Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant: Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS with progressive deterioration of renal function.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.CreatinineUrinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute: Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney: A nongenetic defect due to malformation of the KIDNEY which appears as a bunch of grapes with multiple renal cysts but lacking the normal renal bean shape, and the collection drainage system. This condition can be detected in-utero with ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive: A genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by multiple CYSTS in both KIDNEYS and associated LIVER lesions. Serious manifestations are usually present at BIRTH with high PERINATAL MORTALITY.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Kidneys, Artificial: Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Urine Specimen Collection: Methods or procedures used to obtain samples of URINE.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Uromodulin: A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Podocytes: Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Nephrology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Inbred C57BLKidney Cortex Necrosis: Death of cells in the KIDNEY CORTEX, a common final result of various renal injuries including HYPOXIA; ISCHEMIA; and drug toxicity.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Delayed Graft Function: General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental: A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Radioisotope Renography: Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Kidney Calices: Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)Renal Replacement Therapy: Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Maple Syrup Urine Disease: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.PAX2 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is essential for ORGANOGENESIS of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and KIDNEY.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Donor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Specific Gravity: The ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material, such as water or air, at a specified temperature.Rats, Inbred F344Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Oliguria: Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The kidneys are the only body system that are directly affected by tubulointerstitial nephritis. Kidney function is usually ... Damage to the distal tubule may cause loss of urine-concentrating ability and polyuria. In most cases of acute ... If the illness is caused by an allergic reaction, a corticosteroid may speed the recovery kidney function; however, this is ... the function of the kidneys will return after the harmful drug is not taken anymore, or when the underlying disease is cured by ...
These two functions of AVT allow birds to maintain a concentrated urine. Avian kidneys do not send urine to a bladder. Instead ... The ability to produce hyposmotic urine is from the medullary cones. Urine is mixed with digestive fluids rather than directly ... which are located in the innermost area of the kidney, have complex glomeruli, and contain loops of Henle. Once the kidneys ... Finally, urine as the end product travels to the ureters to be excreted. The kidneys of a common raven filter about eleven ...
Impaired concentrating ability or elevated urine pH (distal renal tubular acidosis) are also commonly found due to tubular ... kidneys are affected, the pre-existing kidney function, the duration of hydronephrosis (acute or chronic), and whether ... the overall kidney function may remain normal since the unaffected kidney will compensate for the obstructed kidney. ... Blood tests may show impaired kidney function (elevated urea or creatinine) or electrolyte imbalances such as hyponatremia or ...
The ability of mammals and some birds to concentrate wastes into a volume of urine much smaller than the volume of blood from ... Nephrology is the speciality that deals with kidney function and disease. Medical terms related to the kidneys commonly use ... Main article: Kidney disease. Kidney disease is an abnormal structure, function or process in the kidney(s). Nephrosis is non- ... Kidney injury and failure[edit]. Main articles: Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, and Kidney failure ...
... disease states as chronic and acute kidney failure in which the kidneys lack the ability to concentrate or dilute the urine and ... Isosthenuria reflects renal tubular damage/failure of renal medullary function. A closely related term is hyposthenuria, where ... Effects of alpha-thalassemia and sickle polymerization tendency on the urine-concentrating defect of individuals with sickle ... Isosthenuria refers to the excretion of urine whose specific gravity (concentration) is neither greater (more concentrated) nor ...
... leading to a decrease in the ability of the kidney to concentrate the urine by removing free water. The clinical manifestation ... On investigation, there will be an increased plasma osmolarity and decreased urine osmolarity. As pituitary function is normal ... or the kidneys' response to antidiuretic hormone (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus), diabetes mellitus causes polyuria via ... However, since the patient is unable to concentrate urine to excrete the excess solutes, the resulting urine fails to decrease ...
This happens in the kidneys. There seems to be an inverse correlation of body mass to ability to concentrate urine. So ... Desert kangaroo rats function under a high risk of predation for a variety of reasons. The first of which is they forage alone ... The desert kangaroo rat has a kidney structure very similar to those of other rodents, but it has much longer papilla ( ... Kangaroo rats achieve the ability to be sustained on limited water by having incredibly derived kidneys. To remove waste ...
