Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous: A disease characterized by the chronic, progressive spread of lesions from New World cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by species of the L. braziliensis complex to the nasal, pharyngeal, and buccal mucosa some time after the appearance of the initial cutaneous lesion. Nasal obstruction and epistaxis are frequent presenting symptoms.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Leishmania braziliensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous: A form of LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS caused by Leishmania aethiopica in Ethiopia and Kenya, L. pifanoi in Venezuela, L. braziliensis in South America, and L. mexicana in Central America. This disease is characterized by massive dissemination of skin lesions without visceral involvement.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Leishmania tropica: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.Leishmania guyanensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals and causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS). Transmission is by Lutzomyia sandflies.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Antimony Sodium Gluconate: Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Paromomycin: An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.BrazilAntibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.VenezuelaParasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.ColombiaSkin UlcerBenzethonium: Bactericidal cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant used as a topical anti-infective agent. It is an ingredient in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, etc., and is used to disinfect apparatus, etc., in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries, in surgery, and also as a preservative. The compound is toxic orally as a result of neuromuscular blockade.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Mice, Inbred BALB CDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Hyraxes: Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.PeruSudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.AfghanistanPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.PanamaDisease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Tunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.ArgentinaSuriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)IndiaBoliviaVaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Military Facilities: Areas designated for use by the armed forces personnel.IranSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.EcuadorFrench Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Facial DermatosesSerologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Eyelid DiseasesParasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.NepalAgglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.USSRMesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Erysipeloid: An infection caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae that is almost wholly restricted to persons who in their occupation handle infected fish, shellfish, poultry, or meat. Three forms of this condition exist: a mild localized form manifested by local swelling and redness of the skin; a diffuse form that might present with fever; and a rare systemic form associated with endocarditis.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Sri LankaInterleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Cryotherapy: A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Leprosy, Lepromatous: A chronic communicable infection which is a principal or polar form of LEPROSY. This disorder is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE and produces diffuse granulomatous skin lesions in the form of nodules, macules, or papules. The peripheral nerves are involved symmetrically and neural sequelae occur in the advanced stage.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.SyriaLife Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Immunochromatography: A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Calophyllum: A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain costatolide, calanolides and 4-phenylfuranocoumarins (FUROCOUMARINS).Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a recurrence of kala-azar that may appear on the skin of affected individuals months and up to 20 years after being partially treated, untreated or even in those considered adequately treated.[5][6] In Sudan, they can be demonstrated in up to 60% of treated cases. They manifest as hypopigmented skin lesions (such as macules, papules, nodules), or facial redness. Though any organism causing kala-azar can lead to PKDL, it is commonly associated with Leishmania donovani which gives different disease patterns in India and Sudan. In the Indian variant, nodules enlarge with time and form plaques but rarely ulcerate, but nodules from the African variety often ulcerate as they progress. Nerve involvement is common in African variety but rare in Indian subcontinent.[7] Histology demonstrates a mixture of chronic inflammatory cells; there can be macrophage or epitheloid granuloma.[8] Parasite concentration is not ...
... belongs to Leishmania genus and is the causal agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico and central America . Leishmania mexicana is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis. This species of Leishmania is found in America. The infection with L. mexicana occurs when an individual is bitten by an infected sandfly that injects infective promastigotes, which are carried in the salivary glands and expulsed by the proboscis, directly to the skin. The life cycle of this and other Leishmania species begin when an infected Phlebotomine bites and injects promastigotes in the skin of the mammal host. Those promastigotes are engulfed by phagocytic cells, as macrophages and dendritic cells. The parasites are kept inside in a parasitophorous vacuole, then they will transform to amastigotes and divide until brock ...
... is a species of parasites found in the genus Leishmania, and is associated with the disease zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (also known as Aleppo boil, Baghdad boil, Bay sore, Biskra button, Chiclero ulcer, Delhi boil, Kandahar sore, Lahore sore, Oriental sore, Pian bois, and Uta). L. major is an intracellular pathogen which infects the macrophages and dendritic cells of the immune system. Though Leishmania species are found on every continent aside from Antarctica, Leishmania major is found only in the Eastern Hemisphere, specifically in Northern Africa, the Middle East, Northwestern China, and Northwestern India. As a trypanosomatid, L. major begins its lifecycle in promastigote form in the midgut of the main vector, female sand flies (Phlebotomus spp.). Once in the gut of the sand fly, the parasites change from aflagelated amastigotes into flagellated promastigotes for 1-2 weeks until they are fully developed, a which point they ...
... (VL), also known as kala-azar, black fever, and Dumdum fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and, without proper diagnosis and treatment, is associated with high fatality. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. The parasite migrates to the internal organs such as the liver, spleen (hence "visceral"), and bone marrow, and, if left untreated, will almost always result in the death of the host. Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen. Of particular concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), is the emerging problem of HIV/VL co-infection. This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world (after malaria), responsible for an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 infections each year worldwide. Response to infection by Leishmania donovani varies a great deal, not ...
Out of 200 countries and territories reporting to WHO, 97 countries and territories are endemic for leishmaniasis.[23] The settings in which leishmaniasis is found range from rainforests in Central and South America to deserts in western Asia and the Middle East. It affects as many as 12 million people worldwide, with 1.5-2.0 million new cases each year.[24] The visceral form of leishmaniasis has an estimated incidence of 500,000 new cases.[25] In 2014, more than 90% of new cases reported to WHO occurred in six countries: Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan.[26] As of 2010, it caused about 52,000 deaths, down from 87,000 in 1990.[10] Different types of the disease occur in different regions of the world.[2] Cutaneous disease is most common in Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Colombia, and Iran, while ...
