Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.SqualeneVaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Mice, Inbred BALB CInfluenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.United StatesInfluenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Influenzavirus B: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.DucksVirus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Mice, Inbred C57BLViral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.PyransImmunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Tetanus ToxoidSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Pandemic H1N1/09 virus
The virus is a novel strain of influenza. Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. ... highly pathogenic avian influenza) A/H5N1 strain (media labeled "bird flu") with more human-transmissible Influenza A strains ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ...
... the best insurance against influenza strain diversity". Expert Review of Vaccines. 10 (4): 447-462. doi:10.1586/erv.11.23. ... MF59 is the first oil-in-water influenza vaccine adjuvant to be commercialized in combination with a seasonal influenza virus ... It is Novartis' proprietary adjuvant that is added to influenza vaccines to help stimulate the human body's immune response ... Expert Review of Vaccines. 12 (1): 13-30. doi:10.1586/erv.12.140. O'Hagan, Derek T; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio; Tsai, ...
The strain of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that killed up to 50 million people during the Spanish flu pandemic in 1918 was ... Two vaccines protecting against these strains were released in 2006. In 2006 and 2007 it was reported that introducing a small ... Vaccine Research Center (VRC) - Information concerning vaccine research studies. *This Week in Virology Podcast by Vincent ... This work aided Jonas Salk in deriving a polio vaccine from deactivated polio viruses; this vaccine was shown to be effective ...
... the best insurance against influenza strain diversity". Expert Review of Vaccines. 10 (4): 447-462. doi:10.1586/erv.11.23. ... Rappuoli led Chiron Corporation's development of adjuvanted influenza vaccines, MENJUGATE(R) conjugate vaccine against ... the first conjugate vaccines against meningococcus; MF59 adjuvant for influenza; the meningococcus B genome-derived vaccine. ... Rappuoli joined Chiron as head of European vaccines research in 1992 with the acquisition of Italian vaccines company Sclavo ...
1968 flu pandemic
"Three strains of Hong Kong influenza virus isolated from humans were compared with a strain isolated from a calf for their ... Influenza vaccine Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 Paul, William E. Fundamental Immunology. p. 1273. "World health group issues ... Strain A/cal/Duschanbe/55/71 could be detected for seven days and caused an influenza-like illness in calves." ... It was caused by an H3N2 strain of the influenza A virus, descended from H2N2 through antigenic shift, a genetic process in ...
... using different strains of the influenza virus. Mice were given a seasonal flu vaccine, or a vaccine against the specific flu ... Vaccine Efficacy. Immunosignatures were used to test if the efficacy of a vaccine could be predicted (in mice), ... "A general method for characterization of humoral immunity induced by a vaccine or infection". doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04. ... "Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 21 (8): 1169-1177. doi:10.1128/CVI.00228-14. ISSN 1556-6811. PMC 4135907. PMID 24964807.. ...
Flumist is a Quadrivalent Vaccine which contains four vaccine virus strains: an A/H1N1 strain, an A/H3N2 strain and two B ... The live attenuated influenza vaccine sold under the brand names FluMist (US) or Fluenz (Europe) is delivered intranasally. ... FluMist Quadrivalent contains B strains from both the B/Yamagata/14/88 and the B/Victoria/2/87 lineages. It has been approved ...
Global spread of H5N1 in 2006
He said if an avian influenza pandemic emerges, a strain-specific vaccine will need to be developed to treat the disease. ... Vaccine Production: We have invested over $1 billion in the development of new cell-culture technologies for influenza vaccine ... changed the H5N1 avian influenza strains recommended for candidate vaccines for the first time since 2004. "Many experts who ... The current H5N1 strain is a fast-mutating, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It ...
Wistar is also working on a universal influenza vaccine that would be effective against all strains of influenza, including ... A global leader in vaccine development, the Wistar Institute's half-century of achievement in vaccine development has saved ... human rabies vaccines used worldwide; and a rotavirus vaccine approved in 2006 that prevents an illness responsible for the ... "Rubella vaccines for the former USSR". Chemistry World News. The Royal Society of Chemistry. 17 January 2006. Retrieved 25 ...
This occurs in influenza every couple of decades. Antigenic sift: direct transmission with a zoonotic strain of a virus. This ... The influenza-specific memory B-cells reach their maxima at day 14-21. The secreted antibodies are specific to the vaccine ... A new vaccine is required every year because influenza virus has the ability to undergo antigenic drift. Antigenic shift occurs ... Influenza virus. The antigenic properties of influenza viruses are determined by both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. ...
Frank Macfarlane Burnet
He worked on a live vaccine against influenza, but the vaccine was unsuccessful when tested during World War II. His interest ... culture and detection of influenza virus; describing the recombination of influenza strains; demonstrating that the myxomatosis ... Modern methods for producing influenza vaccines are still based on Burnet's work improving virus growing processes in hen's ... Burnet focused the institute in the search for a vaccine. He first tested the vaccine on a group of medical students, and after ...
The annually updated trivalent influenza vaccine consists of hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza ... H3N2, H1N1, and B influenza viruses. The dominant strain in January 2006 was H3N2. Measured resistance to the standard ... Main article: Influenza vaccine. Flu vaccinations have been used to diminish the effects of the flu season; pneumonia ... "Early Estimates of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness - United States, January 2013" (PDF). cdc.gov. 11 January 2013. ...
In 2013, in addition to the existing vaccine against avian influenza (strain H5N1), Microgen initiated the development of pre- ... The company is developing more than 15 products, including a new version of influenza vaccine, tissue culture vaccines against ... pandemic "Chinese flu" vaccine (strain H7N9). Peter Kanygin, formerly Head of a Rostec structure, was appointed as the director ... as well as more than 12 million doses of influenza vaccine. In 2012, Microgen began preparations for the transition to the ...
In early clinical trials, VLP vaccines for influenza appeared to provide complete protection against both the Influenza A virus ... Production can begin as soon as the virus strain is sequenced and can take as little as 12 weeks, compared to 9 months for ... "Preclinical and Clinical Development of Plant-Made Virus-Like Particle Vaccine against Avian H5N1 Influenza". PLoS ONE. 5 (12 ... Research suggests that VLP vaccines against influenza virus could provide stronger and longer-lasting protection against flu ...
Some strains of avian influenza (from which all other strains of influenza A are believed to stem) can infect pigs or other ... or in vaccine mismatch. Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including influenzavirus A, influenza B and influenza ... When two different strains of influenza infect the same cell simultaneously, their protein capsids and lipid envelopes are ... Antigenic shift is contrasted with antigenic drift, which is the natural mutation over time of known strains of influenza (or ...
... that five falcons vaccinated with a commercial H5N2 influenza vaccine survived infection with a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain, ... Falcons are known to be very susceptible to avian influenza. Therefore, an experiment was done with hybrid gyr-saker falcons, ... "Protection and Virus Shedding of Falcons Vaccinated against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1)". Emerging ...
"Seasonal influenza and vaccine herd effect". Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research. 3 (2): 128-32. doi:10.7774/cevr.2014.3 ... so people are not immune to the dominant circulating strain. For both influenza and norovirus, epidemics temporarily ... Influenza (flu) is more severe in the elderly than in younger age groups, but influenza vaccines lack effectiveness in this ... Vaccines are usually imperfect however, so the effectiveness, E, of a vaccine must be accounted for: V. c. =. 1. −. 1. R. 0. E ...
He cultivated material from her, and used it as the basis of a mumps vaccine. The Jeryl Lynn strain of the mumps vaccine is ... That helped him to recognize that a 1957 outbreak of influenza in Hong Kong could become a huge pandemic. Working on a hunch, ... the first vaccine ever approved incorporating multiple live virus strains. He and his group invented a vaccine for hepatitis ... The strain is currently used in the trivalent (measles, mumps and rubella) MMR vaccine that he also developed, ...
Both these and mutation within the virus have been suggested as ways in which influenza and other viruses evolve. An example of ... This may be used to produce viral vaccines or gene therapy vectors. It is also used to refer to naturally occurring ... recombination between virus genomes in a cell infected by more than one virus strain. This occurs either by homologous crossing ... Suarez et al 2009 Homologous Recombination as an Evolutionary Force in the Avian Influenza A Virus. He at al 2008 Dr. Jeffery ...
Of the 949 influenza A (H3N2) isolates characterized, 106 (11.2%) were similar antigenically to the vaccine strain A/Panama/ ... He said if an avian influenza pandemic emerges, a strain-specific vaccine will need to be developed to treat the disease. ... 949 influenza A (H3N2) viruses, three influenza A (H1) viruses, one influenza A (H7N2) virus, and 71 influenza B viruses. ... Chicken vaccines are often only vaguely similar to circulating flu strains - some contain an H5N2 strain isolated in Mexico ...
"Influenza vaccine: the challenge of antigenic drift". Vaccine. 25 (39-40): 6852-62. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.07.027. PMID ... as the new strain of the virus has a different antigen which the body cell cannot recognise) and thus the vaccines against the ... In influenza viruses. In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and ... "Vaccine. 26 (Suppl 4): D49-53. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.039. PMC 3074182 . PMID 19230160.. ...
Childhood immunizations in the United States
This vaccine protects against Hib, but not the other strains of Haemphilus Influenza Type B. It prevents meningitis, Hib ... Unfortunately there are a vast array of strains of influenza, so a single vaccine can not prevent all of them. The shot ... The influenza vaccine comes in two forms, the inactivated form which is what is typically thought of as the "flu shot", and a ... Unfortunately, there are many strains of rotavirus and the vaccine can not cover all of them, so it is still possible for a ...
