An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A characteristic symptom complex.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Sexual activities of humans.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
Inflammation of ARTERIES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that occurs in patients with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME or AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS.
Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
... and individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Some common and preventable forms of zoonosis are as follows: ... Feline panleukopenia (FPV) more commonly known as feline distemper. Rabies, a fatal disease transmitted by the bite of an ... Challenge-dechallenge-rechallenge is necessary for the identification of the causative food component(s). Therapy consists of ... Other sources of antifreeze include windshield deicing agents, brake fluid, motor oil, developing solutions for hobby ...
... infection is a complex retrovirus that causes immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. Learn more about the symptoms, causes ... the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in people." (1) ... Cat-to-cat transmission; usually through bite wounds and scratches (3). *Occasional transmission of the virus at the time of ... Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (FIV) in Cats. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is a complex ...
This beautiful stray carried the cat version of AIDS known as Feline Immunodeficiency Virus, or FIV; a much misunderstood ... "Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that affects domesticated housecats worldwide and is the causative agent of ... centre noticed that some of the cats were showing similar clinical signs to people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ... He was a bit strange in his seating choices, but whatever rocked his boat was o.k with me. ...
Isolation of the Causative Agent of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome L. H. Elliott, T. G. Ksiazek, P. E. Rollin, C. F. Spiropoulou ... Opportunistic Invasion of the Heart in Hispanic Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Pablo I. Altieri, Consuelo ... veterinarians should suspect feline plague in ill or deceased cats, and physicians should have a high index of suspicion for ... The most common modes of plague transmission are through flea bites or through contact with infected blood or tissues; however ...
... the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in people.. There is no genetic susceptibility for infection, ... Cat-to-cat transmission; usually through bite wounds and scratches. *Occasional transmission of the virus at the time of birth ... FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION (FIV) IN CATS. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is a complex ... UPDATE Information: Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: Does it Really Cause Disease? (AVMA Conference, 2014). ...
... the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in people.. There is no genetic susceptibility for infection, ... FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION (FIV) IN CATS. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is a complex ... Cat-to-cat transmission; usually through bite wounds and scratches. *Occasional transmission of the virus at the time of birth ... Interstitial Cystitis in Cats, Feline Interstitial Cystitis (FIC). Feline interstitial cystitis, sometimes called feline ...
... the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in people." (1). There is no genetic susceptibility for ... Cat-to-cat transmission; usually through bite wounds and scratches (3). *Occasional transmission of the virus at the time of ... Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (FIV) in Cats. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is a complex ... As a result of immunodeficiency, most infected cats do not show symptoms and have normal life expectancy, however they are ...
... in immunosuppressed individuals with conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ... The causative agents include dimorphic fungi of Sporothrix schenckii complex. The clinical manifestations are variable, with ... review epidemic sporotrichosis in association with zoonotic transmission from cats. The clinical features of human and feline ... zoonotic transmission from scratches or bites from cats, rodents, or armadillos. *. - inhalation of fungal conidia (rare) ...
... and individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Some common and preventable forms of zoonosis are as follows: ... Feline panleukopenia (FPV) more commonly known as feline distemper. Rabies, a fatal disease transmitted by the bite of an ... Challenge-dechallenge-rechallenge is necessary for the identification of the causative food component(s). Therapy consists of ... Other sources of antifreeze include windshield deicing agents, brake fluid, motor oil, developing solutions for hobby ...
... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS cats develop opportunistic infections accompanied by fever and wasting). Cats in the ... Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV). The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is the causative agent of the most important fatal infectious ... The social grooming habits of cats, licking and biting, sneezing, and the urban practice of sharing litter boxes and feeding ... Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV). Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), previously called feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus ( ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Immune System Responses in Cats. Find specific details on this topic and related topics ... Agents that can cause anaphylactic and allergic reactions include biting insects, vaccines, drugs, food, and blood products. ... Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (Septic Shock). Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is a form of shock that occurs ... Treatment generally includes supportive care for the affected organ, removal of the causative agent, or treatment of the ...
... one of which is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). ... As the causative agents of other diseases were discovered, Pasteur and others attempted to create protective vaccines by ... All the cats in the town had died, so the wild rodents from the fields and forest around the town were able to infiltrate the ... There were even lab workers who volunteered to go out into the forest at night to catch mosquitoes coming to bite them. Some of ...
Paraneoplastic syndromes Last Updated on Thu, 04 Oct 2018 , Immunodeficiency Virus This syndrome is also termed shiny cat ... as an orexigenic agent in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and cancer-related anorexia and cachexia. ... Feline infectious peritonitis Last Updated on Thu, 04 Oct 2018 , Immunodeficiency Virus ... Recognizing Causative Factors of Undernutrition Last Updated on Wed, 05 Sep 2018 , Weight Loss ...
