Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Stroke, Lacunar: Stroke caused by lacunar infarction or other small vessel diseases of the brain. It features hemiparesis (see PARESIS), hemisensory, or hemisensory motor loss.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Leukoaraiosis: Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Post-Concussion Syndrome: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Subdural Space: Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cerebral Ventriculography: Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Percussion: Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.JapanLiver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Intracranial Hypotension: Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)Neuroendoscopy: PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Nerve Tissue ProteinsImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Cerebral Aqueduct: Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Third Ventricle: A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Forensic Ballistics: The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Supratentorial Neoplasms: Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Craniosynostoses: Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Reflex, Pupillary: Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring: The systematic checking of the condition and function of a patient's CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM during the course of a surgical operation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
This creates an abnormal pressure gradient and movement of water into the brain, which can cause progressive cerebral edema, ... For example, Gao and Ang used the finite element method to study changes in intracranial pressure during craniotomy operations ... Gao CP, Ang BT (2008). "Biomechanical modeling of decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury". Acta Neurochirurgica. ... Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction: Clinical Course and Prognostic Signs". Archives of Neurology. 53 (4): 309-315. doi ...
... are haemorrhages secondary to raised intracranial pressure with formation of a transtentorial pressure cone ... ISBN 978-1-4160-6257-8. Collier, J. The false localizing signs of intracranial tumour. Brain 27:490-508, 1904. J. W. Kernohan ... They are caused by a traumatic downward displacement of the brainstem. They are named after Henri Duret. Duret haemorrhages are ... venous infarction may play a role.[citation needed] Duret haemorrhages can be demonstrated by medical imaging techniques of CT ...
... pressure reactivity allows determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury". ... a trustee of the Brain Research Trust and was the first patron of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) UK. Pickard's ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial ... Hamlyn, Peter J (2012). "The Brains of Britain: Facts about the brain and its spine" (PDF). Spine Surgery London. Brain and ...
It is performed on victims of traumatic brain injury, stroke and other conditions associated with raised intracranial pressure ... 2007). "Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three ... "Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory high intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury". Cochrane ... Raised intracranial pressure is very often debilitating or fatal because it causes compression of the brain and restricts ...
Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Firstgov. Accessed January 4, 2007. Intracranial Pressure at ... eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. Increased blood pressure can also make intracranial hemorrhages bleed ... Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ICP is ... "Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of refractory high intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury". Cochrane ...
... or central nervous system damage within 1 year Head trauma within 3 weeks or brain surgery within 6 months Known intracranial ... Hypertension: systolic blood pressure ≥ 185mmHg; or diastolic blood pressure >110mmHg on repeated measures prior to study. (if ... TIMI - thrombolysis in myocardial infarction "Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: ... neoplasm Suspected aortic dissection Internal bleeding within 6 weeks Active bleeding or known bleeding disorder Traumatic ...
... intracerebral infarction, and ischemia (stroke), or other traumatic brain injury. Diagnosis may be delayed for several months ... production by the choroid plexus of cerebrospinal fluid that is inadequately reabsorbed causing increased intracranial pressure ... Usually the cerebellum and brain stem are formed normally, although in some cases the cerebellum may also be absent. An infant ... Dominguez, R; Aguirre Vila-Coro, A; Slopis, JM; Bohan, TP (June 1991). "Brain and ocular abnormalities in infants with in utero ...
... is often associated with high intracranial pressure (ICP), which can be deadly. In fact, midline shift is a ... The sign can be caused by conditions including traumatic brain injury,stroke, hematoma, or birth deformity that leads to a ... malignant middle cerebral artery infarction, epidural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, chronic subdural hematoma, infarction ... Another use is secondary screening to determine deviations in brain trauma at different times after a traumatic injury as well ...
... cerebral infarction) Headache attributed to transient ischaemic attack (TIA) Headache attributed to non-traumatic intracranial ... to lymphocytic hypophysitis Headache attributed to intracranial neoplasm Headache attributed to increased intracranial pressure ... meningitis Headache attributed to lymphocytic meningitis Headache attributed to encephalitis Headache attributed to brain ... Acute post-traumatic headache Acute post-traumatic headache attributed to moderate or severe head injury Acute post-traumatic ...
