Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit: A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic: A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Chromatin Assembly Factor-1: A histone chaperone protein that plays a role in the deposition of NUCLEOSOMES on newly synthesized DNA. It is comprised of three different subunits of 48, 60, and 150 kDa molecular size. The 48 kDa subunit, RETINOBLASTOMA-BINDING PROTEIN 4, is also a component of several other protein complexes involved in chromatin remodeling.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.Cupressus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. Cypress ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Infectious bursal disease virus: A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Aphthovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseVirus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).Borna Disease: An encephalomyelitis of horses, sheep and cattle caused by BORNA DISEASE VIRUS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Marek Disease: A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Border disease virus: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing a congenital sheep disease characterized by an abnormally hairy birth-coat, tremors, and poor growth.Birnaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.HIV Serosorting: The practice of making choices about SEXUAL PARTNERS based on their HIV status.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Aleutian Mink Disease Virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS that causes a disease in mink, mainly those homozygous for the recessive Aleutian gene which determines a desirable coat color.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Anomia: A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Fusobacterium nucleatum: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.

*Lagovirus

There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. Diseases ... Lagovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Caliciviridae. Lagomorphs serve as natural hosts. ... European brown hare syndrome virus Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ...

*Caliciviridae

Genus: Lagovirus European brown hare syndrome virus Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus: Nebovirus Newbury-1 virus Genus: ... respiratory disease; rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: often-fatal hemorrhages; norwalk group of viruses: gastroenteritis. ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus Nebovirus; type species: Newbury-1 virus Genus Norovirus; type species: Norwalk virus ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a pathogen of rabbits that causes major problems throughout the world where rabbits ...

*Calicivirin

Martin Alonso, J.M.; Casais, R.; Boga, J.A.; Parra, F. (1996). "Processing of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus polyprotein". J ... Viruses that are members of the Norovirus genus (Caliciviridae family) are a major cause of epidemic acute viral ... rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 3C endopeptidase) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ... "3C-like protease of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: identification of cleavage sites in the ORF1 polyprotein and analysis of ...

*Orbivirus

... hemorrhagic disease virus Equine encephalosis virus Eubenangee virus Great Island virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus ... There are currently 22 recognized virus species as well as 13 unassigned viruses in this genus Species (with constituent ... virus Great Island virus Kemerovo virus Essaouira virus Kala iris virus Mill Door/79 virus Rabbit syncytium virus Tribeč virus ... virus Chuzan virus Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus Equine encephalosis virus Eubenengee virus Palyam virus Wallal virus ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

Genus: Lagovirus European brown hare syndrome virus Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus: Nebovirus Newbury-1 virus Genus: ... virus Shuni virus Simbu virus Tacaiuma virus Tete virus Thimiri virus Timboteua virus Turlock virus Wyeomyia virus Zegla virus ... Genus: Tupavirus Durham virus Tupaia virus Genus: Unassigned Flanders virus Moussa virus Ngaingan virus Wongabel virus Genus: ... hemorrhagic disease virus Equine encephalosis virus Eubenangee virus Great Island virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus ...

*List of virus species

Rabbit fibroma virus Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Rabbit picobirnavirus Rabies lyssavirus Raccoonpox virus Radish leaf curl ... For a list of virus genera, see List of genera of viruses. For a list of virus families and subfamilies, see List of virus ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus U Potato virus V Potato virus X ... virus Garlic virus A Garlic virus B Garlic virus C Garlic virus D Garlic virus E Garlic virus X Gayfeather mild mottle virus ...

*Rodent

Lyme disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Powassan virus, rickettsialpox, relapsing fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and West ... Other animals such as rabbits, hares, and pikas, whose incisors also grow continually, were once included with them, but are ... Since 76 percent of rodent genera contain only one species, much phylogenetic diversity could be lost with a comparatively ... A number of rodents carry hantaviruses, including the Puumala, Dobrava and Saaremaa viruses, which can infect humans. Rodents ...

*Dog health

An infectious disease is caused by the presence of organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites (either animalian ... Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Humans and dogs become infected through contact ... similar rickettsial diseases have been spread by dogs to humans through such mechanisms as a dog killing an infected rabbit, ... Lyme disease, Bordetella bronchiseptica, parainfluenza virus, and canine coronavirus, should be made between an owner and a ...