... /liːʃˈmeɪniə/ is a genus of trypanosomes that are responsible for the disease leishmaniasis. They are spread by sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World, and of the genus Lutzomyia in the New World. At least 93 sandfly species are proven or probable vectors worldwide. Their primary hosts are vertebrates; Leishmania commonly infects hyraxes, canids, rodents, and humans. The first written reference to the conspicuous symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis surfaced in the Paleotropics within oriental texts dating back to the 7th century BC (allegedly transcribed from sources several hundred years older, between 1500 and 2000 BC). Due to its broad and persistent prevalence throughout antiquity as a mysterious disease of diverse symptomatic outcomes, leishmaniasis has been dubbed with various names ranging from "white leprosy" to ...
... is a genus of phlebotomine sand flies consisting of nearly 400 species, at least 33 of which have medical importance as vectors of human disease. Species of the genus Lutzomyia are found only in the New World, distributed in southern areas of the Nearctic and throughout the Neotropic zone. Lutzomyia is one of the two genera of the subfamily Phlebotominae to transmit the Leishmania parasite, with the other being Phlebotomus, found only in the Old World. Lutzomyia sand flies also serve as vectors for the bacterial Carrion's disease and a number of arboviruses. The genus, named after Adolfo Lutz, is known from the extinct Burdigalian (20-15 mya) species Lutzomyia adiketis found as a fossil in Dominican amber on the island of Hispaniola. It is thought that species in the genus Lutzomyia all originated in the lowland forests to the east of the Andes mountain range, and that their radiation throughout the Neotropics was sparked by dry periods of the Pleistocene, driving colonisation further ...
In areas where the known vector is a sandfly, deltamethrin collars worn by the dogs has been proven to be 86% effective.[16] The sandfly is most active at dusk and dawn; keeping dogs indoors during those peak times will help minimize exposure. Unfortunately, there is no one answer for leishmaniasis prevention, nor will one vaccine cover multiple species. "Different virulence factors have been identified for distinct Leishmania species, and there are profound differences in the immune mechanisms that mediate susceptibility/resistance to infection and in the pathology associated with disease."[17] In 2003, Fort Dodge Wyeth released the Leshmune vaccine in Brazil for L. donovani (also referred to as kala-azar in Brazil).[18] Studies indicated up to 87% protection.[19] Most common side effects from the vaccine have been noted as anorexia and local swelling.[19] The president of the Brazil Regional Council of Veterinary Medicine, Marcia Villa, warned since ...
Kala-azar first came to the attention of Western doctors in 1824 in Jessore, India (now Bangladesh), where it was initially thought to be a form of malaria. Assam gave kala-azar one of its common names, Assam fever.[72] Another common name, kala-azar (Hindustani: काला आज़ार (Devanagari) کالا آزار (Nastaleeq) kālā āzār), is derived from kala which means black in Sanskrit, as well as in the languages descended from it, including Assamese,[73] Hindi and Urdu;[74] the word azar means Fever in Persian and Hindustani;[73][75] as such the disease is named for the darkening of the skin on the extremities and abdomen that is a symptom of the Indian form of the disease. The agent of the disease was also first isolated in India by Scottish doctor William Leishman (who observed the parasite in spleen smears of a soldier who died of the disease in Dumdum, Calcutta, India[76] - hence the name dumdum fever) and Irish physician Charles Donovan, working independently of each other. ...
The Grande Seca, the Great Drought, or the Brazilian drought of 1877-78 is the largest and most devastating drought in Brazilian history. It caused the deaths of between 400,000 and 500,000 people. Of the 800,000 people who lived in the affected Northeastern region, around 120,000 migrated to the Amazon while 68,000 migrated to other parts of Brazil. Drought Agreste Sertão Caatinga "Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Amazônia: interesses e conflitos (in Portuguese) "Ó Gráda, C.: Famine: A Short History." Princeton University Press. Michael H. Glantz; Currents of Change : El Niño's Impact on Climate and Society; published 1996 by Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57659-8 Michael H. Glantz (editor); Drought Follows The Plow: Cultivating Marginal Areas; published 1994 by Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44252-4 Fagan, Brian; Floods, Famines, and Emperors: El Niño and the Fate of ...
ஆண்டிமனி மூவயோடைடு ( Antimony triiodide) என்பது (SbI3) என்ற மூலக்கூற்று வாய்ப்பாடு கொண்ட ஒரு கனிம வேதியியல் சேர்மமாகும். மாணிக்கச் சிவப்பிலான இத்திண்மம் மட்டுமே ஆண்டிமனி தனிமத்தின் அடையாளப்படுத்தப்பட்ட ஒர் இரும அயோடைடு ஆகும். அதாவது முழு சேர்மமும் (SbxIy) என்ற வாய்ப்பாட்டுக்குள் தனிப்படுத்தப்படுகிறது. இது ஆண்டிமனியை +3 என்ற ஆக்சிசனேற்ற நிலையில் கொண்டுள்ளது. கனமான முதன்மைக்குழு ...
McAleese SM, Dunbar B, Fothergill JE, et al. (1989). "Complete amino acid sequence of the neurone-specific gamma isozyme of enolase (NSE) from human brain and comparison with the non-neuronal alpha form (NNE)". Eur. J. Biochem. 178 (2): 413-7. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1988.tb14465.x. PMID 3208766 ...
... (VL), also known as kala-azar, black fever, and Dumdum fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and, without proper diagnosis and treatment, is associated with high fatality. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. The parasite migrates to the internal organs such as the liver, spleen (hence "visceral"), and bone marrow, and, if left untreated, will almost always result in the death of the host. Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen. Of particular concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), is the emerging problem of HIV/VL co-infection. This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world (after malaria), responsible for an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 infections each year worldwide. Response to infection by Leishmania donovani varies a great deal, not ...

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