Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Simian immunodeficiency virus
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Leukemia Virus, Feline
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Common Variable Immunodeficiency
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
HIV Envelope Protein gp120
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Gene Products, gag
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
HIV Core Protein p24
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
Amino Acid Sequence
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Metabolic Syndrome X
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Gene Products, env
HIV Reverse Transcriptase
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Sarcoma Viruses, Feline
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.
AIDS Dementia Complex
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
HIV Protease Inhibitors
HIV Long Terminal Repeat
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
rev Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Gene Products, tat
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection
HIV Envelope Protein gp41
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Feline panleukopenia virus
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins
Gene Products, nef
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Mycobacterium avium Complex
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
Viral Envelope Proteins
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
HIV Envelope Protein gp160
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Disease Models, Animal
Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine
Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Leukemia Virus, Murine
HIV Wasting Syndrome
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Gene Products, rev
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Drug Therapy, Combination
AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
vif Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Aortic Arch Syndromes
Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.
Gene Products, vpr
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
HIV Long-Term Survivors
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Drug Resistance, Viral
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
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FIV or Feline AIDS in Cats
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Cat health - Wikipedia
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Univ of Arizona Mock Exam C Flashcards by Stanton Gray | Brainscape
Which bacteria in rats is the causative agent for rat bite and Haverhill fevers in humans? ... According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, any dealer who obtains or acquires a live random source dog or cat ... Feline herpesvirus and feline calicivirus. * Chlamydophila, Mycoplasma, reovirus, and Bordetella may also be primary, ... C58 and AKR mice can develop a paralytic syndrome, age-dependent poliomyelitis (ADPM). What are the conditions for this ...
Evolutionary Perspective of Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Humans | OMICS International
Feline immunodeficiency virus which infects cats manipulates their host in much similar way as SIV does in primates. Infections ... There has been number of studies in the last decade globally that points towards high risk HPV strains as the causative agents ... Viruses transmitted during the sexual act which often includes biting in many species are under very intense selective pressure ... Disturbances of the GABA system are seen in people with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar diseases, anxiety syndrome and other ...
Feline Aids - PoC
Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that affects domestic, stray and feral cats worldwide and is the causative agent ... Stray and feral cats are obviously more susceptible to bites acquired in territorial fighting. See also cat abscess. ... that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading ... Causative agent: The term disease causative agent usually refers to a biological agents pathogen that causes a disease. ...
Diseases in your cat - Humane Burgos
... the feline syncytium forming Virus and feline Sarcoma virus. Among other symptoms, they cause an immunodeficiency syndrome. ... In former times it was considered as the causative agent of almost all infections of the upper respiratory tract of the cat. ... unless the cat is a bully and you with a serious bite to another cat, which is rare in domestic cats that have been entered ... Please, continue reading to acquire training for yourself and to be able to leave behind unnecessary fears about FIV and FeLV. ...
Chapter 3 Bacterial zoonoses. - Free Online Library
Complications and side effects Bites and stings Brucellosis Campylobacter infections Campylobacteriosis Infection control ... and progression Diagnosis Identification and classification Bacterial growth Physiological aspects Bacterial infections Bites ( ... If a cat is bitten by a cat with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), it could contract these ... Causative Agent The microbes causing infection following dog and cat bites may consist of normal flora from the animals mouths ...