*List of dog diseases

Lyme disease* is a disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochaete, and spread by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Symptoms in ... but can also cause a fatal disease in dogs with signs similar to rabies. Canine minute virus is an infectious disease that can ... Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis is a disease of dogs characterized by sudden vomiting and bloody diarrhea. The symptoms are usually ... Kennel cough is an infectious respiratory disease which can be caused by one of several viruses or by Bordetella bronchiseptica ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens. AU - Matthaei, Markus. AU - Kerr, Peter AU - READ, Andrew. AU - Hick, Paul. AU - Haboury, Stephanie. AU - Wright, John. AU - STRIVE, Tanja. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more ...
During the past 50 years two readily distinguishable rabbit-specific diseases caused by Myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) respectively, have decimated wild rabbit populations worldwide. Combined with the use of these viruses as biocontrol agents, the consequences for farming, commercial rabbit breeding and rare habitat conservation dependent on rabbit grazing, have been both positive and negative. Moreover, rare predators that rely on rabbits as a food resource, and even hunters, have suffered the consequences of rabbit populations being affected by one or other of these viruses. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus was first identified after thousands of domestic ...
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) belongs to the family Caliciviridae and is the etiological agent of the haemorrhagic disease, also known as rabbit plague. Its genome is a linear single-stranded (ss) RNA of 7437 nucleotides and the capsid is built from a single structural protein VP60. In connection with the discovery of new RHDV strains, there is a constant need to investigate the genetic variation of this virus and perform phylogenetic analyses which may show the evolutionary relationships among the RHDV strains. Studies on the divergence of RHDV have shown that it is genetically quite stable, although recent observations indicate that some new RHDV strains, significantly different from the original RHDV subtype and the new RHDVa subtype, are appearing. These latest findings suggest that a new group of RHDV strains has evolved. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the genetic ...
We carried out an experimental study to determine the serological response against myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in wild rabbits using commercial vaccines. Seroconversion against MV ranged between 72.7% and 97.2% in animals vaccinated by subcutaneous and intradermal route, respectively, whereas between 75.0% and 77.8% of the animals presented antibodies against RHDV after inoculation with subcutaneous and intradermal vaccines, respectively. Regardless of the inoculation route, vaccination against MV resulted in a significant increase of seropositivity 5 days post-vaccination (dpv), which did not occur in animals vaccinated against RHDV. Furthermore, seroconversion against MV was significantly higher and faster in intradermally vaccinated rabbits as compared to those inoculated subcutaneously due to either the route of application and/or the type of vaccine ...
Public, hunters and hikers asked to take precautions to avoid spreading deadly illness. East County News Service. Photo: Creative Commons-S.A. via Bing. May 13, 2020 (Palm Springs) - After 10 dead jackrabbits were found dead on a private property near Palm Springs, a carcass has tested positive for Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease virus type 2 (RHDV2) which is highly contagious and often lethal to both wild and domestic rabbits, as well as hares and pikas. The virus has been confirmed in state and federal lab tests. ...
Read "Complete genome sequence of two rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant b isolates detected on the Iberian Peninsula, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), also known as rabbit calicivirus disease (RCD) or viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD), is a highly infectious and often fatal disease that affects wild and domestic rabbits of the species Oryctolagus cuniculus. The infectious agent responsible for the disease is rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), or rabbit calicivirus (RCV), genus Lagovirus of the family Caliciviridae. The virus infects only rabbits, and has been used in some countries to control rabbit populations. RHD first appeared in the Winter of 1983 in Jiangsu Province of the Peoples Republic of China. It was first isolated and characterized by S.J. Liu et al. in 1984. The Chinese outbreak was ...
The outer-coat proteins, VP2 and VP5, of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are important for host cell binding during the initiation of infection. They are also known to determine virus serotype. This study presents a complete genetic and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins (and the genes that code for them) to allow comparison of the selective pressures acting on each and the correlation of genetic sequence data with serotype. Accession numbers, gene and protein sizes, ORF positions, G+C contents, terminal hexanucleotides, start and stop codons and phylogenetic relationships are all presented. The results show that VP2 is highly variable, is under great pressure to adapt and can be correlated with serotype. While also variable, VP5 appears to be under less adaptive pressure than VP2 but still shows some correlation with serotype. Seven serotypes of EHDV have been defined in this study, although the results do show that some serotypes are ...
Disease Does Not Affect People, Pets, Livestock. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) has received test results confirming that Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD) was diagnosed in a wild black-tailed jackrabbit in Lubbock County and a wild cottontail rabbit in Hudspeth County. This marks the first confirmed cases of RHD in wild rabbits in Texas and follows the discovery of the disease in domestic rabbits in Hockley County, which was announced in a recent Texas Animal Health Commission news release.. Since March 23, detections of the disease in both wild and domestic rabbits have occurred in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona and Mexico. There have been reports of mortality events in both wild cottontails (genus Sylvilagus) and jackrabbits (genus Lepus) in El Paso, Hudspeth, ...
Haemagglutination and ELISA tests, and negative contrast electron microscopy, have been used to identify rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in naturally occurring cases of the disease and in experimentally infected rabbits in the United Kingdom. Haemagglutination tests alone are not satisfactory for the diagnosis because non-haemagglutinating isolates of the virus, otherwise indistinguishable from others, have been found in some outbreaks. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that a proportion of both commercial laboratory and wild rabbits in the UK are seropositive to the virus although they have not been associated with clinical disease. This observation, made previously in other parts of Europe, may indicate the longstanding circulation of a related but non-pathogenic strain of virus. Naturally occurring antibody appears to afford ...
Figure. Trends in rabbit abundance (number of rabbits/km) in Aragón and Doñana National Park, northern and southern Spain, respectively, and in the number of Iberian lynx cubs born in the wild in Spain. A) Average rabbit abundance (+SD) of populations showing long-term increasing trend over the whole sampling period (n = 18) in Aragón (8); B) average rabbit abundance (+SD) of populations showing long-term decreasing trend over the whole sampling period (n = 25) in Aragón (8); C) rabbit abundance over the study period in Coto del Rey (circles), which is likely the main area for rabbits and lynxes within Doñana National Park; and average rabbit abundance (+SD) over the study period of 7 low-density populations (squares) within Doñana National Park (see details about methods in http://www-rbd.ebd.csic.es/Seguimiento/mediobiologico/conejo/pnd/ProtocoloCensoConejosPND.pdf); and D) total number of ...
The purpose of this project was to define monoclonal antibodies against viral proteins from Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) to be used in quality control of vaccines produced by an industrial partner, and development of tools to identify EHDV. EHDV is an Orbivirus, which also includes Bluetongue Virus and African Horse Sickness, which are all transmitted through arthropod vectors. EHDV causes significant morbidity and mortality in white-tailed deer, but has recently been found to infect cattle. EHDV recently caused significant outbreaks affecting both the farmed and wild cervid industry, however few reagents and tools exist to protect against this disease or define the virus in vitro. To develop new, efficient reagents that can be used to identify EHDV, we identified and tested monoclonal antibodies against two different viral capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5. To do this, predictive ...
By WBIR. An outbreak of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease has killed hundreds of deer across East Tennessee. State wildlife leaders say the outbreak is the worst in a decade, but cold weather should end the outbreak.. A virus transmitted by tiny flies is killing hundreds of deer across East Tennessee.. With archery season for deer underway and firearm season just weeks away, some sportsmen are concerned that the outbreak of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease has damaged white-tailed deer population to the point it will take years to restore in some areas. The disease is spread by biting midges and other tiny biting insects.. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency information and education officer Mime Barnes says the disease is common, but the number of deer the virus has killed this year is the greatest since 2007.. "The disease has always been around and it kind up ...
Citation: Wilson, W.C., O Hearn, E.S. 2006. Preliminary development of a real-time PCR for all serotypes of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus. American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians. Interpretive Summary: Epizootic hemorrhagic diseases virus (EHDV) has been associated with bluetongue-like disease in cattle. Although US EHDV strains have not been experimentally proven to cause disease in cattle there is serologic evidence of infection in cattle. Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an estimated $125,000,000 annual loss to the U.S. livestock industry and about $3,000,000,000 annual losses worldwide. Therefore rapid diagnosis and differentiation of BTV and EHDV is required. Our laboratory has developed a genetic test that detects all EHDV serotypes based on DNA sequence analysis. The EHDV detection assay does not cross-react with BTV serotypes; ...
Cases of epizootic hemorrhagic disease, or EHD, were reported this summer in South Dakota cattle herds and in white-tailed deer. EHD is viral disease spread by flies. Russ Daly, South Dakota State University Extension veterinarian, answers some frequently asked questions about the disease and its origins:
The Wildlife Management division of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, together with the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, has identified an outbreak of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease......
Poster (2015, September 01). Objective: Following reintroduction and conservation programs of the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the scimitar horned oryx (SHO, Oryx dammah) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), import of animals from ... [more ▼]. Objective: Following reintroduction and conservation programs of the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the scimitar horned oryx (SHO, Oryx dammah) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), import of animals from wild game ranches in the United States of America (USA) is not uncommon. Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are orbiviruses that are the causative agents of bluetongue disease (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), respectively. BTV and EHDV are endemic in the UAE and the USA. Sheep and some wild ruminant species are usually severely affected by BT whereas EHD mostly affects ...
... (HD) is an infectious viral disease transmitted by tiny biting flies (often referred to as midges, gnats, or no-see-ums) in the genus Culicoides. HD is caused by two closely related viruses in the genus Obrbivirus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue virus. There are 2 subtypes of EHD virus and 5 subtypes of bluetongue in North America. Because disease features produced by these viruses are indistinguishable, a general term, hemorrhagic disease, often is used when the specific virus is unknown. Although EHD and bluetongue virus are infectious to a wide range of wild ruminants, susceptibility varies among species. Clinical disease has been reported in white-tailed deer, mule deer, bighorn ...
Hanns-Joachim Rziha, Jörg Rohde, and Ralf Amann. Generation and Selection of Orf Virus (ORFV) Recombinants Methods Mol. Biol. 2016, p. 177-200. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3008-1_12.(book chapter) Rohde J, Amann R, Rziha HJ. New Orf Virus (Parapoxvirus) Recombinant Expressing H5 Hemagglutinin Protects Mice against H5N1 and H1N1 Influenza A Virus. PLoS One. 20;8(12):e83802; 2013. Amann R, Rohde J, Wulle U, Conlee D, Raue R, Martinon O, Rziha HJ. A new rabies vaccine based on a recombinant ORF virus (parapoxvirus) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein. J Virol. 87(3):1618-30; 2013. Rohde, J., Schirrmeier, H., Granzow, H. and H.-J. Rziha. A new recombinant Orf virus (ORFV, Parapoxvirus) protects rabbits against lethal infection with rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). ...
