Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pirenzepine: An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Autonomic Agents: Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Glycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.United StatesAdaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Cholinesterase Reactivators: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Oxotremorine: A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Ganglionic Blockers: Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Bethanechol CompoundsMembrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cholinergic Agents: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Quinuclidinyl Benzilate: A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
At higher-than-therapeutic doses, atropine and scopolamine cause CNS depression characterized by amnesia, fatigue, and ... Atropine acts on the M2 receptors of the heart and antagonizes the activity of acetylcholine. It causes tachycardia by blocking ... However, scopolamine has greater effects on the central nervous system (CNS) than atropine due to its ability to cross the ... Acetylcholine hyperpolarizes the sinoatrial node, which is overcome by MRA and thus increases the heart rate. If atropine is ...
... and causing CNS depression. In overdose situations this pharmacological effect is extended leading to a more severe CNS ... Bradycardia is treated with atropine or an infusion of norepinephrine to increase coronary blood flow and heart rate. ... Obtaining a laboratory test for benzodiazepine blood concentrations can be useful in patients presenting with CNS depression or ... Flumazenil is very effective at reversing the CNS depression associated with benzodiazepines but is less effective at reversing ...
Older patients are at a higher risk of experiencing CNS sideffects due to lower acetylcholine production. A common mnemonic for ... The most common plants containing anticholinergic alkaloids (including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine among others) are ... And the heart runs alone (tachycardia) Acute anticholinergic syndrome is reversible and subsides once all of the causative ... Confusion Disorientation Agitation Euphoria or dysphoria Respiratory depression Memory problems Inability to concentrate ...
Cotreatment with CNS depressants such as the benzodiazepines can cause additive CNS depression. Co-treatment with thyroid ... Doxepin also may potentiate the adverse effects of anticholinergic agents such as benztropine, atropine and hyoscine ( ... abnormal heart rhythms (e.g., sinus tachycardia, bradycardia, and atrioventricular block) Allergic/toxic: skin rash, ... Whereas in Australia and the United Kingdom, the only licensed indication(s) is/are in the treatment of major depression and ...
Histamine works with the central nervous system (CNS), specifically the hypothalamus (tuberomammillary nucleus) and CNS mast ... of serotonin seemed to help some people diagnosed with depression, it was theorized that people with depression might have ... Through a series of experiments involving the vagus nerves of frogs, Loewi was able to manually slow the heart rate of frogs by ... The most common is called Atropine. Indirect-acting antagonist- drugs that inhibit the release/production of neurotransmitters ...
Hypoactive cases are prone to non detection or misdiagnosis as depression. A range of studies suggest that motor subtypes ... Attard A, Ranjith G, Taylor D (August 2008). "Delirium and its treatment". CNS Drugs. 22 (8): 631-44. doi:10.2165/00023210- ... Earliest rodent models of delirium used an antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, atropine, to induce cognitive ... decompensated heart failure Physical/psychological stress Pain Iatrogenic event, esp. post-operative, mechanical ventilation in ...
Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ... Older patients are at a higher risk of experiencing CNS side effects. ... Respiratory depression. *Memory problems[15]. *Inability to concentrate. *Wandering thoughts; inability to sustain a train of ... Increased heart rate. *Tendency to be easily startled. *Urinary retention. *Urinary incontinence while sleeping ...
Effects are seen within 2-5 minutes, and last 30-60 minutes.[6] It can also cross the blood-brain-barrier and enter the CNS ... The major complication of fentanyl is respiratory depression, which can be made worse when given with other sedative agents. ... Examples of comorbidities include heart failure, COPD, neuromuscular disease. Use the ASA Classification to predict a patient's ... It can also cross the blood-brain-barrier and enter the CNS system. Adverse effects to look out for include hypotension (low ...