These inflammatory responses cause intracranial pressure, pressure which leads to cell injury and in some situations cell death ... This same process of mitochondrial destruction through the opening of the MPT pore is implicated in making traumatic brain ... Le Lamer S (Feb 2014). "Translation of TRO40303 from myocardial infarction models to demonstration of safety and tolerance in a ... Hypothermia has been shown to help moderate intracranial pressure and therefore to minimize the harmful effect of a patient's ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) shares many pathophysiological pathways with acute stroke, and ischemic preconditioning increases ... Delayed cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major cause of morbidity. Two Phase I clinical trials have shown ... The first-which included 68 Chinese patients under the age of 80 who had intracranial arterial stenosis of 50-99% and had ... Remote ischemic conditioning on the limb is mostly done by healthcare professionals, using a manual blood-pressure cuff and a ...
Myocardial infarction) - Heart attack Thromboembolism (Pulmonary embolism) - A blood clot in the lung Traumatic cardiac arrest ... This is most commonly the result of longstanding high blood pressure which has caused secondary damage to the wall of the main ... Also, as a result of inadequate blood flow to the brain (cerebral perfusion), the patient will quickly become unconscious and ... or intracranial hemorrhage), overdose, drowning and pulmonary embolism. Cardiac arrest can also be caused by poisoning (for ...
A generalized increase in intracranial pressure - hydrocephalus, pseudotumor cerebri, hemorrhage, edema - will affect the ... Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view. Dissection showing origins of right ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the ... 2004;45:729-738 Hoya K, Kirino T. Traumatic Trochlear Nerve Palsy Following Minor Occipital Impact. Neurol Med Chir 40:358-360 ... The trochlear nucleus and its axons within the brainstem can be damaged by infarctions, hemorrhage, arteriovenous malformations ...
... or intracranial pressure disorders.[23] It also does not carry the risks of exposing the patient to ionizing radiation.[23] CT ... or traumatic brain injury are suspected.[23] Even in emergency situations, when a head injury is minor as determined by a ... CT scanning of the head is typically used to detect infarction, tumors, calcifications, haemorrhage and bone trauma. Of the ... Oldendorf WH (1978). "The quest for an image of brain: a brief historical and technical review of brain imaging techniques". ...
Raised intracranial pressure can ultimately result in the shifting or crushing of brain tissue, which is detrimental to the ... If the increase in blood pressure is not sufficient to compensate for the compression on the artery, infarction occurs. Raised ... Traumatic brain injury Bainbridge reflex Ayling, J (2002). "Managing head bangles". Emergency Medical Services. 31 (8): 42. ... Intracranial pressure was raised by filling an intracranial, soft, rubber bag with mercury. Cushing recorded the intracranial ...
... intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300.535.450.200 --- brain hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300. ... brain infarction MeSH C10.228.140.300.301.200.100 --- brain stem infarctions MeSH C10.228.140.300.301.200.100.500 --- lateral ... normal pressure MeSH C10.228.140.617 --- hypothalamic diseases MeSH C10.228.140.617.200 --- bardet-biedl syndrome MeSH C10.228. ... intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.900.300.837.150 --- brain hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.900.300.837.150.300 --- ...
Anaerobes are able to cause all types of intracranial infections. These often cause subdural empyema, and brain abscess, and ... and utilization of measures to lower the increase in the intracranial pressure can prevent the formation of an intracranial ... are frequently recovered in long bones infections, mostly in association with traumatic wounds. Because Clostridium spp. ... infarction or direct trauma. Perforated appendicitis, diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease with perforation and ...
Doctor Rosomoff demonstrated in dogs the positive effects of mild hypothermia after brain ischemia and traumatic brain injury. ... They have also rewarmed patients at too fast a rate, leading to spikes in intracranial pressure. Some of the new models have ... "Moderate Hypothermia in the Treatment of Patients with Severe Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction". Stroke. 29 (12): 2461-6. doi: ... The use of hypothermia to control intracranial pressure (ICP) after an ischemic stroke was found to be both safe and practical ...