46 Bluetongue Dating divergence times for bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotypes The nucleotide sequences of Seg-2 from BTV and EHDV provide a basis for the calculation of molecular evolutionary rates (MER) using Bayesian methodologies (Drummond and Rambaut, 2007). Upper and lower limits for the evolutionary rate of Seg-2 were estimated at 10À4 and 10À5 changes/site/year. These values were used to calculate the time at which different BTV serotypes diverged from a common ancestor (using the formula: divergence time = [geneticdistance/2*1/MER]). Nomikou), India (personal communication: Dr. S. , 2004), Taiwan and Indonesia. Equine encephalosis virus Equine encephalosis virus is associated with disease of horses in southern Africa. The virus was first identified in 1967 from horses that died from an unknown peracute illness. Serological investigations revealed that ...
Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an arthropod-transmitted viral disease of certain wild ungulates, notably North American white-tailed deer and, more rarely, cattle. The disease in white-tailed deer results from vascular injury analogous to that caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), to which EHD virus (EHDV) is closely related. There are seven serotypes of EHDV recognised, and Ibaraki virus, which is the cause of sporadic disease outbreaks in cattle in Asia, is included in EHDV serotype 2. The global distribution and epidemiology of BTV and EHDV infections are also similar, as both viruses occur throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world where they are transmitted by biting Culicoides midges and infect a wide variety of domestic and wild ungulates. However, the global distribution and epidemiology of EHDV infection are less well characterised ...
The genus Orbivirus is a member of the Reoviridae family, in the subfamily Sedoreovirinae. Unlike the other reoviruses, orbiviruses are arboviruses. This genus currently contains 22 species (including the type species Bluetongue virus) and at least 130 different serotypes. Orbiviruses can infect and replicate within a wide range of arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Orbiviruses are named after their characteristic doughnut shaped capsomers (Orbi in Latin means ring). Many orbiviruses are transmitted by ticks or haematophagus insect vectors (Culicoides, mosquitoes and sand flies) and have a wide host range that includes cattle, goats and sheep, wild ruminants, equids, camelids, marsupials, sloths, bats, birds, large canine and feline carnivores ...
Introduction. Small blood-feeding flies, 1 mm - 3 mm in size, of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are associated worldwide with the transmission of several viruses (n = 66), protozoa (n = 15) and filarial nematodes (n = 26) to a diversity of livestock hosts (Borkent 2005; Meiswinkel, Venter & Nevill 2004). At least three orbiviruses, namely, African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses, cause diseases of such international significance in livestock that they have been classified as notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Culicoides midges can also cause an acute allergic dermatitis (sweet-itch) in horses (Anderson, Belton & Kleider 1988).. Despite the availability and wide use of vaccines against the African horse sickness virus, more than 630 horses succumbed to African ...
Despite its high reproductive potential [e.g. [27]], the Danish European brown hare has, according to annual harvest records, declined dramatically since 1955. Studies of Danish European brown hare populations indicate that its reproductive success is low compared to that of con-specifics in other countries [27], and has, in turn, declined from the 1950s to the 1990s [28]. Hansen [27] suggested that the low reproductive success observed in Danish European brown hares might be attributed to the agricultural practice. Using data covering almost half a century, our analyses suggest that the dramatic decline in the Danish European brown hares can be attributed mainly to the negative effect of red foxes, but also to the agricultural land-use. The area of winter cereal production has increased dramatically during the last century, and became the dominating crop in the early 1990s. We also found a significant positive association between root crops, a crop type that has declined dramatically in the ...
Caliciviral infections in humans, among the most common causes of viral-induced vomiting and diarrhea, are caused by the Norwalk group of small round structured viruses, the Sapporo caliciviruses, and the hepatitis E agent. Human caliciviruses have been resistant to in vitro cultivation, and direct study of their origins and reservoirs outside infected humans or water and foods (such as shellfish contaminated with human sewage) has been difficult. Modes of transmission, other than direct fecal-oral routes, are not well understood. In contrast, animal viruses found in ocean reservoirs, which make up a second calicivirus group, can be cultivated in vitro. These viruses can emerge and infect terrestrial hosts, including humans. This article reviews the history of animal caliciviruses, their ...
While evidence of the teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been fairly consistent, whether there is an increased risk of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn secondary to maternal use of AEDs is still unclear.. Newborn infants are vulnerable to hemorrhagic disorders owing to limited transplacental transfer of vitamin K and limited fetal storage of vitamin K. 1,2 The current frequency of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in the first week of life in infants not receiving vitamin K prophylaxis has been estimated at 0.01% to 0.44%. 3,4 However, the clinical presentation of bleeding disorders in newborns is often severe, with a mortality rate of 20%, intracranial hemorrhage occurring in 50%, and common persistent neurologic impairment. Incidence of bleeding complications in fully breastfed infants who did not receive vitamin K at birth is between 1 in 15 000 and 1 in 20 000 births. 5. To prevent bleeding complications, vitamin K prophylaxis shortly after ...
The introduction of European Rabbits to Australia in 1859 was a disaster for several species of native wildlife, such as the Bilby. Within a few years they had spread throughout most of Australia as the mild winters meant they could breed all year round. The use of biological control through the introduction of rabbit-specific viruses, such as Myxomatosis cuniiculi, and more recently Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease, has proved relatively effective in reducing rabbit numbers to more acceptable levels, however, the forces of natural selection are a constant barrier to a permanent solution and after only 60 years since the first introduction of Myxomatosis to Australia, almost all wild rabbits are completely immune to the disease. If anyone ever needs a good example of evolution in action, this is it!. ...
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a hemorrhagic disease caused by a virus. EHD is similar to bluetongue, another viral disease that can affect deer. It spreads from deer to deer by the bite of a small insect known as a midge. The disease quickly kills the deer through hemorrhaging within the body. A high fever may result, causing the deer to seek water to cool off. Dead deer usually are found in or near water. Deer may show bleeding from body openings, although they usually are in good body condition because of the quickness of the disease. EHD is not a threat to humans ...
Thankfully we have a vaccine that is effective for this disease. It is effective for the RHDV1 strains, but may have limited protection for the RHDV2 which currently is not in Alice Springs. The recommended vaccine schedule has changed which is different to what the manufacturers of the vaccine had set. For young rabbits, we now recommend vaccination at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age and then every 6 months. For older rabbits, we recommend 2 vaccinations 1 month apart and then every 6 months ...
Urban areas encroachment on wildlife and farms means wild and domestic species are getting closer in proximity all the time. Ontario deer, sheep and cattle are now at risk for an infectious virus, from a specific species of midge thats found a new home in Eastern Canada. Researchers believe climate change has altered the midges windborne movement from the southern U.S. into Ontario, and warmer winters increase their chance to survive. So, now the midge (specifically the specie C. sonorensis) has been found biting and transmitting sometimes fatal diseases such as epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue to livestock.... Read More ...
Bluetongue, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are insect-transmitted viral diseases that affect wildlife and domestic animals. RVF virus also can cause blindness and lethal disease in humans. The ARS has developed diagnostic and surveillance tools for these viruses and the insects that transmit them. This technology will be transferred to Kenya Wildlife Service staff. This includes detection of viral genomes using real-time RT-PCR assays. This is a rapid method for estimating viremia and for RVF it is safer to perform than virus isolation. In addition, commercial and new serological assays will be used to detect viral antigens and/or host antibodies to viral proteins. This study will provide valuable information about the arbovirus situation in Kenyan wildlife and assessment of new diagnostic tools. ...
Wildlife biologists from the Indiana DNR Division of Fish & Wildlife have been investigating reports of sick or dead deer to determine if the cause is epizootic hemorrhagic disease.
Introduction. Small biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are involved in the epidemiology and transmission of a number of orbiviruses of veterinary importance, including African horse sickness virus (AHSV) with nine known serotypes (Howell 1962). This virus causes an infectious, non-contagious disease, African horse sickness (AHS), which is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and can have a mortality rate of up to 95% in susceptible horses.. Based on its confirmed vector status, wide geographical distribution, abundance and host preference for larger mammals, the Afro-Asiatic Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer is considered the principle vector of AHSV in South Africa (Meiswinkel, Venter & Nevill 2004; Nevill, Venter & Edwardes 1992). This species is also the most important vector of orbiviruses across vast geographic regions in Africa, the ...
Development of a quantification method for European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in urban areas on the example of Lichtenberg, Berlin - Regina Schulze - Masters Thesis - Nature Protection, Landscape Conservation - Publish your bachelors or masters thesis, dissertation, term paper or essay
v.10, n.3, 7 Case Report Bluetongue in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Northeastern Mexico Julio Martínez-Burnes, Hugo Barrios-García, Jorge Alva-Pérez, Rafael Ramírez-Romero, Luis Jorge García-Márquez, Alfonso López-Mayagoitia Abstract Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer (EHD)... Read more » ...
Their results so far? In 2013, the midge species known for carrying exotic HD had been found in Georgia, Florida, Alabama and Mississippi-areas in which these species havent occupied before. To see just how far the species has traveled, research is moving farther north into the Carolinas and Tennessee.. Jason Allen is the district biologist for the northern piedmont region. He spends his mornings in his home office responding to all sorts of questions from his community. Occasionally he helps educate the public and fellow staff on the science behind wildlife. His afternoons are spent in the field, lending his time and expertise to private land owners, the public, researchers and whoever else he meets along the way. Allen began working with the Commission 15 years ago as a technician at the Caswell Wildlife Depot where he gained experience working with hunters and managing multiple game lands. He worked his way up to crew leader and eventually became the Interim Northern Piedmont Management ...
Myxomatosis & Viral Haemorrhagic Disease (VHD) First - a Little History Myxomatosis and Viral Haemorrhagic Disease (VHD) are two Viral infections which you can help protect your rabbit against by means of regular Vaccination. Myxomatosis is a man made virus and originated as far back as the late 1800s and originated in Uruguay. Eventually it crossed into the UK from France where it had been illegally introduced in the early 1950s. Despite every effort to stop the spread of the
Myxomatosis & Viral Haemorrhagic Disease (VHD) First - a Little History Myxomatosis and Viral Haemorrhagic Disease (VHD) are two Viral infections which you can help protect your rabbit against by means of regular Vaccination. Myxomatosis is a man made virus and originated as far back as the late 1800s and originated in Uruguay. Eventually it crossed into the UK from France where it had been illegally introduced in the early 1950s. Despite every effort to stop the spread of the
The Ebola virus is the causative agent for Ebola hemorrhagic disease in humans and in other mammals. Since 1976 there have been approximately 35 outbreaks of the Ebola virus with the most recent outbreak infecting more than 24,000 people and causing nearly 10,000 deaths. Although there has been a large effort to develop treatments or vaccines against the Ebola virus, there are currently no known cures for Ebola hemorrhagic disease. Of the five known strains, the Sudan Ebolavirus (SUDV) has caused five different outbreaks including the second largest outbreak between 2000 and 2001. The genome of SUDV is made up of seven genes, including the viral matrix which plays an essential role in virus assembly and packaging. Understanding the specific viral structure of the matrix protein from SUDV will be crucial to learning the mechanism of the ...