... antiviral drugs used in the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza Influenza vaccine 2009 flu pandemic vaccine "Pandemic (H1N1 ... This vaccine was initially developed as a pandemic mock-up vaccine using an H5N1 strain. In August 2010, The Swedish Medical ... Pandemrix is an influenza vaccine for influenza pandemics, such as the H1N1 2009 flu pandemic colloquially called the swine flu ... The vaccine was developed by GlaxoSmithKline and patented in September 2006. The vaccine is one of the H1N1 vaccines approved ...
... and Griffith was studying the possibility of creating a vaccine. Griffith used two strains of pneumococcus (Streptococcus ... Pneumonia was a serious cause of death in the wake of the post-WWI Spanish influenza pandemic, ... In this experiment, bacteria from the III-S strain were killed by heat, and their remains were added to II-R strain bacteria. ... The III-S strain DNA contains the genes that form the smooth protective polysaccharide capsule. Equipped with this gene, the ...
Social history of viruses
When influenza virus undergoes a genetic shift many humans have no immunity to the new strain, and if the population of ... 159-160 Dreesen DW (1997). "A global review of rabies vaccines for human use". Vaccine. 15: S2-6. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(96) ... New strains of influenza virus often originate in East Asia; in rural China the concentration of ducks, pigs, and humans in ... The 2009 influenza pandemic showed how rapidly new strains of viruses continue to spread around the world, despite efforts to ...
Just like human influenza, even after receiving the vaccination, a dog can still contract mutated strains or less severe cases ... "Simultaneous analysis of the nasal shedding kinetics of field and vaccine strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica". The Veterinary ... Several intranasal vaccines have been developed that contain canine adenovirus in addition to B bronchiseptica and canine- ... To increase their effectiveness, vaccines should be administered as soon as possible after a dog enters a high-risk area, such ...
They are also difficult to successfully deploy against rapidly mutating viruses, such as influenza (the vaccine for which is ... The targets should also be common across many strains of a virus, or even among different species of virus in the same family, ... Low vaccine-preventable disease rates as a result of herd immunity also make vaccines seem unnecessary and leave many ... Nitazoxanide inhibits a broad range of influenza A and B viruses including influenza A(pH1N1) and the avian A(H7N9) as well as ...
Original antigenic sin
2009 Vaccine after Recent Seasonal Influenza Vaccination". Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 18 (9): 1519-1523. doi:10.1128/CVI. ... The specificity and the quality of the immune response against novel strains of influenza is often diminished in individuals ... than those in a viral vaccine) would fail to be controlled by the vaccine. In fact, the vaccine might make the infection even ... Researchers found reduced antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in individuals who had been vaccinated ...
FDA Committee Recommends 2018-2019 Influenza Vaccine Strains
The FDAs Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee chose the influenza vaccine strains for the 2018-2019 ... season, after disappointing vaccine effectiveness during the 2017-2018 season. ... Overall vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) - the predominant strain of influenza this season - has been 25% as of ... Most of the circulating influenza strains are like those in the 2017-2018 vaccine. The majority of influenza B infections were ...
Annual Study to Investigate Inactivated Subunit Influenza Vaccine Due to New Virus Strains for the 08/09 Season. - Full Text...
Annual Study to Investigate Inactivated Subunit Influenza Vaccine Due to New Virus Strains for the 08/09 Season.. The safety ... Influenza (flu) viruses change continuously, therefore also the parts of viruses used in influenza vaccines can vary from year ... Biological: Trivalent influenza subunit vaccine Influvac 3x 15mcg HA per 0.5 ml, trivalent one injection at Day 1 ... Immunogenicity, Reactogenicity and Safety of the Trivalent Influenza Subunit Vaccine Influvac® for the Season 2008/2009. An ...
Frequent Genetic Mismatch between Vaccine Strains and Circulating Seasonal Influenza Viruses, Hong Kong, China, 1996-2012 -...
... vaccine strains had circulated in East Asia >1 year before inclusion into vaccines. Northern Hemisphere vaccine strains ... East Asia is an important contributor to influenza surveillance but often has mismatch between vaccine and contemporarily ... Southern Hemisphere vaccines also had a low probability of matching (H3N2, 14.7%; B, 11.1%). Strain drift among seasons was ... the choice of vaccine remains uncertain. Our 17-year molecular epidemiologic survey showed that most influenza A(H3N2) (9/11) ...
Research Offers New Insight in Quest for Single Vaccine Against Multiple Influenza Strains | Infection Control Today
... highlights a new approach for developing a universal influenza vaccine that could protect against multiple flu strains, ... including deadly pandemic strains. The research appears today in the advance online edition of the scientific journal Nature ... Research Offers New Insight in Quest for Single Vaccine Against Multiple Influenza Strains. October 21, 2013 ... Influenza particularly pandemic strains that emerge periodically as flu viruses mix and form novel strains remains a global ...
Annual Study to Investigate Inactivated Subunit Influenza Vaccine Due to New Virus Strains for the 2010/2011 Season
... therefore also the parts of viruses used in influenza vaccines can vary from y... ... To improve the efficacy of influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers h.... Universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutics ... Annual Study to Investigate Influenza Vaccine Due to New Virus Strains for the 2007/2008 Influenza Season in Europe ... Swine Flu - H1N1 influenza - H7N9 Swine flu is the common name given to a relatively new strain of influenza (flu) that caused ...
GlaxoSmithKline receives FDA approval to ship four-strain (quadrivalent) influenza vaccine to healthcare providers | GSK
Scientists classify the influenza strains that cause seasonal influenza as A or B strains. Most current influenza vaccines ... Scientists classify the influenza strains that cause seasonal influenza as A or B strains. Most current influenza vaccines ... Trivalent influenza vaccines protect against the two A virus strains most common in humans and the B strain expected to be ... Trivalent influenza vaccines protect against the two A virus strains most common in humans and the B strain expected to be ...
FDA Panel: Add Two New Strains to 2012 Influenza Vaccine | Family Practice News
For the second influenza A strain in the vaccine, the panels vote was also unanimous, recommending that the influenza A (H3N2 ... The FDA panel meets at this time every year to recommend the strains to be included in the trivalent influenza vaccine in the ... 28 recommended that the vaccine for the next influenza season should include two new strains and retain only one of the three ... The current vaccine strain is a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus, a B/Victoria lineage strain. Panelists pointed out, however, ...
PLOS ONE: Low 2012-13 Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Associated with Mutation in the Egg-Adapted H3N2 Vaccine Strain Not...
Conclusions These findings underscore the need to monitor vaccine viruses as well as circulating strains to explain vaccine ... as well as the egg-adapted strain as per actually used in vaccine production. Among the total of 1501 participants, influenza ... 2011 prototype whereas all but one were antigenically distinct from the egg-adapted strain as per actually used in vaccine ... is generally interpreted in the context of vaccine match/mismatch to circulating strains with evolutionary drift in the latter ...
FDA Approves GlaxoSmithKline's four-strain seasonal influenza vaccine for use in the US - FierceVaccines
FDA Approves GlaxoSmithKlines four-strain seasonal influenza vaccine for use in the US Issued Monday 17 December 2012, London ... FDA Approves GlaxoSmithKlines four-strain seasonal influenza vaccine for use in the US. December 17, 2012 ... Scientists classify the influenza strains that cause seasonal flu as A or B strains. Currently administered trivalent (three- ... strain) flu vaccines help protect against the two A virus strains most common in humans and the B strain expected to be ...
New Insight on How to Build a Better Flu Vaccine - For Long-Lasting Immunity Against New Influenza Strains
For Long-Lasting Immunity Against New Influenza Strains TOPICS:ImmunologyInfectious DiseasesInfluenzaPopularVaccineWashington ... That vaccine was designed to protect against four different strains of influenza virus. The immune cells were extracted at one ... To get decades-long immunity against the new strains, the flu strains from the vaccine need to be taken to the lymph nodes, ... both memory B cells and naïve B cells in the lymph nodes responded to the vaccine strains, indicating that the vaccine had ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | The genetic match between vaccine strains and circulating seasonal influenza A viruses in Vietnam, 2001...
Influenza, Human Influenza A Virus Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Influenza Vaccines Male ... Seasonal Influenza A Virus Sequence Analysis, DNA Vietnam Virologic Surveillance WHO Influenza Vaccine Recommendation Strains ... We found some genetic differences between seasonal influenza H3N2 viruses and three WHO influenza vaccine strains recommended ... Greater representation of virus isolates from South East Asia in the vaccine strain selection process is desirable of influenza ...
Phylogenetic analysis of pandemic 2009 influenza A virus circulating in the South American region: genetic relationships and...
... genetic relationships and vaccine strain match, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for ... "Phylogenetic analysis of pandemic 2009 influenza A virus circulating in the South American region: ... Human influenza A viruses isolated in South America: genetic relations, adamantane resistance and vaccine strain match ... None of the strains isolated in South America clustered together with the 2010 H1 vaccine strain. Amino acid substitutions ...
220 mutation in the hemagglutinin of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus alters antigenicity during vaccine strain development
... Hum ... 220 mutation in the hemagglutinin of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus alters antigenicity during vaccine strain development 8 ... 1918 H1N1 influenza virus replicates and induces pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in extra-respiratory tissues of ferrets 5 ... Therefore, a new candidate vaccine virus(CVV) derived from a HPAI A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016-like virus was proposed by the World ...
A single amino acid change in hemagglutinin reduces the cross-reactivity of antiserum against an equine influenza vaccine strain
Antibody titers against the mutated viruses were one-tenth to one-sixteenth of those against the former vaccine strain. Our ... single amino acid change in hemagglutinin reduces the cross-reactivity of antiserum against an equine influenza vaccine strain ... Equine influenza virus is an important pathogen for the horse industry because of its economic impact, and vaccination is a key ... Continuous evolution of influenza A viruses of swine from 2013 to 2015 in Guangdong, China 1 days ago ...