Which bacteria in rats is the causative agent for rat bite and Haverhill fevers in humans? ... According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, any dealer who obtains or acquires a live random source dog or cat ... Feline herpesvirus and feline calicivirus. * Chlamydophila, Mycoplasma, reovirus, and Bordetella may also be primary, ... C58 and AKR mice can develop a paralytic syndrome, age-dependent poliomyelitis (ADPM). What are the conditions for this ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus which infects cats manipulates their host in much similar way as SIV does in primates. Infections ... There has been number of studies in the last decade globally that points towards high risk HPV strains as the causative agents ... Viruses transmitted during the sexual act which often includes biting in many species are under very intense selective pressure ... Disturbances of the GABA system are seen in people with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar diseases, anxiety syndrome and other ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that affects domestic, stray and feral cats worldwide and is the causative agent ... Stray and feral cats are obviously more susceptible to bites acquired in territorial fighting. See also cat abscess. ... that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading ... Causative agent: The term disease causative agent usually refers to a biological agents pathogen that causes a disease. ...
... the feline syncytium forming Virus and feline Sarcoma virus. Among other symptoms, they cause an immunodeficiency syndrome. ... In former times it was considered as the causative agent of almost all infections of the upper respiratory tract of the cat. ... unless the cat is a bully and you with a serious bite to another cat, which is rare in domestic cats that have been entered ... Please, continue reading to acquire training for yourself and to be able to leave behind unnecessary fears about FIV and FeLV. ...
Complications and side effects Bites and stings Brucellosis Campylobacter infections Campylobacteriosis Infection control ... and progression Diagnosis Identification and classification Bacterial growth Physiological aspects Bacterial infections Bites ( ... If a cat is bitten by a cat with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), it could contract these ... Causative Agent The microbes causing infection following dog and cat bites may consist of normal flora from the animals mouths ...
  • The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is a complex retrovirus that causes immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. (petmd.com)
  • Other viruses cats may be exposed to include: Chlamydophila felis Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that affects domesticated housecats worldwide and is the causative agent of feline AIDS. (hubpages.com)
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus, and also not a cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline panleukopenia (FPV) more commonly known as feline distemper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline panleukopenia (also called feline infectious enteritis , feline 'distemper ,' and feline ataxia or incoordination ) is a highly contagious viral disease of cats characterized by its sudden onset, fever, inappetence (loss of appetite), dehydration, depression, vomiting, decreased numbers of circulating white blood cells (leukopenia), and often a high mortality rate. (maxshouse.com)
  • All members of the cat family (Felidae) are susceptible to infection with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), as are raccoons, coatimundis, and ringtails, in the family Procyoniclae. (maxshouse.com)
  • Many excellent vaccines are available to protect cats against panleukopenia. (maxshouse.com)
  • In unvaccinated populations, however, panleukopenia remains the most severe and destructive disease of cats. (maxshouse.com)
  • Feline panleukopenia virus is a very small and very stable virus classified in the parvovina group. (maxshouse.com)
  • Although it can affect cats of all ages, feline panleukopenia is primarily a disease of kittens. (maxshouse.com)
  • It is in the same class of viruses as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in people. (petmd.com)
  • Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was first discovered in the United States, where workers at a cat rescue centre noticed that some of the cats were showing similar clinical signs to people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (hubpages.com)
  • You cannot catch FIV or AIDS from an infected cat. (hubpages.com)
  • Although similar, HIV or AIDS is not present in your cat, so you cannot aquire this virus from your cat either. (hubpages.com)
  • In Fortaleza, almost all children acquired antibody by their second year of life, demonstrating the high prevalence of this infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline calicivirus (FCV), the other common viral cause of respiratory infection in cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cats may be asymptomatic carriers but may also exhibit clinical infection, with anorexia, vomiting, and severe diarrhea, which are most likely to occur in the winter and spring. (asmscience.org)
  • Infection with cowpox virus (an orthopoxvirus) is the most common poxvirus infection in cats. (asmscience.org)
  • In order to prevent this disease from occurring in the first place, you should vaccinate your cat against the virus, and protect your cat from coming into contact with cats that are FIV positive. (azpetscan.com)