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Whitetail Supplies : PROBIOTICS - EHD & MIDGE CONTROL FAWN CARE FEED / GRAIN MIXERS & BINS DEER FENCE & FENCING TOOLS DEER HANDLING SYSTEMS / MOVEMENT ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TRANQUILIZATION HEALTH CARE / VACCINES / DRUGS FAWN MILK REPLACER FEED SUPPLEMENTS PROBIOTICS HEAD GEAR PRODUCTS ANTLER GROWTH Whitetail, Deer, Fawn, Doe, Buck, Farm, Breeder, Breeding, Supplies, Supply, Products, equipment, resources, consulting, Cervid, Elk, Goat, Sheep, Vaccines, Vaccinations, Vaccinate, Medicines, Pharmaceuticals, Fencing, Tools, Handling, Feed, Grain, Supplements, Milk Replacer, Health Care, Drugs, Tranquilization, Artificial Insemination, Cidrs, Ear Tags, Dewormers, Midge, Culicoides, insect control, EHD, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, prevention, Blue Tongue Virus, Mosquito, West nile, Commercial, Mist Sprayer, Commercial Fogging, ULV Fogger, Fogging, London Fogger, Adapco Fogger, Permethrin, Fallow, Sika, Mule Deer, Axis Deer, Red Deer, Stag, Bull Elk, Cow Elk
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends giving every newborn baby an injection of vitamin K after delivery to prevent this potentially life-threatening disease.. If bleeding occurs, vitamin K is also given. Blood transfusions may also be needed if bleeding is severe.. Click here to view ...
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends giving every newborn baby an injection of vitamin K after delivery to prevent this potentially life-threatening disease.. If bleeding occurs, vitamin K is also given. Blood transfusions may also be needed if bleeding is severe.. Click here to view ...
Adopt a "no shoes in the house" policy, or keep your bunnies from running in high traffic areas of your home. To disinfect shoes that may have been contaminated, you need to place the shoes in a foot bath that contains one of the following: 10% bleach solution, 2% 1-Stroke Disinfectant, Parvosol, or parvoviricide disinfectant. You may wish to speak with your veterinarian about how to obtain these. The shoes must be in contact with the disinfectant for at least ten minutes. The foot bath is recommended as it is important that during the ten minute disinfection time that the disinfectant remains wet. Merely spraying shoes with disinfectant and leaving them to dry is not effective ...
Wildlife populations are affected by diseases of all types, every day. However, some diseases are of particular concern within units of the National Park System and are the focus of active monitoring, management and research. Some examples include: bat white-nose syndrome, rabies, plague, tularemia, bighorn sheep pneumonia complex, chronic wasting disease, bovine brucellosis, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, amphibian chytridiomycosis, avian botulism, and West Nile virus. The threat of introduction of diseases not currently in the United States, such as foot-and-mouth disease, are also of concern ...
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, with a morphology and coding strategy similar to that of the type member, bluetongue virus. However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their pathobiology. AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90 %. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective vaccine is sought urgently. As part of a programme to generate a designed highly attenuated vaccine, we report here the recovery of AHSV from a complete set of RNA transcripts synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones. We have demonstrated the generation of mutant and reassortant AHSV genomes, their recovery, ...
In Japan, epizootic arboviral infections have severely impacted the livestock industry for a long period. Akabane, Aino, Chuzan, bovine ephemeral fever and Ibaraki viruses have repeatedly caused epizootic abnormal births and febrile illness in the cattle population. In addition, Peaton, Sathuperi, Shamonda and DAguilar viruses and epizootic hemorrhagic virus serotype 7 have recently emerged in Japan and are also considered to be involved in abnormal births in cattle. The above-mentioned viruses are hypothesized to circulate in tropical and subtropical Asia year round and to be introduced to temperate East Asia by long-distance aerial dispersal of infected vectors. To watch for arbovirus incursion and assess the possibility of its early warning, monitoring for arboviruses was conducted in the Yaeyama Islands, located at the ...
In recent years, an alarming number of cases of lethal acute hemorrhagic disease have occurred in Asian elephant calves raised in logging camps in Myanmar. To determine whether these deaths were associated with infection by elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), we conducted diagnostic PCR subtype DNA sequencing analysis on necropsy tissue samples collected from 3 locations. We found that EEHV DNA from 7 PCR loci was present at high levels in all 3 calves and was the same EEHV1A virus type that has been described in North America, Europe, and other parts of Asia. However, when analyzed over 5,610 bp, the strains showed major differences from each other and from all previously characterized EEHV1A strains. We conclude that these 3 elephant calves in Myanmar died from the same herpesvirus disease that has afflicted young Asian elephants in other countries over the past 20 years.
Does your newborn is suffering from vitamin K deficiencies? Well, fret not! Here we have some information on Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Check out!
Australias biocontrol programs using Myxoma virus in 1950 and the Rabbit Calicivirus in 1995 have been extremely successful in drastically reducing pest rabbit numbers in Australia. However, there is no status quo in rabbit biocontrol: the virus and rabbits constantly co-evolve, and changes in virus virulence and innate resistance in the host leads to rabbit numbers increasing yet again. We are continuing research to find new strategies that will help maintain benefits of biocontrol in the future.
Bluetongue virus (BTV) can be an arthropod-borne pathogen that triggers an often fatal, hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. for recognition of antibodies against the VP7 antigen. These data reveal that VSV replicon contaminants potentially stand for a secure and efficacious vaccine system with which to regulate long term outbreaks by BTV-8 or additional serotypes, specifically in previously non-endemic regions where discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals is vital. Introduction Bluetongue can be a hemorrhagic disease of ruminants thats due to bluetongue pathogen (BTV), an associate from the genus Orbivirus within the family midges. In cattle, goats, and wild ruminants, BTV contamination is typically asymptomatic despite prolonged viremia. These host species represent a potential reservoir for unnoticed dissemination of BTV in ruminant populations. In sheep, however, BTV ...
All viral haemorrhagic fevers, also called VHFs, are caused by a handful of virus families. The illnesses they cause can be spectacularly nasty, including Ebola, Marburg, Lassa fever and yellow fever.. What do they all have in common? They all affect multiple organs, damage blood vessels and throw the bodys ability to regulate itself into chaos. Some of the diseases caused are mild, like the Scandinavian nephropathia epidemica. Others, like Ebola, are deadly more often than not.. You can catch VHFs anywhere in the world, but theyre most often found where the animals that carry them live. Lassa fever, for example, is only found in rural West Africa, carried by local rats and mice.. As an ordinary traveller, the risk is relatively low. But it makes a great deal of sense to avoid areas where there have been outbreaks, especially important when there are no drugs to treat VHFs. All doctors can do is treat the symptoms.. All VHF illnesses come with a fever, as the name implies, ...
1992) The primary structure of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica agglutinin. FEBS. 299(2): 131-134. Bohm, E. and Maier, R. D. (1975) Weal-formation by Urtica dioica, An Intravital reaction. Z. Rechtsmed. 5, 76(1): 1-9. Bombardelli, E. , (1997) Urtica dioica L. Fitoterapia 68(5): 387- 402. Booth, V. H. and Bradford, M. P. (1963) Tocopherol contents of vegetables and fruits. Br. J. Nutr. 17: 575-581. Broekaert, W. , Parijs, J. , Joos, H. and Peumans, W. J. (1989) A Chitin-binding lectin from stinging nettle rhizomes with antifungal properties. Kavalali, G. and Akcasu, A. (1986) A study on the anticoagulant substance isolated from the leaves of Urtica dioica Thrombosis and Hemorrhagic Diseases proceedings of IVth Int. Meeting of Danubian League Against Thrombosis and Haemorrhagic Diseases. Sep. 25-28, Istanbul, Turkey, p. 244. Kavalali, G. and Diren, S¸. (1992) Urtica pilulifera L. Meyvalarinin Antimikrobik Etkileri. Prof. Dr. Sarim H. Çelebiog˘lu anisina bilimsel ...
Acta Veterinaria Brunensis, the scientific journal of the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences in Brno, Czech Republic
An ad hoc committee, under the auspices of the Institute of Medicine in collaboration with the National Research Council will organize a one-day workshop that will explore potential research priorities arising as a result of the emergence of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), a hemorrhagic disease caused by a filovirus, in the United States ...
(CIDRAP News) Nine people have died in the Republic of Congo from a hemorrhagic disease that authorities are describing as Ebola-like, and at least another 52 people who had contact with the victims are being monitored, according to news reports today.
Yellow fever is a serious acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitos. A single dose of Sanofi Pasteur vaccine provides lifelong protection
Picture: the Wild Rabbit in Kingham. The Wild Rabbit in Kingham, just outside of Chipping Norton, is the village pub dreams are made of, with a roaring fireplace for winter, a breezy terrace for summer, as well as rooms to crash over in should you sink one local ale too many. Food is seasonal and sourced from nearby farms - luckily for the chef, Daylesford Organic is just down the road ...
my rabbit got out less then a month ago and was gone for seven days. i was wondering if it is possible that she bred with a wild rabbit while she was gone. if so whould she still have babbies? please help!!breed oh ya she is one and a mini rex if that makes any difference.
Rabbits are prone to infectious diseases like any other pet. They may be infected from wild rabbits or other small pets which can transmit some infections. There are 2 important viral diseases in rabbits: myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) and animals can be protected against both of these by vaccination. Rabbits can be vaccinated against myxomatosis and VHD from 5 weeks of age. The vaccination provides immunity for one year against both myxomatosis and VHD.. A number of skin diseases caused by mites or fleas can also be caught from other infected pets. If your rabbit is scratching or losing their fur then you should make an appointment to see your vet for a check up.. ...
This directive provides the phytosanitary requirements for plants for planting originating from areas of the continental United States where the European brown garden snail (Cornu aspersum [Müller], syn. Helix aspersa [Müller]) is known to occur, in order to prevent the introduction and spread of this pest within Canada.
Vaccination against myxomatosis is not permitted in Australia, as historically, the 2 commercially available vaccines have contained live virus strains (see Appendix). Use of live virus vaccines have the potential to spread the attenuated myxoma virus into the wild rabbit population potentially resulting in reduced efficacy of myxomatosis as a form of biological control in the wild rabbit population. This could lead to a dramatic increase in the number of wild rabbits in Australia, which would further exacerbate economic loss and damage to the environment.2 ...
Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease otherwise known as Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (VHD) of Rabbits or Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). Links and articles of interest to pet owners and veterinarians. ...
The latest outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus has killed 10 people in the Congo, and 16 previously reported deaths in Uganda, according to the World Health Organization. The virus causes internal and. external bleeding and spreads by direct contact with the blood or other. body fluids of infected persons. The rare haemorrhagic disease,. named after a small river in DR Congo, killed 37 people in western. Uganda in 2007 and at least 170 in the north of the country in 2000. ...
Michael S Denyer and Philip J Wilkinson, Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, Pirbright, UK. African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious acute hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs caused by a large icosahedral DNA virus which produces a wide range of clinical signs. Protective immunity can be stimulated in vivo but classical neutralizing antibodies have not been demonstrated. The complete genome has been sequenced and some proteins that could enable the virus to evade the host immune response have been identified. There is no vaccine.. ...
Dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are caused by one of four closely related, but antigenically distinct, virus serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4), of the genus Flavivirus. Infection with one of these serotypes provides immunity to only that serotype for life, so persons living in a dengue-endemic area can have more than one dengue infection during their lifetime. DF and DHF are primarily diseases of tropical and sub tropical areas, and the four different dengue serotypes are maintained in a cycle that involves humans and the Aedes mosquito. However, Aedes aegypti, a domestic, day-biting mosquito that prefers to feed on humans, is the most common Aedes species. Infections produce a spectrum of clinical illness ranging from a nonspecific viral syndrome to severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Important risk factors for DHF include the strain of the infecting ...
Article source: http://www.travelandleisure.com/trip-ideas/yoga-wellness/yellow-fever-vaccine The Yellow Fever Virus Yellow fever, a viral hemorrhagic disease caused by the yellow fever virus, affects roughly 200,000 people a year. Though the disease got its start in Africa, outbreaks have occurred as far away as the Yucatan Peninsula and even Philadelphia, where 5,000 people were wiped out during a single epidemic in the 18th century. Related: What You…