Moderna Announces Publication of Phase 1 Data for mRNA Vaccines Against Two Potential Pandemic Influenza Strains
... influenza H10N8 vaccine (mRNA-1440), influenza H7N9 vaccine (mRNA-1851), Zika vaccine (mRNA-1893) with the Biomedical Advanced ... The results support the potential of mRNA-based vaccines to quickly and effectively address pandemic influenza strains. ... Moderna Announces Publication of Phase 1 Data for mRNA Vaccines Against Two Potential Pandemic Influenza Strains. ... Moderna Announces Publication of Phase 1 Data for mRNA Vaccines Against Two Potential Pandemic Influenza Strains. ...
Pinkbook | Influenza | Epidemiology of Vaccine Preventable Diseases | CDC
Influenza Chapter of Pinkbook: (Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases) ... Influenza vaccine efficacy varies by the similarity of the vaccine strain(s) to the circulating strain and the age and health ... Unlike the 1976 swine influenza vaccine, subsequent inactivated vaccines prepared from other virus strains have not been ... Nosocomial Influenza Control. Influenza Surveillance. *Monitor prevalence of circulating strains and detect new strains ...
Prevention and Control of Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP),...
Vaccine Strains for the 2011--12 Influenza Season. The 2011--12 U.S. seasonal influenza vaccine virus strains are identical to ... The influenza A (H1N1) vaccine virus strain is derived from a 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (3). ... Vaccination also should continue to be offered throughout the influenza season. Although influenza vaccine strains for the 2011 ... As during the 2010--11 season, a vaccine containing 60 µg of hemagglutinin per vaccine strain (rather than 15 µg per strain as ...
Study Says Sex Between Flu Strains can Result in New Influenza Pandemic
Hib Vaccine. Encyclopedia section of medindia gives general info about Hib Vaccine ... The recent 2009 swine flu outbreak is due to a new strain of the subtype H1N1 of the Type A influenza virus. ... Bird flu (avian influenza/avian flu) is a disease caused by an influenza virus (H5N1) that primarily affects birds but can ... Study Says Sex Between Flu Strains can Result in New Influenza Pandemic. ...
Increase in Influenza A Strains Raises Need for Vaccine | PPD
The availability of a vaccine or vaccines against multiple strains of influenza A and the implementation of cell-based ... In general, it takes five to six months from the selection of an influenza strain for a vaccine to become available as a ... With regards to a universal influenza vaccine, attention has focused on conserved sequences across strains. For example, the ... The scientific community is awaiting these and other similar investigations to develop new influenza vaccines with cross-strain ...
T-Cell-Based Vaccine Effective against Multiple Influenza Virus Strains. Virology J&Js Janssen Launches Up-to-60,000-Patient ... FDA Places Partial Clinical Hold on INOVIO Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine. ... Vanquishing the Virus: 160+ COVID-19 Drug and Vaccine Candidates in Development. ... FDA Places Partial Clinical Hold on INOVIO Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine. ...
Blinking Red: 25 Missed Pandemic Warning Signs
T-Cell-Based Vaccine Effective against Multiple Influenza Virus Strains. Coronavirus J&Js Janssen Launches Up-to-60,000- ... The plan included detecting outbreaks around the world, stockpiling vaccines and drugs, and improving vaccine production ... predicted that a novel virus pandemic without a vaccine would lead to a serious shortage of medical supplies, place strain on ... Gates also championed new vaccine production methods, using adeno-associated viruses, RNA/DNA vaccines, or even "gene editing ...
The impact of an updated pandemic H1N1 strain on shedding and immunogenicity to Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza...
Treating Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 via mRNA-encoded Cas13a * Self-amplifying RNA SARS-CoV-2 lipid nanoparticle vaccine induces ... Rapid development of an inactivated vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 * Enisamium is a small molecule inhibitor of the influenza A virus ... impact of an updated pandemic H1N1 strain on shedding and immunogenicity to Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine ... impact of an updated pandemic H1N1 strain on shedding and immunogenicity to Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine ...
Effect of a Russian-backbone live-attenuated influenza vaccine with an updated pandemic H1N1 strain on shedding and...
... strains. We assessed whether an updated pH1N1 strain in the Russian-backbone trivalent LAIV resulted in greater shedding and ... Primary outcomes were the percentage of children with LAIV strain shedding at day 2 and day 7, haemagglutinin inhibition ... LAIV effectiveness against pH1N1 should, therefore, improve in upcoming influenza seasons. Our data highlight the importance of ... and influenza B (95 of 118 [81%, 72·2-87·2]; p,0·0001), along with suboptimal serum antibody (seroconversion in six of 118 [5 ...
Research programme: influenza virus strain H5N1 clade 2 vaccine - sanofi pasteur - AdisInsight
The H5N1 clade 2 vaccine was contracted by the US ... Sanofi pasteur is developing a prophylactic vaccine against the ... influenza virus strain H5N1 clade 2 vaccine - sanofi pasteur Alternative Names: H5N1 clade 2.2 strain vaccine - sanofi pasteur ... 18 Mar 2009 Development of H5N1 clade 2 strain vaccine is ongoing ... Pandemic H5N1 clade 2.2 strain vaccine - sanofi pasteur Latest Information Update: 04 Nov 2017 ...
Seasonal Influenza Vaccine
Vaccine strains. This years influenza vaccines will protect against either 3 (trivalent vaccines) or 4 (quadrivalent vaccines ... Influenza Vaccines.. Intended use of vaccines. For a complete list of those for whom influenza vaccine is recommended and ... Each year there is a new vaccine to protect against the influenza virus strains that are expected in the coming influenza ... Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Eligibility.. Anyone not eligible for a free influenza vaccine who wishes to be immunized can ...
Bird Flu News, Research
Scientists discover vaccine-induced antibodies that can counteract varied strains of influenza virus Scientists have identified ... Results from a 10-year study suggest two strains of influenza that could mix and form a dangerous new strain of influenza ... Influenza experts examine evolution of avian disease Few influenza viruses are as widespread and adaptable as avian influenza ... three types of vaccine-induced antibodies that can neutralize diverse strains of influenza virus that infect humans. ...
The genetic match between vaccine strains and circulating seasonal influenza A viruses in Vietnam, 2001-2009. - PubMed - NCBI
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Nov;7(6):1151-7. doi: 10.1111/irv.12038. Epub 2012 Nov 8. ... Phylogeny; WHO influenza vaccine recommendation strains; seasonal influenza A virus; vietnam; virologic surveillance ... We found some genetic differences between seasonal influenza H3N2 viruses and three WHO influenza vaccine strains recommended ... The genetic match between vaccine strains and circulating seasonal influenza A viruses in Vietnam, 2001-2009.. Vuong CD1, Hoang ...
What in the World Is Going On with Equine Influenza? | TheHorse.com
P>Equine influenza has appeared in Japan for the first time since 1972. The first cases were observed in mid-August, and soon ... is that vaccines should contain strains similar to the South Africa/2003 virus and the Newmarket/2/93 virus. It takes time for ... There are several vaccines available, and the current generation of vaccines has been carefully tested to prove effectiveness. ... The influenza virus particle is easily killed by soap or common disinfectants, but it can survive for hours or days in the ...
Flucelvax Quadrivalent 2018-2019 Formula (Influenza Vaccine): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning
Influenza Vaccine) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... Therefore, inactivated influenza vaccines are standardized to contain the hemagglutinin of influenza virus strains representing ... FLUCELVAX QUADRIVALENT (Influenza Vaccine), a vaccine for intramuscular injection, is a subunit influenza vaccine prepared from ... Trivalent Influenza. Vaccine. FLUCELVAX. QUADRIVALENT. N=656. Trivalent Influenza. Vaccine. TIV1c. N=330. TIV2c. N=327. TIV1c. ...
Afluria (Influenza Virus Vaccine): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning
Influenza Virus Vaccine) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... Vaccine efficacy against laboratory-confirmed influenza infection due to influenza A or B virus strains contained in the ... AFLURIA® (Influenza Vaccine) is an inactivated influenza vaccine indicated for active immunization against influenza disease ... influenza vaccine) suspension for intramuscular injection. DESCRIPTION. AFLURIA, Influenza Vaccine for intramuscular injection ...