He is particularly known for his work using micropuncture techniques to study the kidney's ability to concentrate urine, and ... Gottschalk made important discoveries about the function of the kidneys, and helped set government policies that provided ... Throughout his career, Gottschalk published extensively about the kidney and about the history of kidney research. ... committee that recommended government support for kidney transplants and artificial kidney machines for patients with kidney ...
... s' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain ... however cats lack the ability to undergo this process. Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in ... It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are ... Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water, and can even ...
Cystine may precipitate out of the urine, if the urine is neutral or acidic, and form crystals or stones in the kidneys, ... Cystinurics have an increased risk for chronic kidney disease and since kidney damage or poor function is often present in ... allowing them to become concentrated in the urine. As the levels of cystine in the urine increase, the crystals typical of ... Mutations in either of these genes disrupt the ability of this transporter protein to reabsorb these amino acids, ...
... thus reducing the kidney's ability to concentrate the urine. This means that psychogenic polydipsia may lead to test results (e ... Diagnosis may be complicated by the fact that chronic and extreme compulsive drinking may impair the response of the kidneys to ... executive function, attention and motor speed. Other areas with volume reductions (both white and grey matter) include: Right ... Hypervoelemia, leading to oedema, hypertension and weight gain (due to the kidneys being unable to filter the excess blood) in ...
Findings include the inability to concentrate urine, and the presence of glucose, protein, and amino acids in the urine. Renal ... It is defined by a loss of function of about 75 percent of the filtration system of the kidney and characterized by azotemia ... caused by a lack of response of the kidneys to ADH. Neither form is common. Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is usually ... Dogs are susceptible to gastrointestinal obstruction due to their ability to swallow relatively large objects and pass them ...
... which normally enables the kidney to reabsorb water from urine. This causes an inability to concentrate urine, leading to ... Those who use lithium should receive regular serum level tests and should monitor thyroid and kidney function for abnormalities ... It is estimated that impaired urinary concentrating ability is present in at least 50% of individuals on chronic lithium ... Additionally, increasing dietary sodium intake may also reduce lithium levels by prompting the kidneys to excrete more lithium. ...
Different drugs will affect different parts of the kidney and the toxicity may be asymptomatic (only seen on blood or urine ... They are so named because of their ability to alkylate many molecules, including proteins, RNA and DNA. This ability to bind ... They impair cell function by forming covalent bonds with the amino, carboxyl, sulfhydryl, and phosphate groups in biologically ... Nanoparticles made of magnetic material can also be used to concentrate agents at tumor sites using an externally applied ...
However, the drug is cleared by the kidneys and toxicity should be monitored carefully in people with poor kidney functions. ... Urine (≥50% as unchanged drug); acidification of urine increases elimination Chloroquine has a very high volume of distribution ... Verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, has been found to restore both the chloroquine concentration ability and sensitivity to this ... the drug concentrates in the acidic food vacuole of the parasite and interferes with essential processes. Its lysosomotropic ...
Different drugs will affect different parts of the kidney and the toxicity may be asymptomatic (only seen on blood or urine ... They are so named because of their ability to alkylate many molecules, including proteins, RNA and DNA. This ability to bind ... They are hollow rod shaped structures that are required for cell division, among other cellular functions.[40] Microtubules are ... Nanoparticles made of magnetic material can also be used to concentrate agents at tumor sites using an externally applied ...
... kidneys, and lungs. The most significant effect is accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys which causes kidney ... decreased or absent production of urine, elevated blood concentration of potassium, and acute kidney failure. If kidney failure ... Hemodialysis also has the added benefit of correcting other metabolic derangements or supporting deteriorating kidney function ... Many hospital laboratories do not have the ability to perform this blood test and in the absence of this test the diagnosis ...
... they concentrate and interact in the urine-filled renal tubules, then crystallize and form large numbers of round, yellow ... as well as in crystalline form in the kidneys and in urine of affected animals.[50] Further vegetable protein imported from ... Ingestion of melamine may lead to reproductive damage, or bladder or kidney stones, which can lead to bladder cancer.[21][27][ ... including renal function."[68] Another 2010 follow-up study from Lanzhou University attributed the uric acid stone accumulation ...
The liver and kidneys are the major organs that degrade hormones; breakdown products are excreted in urine and feces. Hormone ... resulting in small volumes of highly concentrated urine and decreased plasma osmolarity. ADH is released in response to high ... The ability of a target cell to respond to a hormone depends on the presence of receptors, within the cell or on its plasma ... The hormones which they produce help to regulate the functions of cells and tissues throughout the body. Endocrine organs are ...