RetrovirusLentivirusPanleukopeniaAIDSInfectionVaccinatePeritonitisRecurrentVirusesGeneticVeterinary medicineFelidaePathogensHumanSpeciesWoundsCat'sViralTransmissionInfectious agentsVirusClinicalInfectsMedicalInflammationZoonoticAbscessesScratch diseaseHumans and animalsDiseasePeopleChronicSymptomsAnimalsListContentTermSpecificProblemsTopicalHealthYearsAffectDogsPlace
- The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is a complex retrovirus that causes immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. (petmd.com)
- Other viruses cats may be exposed to include: Chlamydophila felis Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus not a cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Feline panleukopenia (FPV) more commonly known as feline distemper. (wikipedia.org)
- Feline panleukopenia (also called feline infectious enteritis , feline 'distemper ,' and feline ataxia or incoordination ) is a highly contagious viral disease of cats characterized by its sudden onset, fever, inappetence (loss of appetite), dehydration, depression, vomiting, decreased numbers of circulating white blood cells (leukopenia), and often a high mortality rate. (maxshouse.com)
- All members of the cat family (Felidae) are susceptible to infection with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), as are raccoons, coatimundis, and ringtails, in the family Procyoniclae. (maxshouse.com)
- Many excellent vaccines are available to protect cats against panleukopenia. (maxshouse.com)
- In unvaccinated populations, however, panleukopenia remains the most severe and destructive disease of cats. (maxshouse.com)
- Feline panleukopenia virus is a very small and very stable virus classified in the parvovina group. (maxshouse.com)
- Although it can affect cats of all ages, feline panleukopenia is primarily a disease of kittens. (maxshouse.com)
- It is in the same class of viruses as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in people. (petmd.com)
- Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was first discovered in the United States, where workers at a cat rescue centre noticed that some of the cats were showing similar clinical signs to people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (hubpages.com)
- You cannot catch FIV or AIDS from an infected cat. (hubpages.com)
- Although similar, HIV or AIDS is not present in your cat, so you cannot aquire this virus from your cat either. (hubpages.com)
- In Fortaleza, almost all children acquired antibody by their second year of life, demonstrating the high prevalence of this infection. (ajtmh.org)
- Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). (wikipedia.org)
- Feline calicivirus (FCV), the other common viral cause of respiratory infection in cats. (wikipedia.org)
- Cats may be asymptomatic carriers but may also exhibit clinical infection, with anorexia, vomiting, and severe diarrhea, which are most likely to occur in the winter and spring. (asmscience.org)
- Infection with cowpox virus (an orthopoxvirus) is the most common poxvirus infection in cats. (asmscience.org)
- In order to prevent this disease from occurring in the first place, you should vaccinate your cat against the virus, and protect your cat from coming into contact with cats that are FIV positive. (azpetscan.com)
- The most commonly recommended viruses to vaccinate cats against are: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a genetic relative of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
- Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal, incurable disease caused by Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV), which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV/FeCoV). (wikipedia.org)
- Diabetes Feline hyperaldosteronism Feline hyperthyroidism Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. (wikipedia.org)
- By recognizing invading microorganisms (such as viruses), chemical agents, or other foreign substances that are "non-self," a body can protect itself from attack. (merckvetmanual.com)
- The infectious agents now known as viruses originally attracted attention because of the diseases they produce in their animal and plant hosts. (encyclopedia.com)
- Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a genetic relative of HIV . (wikipedia.org)
-   For example, Abyssinian cat 's pedigree contains a genetic mutation that causes retinitis pigmentosa , which also affects humans. (wikipedia.org)
- Genetic analysis indicates that Australian feral cats may have more in common with Asian than European cats, supporting the aboriginal view for an earlier arrival of cats on the continent. (guwsmedical.info)
- The health of domestic cats is a well studied area in veterinary medicine. (wikipedia.org)
- See: Global spread of H5N1#Felidae (cats) Ringworm Cryptococcus Malassezia pachydermatis Veterinary parasitology studies both external and internal parasites in animals. (wikipedia.org)
- Most of these diseases can spread from cat to cat via airborne pathogens or through direct or indirect contact, while others require a vector such as a tick or mosquito. (wikipedia.org)