Resilience is the ability of an animal to return soon to its initial productivity after facing diverse environmental challenges. This trait is directly related to animal welfare and it plays a key role in fluctuations of livestock productivity. A divergent selection experiment for environmental variance of litter size has been performed successfully in rabbits over ten generations. The objective of this study was to analyse resilience indicators of stress and disease in the divergent lines of this experiment. The high line showed a lower survival rate at birth than the low line (−4.1%). After correcting by litter size, the difference was −3.2%. Involuntary culling rate was higher in the high than in the low line (+12.4%). Before vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease or myxomatosis, concentration of lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), complement C3, serum bilirubin, triglycerides and cholesterol were higher in the high line than in the low line ...
Tsukuba Pathology Slide Seminar No.104 July 28, 1995 13:00-14:30 (AFIP WSC=14:30-17:00) Conference Room in NIAH main building , 2nd floor. 3-1-1, Kannondai, Tsukuba 305 Japan Following cases including clinical, epidemiological, gross and histopathological findings will be presented in the seminar. Cases: No.113: Rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. (Dr. Itoh of Shizuoka prefecture) No.114: Interstitial pneumonia with fibrinous purulent pleuritis in pig. (Dr. Ono, JA Zen-noh Lab.) No.115: Chronic gastric ulcer and atrophic gastritis in man (Dr. Obana, Teijin) If you are ineresting in Pathology, Please join us! --------------------------------------------------- Name: Eiichi Momotani.DVM. PhD. Phone:0298-38-7781 Lab. of Immunopathology, NIAH,3-1-1 Kannondai,Tsukuba 305 Japan E-mail: momotani at niah.affrc.go.jp (for business!) NBA02413 at niftyserve.or.jp (for private or week end!) My WWW home page: http://ss.niah.affrc.go.jp/~momotani/ 07/10/95 21:53:39 --- ...
By Neal Lineback, Baker Perry and Mandy Lineback Gritzner, Geography in the NewsTM. Ebola Virus Spreads to West Africa. Dangerous viral hemorrhagic diseases, particularly including the deadly Ebola, are emerging as threats to humans around the world.. The deadly disease Ebola has been the focus of intense news coverage since the publication of the book, The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance (Penguin, 1995) by Laurie Garrett, aroused public interest in the threat of new infectious diseases.. A recent outbreak of Ebola in West Africa has medical personnel scrambling, as it has spread into Guinea, then into Liberia and Sierra Leone, according to news reports. It has now entered Guineas capital city of Conakrys densely packed urban population of more than two million. At last reports, over 240 people had contracted the disease and it had killed more than 140 ...
2016 Elsevier B.V. Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) is emerging as a new threat for elephant conservation, since being identified as the cause of seve re, often fatal, haemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants. To describe positive cases and the molecular relatedness of virus detected in elephants in Thailand, we re-examined all available of EEHV samples occurring in young elephants in Thailand between 2006 and 2014 (n = 24). Results indicated 75% (18/24) of suspected cases were positive for EEHV by semi-nested PCR. Further gene analysis identified these positive cases as EEHV1A (72%, 13/18 cases), EEHV1B (11%, 2/18) and EEHV4 (17%, 3/18). This study is the first to phylogenetically analyse and provide an overview of most of the known EEHV cases that have occurred in Thailand. Positive individuals ranged in age from one to nine years, with no sex association detected, and occurred across geographical locations throughout the country. All ...
With the rising death toll in Central and West Africa, academic researchers, biotechnology specialists, and pharmaceutical leaders in Boston and elsewhere are offering tantalizing evidence that vaccines against Ebola and other killer diseases can be made faster and cheaper than previously believed.In a study accepted for publication in the journal, "Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics," a Boston research consortium, VaxCelerate, details how it produced a vaccine ready for animal testing against lassa fever, a hemorrhagic disease similar to Ebola, for less than $1 million in four months ...
WILKES COUNTY, N.C. -- The Hemorrhagic disease found in deer is spreading with 50 more cases being reported after wildlife officials said last week that 100 deer were found dead in Surry and Wilkes counties.Authorities said the disease is spread by a bite from a tiny fly called a midge.
Factor VII deficiency (FA7D) [MIM:227500]: A hemorrhagic disease with variable presentation. The clinical picture can be very severe, with the early occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhages or repeated hemarthroses, or, in contrast, moderate with cutaneous-mucosal hemorrhages (epistaxis, menorrhagia) or hemorrhages provoked by a surgical intervention. Finally, numerous subjects are completely asymptomatic despite very low factor VII levels. {ECO:0000269,PubMed:10862079, ECO:0000269,PubMed:11091194, ECO:0000269,PubMed:11129332, ECO:0000269,PubMed:12472587, ECO:0000269,PubMed:14717781, ECO:0000269,PubMed:1634227, ECO:0000269,PubMed:18976247, ECO:0000269,PubMed:19432927, ECO:0000269,PubMed:19751712, ECO:0000269,PubMed:2070047, ECO:0000269,PubMed:21206266, ECO:0000269,PubMed:21372693, ECO:0000269,PubMed:26761581, ECO:0000269,PubMed:7974346, ECO:0000269,PubMed:7981691, ECO:0000269,PubMed:8043443, ECO:0000269,PubMed:8204879, ECO:0000269,PubMed:8242057, ECO:0000269,PubMed:8364544, ...
A quantitative estimation of plasma methaemalbumin can be useful. In pancreatitis, it usually indicates severe and haemorrhagic disease, and is thus of prognostic importance, as well as indicating the need for the full therapeutic regime for conservative management of the disease.. It may be helpful diagnostically in some patients with pancreatitis in whom it remains elevated after the serum amylase has returned to normal.. Raised levels may indicate laparotomy in patients in whom the diagnosis of pancreatitis is considered but who are not responding to conservative measures. Such patients may occasionally be suffering from intestinal infarction or other surgically remediable condition.. However, it has been found that the level of methaemalbumin in the plasma may be raised above the upper limit of the normal range of 5·5 mg% in occasional cases of gastrointestinal bleeding and soft tissue trauma and is not always raised in haemorrhagic pancreatitis.. ...
Starting from the premise that there is such a need, Dr. Thompson has proposed to write a book to fill the gap between the insufficiently detailed sections in textbooks of medicine and the encyclopedic textbooks or monographs in hematology. He covers the major subsections of the specialty from the basic aspects of structure, function, formation, and counting of erythrocytes and leukocytes to the more clinical considerations of the various anemias, leukemias, lymphomas, polycythemias, and hemorrhagic diseases.. When writing a book such as this, an author must not only condense, but also omit. One could question Dr. Thompsons choice in either. ...
Björn Dahlbäck was born in Sweden. He attended Lund University where he earned his MD. He completed internship and residency at University Hospital in Malmö, Sweden. Johan Stenflo, a pioneer in blood coagulation research, served as his PhD mentor. This experience was crucial for his career as investigator of thrombotic and hemorrhagic diseases. He did postdoctoral research at Scripps in LaJolla with Hans Müller-Eberhard, a leading scientist in complement research, and later was Esther Z Greenberg visiting scholar at OMRF in Oklahoma. He is professor of Blood Coagulation Research at Lund University since 1989.. Dr. Dahlbäck is best known for his groundbreaking discovery of activated protein C (APC) resistance as the most common inherited risk factor of venous thrombosis. He showed APC resistance to be caused by a change in the FV gene, the mutation was subsequently identified by several groups and now referred to as FVLeiden. Another more recent breakthrough is the ...
Key facts Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The yellow in the name refers to the jau...
Shop BUNNY HUGGER Wild Rabbit Collection Hoodie created by RavenSpiritPrints. Personalize it with photos & text or purchase as is!
This guide will walk you through the care of a wild rabbits nest and its inhabitants. This advise is based on personal experience and a small amount of research.
33 New Zealand white rabbits were taken and randomly divided into a control group, a hyperbaric air group, and a hyperbaric oxyengation (HBO) group. All were reirrigated types following the creation of acute, incomplete cerebral ischemia. Respective measurements were taken of the overall carotid artery and interior jugular vein blood gases as well as cortical brain tissue homogenate amounts of 6-Keto-PGF1 and TXB2 contained. In conjunction with this, pathological investigations were made. The results were that: the amounts of 6-Keto-PGF1 contained for the HBO group were clearly greatly increased (P< 0.01). TXB2 clearly dropped (P< 0.05). Blood P02 in the HB0 group clearly went up (P < 0.0l). Pathological investigations showed that the HBO groups brain tissue damage was relatively light. Conclusion: there were clear effects on PGI2 and TXA2 with HBO when there was reirrigation after acute cerebral ischemia in the domestic rabbits. This is ...
Please register to see prices including your discount. Registration may take up to 24h. For guest orders the standard discount of your institution will apply and discounts are visible on the order confirmation.. ...
* The following information was taken from RWAFs website on Understanding Myxomatosis… What is myxomatosis? Myxomatosis is a severe viral disease of rabbits that decimated the wild rabbit population when it arrived in Britain 50 years ago. Domestic rabbits are also susceptible to the disease and deaths in pets are reported every year.
ive been reading a bit on rabbits and am interested in the population cycles - does anyone know more about this. Does diffrent stretches of habitat have diffrent cycles? Or does an entire area / the whole state go through a high low cycle at the same time? And if so does anyone know where we are at this year --- I have seen lots of rabbits this year! Thanks - t
Observe the population of rabbits in an environment over many years. The land available to the rabbits and weather conditions can be adjusted to investigate the effects of urban sprawl and unusual weather on wildlife populations.
Why Try? (go to beginning). Rabbits are social creatures and need some type of interaction. Boredom can lead to withdrawal or the opposite, destructiveness, in our house rabbits. Our domestic rabbits are descendants of the European wild rabbits, who live in large colonies. Some of that needed interaction may be with you directly, but what if you re gone a lot? Rabbits in groups keep each other company during times when the humans can t be present, yet groups also enjoy human companionship when they interact on that level.. After many years of having single bunnies, we learned about the need for socialization and decided to try a pair. What a wonderful sight to behold. There s nothing like watching a furry couple interact and to observe the subtleties of their communication. They groom each other and relax next to each other. They chew on opposite ends of the same carrot.. There is little difference between caring for a ...
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Earlier today, Green Lake resident Emily Stage found two rabbits wandering in the streets near Latona Ave NE & Woodlawn Ave NE.. "They seemed very domestic and were no doubt someones pets," Emily says. "After knocking on some doors and getting no reply, I took them to the Seattle Animal Shelter. The case number is 4776 1-2 for anyone looking for them.". ...
Just Another Day at Big Cat Rescue Tampa! READ MORE HERE, write BCR and ask them to STOP THE UNNECESSARY CRUELTY: http://causes.worldpeacemeet.com/...
Anti-phospho-Histone H3 (Ser10) Antibody, clone 63-1C-8, is a recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody that detects Histone H3 phosphorylated at serine 10. This purified recombinant mAb, also known as Anti-H3S10p, is published and validated in WB, Flow Cytometry, and is specificity verified by DB. Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against partial human CD79B. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 29-159 of human CD79B. (RAB00681) - Products - Abnova
Recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against full length human CD27. Recombinant protein corresponding to full-length human CD27. (RAB00668) - Products - Abnova
As Californians suffer the devastation caused by wildfires that have burned through more than 100,000 acres, one man braved the flames to save a wild rabbit and instantly became the hero we didnt know we needed.
What to expect from your rabbitRabbits are gentle, quiet animals that make excellent pets. They have dynamic personalities and appreciate human interaction. Domestic rabbits are best suited to live in safe homes with adult supervision.
How to Care for Disabled Rabbits. If your rabbit is disabled, you will find yourself doing a lot more for your rabbit than either he or you could have imagined. Since rabbits are very independent animals, your rabbits disability will make...
Rabbit Wormers are cheaper from VetUK. These easy to use and effective Rabbit Wormers will successful treat, and help to prevent, the issue of worms and parasites in your pet rabbit.
This pattern contains cutting templates for TWO rabbits, a small one and a large one. Information on other sizes is provided. ...
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Complete genome sequence of two rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant b isolates detected on the Iberian Peninsula, Archives...Complete genome sequence of two rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant b isolates detected on the Iberian Peninsula, Archives...

