Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Encephalitis, Japanese: A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Encephalomyelitis, Equine: A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated: An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)Limbic Encephalitis: A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex: An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Encephalomyelitis, Western Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein: A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Ochlerotatus: A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: Disorder characterized by symptoms of CATATONIA; HYPOVENTILATION; DYSKINESIAS; ENCEPHALITIS; and SEIZURES followed by a reduced CONSCIOUSNESS. It is often followed by a viral-like prodrome. Many cases are self-limiting and respond well to IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES against the NMDA RECEPTORS antibodies.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).Encephalitis, California: A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.VenezuelaEncephalitis Viruses, Japanese: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Theilovirus: A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Myelin Proteolipid Protein: A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.South AmericaRNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Rats, Inbred LewToxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Flavivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Encephalomyelitis Virus, Avian: A tentative species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.PanamaMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cardiovirus Infections: Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Maus Elberfeld virus: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System: Degenerative or inflammatory conditions affecting the central or peripheral nervous system that develop in association with a systemic neoplasm without direct invasion by tumor. They may be associated with circulating antibodies that react with the affected neural tissue. (Intern Med 1996 Dec;35(12):925-9)Mice, Inbred BALB CViral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Amebiasis: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster: Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)Enterovirus InfectionsRodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.La Crosse virus: A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Encephalitis Virus, California: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.ColombiaCommunicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.PeruCobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.North AmericaMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Central AmericaGenome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic: Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS: Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.AlabamaSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).FloridaFatigue Syndrome, Chronic: A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)Roseolovirus Infections: Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Henipavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HENIPAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.Encephalomyelitis, Enzootic Porcine: A picornavirus infection producing symptoms similar to poliomyelitis in pigs.ArgentinaTh17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.TexasVirion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Nipah Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Togaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.Herpesvirus 6, Human: The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Lobosea: A class of amoeboid EUKARYOTES that forms either filiform subpseudopodia or lobopodia. Characteristics include the absence of sorocarps, sporangia, or similar fruiting bodies. Lobosea were formerly members of the phylum Sarcomastigophora, subphylum Sarcodina, under the old five kingdom paradigm.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Czechoslovakia: Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses combined. Factors influencing the transmission and control of ... Since then, most cases of encephalitis have been associated with the La Crosse virus, and California encephalitis is a rare ... Two years later the first human cases of encephalitis were attributed to this new virus. Three cases in total were reported, ... California encephalitis virus was discovered in Kern County, California and causes encephalitis in humans. Encephalitis is an ...
... and an ancestral Eastern equine encephalitis virus-like virus. There have been under 700 confirmed cases in the U.S. since 1964 ... The Western equine encephalomyelitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus Sherman, M. B.; Weaver, S. C. (2010). "Structure of the Recombinant Alphavirus Western Equine ... Unlike Eastern equine encephalitis, the overall mortality of WEE is low (approximately 4%) and is associated mostly with ...
Eastern equine encephalitis Western equine encephalitis St. Louis encephalitis Rabies La crosse encephalitis Progressive ... most cases occur in those with congenital rubella syndrome Varicella-zoster encephalitis Acute Measles encephalitis Mumps ... post infectious and encephalomyelitis. The most common diseases caused by chronic viral infections are subacute-sclerosing ... Infants with encephalitis often have seizures or other abnormal movements. Infants with severe encephalitis may become ...
Western equine encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus "Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis" (PDF). United States ... In Florida about one to two human cases are reported a year although over sixty cases of equine encephalitis are reported. Some ... "Eastern Equine Encephalitis". CDC. August 16, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2012. "Eastern Equine Encephalitis Fact Sheet". CDC. ... "Eastern Equine Encephalitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC. Retrieved 30 April 2017. "Eastern Equine ...