ISBN 978-0-323-02845-5. Karakitsos D, Karabinis A (September 2008). "Hypothermia therapy after traumatic brain injury in ... The most common cause of hyperpyrexia is an intracranial hemorrhage. Other possible causes include sepsis, Kawasaki syndrome, ... infarction, crush syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, cerebral bleeding, etc. Reaction to incompatible blood products Cancers, most ... Increased heart rate and vasoconstriction contribute to increased blood pressure in fever. There are arguments for and against ...
... of a pupil and loss of the pupillary light reflex may reflect brain herniation as a result of rising intracranial pressure ( ... February 2002). "Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: demographic and clinical study of 750 patients from the European brain ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial ... The combination of intracerebral hemorrhage and raised intracranial pressure (if present) leads to a "sympathetic surge", i.e. ...
Maladaptive levels of certain traits may be acquired as a result of anoxic or traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative ... Burke, CJ; Tannenberg, AE (1995). "Prenatal brain damage and placental infarction- an autopsy study". Developmental medicine ... These pressures and ideas that another homosexual male may desire a mate who is thinner or muscular can possibly lead to eating ... 2002), "intracranial pathology should also be considered however certain is the diagnosis of early-onset anorexia nervosa. ...
Traumatic brain injury. *Intracranial hemorrhage. *Intra-axial *Intraparenchymal hemorrhage. *Intraventricular hemorrhage. * ... Repeated lumbar punctures are used widely to reduce the effects in increased intracranial pressure and an alternative to ... Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... "Traumatic Brain Injury: Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology" Emedicine.com. Retrieved on June 19, 2007. ...
Other symptoms include those that indicate a rise in intracranial pressure caused by a large mass putting pressure on the brain ... "Overview of Adult Traumatic Brain Injuries." Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2008-01-16. ... Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... Brain trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, brain tumors[1]. Risk factors. High blood pressure, amyloidosis, ...
Intracranial pressure, Lupus anticoagulant, Mast cell, Muscle, Norovirus (T), Parvovirus B19 (T), Platelet, Porphyrin, ... Diagnostic tests - Brain biopsy (T), C-reactive protein, CSF tap test (T), CT pulmonary angiogram, Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin ... Post-traumatic epilepsy (talk), GA1 - review started 25/07/2008 - promoted 02/08/2008 ... Myocardial infarction (T), Myocarditis, Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (T), Neuromyelitis optica ...
Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... G06) Intracranial and intraspinal abscess and granuloma. *(G07) Intracranial and intraspinal abscess and granuloma in diseases ... G44.3) Chronic post-traumatic headache. *(G44.4) Drug-induced headache, not elsewhere classified ... Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy. *Familial amyloid neuropathy. Autoimmune/demyelinating. *Guillain-Barré ...
... (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause. The main symptoms are headache, vision problems, ringing in the ears with the heartbeat, and shoulder pain. Complications may include vision loss. Risk factors include being overweight or a recent increase in weight. Tetracycline may also trigger the condition. The diagnosis is based on symptoms and a high intracranial pressure founding during a lumbar puncture with no specific cause found on a brain scan. Treatment includes a healthy diet, salt restriction, and exercise. Bariatric surgery may also be used to help with weight loss. The medication acetazolamide may also be used along with the above measures. A small percentage of people may require surgery to ...
... is a potentially deadly side effect of very high pressure within the skull that occurs when a part of the brain is squeezed across structures within the skull. The brain can shift across such structures as the falx cerebri, the tentorium cerebelli, and even through the foramen magnum (the hole in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord connects with the brain). Herniation can be caused by a number of factors that cause a mass effect and increase intracranial pressure (ICP): these include traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, or brain tumor. Herniation can also occur in the absence of high ICP when mass lesions ...
Tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) technique, proposed nearly twenty years ago by Marchbanks [16] exploits the effect of intracranial pressure on the acoustic reflex, i.e. a reflex contraction of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in response to a sound. Normally, vibrations of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) elicited by acoustic stimuli are transmitted through the chain of ossicles (malleus, uncus, and stapes) in the middle ear to the oval window of the cochlea. Vibrations of the footplate of stapes transmit through the oval window to the perilymph, which in turn causes the endolymph, the basilar membrane, and the organ of Corti to vibrate, activating ultimately the acoustic sensor cells, the inner hair cells of the organ of Corti. The transfer function of this complex mechanical system under physiological conditions is modulated by the action of two small muscles of the middle ear, the tensor tympani and stapedius. The tensor tympani arises from ...
... (DWS) is a rare group of congenital human brain malformations. There are three subtypes which affect multiple organs to varying degrees, but the fundamental abnormalities involve the cerebellum which controls muscle coordination. The adjacent fourth ventricle is often affected, which can alter the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, increase intracranial pressure, and lead to multiple other brain function problems. The degree of disability varies but is typically lifelong. Treatment may involve physical therapy, special education, or surgical placement of a cerebral shunt. It is named for Walter Dandy and Arthur Earl Walker. In the majority of individuals with Dandy-Walker malformation, signs and symptoms caused by abnormal brain development are present at birth or develop within the first year of life. Some ...
An external ventricular drain (EVD), also known as a ventriculostomy or extraventricular drain, is a device used in neurosurgery to treat hydrocephalus and relieve elevated intracranial pressure when the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside the brain is obstructed. An EVD is a flexible plastic catheter placed by a neurosurgeon or neurointensivist and managed by intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses. The purpose of external ventricular drainage is to divert fluid from the ventricles of the brain and allow for monitoring of intracranial pressure. An EVD must be placed in a center with full neurosurgical capabilities, because immediate neurosurgical intervention can be needed if a complication of EVD placement, such as bleeding, is encountered. EVDs are a short-term solution to ...
0.50 diopter cycloplegic refractive change No evidence of optic-disc edema, nerve sheath distention, choroidal folds, globe flattening, scotoma or cotton-wool spots compared to baseline Class 1 Repeat OCT and visual acuity in 6 weeks Refractive changes ≥ 0.50 diopter cycloplegic refractive change and/or cotton-wool spot No evidence of optic-disc edema, nerve sheath distanton, choroidal folds, globe flattening or scotoma compared to baseline CSF opening pressure ≤ 25 cm H2O (if measured) Class 2 Repeat OCT, cycloplegic refraction, fundus examination and threshold visual field every 4 to 6 weeks × 6 months, repeat MRI in 6 months ≥ 0.50 diopter cycloplegic refractive changes or cotton-wool spot Choroidal folds and/or ONS distention and/or globe flattening and/or scotoma No evidence of optic-disc edema CSF opening pressure ≤ 25 cm H2O (if measured) Class 3 Repeat OCT, cycloplegic refraction, fundus examination and threshold visual field every 4 to 6 weeks × 6 months, repeat MRI ...
It is quite common that, when one person vomits, others nearby become nauseated, particularly when smelling the vomit of others, often to the point of vomiting themselves. It is believed that this is an evolved trait among primates. Many primates in the wild tend to browse for food in small groups. Should one member of the party react adversely to some ingested food, it may be advantageous (in a survival sense) for other members of the party to also vomit. This tendency in human populations has been observed at drinking parties, where excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages may cause a number of party members to vomit nearly simultaneously, this being triggered by the initial vomiting of a single member of the party. This phenomenon has been touched on in popular culture: notorious instances appear in the films Monty Python's The Meaning of Life (1983) and Stand By Me (1986).[19] Intense vomiting in ayahuasca ceremonies is a common phenomenon. However, people who experience "la purga" after ...