  • The most commonly recommended viruses to vaccinate cats against are: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a genetic relative of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal, incurable disease caused by Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV), which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV/FeCoV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes Feline hyperaldosteronism Feline hyperthyroidism Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • By recognizing invading microorganisms (such as viruses), chemical agents, or other foreign substances that are "non-self," a body can protect itself from attack. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The infectious agents now known as viruses originally attracted attention because of the diseases they produce in their animal and plant hosts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a genetic relative of HIV . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] [4] For example, Abyssinian cat 's pedigree contains a genetic mutation that causes retinitis pigmentosa , which also affects humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic analysis indicates that Australian feral cats may have more in common with Asian than European cats, supporting the aboriginal view for an earlier arrival of cats on the continent. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The health of domestic cats is a well studied area in veterinary medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • See: Global spread of H5N1#Felidae (cats) Ringworm Cryptococcus Malassezia pachydermatis Veterinary parasitology studies both external and internal parasites in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these diseases can spread from cat to cat via airborne pathogens or through direct or indirect contact, while others require a vector such as a tick or mosquito. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis and the Bat White-nose syndrome are due to obligatory fungal pathogens. (deepdyve.com)
  • The genus Bartonella represents a prototypical example for zoonotic pathogens as Bartonella species are infectious agents for humans and animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At least 20 species are known to cause host-specific intraerythrocytic infections in their specific mammalian reservoir hosts, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis, the agents of trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Certain infectious diseases are a concern from a public health standpoint because they are a Feline zoonosis and transmittable to human. (wikipedia.org)
  • This parasite makes the infected human host more attractive for the mosquitoes to enhance its chances of transmission by frequent bites [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Some poxviruses are causative agents of human diseases. (datexis.com)
  • Human microbiologic infections, known as zoonoses, are acquired directly from animals or via arthropods bites and are an increasing public health problem. (datexis.com)
  • As for cats, human therapy usually consists of topical antifungals such as clotrimazole, miconazole, etc., or in severe cases oral agents such as fluconazole or itraconazole. (asmscience.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with cryptosporidiosis must receive antiretroviral therapy as the mainstay of therapy in addition to antiparasitic therapy. (mhmedical.com)
  • FIV is species specific, so that means that it only infects cats, and cannot be passed to you or your children. (hubpages.com)
  • But the debate of more practical consequence is whether feral cats threaten native species such as tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). (guwsmedical.info)
  • The principal continuing threat is predation by introduced carnivores, particularly red foxes and cats, for which species continuing control is essential for the reintroduced populations to survive. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The list of zoonotic fungal agents is limited but some species, like Microsporum canis and Sporothrix brasiliensis from cats, have a strong public health impact. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cats are frequently wounded in fights with other cats, and if punctures and tears caused by bites are left untreated, the wounds can lead to serious infections , including abscesses . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Feliway Diffuser emits a synthetic copy of your cat's natural facial pheromone, used by felines to mark their territory as a place that is safe and secure. (hubpages.com)
  • Viral diseases in cats can be serious, especially in catteries and kennels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemic sporotrichosis presents with variable morphologies, and has been associated with transmission from cats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Transmission of FPV occurs most commonly by direct contact with infected cats or their excretions. (maxshouse.com)
  • The diseases discussed are arranged by the general method of transmission from cat to person, although more than one route is possible for certain infections. (asmscience.org)
  • At the beginning of the twentieth century, the term "virus" referred to infectious agents that could not be seen under the microscope, trapped by filters, or grown in laboratory cultures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the past, the epidemiology, etiology and pathology of infectious agents affecting humans and animals have mostly been investigated in separate studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I want to pass on what I have learnt about caring for a cat with this virus, in the hope that other cat owners, and maybe even some vets will reassess their attitudes and approach to this issue. (hubpages.com)
  • However, your cat can pass the FIV virus to other cats in certain circumstances, so it's worth understanding the process, so that you can take steps to eliminate the risk. (hubpages.com)
  • The virus is present in the blood and saliva of infected cats. (hubpages.com)
  • You will also want toquarantine and test new cats that are coming into your household until you are sure that they are free of the virus. (azpetscan.com)
  • 1999. Hepatosplenic cat-scratch disease in children: selected clinical features and treatment. (asmscience.org)
  • In computer jargon it was adopted to describe a noxious bit of code that infects a computer and spreads to other computers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Immunodeficiency is the medical term used to describe the body's inability to develop a normal immune response. (petmd.com)
  • The cat responded well to medical management of pancreatitis with intravenous fluid therapy, famotidine and pain medication. (azpetscan.com)
  • The first and most general meaning was slime, but medical writers used the term in reference to a noxious substance, such as poison or venom, or a mysterious, unknown infectious agent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. (guwsmedical.info)
  • In cats, anthrax is manifested by inflammation, edema, and necrosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract. (asmscience.org)