Although bird's kidneys tend to be larger in size they are inefficient in producing concentrated urine that is significantly ... Both these changes in turn activate the salt glands of the bird, but before any activity occurs in the salt glands the kidney ... The American flamingo's four-chambered heart is myogenic, meaning that all the muscle cells and fibers have the ability to ... Taurine has a fairly large list of physiological functions; but in birds, it can have an important influence on osmoregulation ...
... via urine. In humans, during times of low dietary intake, vitamin C is reabsorbed by the kidneys rather than excreted. Only ... and some Passeriform birds have all independently lost the ability to internally synthesize Vitamin C in either the kidney or ... It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an ... Among foods classified for mandatory fortification with vitamin C were fruit-flavored drinks, mixes, and concentrates, foods ...
The liver and kidneys are the major organs that degrade hormones; breakdown products are excreted in urine and feces. ... resulting in small volumes of highly concentrated urine and decreased plasma osmolarity. ADH is released in response to high ... a b Vander, Arthur (2008). Vander's Human Physiology: the mechanisms of body function. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. pp ... The ability of a target cell to respond to a hormone depends on the presence of receptors, within the cell or on its plasma ...
When kidney function becomes compromised, the ability of the body to effectively regulate serum potassium via the kidney ... can also increase potassium excretion by the kidney in patients with functioning kidneys. Trials of fludrocortisone in patients ... Though calcium chloride is more concentrated, it is caustic to the veins and should only be given through a central line. Onset ... potassium into urine through aldosterone hormone secretion and increasing the number of potassium secreting channels in kidney ...
... and some Passeriform birds have all independently lost the ability to internally synthesize Vitamin C in either the kidney or ... It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function.[3][4] It also functions as ... Simple tests are available to measure the levels of vitamin C in the urine and in serum or blood plasma. However these reflect ... Reptiles and older orders of birds make ascorbic acid in their kidneys. Recent orders of birds and most mammals make ascorbic ...
... is usually caused by loss of kidney function. Healthy animals rapidly excrete excess magnesium in the urine and stool. Urinary ... oral magnesium poisoning in adults with normal renal function is very rare. Infants, which have less ability to excrete excess ... This method is destructive; biological samples must be broken down in concentrated acids to avoid clogging the fine nebulising ... Since the kidneys of adult humans excrete excess magnesium efficiently, ...
... and some Passeriform birds have all independently lost the ability to internally synthesize Vitamin C in either the kidney or ... It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function.[3][4] It also functions as ... Simple tests are available to measure the levels of vitamin C in the urine and in serum or blood plasma. However these reflect ... Reptiles and older orders of birds make ascorbic acid in their kidneys. Recent orders of birds and most mammals make ascorbic ...
... kidney function gets degraded. We conserve water best when our kidneys are able to efficiently and effectively concentrate ... urine.. But as our kidney function declines with age, so does our ability to retain the proper balance of water, increasing the ... Our bodies have an incredible ability to adjust to survive just about anything we subject them to, at least in the short term, ... Most experts suggest its due to a number of factors including our bodies fat content, diminishing ability to process alcohol ...
... health check urine examination looks at the concentrating ability of the kidneys to detect early reduction in kidney function. ... Should your remaining kidney lose up to 50% of its ability to concentrate urine, you can still appear normal although you may ... After performing the health check we may recommend a Senior Health Check Blood and Urine Analysis Test for your pet.. To make ... Biochemistry tests check out the kidneys, liver, cholesterol, blood sugars and other body systems. ...
These mice allowed a better characterization of the role of UT-B in kidney function and in the urinary concentrating mechanism ... perfused rat kidneys (56). With dDAVP and 5 mmol/l urea in the perfusate, kidneys were unable to produce hyperosmotic urine and ... This higher urine concentrating ability is due, at least in part, to special adaptations of the kidney that have been well ... Not surprisingly, the urine concentrating defect is more severe in the former. The urinary concentrating ability of UT-A1/3 ...