The most common symptom of IIH is headache, which occurs in almost all (92-94%) cases. It is characteristically worse in the morning, generalized in character and throbbing in nature. It may be associated with nausea and vomiting. The headache can be made worse by any activity that further increases the intracranial pressure, such as coughing and sneezing. The pain may also be experienced in the neck and shoulders.[5] Many have pulsatile tinnitus, a whooshing sensation in one or both ears (64-87%); this sound is synchronous with the pulse.[5][6] Various other symptoms, such as numbness of the extremities, generalized weakness, loss of smell, and loss of coordination, are reported more rarely; none are specific for IIH.[5] In children, numerous nonspecific signs and symptoms may be present.[7] The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the ...
Historically, papilledema was a potential contraindication to lumbar puncture, as it indicates a risk for tentorial herniation and subsequent death via cerebral herniation, however newer imaging techniques have been more useful at determining when and when not to conduct a lumbar puncture.[6] Imaging by CT or MRI is usually performed to elicit whether there is a structural cause i.e., tumor. An MRA and MRV may also be ordered to rule out the possibility of stenosis or thrombosis of the arterial or venous systems. The treatment depends largely on the underlying cause. However, the root cause of papilledema is the increased intracranial pressure (ICP). This is a dangerous sign, indicative of a brain tumor, CNS inflammation or idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) that may become manifest in the near future. Thus, a biopsy is routinely performed prior to the treatment in ...
The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body. The a-vO2 diff and cardiac output are the main factors that allow variation in the body's total oxygen consumption, and are important in measuring VO2. The a-vO2 diff is usually measured in millilitres of oxygen per 100 millilitres of blood (mL/100 mL). The arteriovenous oxygen difference is usually taken by comparing the difference in the oxygen concentration of oxygenated blood in the femoral, brachial, or radial artery and the oxygen concentration in the deoxygenated blood from the mixed supply found in the pulmonary artery (as an indicator of the typical mixed venous supply). Put in simple terms: a-vO2 diff = Ca - Cv where: Ca = the oxygen concentration of arterial blood (oxygenated blood) Cv = the oxygen concentration of ...
... are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury. In traumatic brain injury (TBI), primary brain injury occurs during the initial insult, and results from displacement of the physical structures of the brain. Secondary brain injury occurs gradually and may involve an array of cellular processes. Secondary injury, which is not caused by mechanical damage, can result from the primary injury or be independent of it. The fact that people sometimes deteriorate after brain injury was originally taken to mean that secondary injury was occurring. It is not well understood how much of a contribution primary and secondary injuries respectively have to the clinical ...
A centimetre of water (US spelling centimeter of water, abbreviated cm H2O or cm H2O) is a less commonly used unit of pressure derived from pressure head calculations using metrology. It may be defined as the pressure exerted by a column of water of 1 cm in height at 4 °C (temperature of maximum density) at the standard acceleration of gravity, so that 1 cmH2O (4°C) = 999.9720 kg/m3 × 9.80665 m/s2 × 1 cm = 98.063754138 Pa ≈ 98.0638 Pa, but conventionally a nominal maximum water density of 1000 kg/m³ is used, giving 98.0665 Pa. It is frequently used to measure the central venous pressure, the intracranial pressure while sampling cerebrospinal fluid, as well as determining pressures during mechanical ventilation or in water supply networks (then usually in metres water column). It is also a common unit of pressure in the speech sciences. This unit is commonly ...
Captain Harris suffered a massive stroke during the sixth televised opilio crab season of Deadliest Catch. He was offloading crab on January 29, 2010 at St. Paul Island, Alaska. He was flown to Anchorage for surgery, and was placed in an induced coma to reduce intracranial pressure and swelling. He awoke from the coma after his condition improved. He was squeezing hands, talking, and showing other signs of improvement.[7] Harris' doctors were amazed by his extreme improvement, saying that he was making gains in a few days that usually take months for stroke victims. However, Harris died from an intracranial hemorrhage on February 9, 2010.. Captain Phil Harris was cremated, and half of the ashes were buried (in an ornately painted Harley Davidson motorcycle gas tank) with the remains of his mother. Harris' family spread the remainder of the ashes at sea.[8]. His sons Jacob and Joshua issued a statement from the Harris family, ...