H1N1VaccinationSwineVirusesPandemic influenzaIsolated influenza B virAvianOutbreaksHemisphereLive attenuaEffectivenessAntigenicImmunogenicityDifferent strains of influenzaQuadrivalent influenzaYear's vaccineAnnual influenzaPandemicsProtection against influenzaEfficacySubtypesCurrent influenza vaccinesHuman influenza strainsImmune response1918Universal influenza vaccine that could protectDeathsSeasonViral strainsDoses of influenza2019PreventionIntramuscularSeasonsSeasonal fluAntiviral medications2017-2018RecombinantSubunitEveryone aged 6 months and older2018-19YearIsolatesMeaslesPneumoniaTrivalent influenza vaccine
- Most people receive the influenza vaccination to reduce the risks associated with the flu. (sanantonioinjuryattorneyblog.com)
- The first known association between GBS and the flu shot became apparent during a mass vaccination program in the United States with a swine influenza vaccine in 1976-1977. (sanantonioinjuryattorneyblog.com)
- In reaction to the outbreak and the danger from an epidemic from swine influenza, the United States Department of Health and Human Services instituted a mass vaccination of the US population. (sanantonioinjuryattorneyblog.com)
- According to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) , there was an increase in GBS reports in 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 associated with the influenza vaccine, with data suggesting an increased risk within six (6) weeks following influenza vaccination. (sanantonioinjuryattorneyblog.com)
- If you have incurred GBS following influenza or hepatitis vaccination, immediately contact a GBS injury attorney , who can handle cases nationwide and is qualified to files cases in the Court of Claims. (sanantonioinjuryattorneyblog.com)
- The majority of influenza B infections were caused by B/Yamagata lineage viruses. (medscape.com)
- Influenza (flu) viruses change continuously, therefore also the parts of viruses used in influenza vaccines can vary from year to year. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We analyzed the 2 most frequently drifting influenza types, A(H3N2) and B, in Hong Kong during 1996-2012 to examine matching between vaccine strains and circulating field viruses to document the challenges faced in this region. (cdc.gov)
- We conducted a retrospective molecular epidemiologic study to analyze the HA sequences of influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B viruses that circulated during a 17-year period (1996-2012) in Hong Kong, a subtropical city in East Asia (22°17′7.87′′N, 114°9′27.68′′E) with a high population density of 57,250 persons/km 2 in the most densely populated district, Kwun Tong ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
- The same strategy might aid efforts to design vaccines against other viruses, researchers said. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Influenza particularly pandemic strains that emerge periodically as flu viruses mix and form novel strains remains a global health threat. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. (bioportfolio.com)
- Fluarix Quadrivalent is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by influenza A subtype viruses and type B viruses contained in the vaccine. (gsk.com)
- Panelists pointed out, however, that determining which B strain to select, a Victoria or Yamagata lineage B strain virus, is always challenging and said that this illustrated the utility of a quadrivalent influenza vaccine that contains B/Victoria lineage and B/Yamagata lineage viruses. (mdedge.com)
- Distribution of fold-reduction in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres relative to the 2012-13 egg-passaged H3N2 strain by nature and location of additional amino acid (AA) mutations present in HA1 antigenic sites of circulating viruses. (plos.org)
- Using this technique, the researchers showed that the flu vaccine is capable of eliciting antibodies that protect against a broad range of flu viruses, at least in some people. (scitechdaily.com)
- The findings, published Aug. 31 in the journal Nature , could aid efforts to design an improved flu vaccine that provides protection not only against old influenza viruses but also new ones. (scitechdaily.com)
- The fifth wave differed from the previous four waves in that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses with multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site were detected in humans, poultry and environmental samples. (flu.org.cn)
- Our previous work suggested that a mutation at position 144 in the hemagglutinin of Florida sublineage clade 2 viruses reduces the cross-neutralizing activity of antiserum against a former vaccine strain. (flu.org.cn)
- Antibody titers against the mutated viruses were one-tenth to one-sixteenth of those against the former vaccine strain. (flu.org.cn)
- Moderna, Inc., (Nasdaq: MRNA) a clinical stage biotechnology company pioneering messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics and vaccines to create a new generation of transformative medicines for patients, today announced the publication of results from two Phase 1 clinical studies showing that mRNA vaccines against H10N8 and H7N9 influenza viruses were well-tolerated and elicited robust immune responses. (advfn.com)
- A link to the publication, mRNA Vaccines Against H10N8 and H7N9 Influenza Viruses of Pandemic Potential are Immunogenic and Well Tolerated in Healthy Adults in Phase 1 Randomized Clinical Trials, can be found here. (advfn.com)
- Influenza A viruses are perpetuated in nature by wild birds, predominantly waterfowl. (cdc.gov)
- That virus was identified as the product of atree way reassortment, between avian, swine, and human influenza viruses. (medindia.net)
- In their current study, the researchers looked at the compatibility of the 2009 pandemic pH1N1 virus-which has some genetic characteristics that may allow it to reassort more easily than other influenza viruses - with an influenza strain known as H9N2. (medindia.net)
- Evolution of influenza A viruses can occur through antigenic drift or antigenic shift. (ppd.com)
- This year's influenza vaccines will protect against either 3 (trivalent vaccines) or 4 (quadrivalent vaccines) influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common during the influenza season. (bccdc.ca)
- New research has taken a step towards understanding how highly pathogenic influenza viruses such as deadly bird flu infect humans. (news-medical.net)
- Few influenza viruses are as widespread and adaptable as avian influenza viruses, and scientists are not entirely sure why. (news-medical.net)
- Influenza Other Respir Viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Vietnam is currently developing domestic capability to manufacture influenza vaccines but information on the genetic and antigenic characteristics of locally circulating seasonal influenza viruses is limited. (cdc.gov)
- To assess the relevance of WHO recommended vaccine strains to the situation in Vietnam, we analyzed the genetic relatedness of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of seasonal influenza A viruses circulating in Vietnam from 2001 to 2009 to WHO recommended vaccine strains over the same period. (cdc.gov)
- We found some genetic differences between seasonal influenza H3N2 viruses and three WHO influenza vaccine strains recommended for use in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the 2001-2004 and 2007-2008 seasons and close genetic identity of circulating H3N2 strains with the recommended WHO Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains for 2004 and 2009 seasons. (cdc.gov)
- Circulation of influenza viruses in National influenza sentinel surveillance in Vietnam, 2006-2009. (cdc.gov)
- Rapid diagnostic testing and virus nucleotide sequencing revealed that the Japanese and Australian viruses are subtype H3N8, which is the same subtype as all other equine influenza viruses currently circulating (see Figure 1 ). (thehorse.com)
- The viruses are related to other recent equine influenza viruses and are not unique. (thehorse.com)
- Vigilance against the spread of influenza viruses on contaminated materials or unwashed hands is an essential part of quarantine. (thehorse.com)
- Influenza is a moving target--the viruses mutate and gradually change so that the vaccinated horse's immune system no longer recognizes them. (thehorse.com)
- Therefore, both reassortant viruses are potential candidate vaccine viruses, which could contribute to pandemic preparedness. (bvsalud.org)
- Spanish researchers analyzed 220 circulating pH1N1 viruses from Spanish Influenza Surveillance System labs. (umn.edu)
- About half of the H3N2 viruses circulating are different from those included in this season's vaccine, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported. (denverpost.com)
- State laboratory surveillance shows that almost all influenza viruses currently circulating in Colorado are the H3N2 virus, the health department reports. (denverpost.com)
- Current surveillance activities include: reporting of hospitalizations due to influenza, reporting of influenza-like illness visits by selected sites, reporting of influenza testing activity by sentinel hospital labs, monitoring circulating influenza viruses through molecular typing at the state public health laboratory, outbreaks of influenza in long-term care facilities (LTCF), and reporting of pediatric deaths due to influenza. (denverpost.com)
- Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 ( A/H3N2 ) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). (wikipedia.org)
- Seasonal influenza viruses flow out of overlapping epidemics in East Asia and Southeast Asia , then trickle around the globe before dying off. (wikipedia.org)
- Pigs can harbor influenza viruses adapted to humans and others that are adapted to birds, allowing the viruses to exchange genes and create a pandemic strain. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses. (wikipedia.org)
- Pigs can carry human influenza viruses, which can combine (i.e. exchange homologous genome subunits by genetic reassortment ) with H5N1 , passing genes and mutating into a form which can pass easily among humans. (wikipedia.org)
- Today, influenza vaccine is made from highly purified egg-grown viruses that have been rendered non-infectious. (latimes.com)
- The vaccine contains three virus strains (two Type A and one Type B) representing influenza viruses predicted to be in the United States this winter. (latimes.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) categorically states, "Because influenza vaccine contains only non-infectious viruses, it cannot cause influenza. (latimes.com)
- Improved influenza countermeasures require basic research on how viruses enter cells, replicate, mutate, evolve into new strains and induce an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
- Vaccines have been established as the most effective method of preventing flu since the early 20th century, however, much has changed in the past century to improve effectiveness, administration and adherence in the face of flu viruses' constant mutation. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- Commonly known as flu, influenza is a contagious respiratory condition caused by viruses. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- However, as the influenza viruses causing seasonal flu epidemics, Type A and Type B, are constantly genetically mutating, antibodies created due to flu vaccination will not necessarily protect those who received the vaccine the following year. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- Instead new vaccines have to be developed annually based on predictive modelling of how the viruses will antigenically change. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- As scientists have uncovered more and more about the peculiarities of flu viruses and flu vaccination has become more widespread, vaccines to prevent flu have evolved and improved significantly both in terms of better viral coverage and more patient-friendly administration methods. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- It became clear that not only were there two different strains of influenza, but the viruses were constantly evolving and mutating through what became known as antigenic drift. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- Split virus vaccines are those disrupted by a detergent and in sub-unit vaccines the HA and NA surface antigens of the viruses are isolated, meaning less of the actual virus is actually introduced through vaccination. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- Historically, influenza vaccine has had 50%-60% efficacy against infection with influenza A viruses and 70% efficacy against influenza B viruses. (medscape.com)