- The amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis and the Bat White-nose syndrome are due to obligatory fungal pathogens. (deepdyve.com)
- The genus Bartonella represents a prototypical example for zoonotic pathogens as Bartonella species are infectious agents for humans and animals. (biomedcentral.com)
- At least 20 species are known to cause host-specific intraerythrocytic infections in their specific mammalian reservoir hosts, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis, the agents of trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- Certain infectious diseases are a concern from a public health standpoint because they are a Feline zoonosis and transmittable to human. (wikipedia.org)
- This parasite makes the infected human host more attractive for the mosquitoes to enhance its chances of transmission by frequent bites [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Some poxviruses are causative agents of human diseases. (datexis.com)
- Human microbiologic infections, known as zoonoses, are acquired directly from animals or via arthropods bites and are an increasing public health problem. (datexis.com)
- As for cats, human therapy usually consists of topical antifungals such as clotrimazole, miconazole, etc., or in severe cases oral agents such as fluconazole or itraconazole. (asmscience.org)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with cryptosporidiosis must receive antiretroviral therapy as the mainstay of therapy in addition to antiparasitic therapy. (mhmedical.com)
- FIV is species specific, so that means that it only infects cats, and cannot be passed to you or your children. (hubpages.com)
- But the debate of more practical consequence is whether feral cats threaten native species such as tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). (guwsmedical.info)
- The principal continuing threat is predation by introduced carnivores, particularly red foxes and cats, for which species continuing control is essential for the reintroduced populations to survive. (guwsmedical.info)
- The list of zoonotic fungal agents is limited but some species, like Microsporum canis and Sporothrix brasiliensis from cats, have a strong public health impact. (deepdyve.com)
- Cats are frequently wounded in fights with other cats, and if punctures and tears caused by bites are left untreated, the wounds can lead to serious infections , including abscesses . (wikipedia.org)
- The Feliway Diffuser emits a synthetic copy of your cat's natural facial pheromone, used by felines to mark their territory as a place that is safe and secure. (hubpages.com)
- Viral diseases in cats can be serious, especially in catteries and kennels. (wikipedia.org)
- Epidemic sporotrichosis presents with variable morphologies, and has been associated with transmission from cats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Transmission of FPV occurs most commonly by direct contact with infected cats or their excretions. (maxshouse.com)
- The diseases discussed are arranged by the general method of transmission from cat to person, although more than one route is possible for certain infections. (asmscience.org)
- At the beginning of the twentieth century, the term "virus" referred to infectious agents that could not be seen under the microscope, trapped by filters, or grown in laboratory cultures. (encyclopedia.com)
- In the past, the epidemiology, etiology and pathology of infectious agents affecting humans and animals have mostly been investigated in separate studies. (biomedcentral.com)
- I want to pass on what I have learnt about caring for a cat with this virus, in the hope that other cat owners, and maybe even some vets will reassess their attitudes and approach to this issue. (hubpages.com)
- However, your cat can pass the FIV virus to other cats in certain circumstances, so it's worth understanding the process, so that you can take steps to eliminate the risk. (hubpages.com)
- The virus is present in the blood and saliva of infected cats. (hubpages.com)
- You will also want toquarantine and test new cats that are coming into your household until you are sure that they are free of the virus. (azpetscan.com)
- 1999. Hepatosplenic cat-scratch disease in children: selected clinical features and treatment. (asmscience.org)
- In computer jargon it was adopted to describe a noxious bit of code that infects a computer and spreads to other computers. (encyclopedia.com)
- Immunodeficiency is the medical term used to describe the body's inability to develop a normal immune response. (petmd.com)
- The cat responded well to medical management of pancreatitis with intravenous fluid therapy, famotidine and pain medication. (azpetscan.com)
- The first and most general meaning was slime, but medical writers used the term in reference to a noxious substance, such as poison or venom, or a mysterious, unknown infectious agent. (encyclopedia.com)
- They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. (guwsmedical.info)
- In cats, anthrax is manifested by inflammation, edema, and necrosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract. (asmscience.org)