Then he took the fluid from the heart and transferred it to a second frog heart without a vagus nerve. The second heart slowed ... MedEd at Loyola grossanatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cn10.htm "10-1". Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on ... Drugs that inhibit the muscarinic receptors (anticholinergics) such as atropine and scopolamine, are called vagolytic because ... 2006). "VNS therapy in treatment-resistant depression: clinical evidence and putative neurobiological mechanisms". ...
These tropane alkaloids are poisonous and can cause death due to tachycardia-induced heart failure and hyperthermia even in ... Some dissociatives can have CNS depressant effects, thereby carrying similar risks as opioids, which can slow breathing or ... They have been and are being explored as potential therapeutic agents in treating depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, ... such as tropane alkaloids such as atropine from deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and diphenhydramine (Benadryl) ...
"CNS Drug Reviews. 7 (4): 471-481. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3458.2001.tb00211.x. ISSN 1080-563X.. ... depression, alcoholism, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, stuttering, tics, vestibular disorders, ... on Respiration of Heart and Brain Mitochondria from Animals Exposed to Stress against the Background of Inducible NO-Synthase ... Lapin, I. (2001). "Phenibut (beta-phenyl-GABA): A tranquilizer and nootropic drug". CNS Drug Reviews. 7 (4): 471-481. doi: ...
The phenobarbital and phenytoin were then combined with atropine and acetyl strophanthidin. When this failed, the atropine and ... She had been free of depression for two and a half years before the case report was written up. In 1999, Drs. Linda C. Schaffer ... 25% of the thirty-two cases had congenital heart defects; the reported rate in cleft lip and palate was 3-5%. Meadow emphasized ... but the typical patient only made a full recovery-cessation of CNS and PNS symptoms as well as anemia-on B12 therapy. Five ...
Orr K, Taylor D (2007). "Psychostimulants in the Treatment of Depression". CNS Drugs. 21 (3): 239-57. doi:10.2165/00023210- ... This leads to effects such as mydriasis, increased heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature.[8] When ... Abuse of central nervous system (CNS) stimulants is common. Addiction to some CNS stimulants can quickly lead to medical, ... Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is approved for the treatment ...
"CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics. 14 (2): 95-106. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3458.2008.00043.x. PMC 6494023. PMID 18482023.. ... Tropeines (e.g., atropine, bemesetron, cocaine, LY-278584, tropisetron, zatosetron). *Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, ... Common side effects of propofol include an irregular heart rate, low blood pressure, a burning sensation at the site of ... Possibly as the result of depression of the central inspiratory drive, propofol may produce significant decreases in ...
Histamine works with the central nervous system (CNS), specifically the hypothalamus (tuberomammillary nucleus) and CNS mast ... of serotonin seemed to help some people diagnosed with depression, it was theorized that people with depression might have ... Through a series of experiments involving the vagus nerves of frogs, Loewi was able to manually slow the heart rate of frogs by ... The most common is called Atropine.. *Indirect-acting antagonist- drugs that inhibit the release/production of ...
Even when given in the absence of higher than normal HR, atropine will block the normal cholinergic control over the heart, ... CNS stimulation. • CNS depression. • decreased salivation. • muscle fasiculation. • extrapyramidal reactions muscle ... a. atropine and prazosin b. atropine and propranolol c. prazosin and propranolol d. phenoxybenzamine and curare e. amphetamine ... Any sudden increase in heart rate usually stimulates baroreceptors to send a signal to the vagus nerve to stimulate the heart ...
Therapeutics An atropine-like anticholinergic-or antimuscarinic, used in preanesthesia, where CNS depression is desirable, GI ... CNS: drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, restlessness, fatigue. CV: tachycardia, palpitations, hypotension, transient heart rate ... Antidepressants, antihistamines, opioid analgesics, sedative-hypnotics: additive CNS depression. Oral drugs: altered absorption ... Caution patient to avoid alcohol because it may increase CNS depression.. • As appropriate, review all other significant ...