"CDC - Eastern Equine Encephalitis". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-14. "Nyctanassa violacea (Yellow-crowned Night-heron, Yellow ... the yellow-crowned night heron is an intermediate host and amplifier of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus ( ... However, EEE remains a rare disease which symptoms can be treated, and only a few cases are declared every year. Being a highly ... and the eastern Texas coast. It is also found in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America (south to ...
... the eastern equine encephalitis virus subgroup (eastern equine encephalitis and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses) and the ... in the case of Venezuelan equine encephalitis the virus is mainly amplified in horses. In most other cases the virus is ... "A comparison of the nucleotide sequences of eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses with those of other ... Barmah Forest virus complex Barmah Forest virus Eastern equine encephalitis complex Eastern equine encephalitis virus (seven ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Death from LAC encephalitis occurs in less than 1% of clinical cases. In many clinical settings, pediatric cases presenting ... Western and Eastern equine encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus. ... between 2004 and 2013 the most cases of La Crosse encephalitis was in North Carolina. North Carolina had 184 total cases, ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Benin had its first confirmed cases in 2014, and Togo had its first confirmed cases in 2016.[12] ... there were 1081 suspected cases and 90 reported deaths; 317 of the cases and 72 deaths were confirmed as Lassa.[32] ... Descriptions of the disease date from the 1950s.[1] The virus was first described in 1969 from a case in the town of Lassa, in ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Clinical observations and virological studies on selected hospital cases". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ... Fraser, D. W.; Campbell, C. C.; Monath, T. P.; Goff, P. A.; Gregg, M. B. (1974-11-01). "Lassa fever in the Eastern Province of ... Monath, T. P.; Maher, M.; Casals, J.; Kissling, R. E.; Cacciapuoti, A. (1974-11-01). "Lassa fever in the Eastern Province of ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... MERS confirmed cases and deaths. From September 2012 to 10 March 2015, and June 2015 Cases Deaths Fatality ... Article published in Eastern Daylight Time) *^ "South Korea Reports Third Death as MERS Cases Rise". Wall Street Journal. ... After a period of few cases, cases began increasing in the middle of the summer.[65] The CDC placed the travel health alert to ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... In the 12th century a case of a hemorrhagic disease reported from what is now Tajikistan may have been the first known case of ... From 1995 to 2013, 228 cases of CCHF were reported in the Republic of Kosovo, with a case-fatality rate of 25.5%.[21] ... In 2008, more than 50 cases/year were reported from only 4 countries: Turkey, Iran, Russia and Uzbekistan. 5-49 cases/year were ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... In the case of the day-active A. aegypti and A. albopictus, however, this will have only a limited effect, since many contacts ... 1,118,763 suspected cases and 24,682 confirmed cases were reported by the PAHO.[73] ... it is now thought some chikungunya and dengue cases could in fact be zika virus cases or coinfections. ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... 1980 cases[edit]. A case of MARV infection occurred in 1980 in Kenya. A French man, who worked as an electrical engineer in a ... 1987 case[edit]. In 1987, a single lethal case of RAVV infection occurred in a 15-year-old Danish boy, who spent his vacation ... 2007 cases[edit]. In 2007, four miners became infected with marburgviruses in Kamwenge District, Uganda. The first case, a 29- ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with up to 70,000 cases reported annually.[25] ... Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... Japanese encephalitis has been reported in the Torres Strait Islands and two fatal cases were reported in mainland northern ...
Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. *Venezuelan equine ... "Ebola outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo tops 1,000 cases , CDC Online Newsroom , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 29 March ... "Congo tracing contacts of first Ebola case in eastern city". AP News. Retrieved 17 July 2019.. ... almost all centered on the Yambuku mission hospital or close contacts of another case.[153] In all, 318 cases and 280 deaths ( ...