- Zoonotic agents are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. (deepdyve.com)
- Recent data suggest that bacillary angiomatosis and hepatosplenic disease respond more favorably (rapidly and consistently) than typical cat scratch disease (CSD) to antimicrobial therapy for unclear reasons. (asmscience.org)
- Cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and other infections due to Rochalimaea. (asmscience.org)
Humans and animals1
- 1930 due to hunting by humans and animals, such as dogs, cats, and stoats, which are small weasels. (guwsmedical.info)
- How much monitoring your cat will need from you depends on secondary infections and other manifestations of the disease. (azpetscan.com)
- You will need to watch for the occurrence of infections in your sick cat, and be aware that wasting may occur, and that your pet may die of this disease. (azpetscan.com)
- Rabies, a fatal disease transmitted by the bite of an infected mammal. (wikipedia.org)
- Heartworm Hookworm Roundworm Toxoplasmosis Cytauxzoonosis Domestic cats are affected by over 250 naturally occurring hereditary disorders, many of which are similar to those in humans, such as diabetes, hemophilia and Tay-Sachs disease. (wikipedia.org)
- Familial renal disease is inherited in Abyssinians and Persians Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Heart valve dysplasia Heterochromia Luxating patella Portosystemic shunt. (wikipedia.org)
- The disease begins when the cat stops eating from a loss of appetite, forcing the liver to convert body fat into usable energy. (wikipedia.org)
- Feline lower urinary tract disease is a term that is used to cover many problems of the feline urinary tract, including stones and cystitis. (wikipedia.org)
- It is a common disease in adult cats, though it can strike in young cats too. (wikipedia.org)
- Just as a witness can be granted immunity from prosecution when immunized by the court, a person can acquire immunity to disease by means of inoculation. (encyclopedia.com)
- 2007. Surveillance of healthy cats and cats with inflammatory skin disease for colonization of the skin by methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. (asmscience.org)
- Intraerythrocytic localization of B. henselae has been demonstrated in cat erythrocytes ( 88 ), and B. bacilliformis bacilli have been observed within erythrocytes during the acute phase of Carrion's disease (Oroya fever) ( 88 ). (asm.org)
- Multiple mycoplasmal infections detected in blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and/or fibromyalgia syndrome. (psychologytoday.com)
- As a result of immunodeficiency, most infected cats do not show symptoms and have normal life expectancy, however they are prone to developing other infections and certain types of cancer. (petmd.com)
- Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam on your cat, taking into account the background history of symptoms and possible incidents that might have precipitated this condition. (azpetscan.com)
- In the United States, cats make up 4.6% of reported cases of rabies infected animals. (wikipedia.org)
- Feline acne Feline eosinophilic granuloma Flea allergy dermatitis Miliary dermatitis (feline eczema) Mange Nutritional skin disorders Bladder cancer Bone cancer Intestinal cancer Liver cancer Lymphoma in animals Mammary tumor Mast cell tumor Nose cancer Skin cancer Soft tissue sarcoma Stomach cancer Anal sacs impaction Cerebellar hypoplasia is a disorder found in cats and dogs in which the cerebellum is not completely mature at birth. (wikipedia.org)
- or close interaction with animals such as cats, rodents, and armadillos. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- We've compiled a list of common cat tail injuries so you can best prevent and treat them, and keep that expressive appendage in optimal health. (petmd.com)
- Your content and articles spate be intimately optimized for search affair if you repair worry to the motif and the reader.Many men and women be given to salute the expanse of acquire visitors in ways that are not perpetually healthy. (blogspot.com)
- The term feline urologic syndrome is an older term which is still sometimes used for this condition. (wikipedia.org)
- Cats have specific dietary needs and may even have preferences when it comes to the placement of their food dish. (petmd.com)
- For head lice, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends either nonprescription 1% permethrin or pyrethrins plus piperonyl butoxide topical preparations as agents of choice unless local resistance to these agents is documented. (mhmedical.com)
- Changes and shocks are a source of stress, and whilst most cats adapt to changes fairly easily with a little help, stress in FIV cats can start a spiral of poor health that is hard to treat. (hubpages.com)
- This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. (guwsmedical.info)
- It is completely odorless, does not affect humans, but may improve cat owners lives by making stressed cats more relaxed and happy. (hubpages.com)
- The report to composing for any securities industry place is to break down them, and you acquire that with market re appear. (blogspot.com)