An abnormal renal excretion pattern with increased diuresis and impaired urine concentrating ability was observed in ... The mechanisms are still unclear, but appear to be intrarenal and primarily located to the diseased kidney. In the present ... In the adult animals, blood pressure was measured telemetrically during different sodium conditions and the renal function was ... The parenchymal weight and glomerular area of contralateral kidneys were significantly increased in the hydronephrotic animals ...
... is a multisystemic and progressive disorder characterized by cyst formation and enlargement in the kidney (see the image below ... A decrease in urine-concentrating ability is an early manifestation of ADPKD. The cause is not known. Plasma vasopressin levels ... The functions of the polycystins have been scrutinized to the greatest extent in epithelial tissues of the kidneys and liver ... Estimation of total kidney volume in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015 Nov. 66 (5):792-801. [ ...
Kidney disease is common in older pets, but renal failure can often be managed with dietary and medical treatments. ... In kidney failure waste products accumulate in the blood due to reduced excretion. ... Urine analysis is the key step in diagnosis, as a loss in concentrating ability is the hallmark of chronic renal failure. Other ... Acute kidney failure. A sudden, abrupt decrease in function of the kidneys results in the syndrome of acute kidney failure. ...
The kidneys are the only body system that are directly affected by tubulointerstitial nephritis. Kidney function is usually ... Damage to the distal tubule may cause loss of urine-concentrating ability and polyuria. In most cases of acute ... If the illness is caused by an allergic reaction, a corticosteroid may speed the recovery kidney function; however, this is ... the function of the kidneys will return after the harmful drug is not taken anymore, or when the underlying disease is cured by ...
These two functions of AVT allow birds to maintain a concentrated urine. Avian kidneys do not send urine to a bladder. Instead ... The ability to produce hyposmotic urine is from the medullary cones. Urine is mixed with digestive fluids rather than directly ... which are located in the innermost area of the kidney, have complex glomeruli, and contain loops of Henle. Once the kidneys ... Finally, urine as the end product travels to the ureters to be excreted. The kidneys of a common raven filter about eleven ...
... is found only in the kidney (Ramírez-Lorca et al. 2006). AQP2 is critical in regulating urine concentrating ability. The ... important for the development of kidney proximal tubules; disruption produces neonatally fatal polycystic kidneys (Ishibashi ... AQP2 function is generally regulated by arginine-vasopressin to accomplish key functions in osmoregulation such as the ... It plays a key role in concentrating urine. Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage ...
... bridge the gap between normal kidney function and disease with pathophysiology content throughout the book. ... p>Gain a foundational understanding of renal physiology and how the renal system functions in health and disease. ... Arginine Vasopressin Actions on the Kidneys. Thirst. Renal Mechanisms for Dilution and Concentration of the Urine ... Assessment of Renal Diluting and Concentrating Ability. Summary. Key Words and Concepts ...
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ... To compare kidney size (used as proxy for total renal angiomyolipoma [rAML] size) and kidney function outcomes between patients ... Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney ... is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are non- ...
... clinicaltrials.gov The purpose of the study is to evaluate how subjects with mild or moderate kidney problems process or ... Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ... The most severe form is KIDNEY FAILURE. Renal function may deteriorate slowly (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, CHRONIC) or precipitously ( ... kidney problems process or breakdown the study drug GW679769 in their bodies as compared to healthy subjects. ...
... combined with the effects SCD has on the kidneys and their ability to concentrate urine, enuresis (bedwetting) can be a problem ... Blood in the urine can happen from kidney damage, or in rare cases, it can be caused by a tumor," says Dr. Ofelia Alvarez, a ... organ function." Learning about sickle cell medications and how to administer them was also a high priority. This was ... At the age of 38, Chris saw blood in his urine. At the emergency room, a CT scan found a tumor in his right kidney. Chris was ...
Will this cause damage to my kidneys in the future? ... tremendous concentrating ability and may reduce daily urine ... Medanta Kidney and Urology Institute. Medanta, the Medicity. Q: I am 24 years old, male. I work as a software engineer, sitting ... output to 600 ml, and still carry on normal renal functions. Daily insensible water loss in air-conditioned environment is ... Keeping urine output at minimum does not damage kidneys but urine remains highly concentrated and supersaturated, making such ...
Urine*Diabetes insipidus (related to decreased ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine) ... Provide contact information, if desired, for the National Kidney Foundation (www.kidney.org). ... Assist in the evaluation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) function * Assist in rapid screening for toxic substances, such as ... Dehydration (related to decrease in water excreted by the kidneys that results in a more concentrated urine) ...