- Influenza vaccine component recommendations are based on numerous factors, including global influenza virologic and epidemiologic surveillance, genetic and antigenic characterization, antiviral susceptibility, and the availability of candidate vaccine viruses for production. (medscape.com)
- But the drug companies don't have enough eggs to make vaccines for 20 distinct viruses, let alone thousands. (slate.com)
- Influenza A viruses are further divided into different subtypes based on two proteins found on the surface of the virus - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (healthline.com)
- The combinations of the different subtypes of HA and NA are used to classify influenza A viruses. (healthline.com)
- Let's take a closer look at H3N2 influenza viruses. (healthline.com)
- The symptoms of flu caused by H3N2 are similar to other seasonal influenza viruses. (healthline.com)
- First, while all flu viruses mutate from year to year, H3N2 viruses tend to accrue more changes that are different from the H3N2 component of the flu vaccine. (healthline.com)
- It is caused by various strains of influenza viruses. (rochester.edu)
- Co-circulation of influenza A(H5N1) and seasonal influenza viruses among humans and animals could lead to co-infections, reassortment, and emergence of novel viruses with pandemic potential. (vetscite.org)
- The viruses and bacteria that cause vaccine-preventable diseases and death still exist and can cause disease in people who are not protected by vaccines. (fda.gov)
- Vaccines work by preparing the body's immune system for future exposure to disease-causing viruses or bacteria. (fda.gov)
- Vaccines contain antigens, which are weakened bacteria or viruses, or parts of bacteria or viruses, which mimic the disease-causing agents. (fda.gov)
- Because the variations of seasonal influenza viruses can be unpredictable, current vaccines may not provide effective protection against them," said senior author Ren Sun, a professor of molecular and medical pharmacology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). (hindustantimes.com)
- Currently, influenza vaccines must be changed every year because the viruses are constantly evolving. (hindustantimes.com)
- detect any emerging (zoonotic and pandemic) influenza viruses. (who.int)
- Within this global partnership, NICs conduct year-round surveillance of influenza, collect and test clinical specimens in their respective countries and share influenza viruses with WHO CCs, enabling WHO to analyse influenza virus surveillance data and recommend the composition of the influenza vaccine for the following flu season (once a year in the northern and once a year in the southern hemisphere). (who.int)
- The GISRS also acts as a global alert mechanism for the appearance of influenza viruses with pandemic potential, the sharing of which is governed by the terms of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework adopted at the Sixty-fourth World Health Assembly in May 2011. (who.int)
- In particular, this invention relates to antisense oligonucleotide interactions with certain viral ribonucleic acids and messenger ribonucleic acids involved in the infection of cells by influenza viruses. (google.com)
- Oligonucleotides are provided which hybridize to the viral RNA segments of influenza viruses or to certain mRNA's which encode the NP, M1, M2, NS1, NS2 or other key proteins of influenza viruses, including RNA polymerase, hemagglutinin, nucleoprotein or neuraminidase. (google.com)
- There are three types of influenza viruses, identified as A, B, and C. Influenza A can infect a range of animal species, including humans, pigs, horses, and birds, but only humans are infected by types B and C. Influenza A is responsible for most flu cases, while infection with types B and C virus are less common and cause a milder illness. (encyclopedia.com)
- Far from just another winter nuisance, influenza viruses are deadly. (latimes.com)
- Though this year's vaccine isn't a perfect match for the viruses in circulation, it's still the best way to protect against infection. (medicinenet.com)
- Humans are infected by influenza A or B viruses. (wsj.com)
- The vaccine is "live"-consisting of a weakened form of the virus-and therefore triggers a response from B and T cells, which are both white blood cells that fight viruses, says Ren Sun, a professor of molecular and medical pharmacology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and senior author of the study. (wsj.com)
- When developing the vaccine, researchers focused on interferons, proteins the body creates to kill viruses and trigger a successful immune response. (wsj.com)
- One type (called trivalent) protects against three strains of the flu virus (usually, two types of influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus). (rchsd.org)
- Even if you or your kids got the flu vaccine last year, that won't protect you this year, because flu viruses constantly change. (rchsd.org)
- The nasal spray flu vaccine contains weakened live flu viruses, so it may cause mild flu-like symptoms, including runny nose, headache, vomiting, muscle aches, and fever. (rchsd.org)
- There are three types of influenza viruses. (angelfire.com)
- It is recommended that A/Texas/50/2012 is used as the A(H3N2) vaccine component because of antigenic changes in earlier A/Victoria/361/2011-like vaccine viruses (such as IVR-165) resulting from adaptation to propagation in eggs. (wikipedia.org)
- The results support the potential of mRNA-based vaccines to quickly and effectively address pandemic influenza strains. (advfn.com)
- Future development of Moderna's pandemic influenza program is contingent on government or other grant funding. (advfn.com)
- The emergence and impact of a pandemic influenza cannot be predicted. (ppd.com)
- pre-pandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly pandemic infection. (wikipedia.org)
- The main objective of the PIP Framework is to improve pandemic influenza preparedness and response, by strengthening the GISRS particularly in those Member States with the greatest need. (who.int)
- Effectiveness of public health measures in mitigating pandemic influenza spread: a prospective sero-epidemiological cohort study. (medscape.com)
- Non-pharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza, international measures. (medscape.com)
- Live attenuated seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine in school-age children: a randomized controlled trial. (eurosurveillance.org)
- LYON, France -- Sanofi pasteur, the vaccines business of the sanofi-aventis Group, announced that preliminary results of clinical trials fielded in France of an adjuvanted candidate H5N1 pre-pandemic influenza vaccine demonstrated a good immune response in a significant number of volunteers. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- This is the first trial of an H5N1pre-pandemic influenza vaccine candidate that compared vaccines with and without adjuvants. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Sanofi pasteur characterized the preliminary results as a sign of progress and providing direction for further development of a pandemic influenza vaccine. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- A contract has also been signed with the Australian government for the supply of vaccine in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The data obtained from this study provide a basis for more rapid, cost-effective clinical trials to evaluate new influenza drugs or to determine the efficacy of candidate vaccines for both seasonal and pandemic influenza. (medicalxpress.com)
Isolated influenza B vir1
- The influenza A H5N1 avian pandemic strain has a mortality rate of nearly 60 percent. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Bird flu (avian influenza/avian flu) is a disease caused by an influenza virus (H5N1) that primarily affects birds but can infect humans also. (medindia.net)
- Public and private resources were rapidly mobilized to produce vaccines against both strains, and in the case of avian influenza, domestic bird flocks were carefully monitored and culled if H5N1 infection was detected. (ppd.com)
- In contrast, the H5N1 avian strain was not considered pandemic because it had very limited person-to-person transmission. (ppd.com)
- Although the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 did not achieve pandemic status, the mortality associated with human infection was significant. (ppd.com)
- For example, the M2e protein is highly conserved across human influenza strains and crossreacts with a majority of avian M2e-sequences. (ppd.com)
- A systematic mutation analysis has shown that changes in just three amino acids of the avian influenza H7N9 virus receptor binding protein confers specificity for human cells. (news-medical.net)
- Before 2004, all previous highly pathogenic avian flu (HPAI) virus strains circulated only among domesticated poultry and by culling all of them in the area, the strains were made extinct. (wikipedia.org)
- Researchers have developed vaccines for H5N1 and H7N9, two new strains of avian influenza that can be transmitted from poultry to humans. (vetscite.org)
- Previous pandemics and recent outbreaks of avian influenza highlight the need to develop vaccines that offer broader, more effective protection. (hindustantimes.com)
- FDA Approves First U.S. Vaccine for Humans Against the Avian Influenza Virus H5N1. (medscape.com)
- Avian influenza ("bird flu"): fact sheet. (medscape.com)
- Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/avian_influenza/en/print.html . (medscape.com)
- An avian influenza H5N1 virus that binds to a human-type receptor. (medscape.com)
- Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A/(H5N1) reported to WHO. (medscape.com)
- If avian flu were to infect U.S. poultry, it could cripple vaccine makers' ability to produce enough doses. (latimes.com)
- A recent study with Kansas State University researchers details vaccine development for two new strains of avian influenza that can be transmitted from poultry to humans. (k-state.edu)
- Researchers at Kansas State University have developed a vaccine for two new strains of avian influenza that have been making their way across Asia, leaving hundreds of people dead and causing farmers to kill millions of animals. (k-state.edu)
- Chinese and U.S. scientists have used virus isolated from a person who died from H7N9 avian influenza infection to determine whether the virus could infect and be transmitted between ferrets. (medicalxpress.com)
- A new study has found that a novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus, which has recently emerged in humans, attaches moderately or abundantly to the epithelium of both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. (medicalxpress.com)
- The plan included detecting outbreaks around the world, stockpiling vaccines and drugs, and improving vaccine production capacity. (genengnews.com)
- Reported influenza hospitalizations and outbreaks in long-term care facilities in Colorado increased in early December. (denverpost.com)
- The flu has taken an early toll this season, with widespread outbreaks in every state, but Hawaii and many hospitals stretched thin to accommodate influenza patients. (newsmax.com)
- Influenza outbreaks occur on a regular basis. (encyclopedia.com)
- Main conclusions: The manual to be developed should provide a minimum, standardized framework for sentinel surveil ance of seasonal influenza and methods for monitoring future influenza pandemics or other large-scale outbreaks of respiratory disease. (who.int)
- The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee has chosen the influenza vaccine strains for the 2018-2019 season in the Northern Hemisphere, which begins in the fall of 2018. (medscape.com)
- The FDA panel's recommendations are the same as the World Health Organization's recommendations for the 2012-2013 Northern Hemisphere seasonal influenza vaccine, made at a meeting earlier in February. (mdedge.com)
- The FDA panel meets at this time every year to recommend the strains to be included in the trivalent influenza vaccine in the United States in the upcoming season, considering information on the strains circulating worldwide and the WHO recommendation for the vaccine to be used in the Northern Hemisphere. (mdedge.com)
- This study is to assess whether the Northern Hemisphere 2009/2010 season influenza vaccine Inflexal V fulfills the EMEA requirements for re-registration of influenza vaccines. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- During 2010-2012 the strain composition of the influenza vaccine in the Southern Hemisphere did not change, but the circulating virus type/subtype did. (edu.au)
- A prospective, open-label, phase III clinical trial was conducted in 298 healthy children previously unvaccinated with influenza, commencing in the Southern Hemisphere 2005 autumn. (nih.gov)