"Complete genome sequence of two rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant b isolates detected on the Iberian Peninsula, Archives ... New insight into the epidemiology of rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in Portugal: retrospective study reveals the ... Bioinformaticand functional analysis of RNA secondary structure elements among different genera of human and animal ... Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/complete-genome-sequence-of-two-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-W6sWOZDJVP

Caliciviridae - WikipediaCaliciviridae - Wikipedia

Genus: Lagovirus European brown hare syndrome virus Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus: Nebovirus Newbury-1 virus Genus: ... respiratory disease; rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: often-fatal hemorrhages; norwalk group of viruses: gastroenteritis. ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus Nebovirus; type species: Newbury-1 virus Genus Norovirus; type species: Norwalk virus ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a pathogen of rabbits that causes major problems throughout the world where rabbits ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caliciviridae

Lagovirus - WikipediaLagovirus - Wikipedia

There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. Diseases ... Lagovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Caliciviridae. Lagomorphs serve as natural hosts. ... European brown hare syndrome virus Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagovirus

Protein & CellProtein & Cell

The etiological agent, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), belongs to the Lagovirus genus in the Caliciviridae family. ... Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of two types of wild rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses characterized the structural ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease was described in China in 1984 and can cause hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver within two or three ... which belongs to the genus Mycobacterium. , is the pathogenic agent for most tuberculosis (TB). As TB remains one of the most ...
more infohttp://journal.hep.com.cn/pac/EN/article/showDownloadTopList.do

Frontiers | Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Non-structural Protein 6 Induces Apoptosis in Rabbit Kidney Cells | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Non-structural Protein 6 Induces Apoptosis in Rabbit Kidney Cells | Microbiology

... is a highly contagious disease caused by rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). Previous research has shown that RHDV induces ... is a highly contagious disease caused by rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). Previous research has shown that RHDV induces ... To fully establish a role for NSP6, the present study examined the effects of ectopic expression of the protein in rabbit (RK13 ... To fully establish a role for NSP6, the present study examined the effects of ectopic expression of the protein in rabbit (RK13 ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03308/full

Caliciviruses: Molecular and Cellular VirologyCaliciviruses: Molecular and Cellular Virology

... virus-host interactions; calicivirus reverse genetics and replicon systems; feline calicivirus; swine calicivirus; murine ... the H type 2 antigen for the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (genus Lagovirus), the type B antigen for the Tulane virus (a ... Viruses in three of the four established genera of the family Caliciviridae have been detected in pigs (Sapovirus, Norovirus ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a pathogen of rabbits that causes major problems throughout the world where rabbits ...
more infohttps://www.caister.com/calicivirus

Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain - Volume 18, Number 12-December 2012 - Emerging Infectious...Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain - Volume 18, Number 12-December 2012 - Emerging Infectious...

Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. ... Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits ... RHD is caused by Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV; genus Lagovirus, family Caliciviridae) (4), a virus with a positive- ... Evolutionary relationships of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and related viruses. A total of 38 nt sequences were ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/12/12-0341_article

The non-pathogenic Australian rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 provides temporal and partial cross protection to lethal Rabbit...The non-pathogenic Australian rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 provides temporal and partial cross protection to lethal Rabbit...

RCV-A1 is known to provide some cross protection to lethal infection with the closely related Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus ... but were instead influenced by the time between infection with the two viruses, demonstrating for the first time that the cross ... In this study 46 rabbits from a colony naturally infected with RCV-A1 were exposed to RHDV. Survival rates and survival times ... RHDV). Despite its obvious negative impacts on viral biocontrol of introduced European rabbits in Australia, little is known ...
more infohttps://veterinaryresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1297-9716-44-51

Overcoming species barriers: an outbreak of Lagovirus europaeus GI.2/RHDV2 in an isolated population of mountain hares (Lepus...Overcoming species barriers: an outbreak of Lagovirus europaeus GI.2/RHDV2 in an isolated population of mountain hares (Lepus...

... were generally genus-specific. However, in 2010, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), also known as Lagovirus europaeus ... The virus was most likely initially introduced from a concurrent, large-scale GI.2 outbreak in rabbits on the adjacent mainland ... The mortality event in mountain hares lasted for at least 4.5 months in the absence of rabbits, which would have required virus ... emerged and had the distinguishing ability to cause disease in both rabbits and certain hare species. The mountain hare (Lepus ...
more infohttps://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-018-1694-7

Caliciviridae - WikipediaCaliciviridae - Wikipedia

... respiratory disease), rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (often-fatal hemorrhages), and Norwalk group of viruses (gastroenteritis ... Two additional genera have been proposed: Recovirus for a novel calicivirus detected in stool specimens (Tulane virus) from ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus is a pathogen of rabbits that causes major problems throughout the world where rabbits are ... Thirteen species are placed in this family, divided among eleven genera.[2] Diseases associated with this family include feline ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caliciviridae

The non-pathogenic Australian rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 provides temporal and partial cross protection to lethal Rabbit...The non-pathogenic Australian rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 provides temporal and partial cross protection to lethal Rabbit...

RCV-A1 is known to provide some cross protection to lethal infection with the closely related Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus ... but were instead influenced by the time between infection with the two viruses, demonstrating for the first time that the cross ... In this study 46 rabbits from a colony naturally infected with RCV-A1 were exposed to RHDV. Survival rates and survival times ... RHDV). Despite its obvious negative impacts on viral biocontrol of introduced European rabbits in Australia, little is known ...
more infohttps://0-veterinaryresearch-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1297-9716-44-51

Novel Calicivirus Identified in Rabbits, Michigan, USA - Volume 15, Number 12-December 2009 - Emerging Infectious Disease...Novel Calicivirus Identified in Rabbits, Michigan, USA - Volume 15, Number 12-December 2009 - Emerging Infectious Disease...

... rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). The novel virus has been designated Michigan rabbit calicivirus (MRCV). Caliciviruses ... of the Lagovirus genus other than RHDV have not been described in US rabbit populations. The case-fatality rate was 32.5% (65/ ... Experimentally infected rabbits lacked clinical disease, but MRCV was detected in tissues by PCR. We propose that MRCV ... We report a disease outbreak in a Michigan rabbitry of a rabbit calicivirus distinct from the foreign animal disease agent, ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/12/09-0839_article

Virus nomenclature below the species level: a standardized nomenclature for natural variants of viruses assigned to the family...Virus nomenclature below the species level: a standardized nomenclature for natural variants of viruses assigned to the family...

The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses FiloviridaeStudy Group and other experts have... ... The task of international expert groups is to recommend the classification and naming of viruses. ... Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Marburg Virus Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Gregorian Calendar Genomic Consensus Sequence These ... Host of origin,/,genus abbreviation,/,species abbreviation,/,virus name,/,year of occurrence,/,country of origin, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00705-012-1454-0

Detection and Circulation of a Novel Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia - Volume 24, Number 1-January 2018 -...Detection and Circulation of a Novel Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia - Volume 24, Number 1-January 2018 -...

... updated vaccines and vaccination protocols are urgently needed to protect pet and farmed rabbits from these novel rabbit ... virus is a recombinant containing an RHDVa capsid gene and nonstructural genes most closely related to nonpathogenic rabbit ... has been widely used in Australia and New Zealand since the mid-1990s to control wild rabbits, an invasive vertebrate pest in ... and 8 additional outbreaks were reported in both domestic and wild rabbits in the 15 months following its detection. Full- ...
more infohttps://wwwnc-origin.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/1/17-0412

Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain - Volume 18, Number 12-December 2012 - Emerging Infectious...Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain - Volume 18, Number 12-December 2012 - Emerging Infectious...

Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. ... Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits ... RHD is caused by Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV; genus Lagovirus, family Caliciviridae) (4), a virus with a positive- ... Evolutionary relationships of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and related viruses. A total of 38 nt sequences were ...
more infohttps://wwwnc-origin.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/12/12-0341

Vaccinations | Abbotts WayVaccinations | Abbotts Way

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). ... Canine Parainfluenza Virus and Adenovirus 2. Both viruses cause infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) The most common ... The virus is deadly to both wild and domesticated pet rabbits so we do advise vaccinating pet rabbits.. The recommended plan is ... Canine Distemper Virus. The distemper virus causes severe respiratory and neurological disease that usually results in the ...
more infohttp://www.abbottswayvet.co.nz/services/vaccinations/

A sensitive and specific blocking ELISA for the detection of rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 antibodies | Virology Journal | Full TextA sensitive and specific blocking ELISA for the detection of rabbit calicivirus RCV-A1 antibodies | Virology Journal | Full Text

... cross-react in serological tests for rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and vice versa, making epidemiological studies ... and interaction of the two viruses because the highly pathogenic RHDV has been used as a biocontrol agent for wild rabbits in ... When sera from rabbits with a known infection history for either RCV-A1 or RHDV were tested, this assay showed 100% sensitivity ... The presence of the benign RCV Australia 1 (RCV-A1) is considered a key factor for the failure of RHDV mediated rabbit control ...
more infohttps://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-9-182

Bovine Nebovirus Interacts with a Wide Spectrum of Histo-Blood Group Antigens | Journal of VirologyBovine Nebovirus Interacts with a Wide Spectrum of Histo-Blood Group Antigens | Journal of Virology

... such as respiratory disease (feline calicivirus [FCV]), hemorrhagic disease (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus [RHDV]), and ... In King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ (ed), Virus taxonomy. Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Ninth report ... The genus Nebovirus contains one established type species, Newbury-1 virus, that contains Nebraska-like and Newbury-1-like ... Binding of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus to antigens of the ABH histo-blood group family. J Virol 74:11950-11954. doi: ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/92/9/e02160-17?ijkey=91d2c0cad0d8d15ee6bc8f7125134a87440fd7be&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Identification of Viral Taxon-Specific Genes (VTSG): Application to CaliciviridaeIdentification of Viral Taxon-Specific Genes (VTSG): Application to Caliciviridae

Lagovirus has only two species including rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus.. In case of Picornaviridae that is the same type ... The domains that are repeated in viruses in Caliciviridae can be utilized with a standard to identify the viruses in the genus ... Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses Ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, ... Virus taxonomy: the database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Nucleic Acids Res 2018;46:D708-D717. ...
more infohttps://genominfo.org/journal/view.php?doi=10.5808/GI.2018.16.4.e23

Viral Discovery in the Invasive Australian Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) Using Metatranscriptomic and Genomic Approaches |...Viral Discovery in the Invasive Australian Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) Using Metatranscriptomic and Genomic Approaches |...

