444:87-9. ... Identification of cases and controls. We defined cases as admissions to hospital for acute liver injury between Apr. 1, 2002, ...
Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to ... Drug induced liver injury makes up a total of 5% of all hospital admissions and 50% of all acute liver failures [3]. ... and suicide attempts cases. Paracetamol, if taken in overdose, can cause severe hepatotoxicity that leads to liver failure and ... Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the most frequent causes of liver injury that poses a major clinical problem and ...
Drug- and herb-induced hepatotoxicity often resolves following discontinuation of the product (3). Attributing liver injury to ... Number of cases by date of first reported laboratory result*. * Three cases with a first reported laboratory result in October ... and histopathology of liver biopsy specimens collected thus far suggest drug- or herb-induced hepatotoxicity. Drug- and herb- ... Subsequently, a case was defined as acute hepatitis of unknown etiology occurring on or after April 1, 2013 in a person who had ...
A case of acute hepatitis E virus infection with clinical features indistinguishable from drug-induced liver injury (2005) ... A successful treatment of jejunal leiomyosarcoma accompanied with liver metastases (1995) * 医学共同研究 多施設共同研究による肝細胞癌806例(1992〜95年) ... An autopsy case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas producing granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (2008) ... An autopsy case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas producing granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (
Drug-induced liver disease I. Problem/Condition. Drug-induced liver disease is defined as liver injury related to a specific ... In rare cases, patients may progress to fulminant hepatic failure. It can be either acute or chronic and can vary in its… ... drug. It can manifest as an asymptomatic elevation in liver chemistries or symptomatically with liver dysfunction. ...
Case Management Boot Camp: Strategies for Success in the Acute Care Setting and Beyond!.... ... Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is one of the most common adverse drug event leading to drug candidate termination and post ... Home › Online Training › Drugs and Chemicals (Pharma) › Mechanisms And Mitigation Strategies For Drug-Induced Liver Injury ( ... Are you and others in your organization aware of the many mechanisms known to cause Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI)? This ...
In rare cases, patients may progress to fulminant hepatic failure. It can be either acute or chronic and can vary in its time ... Drug-induced liver disease. I. Problem/Condition.. Drug-induced liver disease is defined as liver injury related to a specific ... in making the diagnosis of a drug-induced liver injury since most drugs that cause liver injury do so at therapeutic drug ... There are no tests to confirm that drug-induced liver injury is due to a particular drug. The best way to diagnose a drug- ...
Drug-Induced Liver Injury answers are found in the Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics powered by Unbound Medicine. ... Acute DILI progresses to chronic injury in 5%-10% of cases.1 ... Induced_Liver_Injury. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. In: Williams D ... Liver_Injury. Drug-Induced Liver Injury [Internet]. In: Williams D, Ramgopal R, Gdowski M, Dretler A, Bhat P, editors. ... Liver_Injury. Accessed October 22, 2019.. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. (2016). In Williams, D., Ramgopal, R., Gdowski, M., ...
Drug-induced liver injury is an injury of the liver that may occur when you take certain medicines. ... The only specific treatment for most cases of liver damage caused by taking a drug is to stop the drug that caused the problem. ... you should get treated for liver injury in the emergency department or other acute treatment setting as soon as possible. ... Drug-induced liver injury is an injury of the liver that may occur when you take certain medicines. ...
Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Twenty Five Cases of Acute Hepatitis Following Ingestion of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb Jung KA, Min ... Heat Shock Proteins and Autophagy in Rats with Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis Kim JN, Lee HS, Ryu SH, Kim YS, Moon JS, Kim ... BACKGROUND/AIMS: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect rats from cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) by preventing the ... The notion that acute hepatitis A superimposed on chronic hepatitis B infection leads to a worse outcome than acute hepatitis A ...
  • 2016. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602267/all/Drug_Induced_Liver_Injury. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In 2016, there were an estimated 10.4 million cases of TB globally, including 1.2 million (11%) among people living with HIV (PLHIV). (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Based on the Adverse Drug Events Active Surveillance and Assessment System that we developed, we carried out a case-control study by enrolling patients who were hospitalized and received fluoroquinolones to treat or prevent infections at the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital from Jan 2016 to Dec 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies quantifying viral load in the liver are lacking. (nature.com)
  • A subset of liver tissue blocks were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA). (nature.com)
  • We also identified viral RNA in a sizeable subset of liver tissue samples. (nature.com)
  • We also investigated whether viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) could be detected in liver tissue by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (nature.com)
  • Notably, the first age-based multiscale mathematical model for HCV kinetics has been developed [ 25 , 40 , 41 ] providing a more comprehensive understanding of viral treatment response kinetics observed in patients treated with IFN, HCV protease inhibitors (telaprevir and danoprevir), or the HCV NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir as well as modes of action of these drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • The diagnosis is based on the presence of specific autoantibodies, immunoglobulin levels and histology as well as the absence of acute viral serology [ 8 , 14 ]. (e-cmh.org)
  • It is essential that any patient presenting with jaundice or altered biochemical liver tests be questioned carefully about exposure to chemicals used in work or at home, drugs taken by prescription or bought over the counter, and herbal or alternative medicines. (mhmedical.com)
  • The reduced capacity of glucuronide conjugation in the neonate not only predisposes them to physiologic jaundice but also is probably responsible for the chloramphenicol-induced gray infant syndrome. (aappublications.org)
  • Nabilone is associated with a minimal rate of serum enzyme elevations during therapy and has not been linked to cases of clinically apparent liver injury with jaundice. (nih.gov)