- In the Northern Hemisphere, all persons aged 6 months or older should receive influenza vaccine annually, by the end of October, if possible. (medscape.com)
- The vaccine viral strains recommended by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the 2020-2021 Northern Hemisphere influenza season differ from those from the previous influenza season. (medscape.com)
- One reformulation of the influenza vaccine is for the Northern Hemisphere, and the other is for the Southern Hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
- The following is a list of WHO recommended strains for the Northern Hemisphere influenza season. (wikipedia.org)
- 20 February 2013 Page 1 of 21 Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013-2014 northern hemisphere influenza season" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
- The first live attenuated influenza vaccine was licensed in 2003. (cdc.gov)
- therefore, there are now 4 egg-based quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV4s) licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for administration to children 6 months and older, 1 inactivated cell-based quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (cIIV4) for children 4 years and older, and 1 quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) for children 2 years and older. (aappublications.org)
- Effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine and inactivated influenza vaccine in children 2-17 years of age in 2013-2014 in the United States. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Efficacy of a Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine among children in Senegal: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Multicenter study of the effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine and inactivated influenza vaccine in children in 2015-2016 in the United States. (eurosurveillance.org)
- This work, which is still underway, will try to better understand why overall effectiveness with both the cell-based and egg-based vaccines was less than optimal. (medscape.com)
- We're also looking at the difference in effectiveness in people 65 years and older who were vaccinated with high-dose influenza vaccine and adjuvanted influenza vaccine to see if effectiveness was better than in those vaccinated with standard-dose vaccines. (medscape.com)
- Effectiveness of current influenza vaccines is predominantly determined by matching between vaccines and circulating strains ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- Since 2007, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine has been provided free-of-charge to older adults aged ≥60 years in Beijing, China, but the data regarding influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) am. (bioportfolio.com)
- A growing body of evidence suggests that a history of exposure to influenza virus might be undermining the effectiveness of the annual flu vaccine. (scitechdaily.com)
- LAIV effectiveness against pH1N1 should, therefore, improve in upcoming influenza seasons. (ox.ac.uk)
- There are several vaccines available, and the current generation of vaccines has been carefully tested to prove effectiveness. (thehorse.com)
- Fortunately, the current generation of vaccines still retains some effectiveness. (thehorse.com)
- We pooled data for these years from the Western Australian sentinel medical practice surveillance system for influenza to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) by influenza virus type and subtype. (edu.au)
- Vaccine effectiveness - how well does the flu vaccine work? (healthline.com)
- These egg-adapted changes can reduce the effectiveness of the vaccine strain. (healthline.com)
- Ensuring the safety and effectiveness of vaccines is one of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) top priorities. (fda.gov)
- Lines formed at clinics, reports of an unexpected flu strain fueled fears of a pandemic and accusations swirled about the immunization's effectiveness. (latimes.com)
- This year's vaccine seems to be working well against the strains of the virus causing most illnesses, according to the CDC's midseason vaccine effectiveness data, which estimates that the flu shot has reduced doctor's visits for flu by about 45 percent overall. (aarp.org)
- Seasonal effectiveness of live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccine. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Helmeke C , Gräfe L , Irmscher HM , Gottschalk C , Karagiannis I , Oppermann H . Effectiveness of the 2012/13 trivalent live and inactivated influenza vaccines in children and adolescents in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany: a test-negative case-control study. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Nohynek H , Baum U , Syrjänen R , Ikonen N , Sundman J , Jokinen J . Effectiveness of the live attenuated and the inactivated influenza vaccine in two-year-olds - a nationwide cohort study Finland, influenza season 2015/16. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Vaccine effectiveness does vary for the different strains and year by year. (ca.gov)
- Data will be available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in February about vaccine effectiveness. (ca.gov)
- Continuous evolution of the single-stranded influenza virus results in antigenic drift of its surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. (bioportfolio.com)
- Influenza B is more stable than influenza A, with less antigenic drift and consequent immunologic stability. (cdc.gov)
- The importance of vaccine priming might depend more on the similarity of the antigenic composition between the priming and second dose than the temporal interval between doses. (cdc.gov)
- Immunogenicity, Reactogenicity and Safety of the Trivalent Influenza Subunit Vaccine Influvac® for the Season 2008/2009. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Both studies met their primary safety and secondary immunogenicity endpoints, and there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events (AEs) reported. (advfn.com)
- These Phase 1 data highlight the potential of Moderna's mRNA platform to demonstrate similar or better immunogenicity than existing vaccines, which can be rapidly produced in a multi-use facility. (advfn.com)
- We assessed whether an updated pH1N1 strain in the Russian-backbone trivalent LAIV resulted in greater shedding and immunogenicity compared with LAIV with Cal09. (ox.ac.uk)
- Beran J, Prymula R, Chlíbek R, Rychlý R, Splino M, Douda P, Gál P. Evaluation of reactogenicity and immunogenicity of two influenza vaccines (vaxigrip and fluarix) in the season 1996-1997. (freepatentsonline.com)
- To compare the immunogenicity of high-dose influenza vaccine with that of standard dosing in HIV-positive participants. (annals.org)
- The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project was initiated in 2004 to create a library of influenza sequences to understand what makes one strain more lethal than another, what genetic determinants most affect immunogenicity , and how the virus evolves over time. (wikipedia.org)
- Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated thimerosal-free influenza vaccine in infants and children. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of the clinical trial was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity against Hualan's Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion), Inactivated (0.5ml) administered on age 6 months and old population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 840 subjects were selected at the second stage for the observation of the safety and immunogenicity against the test vaccine administered on large population on the basis of the first stage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
Different strains of influenza2
- GlaxoSmithKline [NYSE: GSK] announced today it has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to start shipping 2013-2014 FLUARIX QUADRIVALENT (Influenza Virus Vaccine) to CDC distribution centers and U.S. healthcare providers. (gsk.com)
- Fluarix Quadrivalent was the first intramuscular quadrivalent influenza vaccine approved by the FDA [on December 14, for the immunization of children (three years and older) and adults to help prevent disease caused by seasonal influenza virus subtypes A and B contained in the vaccine. (gsk.com)
- With today's FDA lot release, GSK's Fluarix Quadrivalent influenza vaccine soon will be supplied to U.S. healthcare providers who placed orders for the new vaccine after it was approved late last year. (gsk.com)
- In the U.S., GSK estimates it will provide up to 10 million doses of quadrivalent influenza vaccines, and 22 to 24 million doses of influenza vaccines overall. (gsk.com)
- GSK believes the healthcare community will steadily transition in coming years to quadrivalent influenza vaccines, and the company is in the process of increasing its capability to provide substantially more quadrivalent influenza vaccine doses for coming influenza seasons. (gsk.com)
- It appears that a quadrivalent influenza vaccine may soon be available, possibly as early as 2013. (mdedge.com)
- At the meeting, representatives of several vaccine manufacturers provided updates on the status of their quadrivalent influenza vaccines in development, including GlaxoSmithKline, which has filed for FDA approval of a quadrivalent influenza vaccine for people aged 3 and older. (mdedge.com)
- GlaxoSmithKline plc [LSE/NYSE: GSK] announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved FLUARIX® QUADRIVALENT (Influenza Virus Vaccine) for the immunisation of children (three years and older) and adults to help prevent disease caused by seasonal influenza (flu) virus subtypes A and type B contained in the vaccine. (fiercevaccines.com)
- Guided by ultrasound imaging, Teefey carefully extracted so-called germinal centers that hold immune cells from underarm lymph nodes of eight healthy, young volunteers vaccinated with the 2018-19 quadrivalent influenza vaccine. (scitechdaily.com)
- The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends that quadrivalent influenza vaccine be used for children 6 months to 17 years of age. (bccdc.ca)
- If a quadrivalent influenza vaccine is not available a trivalent vaccine should be used. (bccdc.ca)
- FLUCELVAX QUADRIVALENT (Influenza Vaccine), a vaccine for intramuscular injection, is a subunit influenza vaccine prepared from virus propagated in Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, a continuous cell line. (rxlist.com)
- In terms of last year's vaccine. (medscape.com)
- Speakers emphasized national guidelines for influenza vaccines, discussed this year's vaccine, and recapped last year's influenza season. (pharmacist.com)
- A 12-year-old West Palm Beach boy who died after contracting the flu was infected with a strain of the virus that experts say is uncommon, but is targeted by this year's vaccine. (newsmax.com)
- This year's vaccine offers protection against both of these strains. (webmd.com)
- Methodology for the formulation of the ACIP annual influenza statement has been described previously ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- They also explain the necessity to produce an annual influenza vaccine. (ppd.com)
- We believe that the inclusion of an additional B strain in an annual influenza vaccine could provide a direct health benefit to individual vaccine recipients in the event that the correct B lineage either is not selected for inclusion in a trivalent vaccine, or if both lineages co-circulate," Filip Dubovsky, MD, MedImmune's vice president of clinical development, commented in the press release. (umn.edu)
- At least four pandemics of influenza occurred in the 19th century, and three occurred in the 20th century. (cdc.gov)
- Transmissibility is therefore substantially higher than that of seasonal flu, and comparable with lower estimates of R 0 obtained from previous influenza pandemics. (sciencemag.org)
- Kilbourne ED. Influenza pandemics of the 20th century. (medscape.com)
Protection against influenza1
- To improve the efficacy of influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers h. (bioportfolio.com)
- Understanding the evolution of H1N1pdm strains within the South American region is essential for studying global diversification, emergence and resistance, as well as determining vaccine efficacy. (deepdyve.com)
- The protective efficacy of these inactivated vaccines was determined in the 1950s. (cdc.gov)
- Guidance from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for health professionals states that serology may overestimate flu vaccine efficacy. (umn.edu)
- This could be a breakthrough in preventing the killer disease say researchers since most of the recent vaccines developed against the disease have failed to show efficacy. (news-medical.net)
