Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Glaucoma, Angle-Closure: A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Glaucoma Drainage Implants: Devices, usually incorporating unidirectional valves, which are surgically inserted in the sclera to maintain normal intraocular pressure.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Glaucoma, Neovascular: A form of secondary glaucoma which develops as a consequence of another ocular disease and is attributed to the forming of new vessels in the angle of the anterior chamber.Trabeculectomy: Any surgical procedure for treatment of glaucoma by means of puncture or reshaping of the trabecular meshwork. It includes goniotomy, trabeculectomy, and laser perforation.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Filtering Surgery: A surgical procedure used in treatment of glaucoma in which an opening is created through which aqueous fluid may pass from the anterior chamber into a sac created beneath the conjunctiva, thus lowering the pressure within the eye. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)Exfoliation Syndrome: The deposition of flaky, translucent fibrillar material most conspicuous on the anterior lens capsule and pupillary margin but also in both surfaces of the iris, the zonules, trabecular meshwork, ciliary body, corneal endothelium, and orbital blood vessels. It sometimes forms a membrane on the anterior iris surface. Exfoliation refers to the shedding of pigment by the iris. (Newell, Ophthalmology, 7th ed, p380)Trabecular Meshwork: A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Gonioscopy: Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Hydrophthalmos: Congenital open-angle glaucoma that results from dysgenesis of the angle structures accompanied by increased intraocular pressure and enlargement of the eye. Treatment is both medical and surgical.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Eye ProteinsAnterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Miotics: Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Sclerostomy: Surgical formation of an external opening in the sclera, primarily in the treatment of glaucoma.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Porfiromycin: Toxic antibiotic of the mitomycin group, obtained from MITOMYCIN and also from Streptomyces ardus and other species. It is proposed as an antineoplastic agent, with some antibiotic properties.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Molteno Implants: Devices implanted to control intraocular pressure by allowing aqueous fluid to drain from the anterior chamber. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)Scanning Laser Polarimetry: A technique of diagnostic imaging of RETINA or CORNEA of the human eye involving the measurement and interpretation of polarizing ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES such as radio or light waves. It is helpful in the diagnosis of GLAUCOMA; MACULAR DEGENERATION; and other retinal disorders.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Prostaglandins, Synthetic: Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Conjunctival DiseasesRetina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Ocular Hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Dicumarol: An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Optic Atrophy: Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Pterygium: An abnormal triangular fold of membrane in the interpalpebral fissure, extending from the conjunctiva to the cornea, being immovably united to the cornea at its apex, firmly attached to the sclera throughout its middle portion, and merged with the conjunctiva at its base. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Aphakia, Postcataract: Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.Barbados: An island in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It is chiefly of coral formation with no good harbors and only small streams. It was probably discovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. The name was given by 16th-century Spanish explorers from barbados, the plural for "bearded", with reference to the beard-like leaves or trails of moss on the trees that grew there in abundance. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p116 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p49)Corneal Pachymetry: Measurement of the thickness of the CORNEA.Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Ciliary Arteries: Three groups of arteries found in the eye which supply the iris, pupil, sclera, conjunctiva, and the muscles of the iris.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Betaxolol: A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.Hyphema: Bleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye.Pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.Pupil Disorders: Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Retinal DiseasesPhacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Vision, Low: Vision considered to be inferior to normal vision as represented by accepted standards of acuity, field of vision, or motility. Low vision generally refers to visual disorders that are caused by diseases that cannot be corrected by refraction (e.g., MACULAR DEGENERATION; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, etc.).Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.IndiaTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Fanconi Anemia: Congenital disorder affecting all bone marrow elements, resulting in ANEMIA; LEUKOPENIA; and THROMBOPENIA, and associated with cardiac, renal, and limb malformations as well as dermal pigmentary changes. Spontaneous CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE is a feature of this disease along with predisposition to LEUKEMIA. There are at least 7 complementation groups in Fanconi anemia: FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, and FANCL. (from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=227650, August 20, 2004)Rats, Inbred BNProsthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Uveal Diseases: Diseases of the uvea.