... brain if intracranial pressure, traumatic brain, brain infarction. FAQ. Medical Information Search ... brain if intracranial pressure, traumatic brain, brain infarction". Clic on a term on the left. ... No FAQ available that match "subsequent, cerebral ischemic infarction, cerebral edema, ...
... advances are well disseminated and therapeutic hypothermia is used effectively to enhance patient outcomes from traumatic brain ... New Study Data Show Reduced Intracranial Pressure After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury with Therapeutic Hypothermia (07/28/2015) ... Less Extensive Damage to Heart Muscle With Therapeutic Hypothermia Following Acute Myocardial Infarction (06/09/2015) ... Brain Connectivity Brain Connectivity. Provides the latest translational research discoveries in brain mapping, modeling, novel ...
This contributed volume is focused on subjects related to cerebral veins under normal conditions and after brain injuries, ... elevation of intracranial pressure during and after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke events, traumatic brain injury, ... elevation of venous pressure during cranial hypertension, all lead to fatal insults such as venous infarction and hemorrhage. ... Venous circulation contributes to half of the brain circulation and about 70% of the blood in the brain is venous blood. Veins ...
... intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury) (Rangel-Castilla 2008). ... Intracranial pressure increased: Nitrates may precipitate or aggravate increased intracranial pressure and subsequently may ... use with extreme caution with inferior wall MI and suspected right ventricular infarctions. Symptomatic hypotension, ... Bromperidol: May diminish the hypotensive effect of Blood Pressure Lowering Agents. Blood Pressure Lowering Agents may enhance ...
... intracranial haemorrhage/stroke, cerebral trauma/traumatic brain injury or increased intracranial pressure (as assessed by ... Uncontrolled/severe symptomatic cardiovascular disease states including: recent myocardial infarction (within prior 6 months); ... history of stroke; and hypertension (resting blood pressure ,150/100). • History of intracranial mass, ... MRI will be used to examine changes in resting state, brain structure, and the glutamatergic system, and EEG will be used to ...
His blood pressure was 85/45 mm Hg. Laboratory values identified a haemoglobin level of 4.6 mmol/l. A CT scan of the brain ... was performed centred at the skull fracture anticipating on intracranial hypertension due to venous oedema or infarction. The ... A 15-year-old adolescent was admitted to the emergency department after a car accident because of severe traumatic brain injury ... Successful outcome after traumatic rupture and secondary thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus ...
... intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury) (Rangel-Castilla 2008). ... Intracranial pressure increased: Nitrates may precipitate or aggravate increased intracranial pressure and subsequently may ... Cardiovascular disease: Not recommended for use in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) or heart failure (has not ... increased intracranial pressure; severe anemia.. Dosing: Adult. Angina pectoris: Oral: Note: Tolerance to nitrate effects ...
Brain Surgery: In medical patients with severe traumatic brain injury and malignant middle cerebral artery infarction, doctors ... to reduce intracranial pressure.. *Testicular Transposition: Is a new treatment used for the treatment of chronic lymphedema ... The pressure must be light to moderate, and movements must flow in the direction of the heart. Massage is a contraindication ... Pls help me, I have brain Edema, i was given stariots to assist, but I still feel dizzy as if the world is rotating ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects approximately 2 of every 1000 persons per year. Persons vulnerable to mental illness (eg, ... brain injury that may occur soon after trauma because of poor cerebral perfusion secondary to raised intracranial pressure and ... In some patients, localized infarction occurs (Figure 3).. Neuropsychiatric assessment. The neuropsychiatric assessment starts ... Brain activation during working memory 1 month after mild traumatic brain injury: a functional MRI study. Neurology. 1999;53: ...
Evidence of increased intracranial pressure (clinically significant papilledema, vomiting, and nausea, or reduced level of ... Implanted pacemaker, defibrillator, deep brain stimulator, or other implanted electronic devices in the brain or other ... open biopsy or significant traumatic injury =, 4 weeks prior to starting study drug, or patients who have had minor procedures ... Myocardial infarction within the last 6 months.. *Symptomatic atrial fibrillation.. *Patients with a body mass index (BMI) ,35 ...