- These two new formulations had similar efficacy to whole virus vaccines, but with reduced adverse reactions to the vaccines. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- When faced with a barrage of peer-reviewed scientific facts confirming vaccine failures, and its lack of efficacy and safety, representatives of the vaccine establishment will inevitably raise the issue of the eradication of polio and smallpox from the US as case examples of two vaccine miracles. (globalresearch.ca)
- From surrogate markers to predictive biomarkers of vaccine efficacy: How realistic is to enhance the blood markers beyond serum antibody? (terrapinn.com)
- Finally, these studies indicate that the pH1N1 and H9N2 influenza subtypes are highly compatible for reassortment with each other. (medindia.net)
- AFLURIA® (Influenza Vaccine) is an inactivated influenza vaccine indicated for active immunization against influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B present in the vaccine. (rxlist.com)
- There are thousands of influenza subtypes infecting people around the world, but very few are likely to make someone in the United States sick. (slate.com)
Current influenza vaccines2
Human influenza strains1
- Instead of trying to enhance a highly specific, targeted immune response, our results show that a more diverse, less focused response provides a broader repertoire of antibodies that target different flu strains. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The finding was surprising because previous research had highlighted a likely role for white blood cells known as CD8+ and CD4+ memory T cells for broadening the immune response against different flu strains. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Mouse strain and sex as determinants of immune response to trivalent influenza vaccine. (bioportfolio.com)
- Our goal is to get our immune system up to date with the new strains of influenza, which means we want to focus the immune response on the parts of the virus that are different this year. (scitechdaily.com)
- However, there is concern that the M2e protein and other conserved influenza virus sequences may induce a weak or transient immune response. (ppd.com)
- The patient might also develop a strong immune response to an insignificant strain, while skimping on antibodies for a nastier virus. (slate.com)
- A 30 microgram-dose with an adjuvant in a two-dose regimen demonstrated an immune response at levels consistent with requirements of regulatory agencies for licensure of seasonal influenza vaccine. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- A new approach for immunizing against influenza elicited a more potent immune response and broader protection than the currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccines when tested in mice and ferrets. (medicalxpress.com)
- The pandemic of "Spanish" influenza in 1918-1919 caused an estimated 21 million deaths worldwide. (cdc.gov)
- In 1918-1919, Spanish influenza spread throughout the world. (latimes.com)
- Thus, although substantial uncertainty remains, clinical severity appears less than that seen in the 1918 influenza pandemic but comparable with that seen in the 1957 pandemic. (sciencemag.org)
- The 1918 - 1919 influenza outbreak serves as the primary example of an influenza pandemic. (encyclopedia.com)
Universal influenza vaccine that could protect2
- A study led by St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital scientists highlights a new approach for developing a universal influenza vaccine that could protect against multiple flu strains, including deadly pandemic strains. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Scientists have identified a potential universal influenza vaccine that could protect people against most strains of the virus. (financialexpress.com)
- Seasonal influenza may cause three to five million cases of severe illness and up to 500,000 deaths per year worldwide. (gsk.com)
- It is known to lead to more hospitalizations and deaths than other strains, according to the state health department, especially among the elderly, young children and people with certain chronic medical conditions. (denverpost.com)
- The US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has estimated around 40,000 deaths were avoided between 2005 and 2014 because of the seasonal flu vaccine. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- The particularly virulent strain is believed to have caused the deaths of up to 103 people in Mexico and infected more than 1,000, causing heightened concern about a potential epidemic in countries around the world. (slate.com)
- A greater proportion of deaths associated with influenza illness and slightly higher rates of influenza-related hospitalizations in children 0-4 years occurred during the 2007-2008 U.S. flu season than was measured during each of the previous three seasons. (cdc.gov)
- however not all pediatric influenza deaths may be detected and reported and there is no requirement to report adult deaths from influenza. (cdc.gov)
- However, CDC tracks pneumonia and influenza (P&I) deaths through the 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System. (cdc.gov)
- However, only a proportion of all P&I deaths are influenza-related and, as noted, most flu deaths are not lab confirmed. (cdc.gov)
- Thus, this system does not allow for an estimation of the number of deaths, only the relative severity among different influenza seasons. (cdc.gov)
- For the 2007-2008 season, the proportion of deaths due to pneumonia and influenza was higher than the previous two years, but was similar to the 2004-2005 season. (cdc.gov)
- Brown T. Influenza Continues Unabated in US, Deaths in the Thousands. (medscape.com)
- In the United States, 90% of all deaths from influenza occur among persons older than 65. (encyclopedia.com)
- While the official estimates have not yet been released, it appears that the tally of deaths from the novel form of influenza will rise to around 4,000, up from 1,200, as first reported Wednesday by The New York Times. (go.com)
- Seasonal flu numbers are very soft, based on excess deaths more than diagnoses," explained John Barry, author of "The Great Influenza. (go.com)
- Many, if not most, of the deaths attributed to influenza in seasonal flu are quite indirect. (go.com)
- I'm not sure how closely the public has been following the numbers -- 4,000 seems a small fraction of the 36,000 estimated to die of seasonal influenza each year, but these deaths are in younger people, so it may raise consciousness further," said Dr. George Rutherford, director of the University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Global Health. (go.com)
- It also causes a greater number of hospitalizations and deaths than other strains. (wsj.com)
- Only clean water rivals vaccines at reducing infectious diseases and deaths 1 . (abpi.org.uk)
- Annual Study to Investigate Inactivated Subunit Influenza Vaccine Due to New Virus Strains for the 08/09 Season. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Annual Study to Investigate Inactivated Subunit Influenza Vaccine for the 2006/2007 Influenza Season in Europe. (bioportfolio.com)
- This is the first season that vaccines protecting against more than three strains of influenza (flu) will be commercially available. (gsk.com)
- Before vaccine manufacturers can begin shipping influenza vaccines each season, the FDA first must certify that the supplies to be provided to healthcare providers meet the agency's quality and safety standards. (gsk.com)
- But since the late 1980s, scientists noted that two B virus lineage strains circulate to varying degrees each year, and it's difficult to predict which one will cause the most illness in a particular influenza season," said Dr. Leonard Friedland, VP, Scientific Affairs and Public Policy, GSK Vaccines, North America. (gsk.com)
- For this influenza season, GSK will supplement the supply of Fluarix Quadrivalent with its trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines. (gsk.com)
- More information about seasonal influenza can be found at http://flu.gov and http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/season/index.htm . (gsk.com)
- SILVER SPRING, MD. - A Food and Drug Administration advisory panel on Feb. 28 recommended that the vaccine for the next influenza season should include two new strains and retain only one of the three strains in the current vaccine. (mdedge.com)
- This influenza season has started late, in February, and flu activity has been low, although it is expected to increase, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced last week . (mdedge.com)
- But since the year 2000, two B virus strains (Victoria and Yamagata) have co-circulated to varying degrees each season. (fiercevaccines.com)
- GSK will make Fluarix Quadrivalent available in time for the 2013-14 flu season and and also plans to fulfill orders for its trivalent vaccines. (fiercevaccines.com)
- Healthcare providers traditionally order flu vaccines about a year in advance of each flu season. (fiercevaccines.com)
- In the last half of the 1997-1998 influenza season, a drifted variant of A/Wuhan appeared. (cdc.gov)
- This document provides updated guidance for the use of influenza vaccines in the United States for the 2011--12 influenza season. (cdc.gov)
- Each year there is a new vaccine to protect against the influenza virus strains that are expected in the coming influenza season. (bccdc.ca)
- The A/Singapore and B/Colorado strains were not contained in the 2017/18 season vaccine. (bccdc.ca)
- Last year's influenza season was a particularly bad one. (pharmacist.com)
- An H3-predominant influenza season typically hits seniors harder than other strains, Frieden noted. (pharmacist.com)
- In the 2014-15 influenza season, 47% of the U.S. population got an influenza vaccine, a rate similar to the 2013-14 season. (pharmacist.com)
- Jul 18, 2011 (CIDRAP News) - In an effort to overcome the difficult problem of predicting which influenza B strain will circulate in any given season, MedImmune has filed for US approval of a quadrivalent (four-strain) flu vaccine containing two influenza B strains. (umn.edu)
- Because of production timelines, the strains to be used in seasonal flu vaccines must be chosen more than 6 months before the season starts. (umn.edu)
- That requires flu experts to bet on which strains will be most common during the season, and they have had spotty success in picking the type B lineage. (umn.edu)
- Because of that strain, "I am pretty confident that this year will be a more traditional flu season" than last year, CDC's Jernigan told The Associated Press. (yahoo.com)
- Summary of the 2017-2018 influenza season. (healthline.com)
- Additionally, the flu vaccine for the 2017/18 season was found to be 40 percent effective overall according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (healthline.com)
- This can lead to a poor match between the strain included in the vaccine and the strains that circulate during flu season. (healthline.com)
- In general, the Yamagata flu is usually considered to be less deadly, but more contagious than the influenza A that is still dominating the season in the U.S. (newsmax.com)
- The major concern this flu season remains influenza A, H2N3, the so-called Aussie flu, expert say. (newsmax.com)
- This statement updates the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics for the routine use of influenza vaccines and antiviral medications in the prevention and treatment of influenza in children during the 2019-2020 season. (aappublications.org)
- The B strains are unchanged from the previous season. (aappublications.org)
- No trivalent vaccines are expected to be available for children this season. (aappublications.org)
- Despite a weird flu season , this year's flu shot is working relatively well to prevent influenza, particularly among children, according to a new report. (scientificamerican.com)
- As doctors struggle with the worst flu season in nearly a decade, some are racing to answer a question: Can they find a more permanent solution than variably successful annual vaccines? (wsj.com)
- Scientists must make an educated guess months ahead of time on which strains they expect to circulate the following flu season, because of the time required to make the vaccine. (wsj.com)
- If no improvements in the vaccine uptake will be seen, significant burden on the healthcare systems can be expected also during this upcoming winter season. (eurekalert.org)
- More encouragingly, approximately half of the EU Member States reported increased use of newer influenza vaccines that provide broader protection during the 2017/18 season. (eurekalert.org)
- It's best to get a flu vaccine as early in the season as possible, as it gives the body a chance to build up immunity to (protection from) the flu. (rchsd.org)
- But getting a flu vaccine later in the season is still better than not getting the vaccine at all. (rchsd.org)