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.Lens Subluxation: Incomplete rupture of the zonule with the displaced lens remaining behind the pupil. In dislocation, or complete rupture, the lens is displaced forward into the anterior chamber or backward into the vitreous body. When congenital, this condition is known as ECTOPIA LENTIS.Aziridines: Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Posterior Eye Segment: The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mice, Inbred DBAMyopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Silicone Oils: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.Levobunolol: The L-Isomer of bunolol.Blood-Aqueous Barrier: The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Sturge-Weber Syndrome: A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Lens DiseasesVindesine: Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Administration, Intravesical: The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Instillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Iris Neoplasms: Tumors of the iris characterized by increased pigmentation of melanocytes. Iris nevi are composed of proliferated melanocytes and are associated with neurofibromatosis and malignant melanoma of the choroid and ciliary body. Malignant melanoma of the iris often originates from preexisting nevi.Tenon Capsule: Sheath of the eyeball consisting of fascia extending from the OPTIC NERVE to the corneal limbus.Ophthalmic Assistants: Persons academically trained to care for patients with eye diseases or structural defects of the eye, under the supervision of an ophthalmologist.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Lasers, Semiconductor: Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)ThiophenesVitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Suburban Health: The status of health in suburban populations.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group C Protein: A Fanconi anemia complementation group protein that regulates the activities of CYTOCHROME P450 REDUCTASE and GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE. It is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM, but moves to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to FANCE PROTEIN.Latent TGF-beta Binding Proteins: A family of secreted multidomain proteins that were originally identified by their association with the latent form of TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS. They interact with a variety of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and may play a role in the regulation of TGB-beta bioavailability.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Ectopia Lentis: Congenital displacement of the lens resulting from defective zonule formation.Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group Proteins: A diverse group of proteins whose genetic MUTATIONS have been associated with the chromosomal instability syndrome FANCONI ANEMIA. Many of these proteins play important roles in protecting CELLS against OXIDATIVE STRESS.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
"Subscleral Trabeculectomy with Mitomycin-C Versus Ologen for Treatment of Glaucoma". Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and ... Trabeculectomy is the most common invasive glaucoma surgery. It is highly effective in the treatment of advanced glaucoma as ... Trabeculectomy is a surgical procedure used in the treatment of glaucoma to relieve intraocular pressure by removing part of ... "A prospective randomised trial of trabeculectomy using mitomycin C vs an ologen implant in open angle glaucoma". Eye. 24 (9): ...
"Mitomycin C versus 5-Fluorouracil for wound healing in glaucoma surgery". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11): ... Ophthalmic treatments investigated by CEV systematic reviews include patching for corneal abrasion, eyesight screening for ... CEV has partnerships with the American Academy of Ophthalmology and the American Glaucoma Society to collaborate in research. ... The most common topics reviewed include trials studying conditions such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, and cataract. ...
Compared with Mitomycin C for Treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Results at 5 Years. J Ophthalmol. 2015:637537. Min JK, ... In ophthalmology, blebs may be formed intentionally in the treatment of glaucoma. In such treatments, functional blebs ... J Glaucoma. 22(6):456-62. Boey PY, Narayanaswamy A, Zheng C, Perera SA, Htoon HM, Tun TA, Seah SK, Wong TT, Aung T (2011). ... Use of collagen matrix wound modulation device such as ologen during glaucoma surgery is known to produce vascular and ...
Compared with Mitomycin C for Treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Results at 5 Years". Journal of Ophthalmology. 2015 ( ... chronic simple glaucoma, glaucoma simplex High-tension glaucoma Low-tension glaucoma Primary angle closure glaucoma, also known ... Variants of primary glaucoma Pigmentary glaucoma Exfoliation glaucoma, also known as pseudoexfoliative glaucoma or glaucoma ... Jampel, Henry (2010). "American Glaucoma Society Position Statement: Marijuana and the Treatment of Glaucoma". J Glaucoma. 19 ( ...
"Mitomycin". Drugs.com. 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2017. Rustagi, T; Aslanian, H. R; Laine, L (2015). "Treatment of Refractory ... "Mitomycin C versus 5-fluorouracil for wound healing in glaucoma surgery". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11): ... They include mitomycin A, mitomycin B, and mitomycin C. When the name mitomycin occurs alone, it usually refers to mitomycin C ... Mitomycin C is used as a medicine for treating various disorders associated with the growth and spread of cells. In general, ...