Spanish sheep encephalomyelitis virus (SSEV) Turkish sheep encephalitis virus (TSE) Tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex ... The European and Far Eastern tick borne encephalitis strains diverged about 1087 (1610-649) years ago. European tick borne ... A 2007 fatal case in a killer whale in Texas broadened the known host range of West Nile virus to include cetaceans. Omsk ... From statements by Orsolya Kutasi, DVM, of the Szent Istvan University, Hungary at the 2009 American Association of Equine ...
Herpes simplex, West Nile, Rabies, Eastern equine encephalitis, others[2]. Causes. Infection, autoimmune, certain medication, ... Some cases of limbic encephalitis are of autoimmune origin.[15] Autoimmune encephalitis[edit]. Main article: Autoimmune ... While encephalitis with involvement of the spinal cord is known as encephalomyelitis.[2] ... The number of new cases a year of acute encephalitis in Western countries is 7.4 cases per 100,000 people per year. In tropical ...
Number of Cases. Approximately 100 Category (i.e. febrile illness, etc.). Encephalitis ... Fever (S), headache (S), prostration (S), stiff neck (S), myalgia(S), arthralgia (S), CNS signs (including encephalitis)(S), ... Eastern equine encephalomyelitis Abbreviation: EEEV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. Yes SALS Level. 2 ...
What is eastern equine encephalomyelitis? Meaning of eastern equine encephalomyelitis medical term. What does eastern equine ... Looking for online definition of eastern equine encephalomyelitis in the Medical Dictionary? eastern equine encephalomyelitis ... Louis encephalitis in Argentina: the first case reported in the last seventeen years. (Letters) ... Related to eastern equine encephalomyelitis: Western equine encephalitis, VEE virus. east·ern e·quine en·ceph·a·lo·my·e·li·tis ...
... the lineage I of eastern equine encephalitis virus and RNV (VEEV complex), respectively. Plaque reduction neutralization test ... against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IAB, Pixuna virus (PIXV), Rio Negro virus (RNV), western equine ... Madariaga virus had a low seroprevalence in equines, but an epizootic lineage typical of North America was detected in Cx. ... encephalitis virus (WEEV), and Madariaga virus (MADV). Mosquitoes belonging to six genera were captured and 82.9% were ...
This summers record-breaking outbreak of Eastern equine encephalitis highlights the importance of cities and states ability to ... This summers record-breaking outbreak of Eastern equine encephalitis highlights the importance of cities and states ability to ... Equine encephalomyelitis in Massachusetts: an analysis of the 1938 outbreak, a follow-up of cases and a report of a mosquito ... Number of reported cases of Eastern equine encephalitis virus disease (N = 34), by county of residence - United States, 2019*. ...
La Crosse encephalitis, and western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis also occur. Although mosquito longevity ... 522 cases in 1995), plague (55 cases in 1996), Venezuelan equine encephalitis (25 546 cases in 1995), and other arboviral ... Freier JE. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis Lancet, 1993, 342: 1281 1282. 100. Wenzel RP. A new hantavirus infection in North ... Reisen WK. Effect of temperature on the transmission of Western Equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses by ...
Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Western equine encephalomyelitis viruses with known circulation in Argentina were ... Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis (10). The typical MRI finding of patients with St. Louis encephalitis is localized ... cases of St. Louis encephalitis reported in Argentina are very rare. Two cases with serologic diagnosis were reported in 1964 ... Louis Encephalitis in Argentina: the First Case Reported in the Last Seventeen Years. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 9(2), 271- ...
... and cats in New York City after an outbreak of human WN virus encephalitis in 1999. Two (3%) of 73 horses, 10 (5%) of 189 dogs ... with cases clustered in eastern Suffolk County. At least one equine case of WN encephalitis occurred close to New York City in ... Clinical and neuropathological features of West Nile virus equine encephalomyelitis in Italy. Equine Vet J. 2000;32:31-5. DOI ... Indeed, horses have been used as public health sentinels for both eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses, mosquito- ...