  • One week later, she returned to another hospital and was found to have more significantly elevated liver function tests and jaundice. (amjcaserep.com)
  • Jaundice, a yellowish discoloration of the skin, is typically one of the first and most common signs of liver damage, or hepatoxicity. (antibioticliverdamage.com)
  • This causes the generation of ROS such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and hydroxyl (OH − ) radicals that affect the cellular membrane and induce lipid peroxidation by eliminating hydrogen from a polyunsaturated fatty acid and subsequent liver damage or necrosis [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Toxins of Amanita phalloides (amatoxins, phallotoxins, and virotoxins) which inhibit RNA polymerases , cause necrosis of the liver, also partly in the kidney, with the cellular changes causing the fragmentation and segregation of all nuclear components. (wikidoc.org)
  • This notable feature of the liver is thought to be a product of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) , epidermal growth factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) . (lecturio.com)
  • Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs), such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) with mortality rate ranges from 10% to more than 30%, can be life threatening. (hindawi.com)
  • The situation is exacerbated by the unregulated and unpredictable nature of many of the potential hepatotoxic effects of these agents, especially in cases of multiple potential toxic agents. (springer.com)
  • Gene Expression Patterns Associated With Histopathology in Toxic Liver Fibrosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The resultant metabolic intermediates may in themselves be toxic to the liver but may also cause detrimental effects to other organs of the body. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 The newborn liver manifests many unique physiologic traits that are likely part of the normal developmental process and may predispose the liver in infants and children to the toxic effect of xenobiotics at levels that may be safe for the adult. (aappublications.org)
  • Though the liver possesses tremendous regenerative capacity, but very often subclinical live injury occurs due to toxic chemicals and their metabolic intermediates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of the rapid deterioration of liver function and extensive toxic substance accumulation [ 1 ], the treatment window for ALF patients is very narrow, and the extended time period needed for engraftment with hiPSC-HLCs might not be suitable for ALF therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the prognosis of HILI is worse than that of liver injury caused by well-characterised modern drugs because of the complex ingredients of herbal compounds, possible and undefined interactions between different components, and the longer durations of herb consumption due to widespread belief of lay persons that herbs are "natural" harmless compounds that can be taken long term without regular monitoring for adverse effects. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with acute acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol = APAP) toxicity would be expected to have a relatively good prognosis, given the known pathobiology and the availability of a treatment for this condition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ALF is a rare, life-threatening condition where the rapid deterioration of liver function causes changes in mental activity and disrupts the body's blood clotting capabilities," explains lead author Dr. Yasuhiko Sugawara, Associate Professor in the Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Tokyo in Japan. (medindia.net)
  • H open reading frame (ORF) 1 sequences were generated with epatitis E virus (HEV) can cause acute or chronic primer set MJ-C ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Honeysuckle anthocyanin supplementation prevents diet- induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. (nih.gov)
  • The length of time from ingestion of the drug to onset of symptoms, the latency period, is quite variable but generally is 1 week to 3 months. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Care should be given to assess for a temporal association between ingestion of a drug and the onset of symptoms. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The paracetamol nomogram is used to assess the need for treatment in acute immediate release paracetamol ingestions with a known time of ingestion. (mja.com.au)
  • Cases that require different management include modified release paracetamol overdoses, large or massive overdoses, accidental liquid ingestion in children, and repeated supratherapeutic ingestions. (mja.com.au)
  • Liver injury may follow the inhalation, ingestion, or parenteral administration of a number of pharmacologic and chemical agents. (mhmedical.com)
  • Would the liver function tests (LFTs) show abnormalities 7 hours following ingestion, and if so, in which pattern? (emdocs.net)
  • In 2011, FDA received 179,855 reports of serious, disabling, or fatal ADEs that identified a therapeutic drug as a primary suspect. (ismp.org)
  • Including manufacturers' reports produces a midpoint estimate (if 5% of all ADEs are reported) of 3.6 million serious and fatal injuries, with a range of 1.8 million (10% reporting) to 18 million (1% reporting). (ismp.org)
  • Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues alone or in combination, including abacavir, lamivudine, and other antiretrovirals. (rxlist.com)
  • I hope the dynamic LiverTox model can be used to create a new suite of databases that can identify drug-induced injury to other organs such as the heart, kidney, and lung. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of ecstasy on the kidney as well as therapeutic measures for the treatment of ecstasy-induced hyponatremia are presented. (asnjournals.org)
  • The SORCE trial aims to investigate whether giving these high-risk patients sorafenib, a drug with anti-cancer activity in kidney cancer that is known to have spread, will reduce the recurrence rate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In May 2019 the UK's Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) took regulatory action regarding Lemtrada establishing new use restrictions and requiring increased monitoring of patients using this multiple sclerosis (MS) drug. (drug-injury.com)
  • A 21-year-old male patient with drug-induced liver injury visited the clinic five times from January 28th, 2019 to March 16th, 2019. (jikm.or.kr)
  • Alternatively, the drug or its metabolite can distort cell membranes or other cellular molecules, bind covalently to intracellular proteins, activate apoptotic pathways, interfere with bile salt export proteins, or block biochemical pathways or cellular integrity ( Figure 305-1 ) . (mhmedical.com)
  • The elevated liver enzymatic and biochemical parameters due to CCl 4 toxicity were considerably normalized by the extracts treatment under both in vivo and in vitro models. (biomedcentral.com)