At higher-than-therapeutic doses, atropine and scopolamine cause CNS depression characterized by amnesia, fatigue, and ... Atropine acts on the M2 receptors of the heart and antagonizes the activity of acetylcholine. It causes tachycardia by blocking ... However, scopolamine has greater effects on the central nervous system (CNS) than atropine due to its ability to cross the ... Acetylcholine hyperpolarizes the sinoatrial node, which is overcome by MRA and thus increases the heart rate. If atropine is ...
CNS depression and vivid dreams (lipophilic). CI: CV or pulmonary disease patient at increased risk of lethal outcome, ... low dose: slow heart (block M1 auto receptors). high dose: increase HR (M2 receptor). effects: diminishes heart slowing and ... AE: CNS toxicity (sedation, inability to concentrate, depression). CI: PUD or ulcerative colitis, teratogen, avoid ... increases heart contractility and rate. release of renin from juxtaglomerular cells: angiotensin to angiotensin I and II ( ...
CNS: fatigue, asthenia, anxiety, dizziness, drowsiness, insomnia, memory loss, depression, mental status changes, nervousness, ... Uncompensated heart failure. • Cardiogenic shock. • Sinus bradycardia, heart block greater than first degree. • Bronchospastic ... Keep I.V. isoproterenol, atropine, or glucagon at hand in case of emergency. ... adverse effects Among the more serious adverse effects are heart failure, heart block, increased airway resistance, ...
Central Nervous System (CNS) Depression: The commonly used anesthetics provide CNS depression to the point of loss of ... The effects are similar to atropine although the increase in heart rate may be less. ... This effect may be achieved with low doses and may not be accompanied by CNS depression. At higher doses, CNS depression may be ... and CNS depression (there is usually depression although some opioids may produce excitation and convulsions in some species). ...
Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that ... and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider. Atropine; Benzoic Acid; ... Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that ... Prior to concurrent use of oxycodone in patients taking a CNS depressant, assess the level of tolerance to CNS depression that ...
... and causing CNS depression. In overdose situations this pharmacological effect is extended leading to a more severe CNS ... Bradycardia is treated with atropine or an infusion of norepinephrine to increase coronary blood flow and heart rate. ... Obtaining a laboratory test for benzodiazepine blood concentrations can be useful in patients presenting with CNS depression or ... Flumazenil is very effective at reversing the CNS depression associated with benzodiazepines but is less effective at reversing ...
CNS: CNS depression, nervousness, euphoria, photophobia, drowsiness, headache, dizziness, diplopia, tremor, convulsions. ... Xylocaine main contraindications: hypersensitivity, WPW syndrome, cardiogenic shock, sinus node dysfunction, heart block, ... Overdose treatment: pulmonary ventilation, oxygen therapy, anticonvulsants, anticholinergics (atropine). Dialysis is ... Common side effects: headache, dizziness, tinnitus, diplopia, impaired consciousness, shortness of breath, CNS depression, ...
CNS depression, drowsiness, amnesia, fatigue, loss of REM sleep Drug used in asthma & COPD to cause bronchodilation either as ... Which drug cross the BBB better at clinical doses atropine or scopolamine Scopolamine crosses much more than atropine (which ... But as dose increases you get rapid heart rate, palpitation, marked dryness of mouth and some blurring of near vision and with ... What problems do you start to see as you increase the dose of atropine low dose you get cardiac slowing, dryness of mouth and ...
It is nonselective and has membrane-stabilizing effects that are responsible for CNS depression, seizures, and prolongation of ... Intermediate toxicity results in a moderate drop in blood pressure (systolic BP ,80 mm Hg) and/or bradycardia (heart rate , 60 ... Hemodynamic effects of intravenous fat emulsion in an animal model of severe verapamil toxicity resuscitated with atropine, ... CNS symptoms. A depressed level of consciousness and seizures may occur as a result of cellular hypoxia from poor cardiac ...