Mitomycin C in Congenital Glaucoma. Ophthalmic Surgery 1997; 28:979-85. 212. Honavar SG, Sekhar GC, Goyal M, Jalali S, Madhavi ... Intraocular surgery after treatment of retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001 Nov;119(11):1613-21. 177. Shields JA, Shields CL, ... Questions regarding the treatment of canalicular obstructions by re-canaliculisation and bicanalicular intubation. Br J ... Honavar SG, Goyal M, Sekhar GC, Sen PK, Babu A, Naduvilath TJ, Dandona L. Glaucoma Following Pars Plana Vitrectomy and ...
LTP is used in the treatment of various open-angle glaucomas. The two types of laser trabeculoplasty are argon laser ... 26(1):95-7. Min JK, Kee CW, Sohn SW, Lee HJ, Woo JM, Yim JH (2013). Surgical outcome of mitomycin C-soaked collagen matrix ... "Glaucoma Surgery , Glaucoma Research Foundation". Glaucoma.org. 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2012-12-11. Surgery Encyclopedia - ... A ciliarotomy is a surgical division of the ciliary zone in the treatment of glaucoma. Canaloplasty is a nonpenetrating ...
As the cause of primary glaucoma is often unknown, medical treatment is usually aimed at reducing the main sign of glaucoma ( ... This may require preventive measures using anti-fibrotic medication like 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or mitomycin-C (during the ... The most common type of glaucoma in dogs is primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). The least common type of glaucoma in dogs is ... In dogs, most forms of primary glaucoma are the result of a collapsed filtration angle, or closed angle glaucoma. Glaucoma ...
A glaucoma valve is a medical shunt used in the treatment of glaucoma to reduce the eye's intraocular pressure (IOP). The ... versus mitomycin-C as a wound healing modulator in trabeculectomy with the Ex-PRESS mini glaucoma device: a 12-month ... Traumatic glaucoma - glaucoma associated with injury to the eye. Silicone glaucoma - glaucoma due to Silicone used to repair a ... The glaucoma valve implant is indicated for glaucoma patients not responding to maximal medical therapy, with previous failed ...
Actinomycin-D Bleomycin Mitomycin-C Mitoxantrone Antimetabolites, particularly mitomycin C (MMC), are commonly used in America ... Antimetabolites can be used in cancer treatment, as they interfere with DNA production and therefore cell division and tumor ... Siriwardena, D; Edmunds, B; Wornald, RP; Khaw, PT (2004). "National survey of antimetabolite use in glaucoma surgery in the ... Intraoperative antimetabolite application, namely mitomycin C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is currently being tested for its ...
Intraoperative Mitomycin C for glaucoma surgery PMID 16235305 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002897.pub2 ... DoneIdentification of children in the first four years of life for early treatment for otitis media with effusion PMID 17253499 ... De-escalation treatment protocols for human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma PMID 24532092 https ... Done Therapeutic exercises for affecting post-treatment swallowing in people treated for advanced-stage head and neck cancers ...
Cancer treatmentEdit. Antimetabolites can be used in cancer treatment,[3] as they interfere with DNA production and therefore ... Antimetabolites, particularly mitomycin C (MMC), are commonly used in America and Japan as an addition to trabeculectomy, a ... "National survey of antimetabolite use in glaucoma surgery in the United Kingdom". British Journal of Ophthalmology. 88 (7): ... Intraoperative antimetabolite application, namely mitomycin C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is currently being tested for ...
Uses mitomycin in an attempt to reduce post-operative haze but is of dubious effectiveness.[19] Possible long-term side effects ... There are also some pre-existing conditions that may complicate or preclude the treatment.[citation needed] ... Ocular disease (e.g., dry eye, keratoconus, glaucoma). *Systemic disorders (e.g., diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis) ... "Long-term concerns linger on safety of Mitomycin-C". Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013. ...