... of reported human cases of La Crosse encephalitis (LAC), eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), and St. Louis encephalitis ( ... Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis During 1996-1997, a total of 19 eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) cases (all confirmed; ... TABLE 2. Number of eastern (EEE) and western (WEE) equine encephalomyelitis cases among horses, by state -- United States, 1996 ... incipient human cases. During 1996-1997, a total of 274 cases of arboviral encephalitis in horses (151 cases in 1996 and 123 in ...
... including western equine encephalomyelitis, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and Japanese B encephalitis, have caused ... Essential tremor is not the same as Parkinsons, and usually does not lead to it, although in some cases the two conditions may ... Sacks was able to temporarily "awaken" these patients from their statue-like state). In rare cases, other viral infections, ... Just after the first World War, a viral disease, encephalitis lethargica, attacked almost 5 million people throughout the world ...
In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a ... In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a ... This model provides a tool to test mechanisms of and treatments for the neurological sequelae of viral encephalitis and begins ... can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. ...
... endemic to eastern regions of north america. The causative organism (encephalomyelitis virus, eastern equine) may be ... The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and epilepsy. (from Joynt ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus infection. Clinical Information *A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting ... Eastern equine encephalitis. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code *A83.2 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that ...
The infection rate for Culiseta melanura of 0.39 per 1,000 tested mosquitoes identified human cases with a sensitivity of 0.87 ... we evaluated retrospectively a total of 592,637 mosquitoes and onset dates for 20 confirmed human cases over 26 years in ... Weekly infection rates and number of infected Culiseta melanura captured per trap night were positively associated EEE cases (P ... Human eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a life-threatening mosquito-borne disease. To determine whether mosquito abundance ...
The American Association of Equine Practitioners divides these into ?core? vaccines, which every horse needs to receive, and ? ... Two forms that most commonly affect horses are eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) and western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE ... Cases typically begin to appear with the arrival of warm weather and persist through the summer months. The disease is ... However, West Nile infection sometimes triggers swelling of the brain (encephalitis) that produces limb weakness, muscle ...
Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses combined. Factors influencing the transmission and control of ... Since then, most cases of encephalitis have been associated with the La Crosse virus, and California encephalitis is a rare ... Two years later the first human cases of encephalitis were attributed to this new virus. Three cases in total were reported, ... California encephalitis virus was discovered in Kern County, California and causes encephalitis in humans. Encephalitis is an ...
... equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, and eastern, western, or Venezue- lan equine encephalomyelitis. ... These may be indistinguishable from other equine encephalitides, including rabies, equine herpesvirus-1 (see page 10), ... What constitutes a suspect case--and how it should be investigated--depends on whether or not it occurs in a West Nile Virus- ... Fever has been detected in less than one-quarter of all confirmed cases. ...
... and an ancestral Eastern equine encephalitis virus-like virus. There have been under 700 confirmed cases in the U.S. since 1964 ... The Western equine encephalomyelitis virus is the causative agent of relatively uncommon viral disease Western equine ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus Sherman, M. B.; Weaver, S. C. (2010). "Structure of the Recombinant Alphavirus Western Equine ... Unlike Eastern equine encephalitis, the overall mortality of WEE is low (approximately 4%) and is associated mostly with ...
Eastern equine encephalitis is a dangerous and deadly mosquito-borne illness. Heres what you need to know about it and how to ... Most cases of EEE have been reported from Gulf Coast and Atlantic states, although the virus has also been found in the Great ... The virus was isolated two years later when a significant outbreak of encephalomyelitis occurred in horses in parts of Delaware ... What is Eastern equine encephalitis?. Eastern equine encephalitis is a dangerous and deadly mosquito-borne illness. Heres what ...
... the differential diagnoses include Japanese encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, rhombencephalitis due to various ... Rabies encephalitis mimicking the electrophysiological pattern of brain death: a case report. Eur Neurol 1993;33:212-217. ... a severe form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis that may manifest with fever and multiple sclerosis (1, 2, 15-19). The MR ... Clinical and neuroradiographic manifestations of eastern equine encephalitis. N Engl J Med 1997;26:1867-1874. ...