  • Zoonotic agents are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. (deepdyve.com)
  • Bacterial pyodermas, primary syphilis, subcutaneous abscesses of tularemia, and cat-scratch disease are also mimickers of sporotrichosis. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Older cats may develop draining abscesses as well as fever and adenopathy. (asmscience.org)
  • Recent data suggest that bacillary angiomatosis and hepatosplenic disease respond more favorably (rapidly and consistently) than typical cat scratch disease (CSD) to antimicrobial therapy for unclear reasons. (asmscience.org)
  • Cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and other infections due to Rochalimaea. (asmscience.org)
  • 1930 due to hunting by humans and animals, such as dogs, cats, and stoats, which are small weasels. (guwsmedical.info)
  • How much monitoring your cat will need from you depends on secondary infections and other manifestations of the disease. (azpetscan.com)
  • You will need to watch for the occurrence of infections in your sick cat, and be aware that wasting may occur, and that your pet may die of this disease. (azpetscan.com)
  • Rabies, a fatal disease transmitted by the bite of an infected mammal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heartworm Hookworm Roundworm Toxoplasmosis Cytauxzoonosis Domestic cats are affected by over 250 naturally occurring hereditary disorders, many of which are similar to those in humans, such as diabetes, hemophilia and Tay-Sachs disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familial renal disease is inherited in Abyssinians and Persians Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Heart valve dysplasia Heterochromia Luxating patella Portosystemic shunt. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease begins when the cat stops eating from a loss of appetite, forcing the liver to convert body fat into usable energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline lower urinary tract disease is a term that is used to cover many problems of the feline urinary tract, including stones and cystitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a common disease in adult cats, though it can strike in young cats too. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as a witness can be granted immunity from prosecution when immunized by the court, a person can acquire immunity to disease by means of inoculation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 2007. Surveillance of healthy cats and cats with inflammatory skin disease for colonization of the skin by methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. (asmscience.org)
  • Intraerythrocytic localization of B. henselae has been demonstrated in cat erythrocytes ( 88 ), and B. bacilliformis bacilli have been observed within erythrocytes during the acute phase of Carrion's disease (Oroya fever) ( 88 ). (asm.org)
  • However, Australia's aboriginal people regard cats as native. (guwsmedical.info)
  • There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans or that cats and people acquire from common sources, some of which are described in this chapter. (asmscience.org)
  • Multiple mycoplasmal infections detected in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and/or fibromyalgia syndrome. (psychologytoday.com)
  • As a result of immunodeficiency, most infected cats do not show symptoms and have normal life expectancy, however they are prone to developing other infections and certain types of cancer. (petmd.com)
  • Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam on your cat, taking into account the background history of symptoms and possible incidents that might have precipitated this condition. (azpetscan.com)
  • In the United States, cats make up 4.6% of reported cases of rabies infected animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline acne Feline eosinophilic granuloma Flea allergy dermatitis Miliary dermatitis (feline eczema) Mange Nutritional skin disorders Bladder cancer Bone cancer Intestinal cancer Liver cancer Lymphoma in animals Mammary tumor Mast cell tumor Nose cancer Skin cancer Soft tissue sarcoma Stomach cancer Anal sacs impaction Cerebellar hypoplasia is a disorder found in cats and dogs in which the cerebellum is not completely mature at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • or close interaction with animals such as cats, rodents, and armadillos. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • We've compiled a list of common cat tail injuries so you can best prevent and treat them, and keep that expressive appendage in optimal health. (petmd.com)
  • Your content and articles spate be intimately optimized for search affair if you repair worry to the motif and the reader.Many men and women be given to salute the expanse of acquire visitors in ways that are not perpetually healthy. (blogspot.com)
  • The term feline urologic syndrome is an older term which is still sometimes used for this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cats have specific dietary needs and may even have preferences when it comes to the placement of their food dish. (petmd.com)
  • Feed your cat wrong, and it can lead to obesity or behavioral problems. (petmd.com)
  • FIV cats can lose their appetite, get digestion problems and become desperately thin and mal- nourished. (hubpages.com)
  • For head lice, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends either nonprescription 1% permethrin or pyrethrins plus piperonyl butoxide topical preparations as agents of choice unless local resistance to these agents is documented. (mhmedical.com)
  • Changes and shocks are a source of stress, and whilst most cats adapt to changes fairly easily with a little help, stress in FIV cats can start a spiral of poor health that is hard to treat. (hubpages.com)
  • This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. (guwsmedical.info)
  • It is completely odorless, does not affect humans, but may improve cat owners lives by making stressed cats more relaxed and happy. (hubpages.com)
  • It is very common in dogs and is sometimes seen in cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerebellar hypoplasia is a disorder found in cats and dogs in which the cerebellum is not completely mature at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report to composing for any securities industry place is to break down them, and you acquire that with market re appear. (blogspot.com)