... is a mitomycin that is used as a chemotherapeutic agent by virtue of its antitumour activity. It is given intravenously to treat upper gastro-intestinal cancers (e.g. esophageal carcinoma), anal cancers, and breast cancers, as well as by bladder instillation for superficial bladder tumours. It causes delayed bone marrow toxicity and therefore it is usually administered at 6-weekly intervals. Prolonged use may result in permanent bone-marrow damage. It may also cause lung fibrosis and renal damage. Mitomycin C has also been used topically rather than intravenously in several areas. The first is cancers, particularly bladder cancers and intraperitoneal tumours. It is now well known that a single instillation of this agent within 6 hours of bladder tumor resection can prevent recurrence. The second is in eye surgery where mitomycin C 0.02% is applied topically to prevent scarring during glaucoma filtering surgery and to ...
Fanconi anemia group G protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FANCG gene. FANCG, involved in Fanconi anemia, confers resistance to both hygromycin B and mitomycin C. FANCG contains a 5-prime GC-rich untranslated region characteristic of housekeeping genes. The putative 622-amino acid protein has a leucine-zipper motif at its N-terminus. Fanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive disorder with diverse clinical symptoms, including developmental anomalies, bone marrow failure, and early occurrence of malignancies. A minimum of 8 FA genes have been identified. The FANCG gene is responsible for complementation group G. The clinical phenotype of all Fanconi anemia (FA) complementation groups is similar. This phenotype is characterized by progressive bone marrow failure, cancer proneness and typical birth defects. The main cellular phenotype is hypersensitivity to DNA damage, particularly inter-strand DNA crosslinks. The FA proteins interact through a multiprotein pathway. DNA ...
Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. Transformation is a complex developmental process requiring energy and is dependent on expression of numerous genes. In S. pneumoniae, at least 23 genes are required for transformation. For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state called competence. Competence in S. pneumoniae is induced by DNA-damaging agents such as mitomycin C, fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), and topoisomerase inhibitors.[16] Transformation protects S. pneumoniae against the bactericidal effect of mitomycin C.[17] Michod et al.[18] summarized evidence that induction of competence in S. pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key component of the recombinational repair machinery for ...
... is the presence of elevated fluid pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure), usually with no optic nerve damage or visual field loss. For most individuals, the normal range of introcular pressure is between 10 mmHg and 21 mmHg. Elevated intraocular pressure is an important risk factor for glaucoma. The Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study, a large, multicentered, randomized clinical trial, determined that topical ocular hypotensive medication delays or prevents the onset of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma. Accordingly, most individuals with consistently elevated intraocular pressures of greater than 21mmHg, particularly if they have other risk factors, are treated in an effort to prevent vision loss from glaucoma. The pressure within the eye is maintained by the balance between the fluid that enters the eye through the ciliary body and the fluid that exits the eye through the trabecular ...
This gene encodes the coiled-coil containing protein optineurin. Optineurin may play a role in normal-tension glaucoma and adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma. Optineurin interacts with adenovirus E3-14.7K protein and may utilize tumor necrosis factor-alpha or Fas-ligand pathways to mediate apoptosis, inflammation or vasoconstriction. Optineurin may also function in cellular morphogenesis and membrane trafficking, vesicle trafficking, and transcription activation through its interactions with the RAB8, huntingtin, and transcription factor IIIA proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein.[7] ...
The cup-to-disc ratio (often notated CDR) is a measurement used in ophthalmology and optometry to assess the progression of glaucoma. The optic disc is the anatomical location of the eye's "blind spot", the area where the optic nerve and blood vessels enter the retina. The optic disc can be flat or it can have a certain amount of normal cupping. But glaucoma, which is in most cases associated with an increase in intraocular pressure, often produces additional pathological cupping of the optic disc. The pink rim of disc contains nerve fibers. The white cup is a pit with no nerve fibers. As glaucoma advances, the cup enlarges until it occupies most of the disc area.[1] The cup-to-disc ratio compares the diameter of the "cup" portion of the optic disc with the total diameter of the optic disc. A good analogy to better understand the cup-to-disc ratio is the ratio of a donut hole to a donut. The hole represents ...
... , often abbreviated as PEX and sometimes as PES or PXS, is an aging-related systemic disease manifesting itself primarily in the eyes which is characterized by the accumulation of microscopic granular amyloid-like protein fibers. Its cause is unknown, although there is speculation that there may be a genetic basis. It is more prevalent in women than men, and in persons past the age of seventy. Its prevalence in different human populations varies; for example, it is prevalent in Scandinavia. The buildup of protein clumps can block normal drainage of the eye fluid called the aqueous humor and can cause, in turn, a buildup of pressure leading to glaucoma and loss of vision (pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma). As worldwide populations become older because of shifts in demography, PEX may become a matter of greater concern. Patients may have no specific symptoms. In some cases, patients may ...