Increased intracranial pressure and traumatic brain injury -- Malignant hyperthermia and other motor diseases -- Degenerative ... Ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction -- Heart failure -- Valvular heart disease -- Aorto-occlusive diseases -- ... Blood pressure disturbances, arterial catheterization, and blood pressure monitoring -- Awareness during anesthesia -- ... or interpreting imaging studies of the childs brain, head, neck, spinal column, and spinal cord. The book consists of ...
Increased intracranial pressure and traumatic brain injury -- Malignant hyperthermia and other motor diseases -- Degenerative ... What Is the Best Method of Diagnosing Perioperative Myocardial Infarction? -- 58. Does Neurologic Electrophysiologic Monitoring ... Central Venous Pressure Monitoring -- 145. Pulmonary Artery Pressure Monitoring -- 146. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring -- 147 ... Is There a Best Technique in the Patient with Increased Intracranial Pressure? -- 63. What Works for Brain Protection? -- 64. ...
... brain aneurysm explanation free. What is brain aneurysm? Meaning of brain aneurysm medical term. What does brain aneurysm mean? ... Looking for online definition of brain aneurysm in the Medical Dictionary? ... brain hemorrhage. intracranial hemorrhage affecting the brain usually follows traumatic injury but spontaneous hemorrhage may ... The usual causes are brain edema or hemorrhage with resulting increase in intracranial pressure. ...
What is beat (ones) brains (out)? Meaning of beat (ones) brains (out) medical term. What does beat (ones) brains (out) mean? ... brains (out) in the Medical Dictionary? beat (ones) brains (out) explanation free. ... brain hemorrhage. intracranial hemorrhage affecting the brain usually follows traumatic injury but spontaneous hemorrhage may ... The usual causes are brain edema or hemorrhage with resulting increase in intracranial pressure. ...
... raised intracranial pressure (ICP), and subsequent cerebral ischemic infarction.. Reduction in CBF below a critical threshold ... In traumatic brain injury, episodes of low cerebral oxygenation are also associated with poor outcome.6,7 Brain tissue oxygen ... Methods- Continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, brain tissue ... brain tissue pH, and brain tissue oxygen was seen together with a decrease in intracranial pressure (P,0.05). Intracranial ...
CPP: Cerebral perfusion pressure. CVR: Cerebral vascular resistance. MAP: Mean arterial pressure. ICP: Intracranial pressure. ... these ischemic changes will become irreversible and lead to brain tissue infarction. Increases in cerebral oxygen delivery ... Brain swelling and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) promote secondary injury, and it has been hypothesized that ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for almost one-half of all trauma fatalities and has a significant impact on mortality, ...
Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been widely accepted in the management of traumatic brain injury. However, its use ... mean arterial pressure − ICP) leading to brain ischemia and infarction if not corrected in a timely manner. Pathogens reach the ... Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been widely accepted in the management of traumatic brain injury. However, its use ... The role of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been broadly studied and accepted in the setting of traumatic brain ...
... patients of intracranial hemorrhage and acute cerebral infarction should be hanged.. The above information is edited by the ... subarachnoid hemorrhage convalescence and sequelae of traumatic brain injury. It also has efficacy in treating the mental ... intravenous blood pressure can cause short-term decline of the blood pressure; pregnant women should take with caution; ... Intravenous injection of this product can cause short period of blood pressure drop while oral administration has no such ...
Anemia is frequent among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with an increased risk of poor outcome. ... Measurement of intracranial pressure and short-term outcomes of patients with traumatic brain injury: a propensity-matched ... defined as need for vasopressors to keep mean arterial pressure greater than 65 mmHg), myocardial infarction [14], isolated ... A trial of intracranial-pressure monitoring in traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(26):2471-81. ...
Patient must have a functioning external ventricular drain in place for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. ... A history of renal failure, NYHA class IV congestive heart failure, or recent myocardial infarction (within 6 months). ... Brain Injuries. Brain Injuries, Traumatic. Wounds and Injuries. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System ... Safety of Darbepoetin Alfa Treatment in Patients With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. The safety and scientific validity of this ...