... species was demonstrated by the use of both myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus to control the European rabbit in ... phylogenetic tree was inferred with representative viruses (n = 154) from known Picornaviridae genera, candidate genera, and ... Rabbit haemorrhagic disease and the biological control of wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, in Australia and New Zealand. ... avian leukosis virus; RSV, Rous sarcoma virus; MMTV, mouse mammary tumor virus; MPMV, Mason-Pfizer monkey virus; JSRV, ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/92/17/e00768-18

Patente US5441943 - Uses of aloe products - Google PatentesPatente US5441943 - Uses of aloe products - Google Patentes

... respiratory and immune regulatory diseases, inflammations, infections and infestations by administering an acetylated mannan ... sheep-pox virus goatpox virus lumpy skin disease (Neethling) virus myxoma virus of hares fibroma viruses of rabbits fibroma ... langat virus louping ill virus modoc virus Murray valley encephalitis virus ntaya virus omsk hemorrhagic fever virus powassan ... The following are enveloped viruses as divided into familyand common species or genus:Family Common Species or Genus ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US5441943

Efficacy of common disinfectant/cleaning agents in inactivating murine norovirus and feline calicivirus as surrogate viruses...Efficacy of common disinfectant/cleaning agents in inactivating murine norovirus and feline calicivirus as surrogate viruses...

... genus, genogroup and genotype. RHDV refers to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. TV refers to Tulane virus. MNV-1 refers to ... Virus plaques visible on 6-well plates, with (A) MNV-1 virus plaques and (B) FCV virus plaques. 174 A B Figure C3. MNV-1 virus ... Quantitative Carrier Test-2 Quaternary Ammonium Compounds RNA-Directed RNA Polymerase Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus ... They also have an effect on enveloped viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but not on non- enveloped viruses ( ...
more infohttps://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/24/items/1.0073616

High adaptive variability and virus-driven selection on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in invasive wild rabbits...High adaptive variability and virus-driven selection on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in invasive wild rabbits...

The rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was imported into Australia in 1995 as a biocontrol agent to manage one of the ... most successful and devastating invasive species, the European rabbit (... ... Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Australian rabbit invasion Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) Virus-driven ... Lemos de Matos A, McFadden G, Esteves PJ (2014) Evolution of viral sensing RIG-I-like receptor genes in Leporidae genera ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-016-1329-5

rhabdovirusrhabdovirus

But these viruses clearly have the potential to cause this disease: members of the Novirhabdovirus genus cause hemorrhagic ... the virus did not replicate in cell cultures from monkey, rabbit, and mosquito, or in suckling mice. These findings are in ... or viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, which causes disease in fish. I have never worked on viruses of fish, but theyre ... A new rhabdovirus from a patient with hemorrhagic fever. Hemorrhagic fevers are among the most graphic viral diseases, ...
more infohttp://www.virology.ws/tag/rhabdovirus/

arenavirusarenavirus

But these viruses clearly have the potential to cause this disease: members of the Novirhabdovirus genus cause hemorrhagic ... the virus did not replicate in cell cultures from monkey, rabbit, and mosquito, or in suckling mice. These findings are in ... When arenaviruses infect humans, severe disease can result, such as hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus. How CASV and GGV ... A new rhabdovirus from a patient with hemorrhagic fever. Hemorrhagic fevers are among the most graphic viral diseases, ...
more infohttp://www.virology.ws/tag/arenavirus/
  • Parra, F. 2015-03-01 00:00:00 We report the complete genome sequences of two isolates (RHDV-N11 and CBVal16) of variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDVb). (deepdyve.com)
  • The viral sequences reported show 84.8-85.1 % and 78.3-78.5 % identity to RHDVAst/89 and RCV-A1 MIC-07, representative members of the pathogenic genogroup 1 RHDV and apathogenic rabbit calicivirus, respectively. (deepdyve.com)
  • In comparison with other RHDV isolates belonging to the previously known genogroups 1-6, RHDVb shows marked phenotypic differences, as it causes disease preferentially in young rabbits under 40 days of age and shows modified red blood cell agglutination profiles as well as antigenic differences that allow this variant to escape protection by the currently available vaccines. (deepdyve.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the vp60 gene grouped mountain hare strains together with a rabbit strain from an outbreak of GI.2 in July 2016, collected approximately 50 km away on the mainland. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the gRNA, a 2.1-kb subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) can also be detected in virus preparations and encodes both structural proteins VP60 and VP10 ( Figure 1 ) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Continued investigation regarding the proteinaceous receptor(s) will be necessary for better understanding of the tropism, pathogenesis, and host range of this important viral genus. (asm.org)
  • The binding of an infectious virus particle through attachment factors and receptors on the host cell surface is the essential first step for the viral entry and subsequent replication therein ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • The identification of these current and past viral infections enriches our knowledge of the cane toad virome, an understanding of which will facilitate future work on infection and disease in this important invasive species. (asm.org)
  • During September 2011-February 2012, our laboratory received liver samples from 9 rabbitries from 3 areas of northeastern Spain where acute outbreaks of RHD were occurring in adult rabbits and kits. (cdc.gov)
  • Infected samples came from vaccinated (n = 23) and unvaccinated young and adult rabbits. (cdc.gov)
  • There are currently seven species in this family, divided among 5 genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most species in the genus are related antigenically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thirteen species are placed in this family, divided among eleven genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wild rabbit species in the United States are not experimentally susceptible ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Ebola virus), isolation host (e.g., members of the species Homo sapiens ), sampling location (e.g. (springer.com)
  • It was found that BNeV virus-like particles (VLPs) bound to A type/H type 2/Le y HBGAs expressed in the bovine digestive tract and are related to HBGAs expressed in humans and other host species, suggesting a wide spectrum of HBGA recognition by BNeV. (asm.org)
  • Circulating field strains (descendants of CAPM V-351) now cause regular natural outbreaks in both countries, and the original CAPM V-351 strain is continually rereleased through rabbit control programs ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Conversely, in Australia and New Zealand, the European rabbit is a major vertebrate pest, threatening the survival of native plants and animals, facilitating erosion through burrowing and grazing, and causing massive economic losses to agricultural sectors. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses Filoviridae Study Group and other experts have recently established an almost consistent classification and nomenclature for filoviruses. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we verified the consistency of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses taxonomy using an in silico approach, aiming to identify the specific sequence for each virus. (genominfo.org)
  • Therefore, it can be useful to develop methods to rapidly identify mutant viruses on the basis of International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) taxonomy [ 1 ]. (genominfo.org)
  • In the United States 4 outbreaks of RHD have occurred in domestic, captive rabbits ( O. cuniculi ) since 2000. (cdc.gov)
  • Canine Adenovirus 1 Infection may cause acute fatal inflammation of the liver or may result in chronic liver disease. (abbottswayvet.co.nz)
  • This study samples cane toads from different Australian locations and uses an RNA sequencing and computational approach to find new viruses. (asm.org)
  • Genotyping and immunotyping of the virus independently confirmed infection with L. europaeus GI.2, not GII.1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose that MRCV primarily causes subclinical infection but may induce overt RHD-like disease under certain field conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccines against the Feline Leukaemia Virus, Chlymaydophilia Felis, and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus are also available but are not included/recommended in our routine vaccination protocols. (abbottswayvet.co.nz)
  • However, the recent application of modern genomic technologies has led to an increased understanding of the virus family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses identified prior to 2010 are generally considered to be genus-specific and do not cause clinical disease in animals less than five weeks of age. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virus taxonomy was initially determined by clinical experiments based on phenotype. (genominfo.org)
  • Therefore, in order to quickly detect the similarity of function at the emergence of new viruses, the final purpose is to analyze conserved domains, which can identify specific protein sequences for each virus. (genominfo.org)
  • The book is highly recommended to specialized virologists and molecular biologists, but also to epidemiologists, infectious disease and general physicians, and to all interested students of biomedical/microbial sciences. (caister.com)
  • Both viruses cause infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) The most common symptom is a severe hacking cough that persists for 10 -14 days. (abbottswayvet.co.nz)
  • Viruses mutate faster than other microorganisms, and such mutations often lead to malignant infections in humans, animals, and plants. (genominfo.org)
  • These cases were confirmed by inoculation study and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) because the virus is not cultivable in vitro. (cdc.gov)
  • This new ELISA not only allows the detection of RCV-A1 at a population level, but also permits the serological status of individual rabbits to be determined more reliably than previously described methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The distemper virus is spread by inhaling infected droplets (ie close contact with an infected animal that sneezes/coughs) and is most prevelant in young animals. (abbottswayvet.co.nz)