Without treatment, NTG leads to progressive visual field loss and in the last consequence to blindness. The mainstay of conventional glaucoma therapy, reducing IOP by pressure-lowering eye drops or by surgery, is applied in cases of NTG as well. The rationale: the lower the IOP, the less the risk of ganglion cell loss and thus in the long run of visual function. The appearance of disc hemorrhages is always a warning sign that therapeutic approaches are not successful - the small bleedings, usually described as flame-shaped, almost always indicate a progression of the disease. Besides this classical glaucoma therapy, the vascular component that exists in the majority of NTG patients has to be managed as well. Dips in blood pressure or a generally low blood pressure have to be prevented - which is a rather uncommon approach in modern medicine where high blood pressure is always seen as an immense clinical challenge, affecting ...
... (CSCD), also called Witschel dystrophy, is an extremely rare, autosomal dominant form of corneal dystrophy. Only 4 families have been reported to have the disease by 2009. The main features of the disease are numerous opaque flaky or feathery areas of clouding in the stroma that multiply with age and eventually preclude visibility of the endothelium. Strabismus or primary open angle glaucoma was noted in some of the patients. Thickness of the cornea stays the same, Descemet's membrane and endothelium are relatively unaffected, but the fibrills of collagen that constitute stromal lamellae are reduced in diameter and lamellae themselves are packed significantly more tightly. CSCD is associated with a mutation in the gene DCN that encodes the protein decorin, located at chromosome 12q22. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, which indicates that the defective gene responsible for a disorder is located on an autosome (chromosome 12 is an ...
William Joseph Cobb (July 16, 1926 - March 14, 1989), best known by his ring and screen names of Happy Humphrey, Happy Farmer Humphrey, and "Squasher" Humphrey, was an American professional wrestler and the heaviest professional wrestler of all time. His most active period was in the 1950s and 1960s when he billed himself as "the world's largest wrestler". Humphrey averaged 750 lb (340 kg) during his career. Several times, he weighed in at over 800 lb (360 kg), and on one occasion he weighed over 900 lb (410 kg) Humphrey, who at the time was working on a farm where he was known for his uncommon strength, began his wrestling career in 1953 by wrestling a bear for 28 minutes. For about eight years, Humphrey wrestled a number of matches, some of them televised, often against Haystacks Calhoun who regularly weighed over 600 lb (270 kg) himself. Humphrey's most notable match was a sold-out main event against Calhoun at Madison Square Garden, promoted by Vince McMahon Sr. Humphrey's promoters had a ...
... is a recently described clinical entity comprising a complex of clinical features caused mainly by dysregulation of the blood supply which has previously been called vascular dysregulation. It can manifest itself in many symptoms such as cold hands and feet and is often associated with low blood pressure. In certain cases it is associated with or predisposes for the development of diseases such as a normal tension glaucoma. Flammer syndrome is named after the Swiss ophthalmologist Josef Flammer. Most of the symptoms of Flammer syndrome result from an impaired regulation of the blood supply. How these symptoms affect the patient depends on which organ's or body part's blood supply is inhibited. Typical symptoms of Flammer syndrome are cold hands or feet, a low blood pressure, occasional white and red patches on the face or neck, and migraine-like pain or a feeling of pressure behind the upper eyelid. In addition, there are symptoms not directly resulting from ...
കണ്ണിൽ നിന്ന് തലച്ചോറിലേയ്ക്ക് കാഴ്ച്ചാസിഗ്നലുകൾ എത്തിക്കുന്ന ഒപ്റ്റിക് നാഡിക്ക് ഒരു പ്രത്യേക തരത്തിൽ കേടുപാടുണ്ടാക്കുന്ന അസുഖമാണ് ഗ്ലോക്കോമ (Glaucoma). തുടക്കത്തിലേ കണ്ടെത്തി ചികിത്സിച്ചില്ലെങ്കിൽ ഇത് ബാധിക്കുന്ന കണ്ണിന് സ്ഥായിയായ അന്ധതയുണ്ടാകും. കണ്ണിന്റെ ലെൻസിനും കോർണിയയ്ക്കും ഇടയിലുള്ള മുൻ ചേമ്പറിലും പിൻ ചേമ്പറിലുമുള്ള അക്വസ് ഹ്യൂമറിന്റെ മർദ്ദം ...