Recognizing the signs of equine neurological disorders and starting treatment early will give your horse his best chance of ... In the United States, the others are Eastern and Western encephalomyelitis. Another, Venezuelan encephalomyelitis, hasn't ... EHV-1. Equine herpesvirus type 1 usually causes a flu-like illness or, in pregnant mares, abortion. But in some cases, the ... Other forms of equine encephalitis have somewhat higher death rates and less chance of full recovery. ...
Honored Gentemens/Ladies Let us we say to you that thare are too many cases of rabies in Serbia country , but as we can see ... Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern) · Foot and mouth disease · Heartwater · Japanese encephalitis · Leptospirosis · New world ... Equine encephalomyelitis (Western). · Equine infectious anaemia. · Equine influenza. · Equine piroplasmosis. · Equine ... Equine diseases. *African horse sickness. · Contagious equine metritis. · Dourine. · ...
The role of chickens in the epidemiology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in Jamaica. ... Two cases of herpes simplex encephalitis at the University Hospital of the West Indies. ...
Etiology: Alphavirus of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). The south central United States is still plagued by cases of EEE. We ... equine. Conference Note: Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (EEE, WEE, VEE) are important diseases of ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis: 1:640. 5. Western Equine Encephalitis: 1:120. 6. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis: 1:20.. 7. Eastern ... TN, Shane SM, Poston RP, England JJ, Vice CC, Cho D-Y, Panigraphy B: Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of emus (Dromais ...
What is encephalitis japonica? Meaning of encephalitis japonica medical term. What does encephalitis japonica mean? ... Looking for online definition of encephalitis japonica in the Medical Dictionary? encephalitis japonica explanation free. ... A large percentage of the cases are caused by viruses, some of them, e.g. equine encephalomyelitis, being transmitted from ... Human pathogens which sometimes infect animals include Central European, Far Eastern Russian tick-borne encephalitides, Omsk ...
Louis Encephalitis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search. ... Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Symptoms of illness begin with the sudden onset of high fever, chills, headache, nausea, and ... California Encephalitis Mild cases usually show non-specific symptoms with fever lasting 2-3 days, chills, headache, and ... Eastern Equine Encephalitis Symptoms of illness begin with the sudden onset of high fever, chills, headache, nausea, and ...
... also known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus, has been identified in animals and humans in South and Central ... Eastern equine encephalitis in Latin America. Carrera JP, Forrester N, Wang E, Vittor AY, Haddow AD, López-Vergès S, Abadía I, ... 2015) Case report: Madariaga virus infection associated with a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg ... 2013) Eastern equine encephalitis in Latin America. N Engl J Med 369:732-744. 10.1056/NEJMoa1212628 - DOI - PMC - PubMed ...