... is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the brains ... Major causes of morbidity due to increased intracranial pressure are due to global brain infarction as well as decreased ... "Overview of Adult Traumatic Brain Injuries." Accessed September 6, 2007.. *^ Dawodu S. 2005. "Traumatic Brain Injury: ... Intracranial pressure, (ICP), is the pressure exerted by the cranium on the brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the ...
... refers to the pressure within the skull, which is determined by the volumes of the intracranial contents; blood, brain and ... and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although the primary damage to brain tissue may be irreversible, aggressive early treatment ... They include hypotension, hypertension, myocardial ischaemia/infarction, arrhythmias, and; cardiac arrest. These incidents ... Traumatic brain injury: initial resuscitation and transfer. Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017 Source:Anaesthesia ...
Death from traumatic brain injury • Neurosurgical intervention for traumatic brain injury • Intracranial pressure monitoring • ... Traumatic infarction • Diffuse axonal injury • Shearing injury • Sigmoid sinus thrombosis • Midline shift of intracranial ... TBI=traumatic brain injury. ciTBI=clinically-important traumatic brain injury. *Injury mechanism categories defined as follows: ... Traumatic brain injury outcome definitions Clinically-important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) Defined by any of the following ...
... traumatic brain injury, cerebral infarction, and meningitis, and would continue to be classified to code 331.3, Communicating ... Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) A new code has been proposed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in category 331, ... This is accomplished by implanting a shunt to drain cerebrospinal fluid either from the intracranial ventricular system or the ... or traumatic brain injury. The difference between the temperature management system described by the proposed code and other ...
This creates an abnormal pressure gradient and movement of water into the brain, which can cause progressive cerebral edema, ... For example, Gao and Ang used the finite element method to study changes in intracranial pressure during craniotomy operations ... Gao CP, Ang BT (2008). "Biomechanical modeling of decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury". Acta Neurochirurgica. ... Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction: Clinical Course and Prognostic Signs". Archives of Neurology. 53 (4): 309-315. doi ...
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS Patient population Low attenuated lesions in well-defined arterial distribution on brain computed tomography (CT) after head trauma were defined as PTCI (Fig. 1). (spotidoc.com)
  • In many cases, multifocal white matter lesions are seen on brain MRI that likely represent ischemic lesions and infarcts related to the vasculopathy that is characteristic of SLE. (barnardhealth.us)
  • It seems to be a promising non-pharmaceutical and non-surgical therapy for preventing and treating age-related systemic vascular diseases such as combined lesions in the brain, heart and kidney, and also arteriosclerosis-induced neurodegenerative disorders. (aging-us.com)
  • Ropper reported that horizontal brain shift caused by acute unilateral mass lesions correlated closely with consciousness, and suggested that recovery of consciousness was unlikely to occur after surgical evacuation if the shift was insufficient to explain the observed diminution of consciousness. (macphilly.com)
  • Many of these patients harbor intracranial mass lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Lumbar puncture with CSF analysis can be done following CT to exclude any brain space-occupying lesions. (lecturio.com)
  • A CT scan of the brain demonstrated a comminuted-depressed fracture of the parietal bone in the midline with a rupture of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and secondary thrombosis (figure 1). (bmj.com)
  • Signs of haemorrhage, as haemosiderin, can be detected for at least five years after (traumatic) intracerebral haemorrhage in most patients 7 and probably are detectable indefinitely in the majority of patients if very blood sensitive MRI sequences (such as gradient echo) are used. (bmj.com)
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (bionity.com)
  • Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the tension the day and is in uenced by changes in posture, within the cranial vault. (who.int)
  • Diagnostic Imaging: Pediatric Neuroradiology, Second Edition is a useful tool for all health professionals involved in ordering, performing, or interpreting imaging studies of the child's brain, head, neck, spinal column, and spinal cord. (stanford.edu)
  • Although uncommon, brain abscesses can be associated with death or devastating permanent neurologic deficit, and thus, require prompt diagnosis and treatment. (clinicaladvisor.com)