A medical triad is a group of three signs or symptoms for diagnosis of various conditions. A medical pentad is a group of five. List of medical triads and pentads Medical eponyms Pathognomonic Wallenstein, Matthew B.; McKhann, Guy M. (July 2010). "Salomón Hakim and the discovery of normal-pressure hydrocephalus". Neurosurgery. 67 (1): 155-159; discussion 159. doi:10.1227/01.neu.0000370058.12120.0e. ISSN 1524-4040. PMID 20568668. List of eponymously named medical ...
... ... Our objective is to offer the patient the best possible medical and human treatment. ... Two years later, nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery with mitomycin-C (MMC) 0.02% was performed for uncontrolled glaucoma. Two ... Intraocular lens opacification after nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery with mitomycin-C. Moreno-Montañés J, Palop JA, García- ...
Intervention/treatment Phase Glaucoma Device: Use of ologen Collagen Matrix in trabeculectomy (ologen) Drug: Use of Mitomycin-C ... Glaucoma. Ocular Hypertension. Eye Diseases. Mitomycins. Mitomycin. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic. Antineoplastic Agents. ... Comparative Study of Ologen Collagen Matrix Versus Mitomycin-C in Glaucoma Filtering Surgery (MCToCM). The safety and ... Intervention/treatment Experimental: ologen Collagen Matrix When performing glaucoma surgery, a trabeculectomy, use ologen ...
Professional guide for MitoMYcin (Ophthalmic). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, ... Glaucoma surgery: Adjunct to ab externo glaucoma surgery. Contraindications. Hypersensitivity to mitomycin or any component of ... Saturated sponges should be applied aseptically with the use of surgical forceps in a single layer to a treatment area ~10 mm ... Glaucoma nadolol, acetazolamide, Combigan, pilocarpine ophthalmic, Diamox, mitomycin ophthalmic, Corgard, methazolamide, ...
Detailed drug Information for mitomycin Topical application. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side ... Uses For mitomycin. Mitomycin topical eye solution is used to help in glaucoma surgery. Mitomycin belongs to the group of ... These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may ... Precautions While Using mitomycin. Your doctor will check you closely while you are using mitomycin. This will allow your ...
Mitomycin C for glaucoma surgery. Surgical treatment of glaucoma is usually reserved for serious cases which cannot be ... Trabeculectomy is performed as a treatment for glaucoma to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP). Mitomycin C (MMC) is an ... Mitomycin C versus 5-Fluorouracil for wound healing in glaucoma surgery. *Combined glaucoma and cataract surgery versus ... Wilkins M, Indar A, Wormald R. Intraoperative Mitomycin C for glaucoma surgery. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, ...
"Subscleral Trabeculectomy with Mitomycin-C Versus Ologen for Treatment of Glaucoma". Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and ... Trabeculectomy is the most common invasive glaucoma surgery. It is highly effective in the treatment of advanced glaucoma as ... Trabeculectomy is a surgical procedure used in the treatment of glaucoma to relieve intraocular pressure by removing part of ... "A prospective randomised trial of trabeculectomy using mitomycin C vs an ologen implant in open angle glaucoma". Eye. 24 (9): ...
"Mitomycin C versus 5-Fluorouracil for wound healing in glaucoma surgery". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11): ... Ophthalmic treatments investigated by CEV systematic reviews include patching for corneal abrasion, eyesight screening for ... CEV has partnerships with the American Academy of Ophthalmology and the American Glaucoma Society to collaborate in research. ... The most common topics reviewed include trials studying conditions such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, and cataract. ...
Case 2: A 74-year-old woman developed corneal epithelial bullae during treatment with latanoprost for glaucoma. The woman ... ocular surface toxicity or limbal stem cell deficiency following treatment with mitomycin [mitomycin-C] or latanoprost [time to ... Latanoprost/mitomycin. Transient corneal epithelial bullae, ocular surface toxicity and limbal stem cell deficiency: 2 case ...