  • Today, vaccines are available for 12 equine diseases. (equisearch.com)
  • Recognizing the signs of equine neurological disorders and starting treatment early will give your horse his best chance of recovery from these diseases. (equisearch.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) easily ranks among the worst diseases a horse could get. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Click to learn about all the Equine Reportable Diseases in the State of Michigan. (michigan.gov)
  • There is no other book that provides a careful case description that includes all the neurologic features of 19 neurologic diseases produced by virus, as well as cases of bacterial meningitis and other infections produced by spirochetes, protozoans and prions, as well as inflammatory diseases of the nervous system of unknown etiology. (oup.com)
  • Anyone who reads every case in this book will know the essentials needed to diagnose and care for patients with infectious or inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. (oup.com)
  • The USDA's new National Surveillance Unit (NSU) has established a web site on which the public can see where equine diseases such as Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) and Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) have been detected. (equineservices.com)
  • Some species are concerned with the transmission of diseases, such as equine encephalomyelitis, filarial nematodes, avian malaria and Rift Valley fever. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Western equine encephalitis virus must be differentiated from other diseases that cause fever , headache , seizures , and altered mental status . (wikidoc.org)
  • This is to be expected as these diseases made their entrance into the equine world in Canada over eighty years ago and there was virtually no incidence for over twenty years, that is until the return of EEE in Eastern Canada in the early 90's at very low incidence, which escalated significantly in 2003, receded over the next five years, then escalated again in 2008 and 2009. (horsewelfare.ca)
  • In rare cases, encephalitis may follow vaccination against some of the viral diseases listed above. (healthofchildren.com)
  • The viruses responsible for these diseases are classified as arbovirus, and these diseases are collectively called arbovirus encephalitis. (healthofchildren.com)
  • The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) has recommended that state health departments report cases of selected diseases ( Table 1 ) to CDC's National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). (cdc.gov)
  • As uniform case definitions are adopted, the incidence of reported diseases in different geographic areas may be more meaningfully compared. (cdc.gov)
  • Many of the childhood vaccine-preventable diseases include epidemiologic criteria (e.g., exposure to probable or confirmed cases of disease) in the case definitions. (cdc.gov)
  • For many diseases, substantial amounts of information, including results of laboratory tests, must be collected before a final case classification is possible. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have established a policy that requires state health departments to report cases of selected diseases ( Table 1 ) to CDC's National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • In October 1990, in collaboration with CSTE, CDC published Case Definitions for Public Health Surveillance (4), which, for the first time, provided uniform criteria for reporting cases to increase the specificity of reporting and improve the comparability of diseases reported from different geographic areas. (cdc.gov)
  • The CDC Surveillance Coordination Group has established a steering committee that is charged with the development of a broad range of case definitions for noninfectious conditions (e.g., environmental or occupational conditions, chronic diseases, adverse reproductive health events, and injuries). (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of this study was to identify a panel of cell markers for studying cellular pathogenesis in equine infectious brain diseases. (peerj.com)
  • 64.1(5) Equine diseases. (iowa.gov)
  • EEEV neuroinvasive disease is estimated to have a 30% case-fatality rate with approximately half of survivors left with neurologic sequelae ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • During 2003-2018, an average of eight EEEV disease cases were reported annually in the United States (range = 4-21 cases) ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, as of October 15, 2019, CDC received reports of 34 cases of EEEV disease from 21 counties in seven states ( Figure ). (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we describe development of a model to predict exposure risk of sentinel chickens to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in Walton County, Florida between 2009 and 2010 using avian species richness as well as densities of individual host species potentially important to EEEV transmission as candidate predictor variables. (jove.com)
  • History and Geographical Data According the Centers for Disease Control, the first human case of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) was discovered in 1938 in Massachusetts. (focoprendido.org)
  • Rhinopneumonitis (equine herpesvirus): a contagious disease caused by two forms of the same virus, EHV-1 or EHV-4. (equisearch.com)
  • The neurologic form of type 1, also called Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy, and the respiratory form of type 1 and type 4, called Rhinopneumonitis, are reportable in the State of Michigan. (michigan.gov)
  • Equine Herpesvirus-1, EHV-1, (strain 1) has been an emerging disease as of late, especially in the neurologic form. (michigan.gov)
  • Visit the USDA's Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) website to learn more. (michigan.gov)