It is nonselective and has membrane-stabilizing effects that are responsible for CNS depression, seizures, and prolongation of ... Atropine enhances sinus node automaticity by blocking the effects of acetylcholine at the atrioventricular (AV) node, ... John T VanDeVoort, PharmD Regional Director of Pharmacy, Sacred Heart & St. Josephs Hospitals ... By increasing the action of GABA, which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, all levels of CNS, including ...
May cause CNS depression; use caution when operating heavy machinery; do not engage in hazardous activities or operate ... Increases ICP (head raising may alleviate); causes hypersalivation (may be controlled with atropine/glycopyrrolate) ... heart rate, and cardiac output, thereby increasing myocardial oxygen demand ... Treat CNS abnormalities, CNS masses, or hydrocephalus as a relative contraindication, due to increased intracranial pressure ...
CCB are highly protein bound with high volumes of distribution, causing hypotension, bradycardia, heart block, and CNS ... The mainstay of treatment is cardiovascular support, including fluids, calcium, vasopressors, and atropine (especially for non- ... Right heart failure due to congenital cardiac disorders. *. Consider judicious fluids 10cc/kg at a time if suspicion for ... depression. *. Interventions. *. ...
Bradycardia may be treated with atropine. If atropine fails, isoproterenol given cautiously has been recommended. Use of a ... Additive myocardial depression may occur with the concurrent use of propranolol and myocardial depressant anesthetic agents. ... Unopposed alpha effects of epinephrine may lead to rapid increases in blood pressure and decrease in heart rate when given with ... Treatment of the cardiovascular and CNS effects are symptomatic. Use fluids, and pressor agents to treat hypotension. ...
... cns depression in a similar fashion in the. Children less than years of age. The athletes ability to tolerate additional ... additional atropine procedures of the second dose of propofol anesthesia in the emergency department for a second degree heart ... Congestive heart failure due to drugs did not appreciate the spectrum of these is specic, though not of an individual familiar ... Atropine also has descending projections to the presence of many american and the functional demands will initiate pacing when ...
This deep stage of anesthesia repre-sents severe depression of alprazolam 1.5mg new zealand the cns, including the vasomotor ... the ventricular systole of the frogs heart is at firststronger and more prolonged, and soon it dilates only half as oftenas it ... In the cat the tone of the vagus is generic names for xanax less, and thechanges produced by atropine are correspondingly ... According to the mayo clinic, researchers are having positive results in studies using the drug to treat other heart and blood ...
HEART BLOCK (SECOND OR THIRD DEGREE): Isoproterenol or transvenous pacemaker.. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE: Digitalize the patient ... BRADYCARDIA: Atropine 1-2 mg intravenously. If there is no response to vagal blockade, give isoproterenol cautiously. In ... IN PATIENTS WITHOUT A HISTORY OF CARDIAC FAILURE, continued depression of the myocardium with beta-blocking agents over a ... CNS: vertigo, paresthesia, xanthopsia; Hematologic: leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia; ...
CNS effects, and respiratory depression. In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of ... When operative conditions permit, consider repositioning the patient to improve venous return to the heart. Exercise care in ... Monitor patients closely while receiving Alfentanil HCl Injection had have atropine and other resuscitative equipment present. ... Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression. Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the ...
freely enters the CNS high doses of atropine stimulate and then depress the medulla and higher cerebral centres the rate and ... intact hearts decreases the inward Na+ current and δ t of phase 0 V/δ these effects are associated with generalised depression ... yields mainly atropine. activation inhibiting the activity of this enzyme 20 . but are less potent in the CNS due to exclusion ... 1.Autonomic Pharmacology CNS Effects in conventional doses AD is not a powerful CNS stimulant due to its polar nature and ...
Order of sensitivity to atropine. 1) saliva, bronchial and sweat. 2) iris, ciliary muscle, heart. 3) urinary bladder and ... 4) Physostigmine (which penetrates well enough in the CNS) is used in intoxication by atropine, fenotiazione, antidepressants. ... The stimulation is followed by depression to death from respiratory failure.. Its power to generate drug reinforcement with:. ... Induces in the CNS:. - Stimulation of the central (tremors and convulsions). - Stimulation of respiration (both by direct and ...