Renal tubular dysfunction, such as dRTA; impaired urine concentrating ability; hypocitraturia; and decreased tubular ... Hand function was assessed by the Grip Ability Test (GAT) and Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI). Peak and average grip ... The kidneys may be involved, e.g. tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). dRTA is often ... We found that the relative MAG3 clearance of the stenotic kidney increased (from 29.9 ± 14% to 35.1 ± 14%, p=0.01) and that the ...
Urine tests to rule out urinary tract infection and to evaluate the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine ... Chemistry tests to evaluate kidney, liver, and pancreatic function, as well as sugar levels ... Some antifungal drugs have the potential to cause kidney and liver damage, so your veterinarian will want to monitor your dogs ...
Urine tests to rule out urinary tract infection and to evaluate the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine ... Chemistry tests to evaluate kidney, liver and pancreatic function as well as sugar levels ...
Urine tests to rule out urinary tract infection and to evaluate the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine ... Chemistry tests to evaluate kidney, liver, and pancreatic function, as well as sugar levels ... Some antifungal drugs have the potential to cause kidney and liver damage, so your veterinarian will want to monitor your cats ...
Kidney disease is often called the "silent killer" as it sometimes takes a significant decline in function before symptoms ... Additionally every patient is different in that some people with 20% function feel better than others with the same degree.I ... Go to the NKF website or www.kidney.org for more info. ... test of kidney function is the ability to concentrate urine ... Testing Kidneys. The accurate way to assess ones renal function is a with a 24 hour urine collection for a creatinine ...
... and producing urine. A cats body is a wonderful machine, and even though it works best ... Kidneys are the organs in the body that are responsible for filtering out metabolic waste products from the blood, conserving ... Kidney disease may be the most common ailment of cats over the age of nine years. ... Urine specific gravity relates to the concentrating ability of the kidneys. Cats typically have very concentrated urine, ...
The ability of mammals and some birds to concentrate wastes into a volume of urine much smaller than the volume of blood from ... Nephrology is the speciality that deals with kidney function and disease. Medical terms related to the kidneys commonly use ... Main article: Kidney disease. Kidney disease is an abnormal structure, function or process in the kidney(s). Nephrosis is non- ... Kidney injury and failure[edit]. Main articles: Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, and Kidney failure ...
This page has a detailed explanation of how we diagnose and treat kidney disease in animals, especially dogs and cats. Early ... So, the ability to concentrate the urine and dilute the urine is an important function of the kidneys. It is a fine tuned ... The ability of the kidneys to dilute and concentrate the urine is an important parameter to monitor. Water has a specific ... Kidney Disease (Chronic Kidney Disease) or Chronic Renal Failure. Home•Kidney Disease (Chronic Kidney Disease) or Chronic Renal ...
... in electrolyte handling and the ability to dilute and concentrate urine also result from functional changes in the kidneys ... Valuable information regarding pulmonary function can be obtained by questioning the elderly patient with regard to ability to ... Nervous system function tends to decline with age, leading to impairments in cognition, motor, sensory, and autonomic function ... Baroreceptor function is depressed in the elderly. An increase in vagal tone and decreased sensitivity of adrenergic receptors ...
... is the permanent alteration in the kidneys ability to perform filtration and reabsorption functions. Patients with CKD can ... Patients with CKD may also suffer from a sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove waste and concentrate urine and/or ... The abrupt loss of kidney function is acute kidney failure (AKF) or acute kidney injury, Lawson says. ... As kidneys lose function or filtering ability, they do not filter waste correctly and the creatinine level in the blood start ...
  • Potassium and B vitamins are lost in increasing amounts as the amount of urine produced increases, and may result in deficiencies. (vetstream.com)
  • However, many of the most important functions can be summarised through the processes of filtration, secretion, and reabsorption. (hubpages.com)
  • The urologist can diagnose tumors of a murine kidney specii c effects care should be accompanied by renal secretion rather than diploid genome gynogenetic haploids are produced in a multiprofessional forum the emphasis must be eaten and absorbed. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • If the filtration pressure is not adequate for urine filtration and secretion, the RA system will tighten the blood vessels in this organ. (blogspot.com)