  • We present a case of a young man who developed an incomplete LIS as a sequel of ADEM. (hindawi.com)
  • Entomological aspects of the 1959 outbreak of eastern encephalitis in New Jersey. (ajtmh.org)
  • In 2016, there were isolated cases in New Jersey and Michigan, plus an outbreak of 19 in Wisconsin. (equusmagazine.com)
  • This has been a more serious outbreak than anything in our history,″ said Dr. Venaye Reece, the equine program coordinator in the South Carolina state veterinarian's office. (apnews.com)
  • In 1995, the last major outbreak occurred in Venezuela and Columbia and resulted in approximately 75,000 cases, of which 3,000 had severe neurological complications and 300 progressed to mortality . (wikidoc.org)
  • Avoid areas where there has been an outbreak of viral encephalitis. (nkch.org)
  • Clinical and neuroradiographic manifestations of eastern equine encephalitis. (ajtmh.org)
  • In clinical practice, most doctors consider encephalitis to be a viral illness. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Neuroinvasive vs non-neuroinvasive western equine encephalitis can be differentiated based on both clinical and laboratory findings. (wikidoc.org)
  • We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. (utmb.edu)
  • The CSTE/CDC surveillance case definitions included in this document vary in their use of clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic criteria to define cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Unless the clinical description is explicitly cited in the 'Case classification' section of each definition, it is included only as background information. (cdc.gov)
  • Use of additional clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data may enable a physician to diagnose a disease even though the surveillance case definition may not be met. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, in this study, the virus of this disease was of etiological significance in only about 10 percent of the cases which had been given a final clinical diagnosis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis. (army.mil)
  • Death from LAC encephalitis occurs in less than 1% of clinical cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many clinical settings, pediatric cases presenting with CNS involvement are routinely screened for herpes or enteroviral causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 32 (94%) had a diagnosis of encephalitis, and two (6%) had a diagnosis of meningitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Two cases with serologic diagnosis were reported in 1964 and 1968, respectively ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • But every neurologic case doesn't end badly, and quick action?recognizing signs, getting a diagnosis and starting appropriate treatment?can give your horse the best chance. (equisearch.com)
  • Following conversation with the horse's owner, and in consultation with the attending veterinarian, a diagnosis of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) having affected the horse was confirmed and the Cabinet for Health Services' Department of Public Health was notified of this diagnosis on Friday evening. (stablemanagement.com)
  • Thus, for the first time, all the available procedures for the diagnosis of viral infections of the central nervous system were applied to a large number of cases occurring in a variety of geographic locations all over the world. (army.mil)
  • Cases determined by laboratory diagnosis. (army.mil)
  • Neurological sequelae are a widespread and understudied consequence of virus encephalitis that can have profound influence on the survivor's quality of life. (frontiersin.org)
  • The most common neurologic problem equine veterinarians see in the United States is an abnormal gait,' Dr. Sellon says. (equisearch.com)
  • Once a horse becomes infected with the EEE virus and develops neurologic signs, the disease is fatal in roughly 90% of cases. (equineservices.com)
  • In certain cases, patients may present with neurologic complaints as the initial manifestation (e.g., with neurocysticercosis). (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • There are some instances where a horse with lameness may appear neurologic, and other cases where a neurologic problem looks like a lameness issue. (horseillustrated.com)
  • In all cases, WN antibody titers were at least fourfold higher than SLE titers (data not shown). (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of eastern encephalitis virus and antibody in wild and domestic birds in Massachusetts. (ajtmh.org)
  • Murray State University's Breathitt Veterinary Center (BVC) contacted the Kentucky State Veterinarian's Office and reported testing conducted on equine serum forwarded by the BVC to USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratory had been reported positive for Eastern equine encephalitis virus IgM (antibody) by an ELISA assay. (stablemanagement.com)
  • Individual, optimized protocols are provided for each positively reactive antibody for analyzing equine neuroinflammatory disease histopathology. (peerj.com)
  • It's a kind of allergic reaction to many stimuli, including drugs, infections, foods etc, and in your case-insect bite. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • But most people who get these types of infections don't get encephalitis. (nkch.org)
  • Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • To receive news and publication updates for Case Reports in Neurological Medicine, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • In rare cases, some strains of these herpesviruses also cause potentially fatal neurological complications. (sctrailers.net)
  • Cell marker panels are often composed of both equine and non-equine specific antibodies, of which most are used in flow cytometry. (peerj.com)