Principal site of CNS depression is in the brain stem reticular formation ... Atropine is the most commonly used anticholinergic agent. In general, however, anticholinergics (e.g. atropine) are not ... Sensitizes heart to epinephrine resulting in ventricular arrhythmias, including fibrillation. *In the dog following IV ... Tribromoethanol (TBE) is an injectable anesthetic that causes generalized CNS depression, including both the respiratory and ...
8)CNS excitation/depression depending on dose Atropine contraindications (2) 1)narrow glaucoma. 2)chronic lung disease ... 5)treat CV disorders like vagal-induced heart block. 6)treat bronchial asthma. 7)treat ulcers of GI tract by blocking ... Atropine. a)sites of axn. b)type of antagonist? meaning.... c)effects on nicotinic receptors? ... How does ATROPINE work as a treatment/antidote of IRReversible cholinesterase inhibitors? ...
Clinical features include hypotension, hypothermia, CNS and respiratory depression, arrhythmias and dyskinesia. The latter can ... Atropine 0.6-1.2 mg i.v. is given. Glucagon in a bolus dose of 10 mg i.v. followed by an infusion of 3 mg hour-1 should be used ... This agent activates adenyl cyclase, promoting formation of cAMP, which is a direct ,a-stimulant of the heart. If this ... On their own they are remarkably safe but they potentiate the CNS-depressant effects of other drugs taken with them, such as ...
Respiratory failure may occur due to CNS depression.. Cardiovascular Vagal stimulation may produce bradycardia, but pulse rate ... Atropine: 4 mg IM; 2-PAM Cl: 25 mg/kg IM. Adult. Atropine: 2 to 4 mg IM; 2-PAM Cl: 600 mg IM. Atropine: 6 mg IM; 2-PAM Cl: 1800 ... Nicotinic stimulation can obscure certain muscarinic effects and produce rapid heart rate and high blood pressure. ... Atropine: 0.05 mg/kg IM or 0.02 mg/kg IV; 2-PAM Cl: 15 mg/kg IV slowly. Atropine: 0.1 mg/kg IM or 0.02 mg/kg IV; 2-PAM Cl: 15 ...
  • CNS and peripheral nervous system: at the beginning of therapy may be fatigue, dizziness, depression, mild headache, sleep disturbances, coldness and paresthesia in extremities, reduced reactivity of the patient, reducing the secretion of tear fluid, conjunctivitis. (sdrugs.com)
  • however, it may slow heart rate, cause dizziness or lightheadedness due to low blood pressure, flushing, sweating or abnormal vision. (pdfdrug.com)
  • The protocol-defined primary endpoints were preoperative sedation and anxiolysis, cardiovascular responses to intubation, intraoperative ketamine requirements, quality of postoperative recovery, and occurrence of ketamine-induced CNS symptoms. (asahq.org)
  • It occurs, the infant are unknown or mild renal of atropine or benztropine to allevi- doses of gabapentin, lev- heart block. (udisco.com)
  • the vasomotor centre also becomes gradually weakened bylarge doses, so that the bloodvessels remain somewhat dilated, and thearterial tension remains low even after atropine.in dogs the stimulation of the inhibitory fibres seems sometimes tobe entirely absent after pilocarpine and muscarine, and in man this isvery frequently the case. (cyrilalmeida.com)
  • We can fear in human muscle tissue is retracted laterally and c1 (atlas) occipital bone crista galli maxillary sinus ethmoid bone zygomatic bone displaced segment fracture at higher doses, cns depression may get in the body, linkage to an osmotic laxative is not order to lose weight but to determine feasibility of a hydrophilic one) might slip out inadvertently during the procedure. (harvestinghappiness.com)
  • At therapeutic doses, lidocaine has minimal hemodynamic effects in normal subjects and in patients with heart disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Such as atropine or glycopyrrolate, this can make informed choices about care and continued assistance may be greater regarding potential dangers. (medimobile.com)
  • Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention VCH-PHC Revised June 2009 SYRINGE COMPATIBILITY CHART (Use within 15 minutes) atropine benztropine chlorproMAZINE codeine dimenhyDRINATE diphenhydrAMINE droperidol fentanyl glycopyrrolate haloperidol HYDROmorphone hydrOXYzine lorazepam meperidine methotrimeprazine metoclopramide midazolam morphine proCHLORperazine. (netcastles.org)
  • This action decreases cardiac output, slows heart rate, and reduces blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A depressed level of consciousness and seizures may occur as a result of cellular hypoxia from poor cardiac output, a direct CNS effect caused by sodium channel blocking, or even as a result of hypoglycemia. (medscape.com)
  • It also increases heart rate and cardiac output. (emra.org)
  • A markedly abnormal heart rate (either too fast or too slow) reduces cardiac output and tissue perfusion so should be corrected. (vin.com)
  • Lidocaine has been shown to cause no, or minimal decrease in ventricular contractility, cardiac output, arterial pressure or heart rate. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We expect heart rate to be near normal but it may be elevated in an animal that is hypovolaemic or in pain, or it may be slow secondary to hypothermia or drug administration (opioids, a2-agonists). (vin.com)
  • Sometimes discsof gelatin impregnated with atropine or homatropine sulphate (b.)are applied to the conjunctiva instead of solutions of the -salts. (osmangranda.com)
  • it has lesstendency to increase the intraocular tension than atropine owing to itsshorter action.methylatropine or eumydrine, an artificial compound of atropine,seems to take a place intermediate between atropine and homatropine,being weaker than the former but more active than the latter. (nicibiene.de)
  • 4 Another study reported a patient who used ephedrine chronically and developed pulmonary edema, congestive heart failure, and myocardial necrosis. (emra.org)
  • Patients with a history of CHF or peripheral edema should be followed closely as there are patients who developed congestive heart failure while receiving amantadine. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • The majority of drug-related deaths involve misuse of heroin or other opioids in combination with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressant drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In second case - extraction of teeth roots under general anesthesia by intravenous Ketamine and Tramadol injection with premedication with Atropine. (medline.ru)
  • In cases where slowing of the hearttends to be dangerous in itself, more especially in poisoning withmuscarine, pilocarpine and their allies, atropine is indicated. (cyrilalmeida.com)
  • Choline is also present in these mushrooms, besides avolatile substance which kills flies, and muscaridine, an alkaloid, whichresembles atropine.pilocarpus (u.), jaborandi folia (b.) are the leaflets of pilocarpusjaborandi, a shrub growing in south america which contains yi per cent,of the aljaloids pilocarpine and pilocarpidine, both of very similar chemicalstructure. (cyrilalmeida.com)
  • By increasing the action of GABA, which is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, all levels of CNS, including limbic and reticular formation, may be depressed. (medscape.com)
  • In the cat the tone of the vagus is generic names for xanax less, and thechanges produced by atropine are correspondingly smaller, w r hile inthe rabbit and frog there is generally alprazolam 1.5mg new zealand no inhibitory retardation of theheart, and atropine therefore produces little change. (osmangranda.com)
  • Skeletal muscle relaxants: Additive CNS depression occur more Leave sublingual nitroglycerin at the needle and syringe With the capable of forming new glucose, in spastic disorders. (udisco.com)
  • Carry out good be removed so pectoris prolonged or of teeth) to obstructive pulmonary diseases the heart to teeth viagra cialis levitra may mucous membrane of angina (chest pain) mouth from decreased. (starfishandspider.com)
  • How does ATROPINE work as a treatment/antidote of IRReversible cholinesterase inhibitors? (cram.com)