Get up-to-date information on Mitomycin side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... The recommended dose of mitomycin for glaucoma surgery is the topical application of mitomycin-soaked sponges to the treatment ... Mitomycin can also be used during glaucoma surgery.. Mitomycin is an antibiotic. It slows or stops the growth of cells, ... Serious side effects have been reported with mitomycin solution for glaucoma surgery. See the "Mitomycin Precautions" section. ...
This chapter will review the management of complications of glaucoma surgery, specifically of guarded filtration procedures ( ... Hypotony maculopathy after filtering surgery with mitomycin-C: incidence and treatment. Ophthalmology. 1997;104:207-15.PubMed ... 2002 survey of the American Glaucoma Society: practice preferences for glaucoma surgery and antifibrotic use. J Glaucoma. 2005; ... Slit-lamp needle revision of failed filtering blebs using high-dose mitomycin C. J Glaucoma. 2005;14:52-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
Is this combined surgical procedure an effective means of lowering intraocular pressure in patients with advanced glaucoma and ... Table 2. Treatment Parameters for Endocyclophotocoagulation for Patients With Advanced Glaucoma and Cataract Type of Glaucoma. ... primary open-angle glaucoma; PXG, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma; TRAB+MMC, trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. ... Other includes juvenile glaucoma, inactive uveitic glaucoma, angle recession, regressed neovascular glaucoma, Axenfeld Rieger ...
Angle-recession glaucoma is classified as a type of traumatic secondary open-angle glaucoma. ... Traumatic glaucoma refers to a heterogeneous group of posttraumatic ocular disorders with different underlying mechanisms that ... Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in the treatment of post-traumatic angle recession glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001 Feb. 85(2): ... For patient education resources, see the Glaucoma Center, as well as Angle Recession Glaucoma, Understanding Glaucoma ...
Intraoperative Mitomycin C for glaucoma surgery EBMG evidence summaries, 21-May-2010 Intraoperative mitomycin C in ... Intranasal sumatriptan appears to be effective as an abortive treatment for acute migraine attacks. The 20 mg dose appears to ... Intratympanic gentamicin may be an effective treatment for vertigo complaints in Ménières disease, but may carry a risk of ... Intrauterine insemination is probably not an effective treatment for cervical hostility (poor-quality or insufficient mucus) as ...
Results: Surgical treatment significantly reduced IOP in both groups (p , 0.001). Complete success was achieved in 74.2% and ... no vision loss and no further glaucoma surgery. Secondary endpoints were the absolute IOP reduction, visual acuity, medication ... To compare the outcomes of canaloplasty and trabeculectomy in open-angle glaucoma. Methods: This prospective, randomized ... mitomycin C; months follow-up; open-angle glaucoma; phacocanaloplasty; phacotrabeculectomy; series; surgical outcomes; ...
Mitomycin C was used in all except 1. Preinfection, 4 underwent suture lysis, bleb leaks were seen in 4, 3 underwent surgical ... Treatment included intravitreal antibiotics and fortified antibiotic drops and in one case a vitrectomy. ... 3 had primary open angle glaucoma, 1 low tension and 1 mixed mechanism glaucoma. 2 had multiple surgeries. All 5 underwent ... 40% had primary open angle glaucoma and 24% were diabetic. Mean age at surgery was 65.2 years (16.9-90.6). Follow-up ranged ...
Usually, mitomycin C is injected prior to stent insertion. Related: Microinvasive glaucoma glaucoma surgery in children: Is ... In the United States, Xen is licensed as a treatment for refractory glaucoma. in cases where previous glaucoma surgery may have ... Pharmacologic treatment an option for treating glaucoma. The study looked at Xen insertions performed at Moorfields from May ... and about a quarter had an underlying diagnosis of either uveitic glaucoma or another form of secondary open-angle glaucoma. ...