- SACRAMENTO - The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) today announced that flu activity in California is widespread and at levels usually seen at the peak of the influenza season. (ca.gov)
- Although influenza season usually peaks between December and February, flu activity can occur as late as May, which means it is not too late to get vaccinated. (ca.gov)
- Since the 2012-13 season, the WHO recommendations have also included the formulation of an annual quadrivalent vaccine, featuring an additional B-strain. (wikipedia.org)
Doses of influenza1
- Children 6 months through 8 years of age who are receiving influenza vaccine for the first time or who have received only 1 dose before July 1, 2019, should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine ideally by the end of October, and vaccines should be offered as soon as they become available. (aappublications.org)
- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that children six months of age and older and adults receive an influenza vaccine annually. (gsk.com)
- Fewer than half of American adults get vaccinated despite strong recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and widespread availability of free and low-cost vaccines. (news-medical.net)
- National Influenza Center - National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, VietnamDuke-NUS Graduate Medical School, SingaporeInfluenza Program, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hanoi, Vietnam. (cdc.gov)
- Older adults got a little lost in the recent public health push to explain that flu vaccine benefits all ages - and it's time to target them again, said Dr. Daniel Jernigan, a flu specialist with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (yahoo.com)
- Prevention is the most effective management strategy for influenza. (medscape.com)
- [ 47 , 48 ] The ACIP also publishes recommendations on the use of antiviral agents for prevention and treatment of influenza. (medscape.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now recommends a flu vaccine for everyone 6 months of age and older (instead of just certain groups, as was recommended before). (rchsd.org)
- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has more about children, the flu and the flu vaccine . (drugs.com)
- Fluarix Quadrivalent is the first intramuscular vaccine to cover against four influenza strains. (fiercevaccines.com)
- AFLURIA, Influenza Vaccine for intramuscular injection, is a sterile, clear, colorless to slightly opalescent suspension with some sediment that resuspends upon shaking to form a homogeneous suspension. (rxlist.com)
- Trivalent influenza vaccines have helped protect millions of people against flu, but in six of the last 11 flu seasons, the predominant circulating influenza B strain was not the strain that public health authorities selected," said Dr. Leonard Friedland, V.P. and Head, GSK North America Vaccines Clinical Development and Medical Affairs. (fiercevaccines.com)
- In the United States, in a recent 10 year interval of influenza seasons, the predominant circulating influenza B lineage was different in 5 seasons from the one selected for inclusion in the vaccine," Robert Belshe, MD, director of the Center for Vaccine Development at Saint Louis University, commented in the release. (umn.edu)
- But existing vaccines protect against just the dominant seasonal flu strain and not emerging flu strains. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Scientists classify the influenza strains that cause seasonal flu as A or B strains. (fiercevaccines.com)
- HAI titers of 1:40 and MN titers of 1:20 are expected to be protective in seasonal flu vaccines. (advfn.com)
- Over time the GISRS began to also support improved vaccine development by encouraging research to obtain suitable virus isolates to compose seasonal flu vaccines based on the epidemiology of that year's particular disease-causing, mutated influenza virus. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
- In this case, it's still important to get a seasonal flu shot because the body's immunity against the influenza virus declines over time. (rchsd.org)
- We also continue to hear reports of crowded hospitals and spot shortages of antiviral medications and rapid influenza tests," she said. (medicinenet.com)
- The findings support the importance of pregnant women receiving the influenza vaccine , and of prompt treatment with antiviral medications for pregnant women suspected of having influenza," said lead researcher Kim Newsome. (webmd.com)
- Evaluation of Chemical Degradation of a Trivalent Recombinant Protein Vaccine Against Botulinum Neurotoxin by LysC Peptide Mapping and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The ACIP's Adult Immunization Schedule for influenza vaccine includes information about the recombinant influenza vaccine and addresses the use of this vaccine and the inactivated influenza vaccine in patients with egg allergy. (medscape.com)
- IIV or trivalent recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV3) should be used. (medscape.com)
- Additionally, the specific composition also differs between vaccines that are manufactured using an egg-based culture from those utilizing recombinant or cell culture technologies. (medscape.com)
- In the study Influvac will be compared to Agrippal, another subunit influenza vaccine that is already on the market in China. (bioportfolio.com)
- The flu treatments developed since the 1930s had been whole virus vaccines, however, in the 1960s and 1970s researchers began to develop newer versions: split virus and subunit vaccines. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
Everyone aged 6 months and older1
- For the last 5 years, CDC has recommended the influenza vaccine for everyone aged 6 months and older. (pharmacist.com)
- even though we've had a bad flu year, the strains that were selected. (medscape.com)
- In Europe, manufacturers/marketing holders of these vaccines are required to be involved in ongoing clinical trials and to present the results to the competent authorities each year. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 1 year before inclusion into vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- That approach requires developing and administering a new flu vaccine each year to keep up with changes in those unique and highly variable HA and NA proteins. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- influenza vaccines can vary from year to year. (bioportfolio.com)
- Every year, about half of the U.S. adult population gets vaccinated against influenza," said senior author Ali Ellebedy, PhD, an assistant professor of pathology and immunology at Washington University. (scitechdaily.com)
- The ACIP Influenza Work Group meets every 2--4 weeks throughout the year. (cdc.gov)
- Even if the strains have not changed, receiving influenza vaccine every year is necessary to maximize protection. (bccdc.ca)
- Results from a 10-year study suggest two strains of influenza that could mix and form a dangerous new strain of influenza spread by dogs. (news-medical.net)
- More influenza vaccines are available this year than ever before, with at least 171 million doses produced and 40 million shipped. (pharmacist.com)
- While more health care workers got the influenza vaccine last year, there is room for improvement here as well. (pharmacist.com)
- Richards noted that, since the vaccine strains change in most years, flu vaccine manufacturers submit a supplemental license application each year for their seasonal vaccine. (umn.edu)
- The UK's Flusurvey, begun in 2009, will this year join a European network of online surveys to gather information on how influenza spreads across the continent and enable between-nation comparisons. (umn.edu)
- Vaccines, not as effective this year against circulating strains, are still the best defense, the state health department and CDC say. (denverpost.com)
- Seasonal influenza kills an estimated 36,000 people in the United States each year. (wikipedia.org)
- with vaccine production hoped to increase until one billion doses are produced by one year after the virus is first identified. (wikipedia.org)
- The US government on May 4, 2006 awarded five-year contracts for "more than $1 billion to five drug manufacturers developing technology for speedier mass production of vaccines in the event of a pandemic" from the $3.8 billion pandemic preparedness bill passed in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
- is given his annual flu shot by nurse Bettie Donnelly in Mendham, N.J. Babies and toddlers were more likely to get the flu vaccine last year than people over 65. (yahoo.com)
- Last year's flu shot won't shield you this year: Two new strains of influenza have begun circling the globe, and the updated vaccine appears to work well against them, government officials said Thursday. (yahoo.com)
- Each year, the annual flu vaccine protects against three (trivalent) or four (quadrivalent) strains of flu. (healthline.com)
- You should get the influenza vaccine every year. (health.gov.au)
- This is because the most common strains of the virus that cause influenza change every year. (health.gov.au)
- The vaccine also changes every year to match these strains. (health.gov.au)
- But because so few people generally take the vaccine, manufacturers made just 87 million doses this year, based on a calculation that took into account the millions of unused doses they've destroyed in past years. (latimes.com)
- The 40-year-old New York City resident, who works in the financial industry, says he's never received a flu vaccine. (wsj.com)
- Each year brings different strains of the influenza-or flu-virus. (healthgrades.com)
- That's why the vaccine is updated each year to include the most current strains of the virus. (rchsd.org)
- Sometimes the same strains are included in the vaccine one year after the next. (rchsd.org)
- establishment and maintenance of laying flocks to enable year-round egg production (not just seasonal), as well as a contract to speed the production process for new cell culture influenza vaccines, including the design of a US-based cell-culture vaccine manufacturing facility. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- But researchers have been frustrated because each influenza strain is just different enough from previous strains that a new vaccine has been needed every year, he told MedPage Today . (medpagetoday.com)
- Using those highly conserved regions, it might be possible to create a flu vaccine that would protect year after year, he said. (medpagetoday.com)
- To address the H9N2 threat, NIAID contracted with Chiron Corporation to produce investigational batches of an inactivated vaccine, which will be evaluated clinically by NIAID early next year[when? (wikipedia.org)
- Measles, for example, a vaccine-preventable disease, was declared eradicated by the CDC in 2000. (healthline.com)
- Vaccines have contributed to a significant reduction in many childhood infectious diseases, such as diphtheria, measles, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). (fda.gov)
- It is recommended that all young adults (born after 1970) who have not received two doses of the Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR) go to a clinic and receive a second vaccine. (mcgill.ca)
- Due to the increasing number of cases of measles that are being reported, it is recommended that all young adults who have not received two doses of the Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR) go to a clinic and receive a second vaccine. (mcgill.ca)
- The mumps vaccine comes as part of a triple vaccine called MMR which contains measles, mumps and rubella. (mcgill.ca)
- Rubella is included in the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. (mcgill.ca)
- Since it is included in the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine) two vaccines are now given. (mcgill.ca)
- Influenza vaccine concurrently administered with a combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine to young children. (eurosurveillance.org)
- And it's not a pneumonia that would respond to a vaccine. (genengnews.com)
- Most commonly, this is influenza pneumonia. (medscape.com)
- Instead, I will worry about what will happen to him if he gets pneumonia or influenza. (healthline.com)
- This system collects information each week on the total number of death certificates filed in each of the 122 participating cities and the number of death certificates with pneumonia or influenza listed as a cause of death. (cdc.gov)
- Fortunately, there is also a vaccine for one particularly dangerous form of bacterial pneumonia-pneumococcal pneumonia. (healthgrades.com)
- Ask your doctor if it's time for your pneumonia vaccine. (healthgrades.com)
- The high-dose flu vaccine is $35 and a pneumonia vaccine is $75. (pitchengine.com)