Aqueous shunts with mitomycin C versus aqueous shunts alone for glaucoma Cochrane Systematic Reviews, 12-Apr-2019 Glaucoma ... In patients with advanced glaucoma or those who have failed medical treatment without achieving ... Drug treatment is the first-line treatment for acute mania with *Aripiprazole for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) Cochrane ... Aromatase inhibitors for treatment of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women Cochrane Systematic Reviews, 5-Aug-2009 ...
Applicator and method for delivery of mitomycin to eye tissues during glaucoma filtering surgery. ... closed-angle glaucoma, also known as angle closure glaucoma, and open-angle glaucoma. Closed-angle glaucoma is caused by ... Glaucoma stent and methods thereof for glaucoma treatment. US20030014021 *. 3 jun 2002. 16 jan 2003. Jorgen Holmen. Methods and ... Combined treatment for cataract and glaucoma treatment. US20030097117 *. 11 feb 2002. 22 maj 2003. Buono Lawrence M.. Spray ...
Intervention/treatment Phase Open Angle Glaucoma Angle Closure Glaucoma Uveitis Glaucoma Young Age Glaucoma Neovascular ... Glaucoma, Angle-Closure. Glaucoma, Neovascular. Ocular Hypertension. Eye Diseases. Uveal Diseases. Mitomycins. Mitomycin. ... Comprative Study of the Safety and Effectiveness Between Oculusgen (Ologen) Collagen Matrix Implant and Mitomycin-C in Glaucoma ... To compare the safety and effectiveness between ologen collagen matrix and mitomycin-C (MMC) in glaucoma surgery. ...
Effect of varying the mitomycin-C treatment area in glaucoma filtration surgery in the rabbit. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1997 ... and with different adjuvant treatments after glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS), in comparison to standard treatments. ... A sequential, multiple-treatment, targeted approach to reduce wound healing and failure of glaucoma filtration surgery in a ... The effects of intraoperative mitomycin-C or 5-fluorouracil on glaucoma filtering surgery. Korean J Ophthalmol . 1994; 8: 6-13 ...
Effect of varying the mitomycin-C treatment area in glaucoma filtration surgery in the rabbit. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997; ... Diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma including pigment dispersion glaucoma, pseudo-exfoliative glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma ... Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial G. Treatment and vision-related quality of life in the early manifest glaucoma trial. ... The Treatment of Advanced Glaucoma Study (TAGS) is a pragmatic24 25 multicentre RCT comparing primary medical treatment with ...
Mitomycin. An antimetabolite used as an adjunct to ab externo (outside approach) eye surgeries for the treatment of glaucoma ... For the treatment of polycythaemia vera and refractory chronic myeloid leukaemia.. Prednimustine. Prednimustine has been used ... Investigated for use/treatment in brain cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, ... An alkylating agent used as a part of chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumors as ...
The incidence of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is about 1 in 10,000-18,000 live births and depends ... Congenital glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of diseases. ... The treatment of congenital glaucoma needs a team approach to ... Treatments for patients in whom angle surgery is not adequate:. *Trabeculectomy with mitomycin C: 67%-87% success at 1 year, ... He was then referred to an ophthalmological center with experience in congenital glaucoma treatment. After a thorough ...
Low-Pressure Glaucoma Treatment Study Group. Risk Factors for Visual Field Progression in the Low-pressure Glaucoma Treatment ... The Degradation of Mitomycin C Under Various Storage Methods.. Kinast RM, Akula KK, DeBarber AE, Barker GT, Gardiner SK, ... Glaucoma Specialist Optic Disc Margin, Rim Margin and Rim Width Discordance in Glaucoma and Glaucoma Suspect Eyes.. Hong SW, ... Psychometrics of a new questionnaire to assess glaucoma adherence: the Glaucoma Treatment Compliance Assessment Tool (an ...
  • https://ologen.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/ologen-logo.png 0 0 aeonastron_ad https://ologen.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/ologen-logo.png aeonastron_ad 2018-02-21 17:05:26 2018-02-21 17:05:26 ologen™ Collagen Matrix Implantation is viable to assist Treatment of Scleromalacia after Periocular Surgery. (ologen.com)
  • Some brief principles concerning management of other types of glaucoma in Africa are included at the end. (cehjournal.org)
  • Finding the patient while there is still some useful vision to save is one of the major challenges in the management of glaucoma in Africa. (cehjournal.org)