The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising many species infecting mammals. Viruses of this genus cause generalized infections and a rash in some hosts. The type species is VACCINIA VIRUS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A species of AVIPOXVIRUS, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE. Canarypox virus vectors are used in vaccine and immunotherapy research.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
The most common notion is that vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, and variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) were all ... Vaccinia contains within its genome genes for several proteins that give the virus resistance to interferons: K3L (P18378) is a ... For this reason, vaccinia virus was, and still is, being used as a live-virus vaccine against smallpox. Unlike vaccines that ... Steinhardt E, Israeli C, Lambert RA (September 1913). "Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia". J. Inf Dis. 13 (2 ...
... genes rarely have introns and often are arranged in the genome so that they overlap. In general, RNA viruses have smaller ... Other diseases are under investigation to discover if they have a virus as the causative agent, such as the possible connection ... Steinhardt E, Israeli C, Lambert RA (1913). "Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia". The Journal of Infectious ... These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine. Subunit ...
Steinhardt, E.; Israeli, C.; Lambert, R.A. (1913). "Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia" (PDF). J. Inf Dis. 13 ... Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a ... Oldstone 2009, p. 315 Goodpasture EW, Woodruff AM, Buddingh GJ (1931). "The cultivation of vaccine and other viruses in the ... formed genes. In Pasteur's day, and for many years after his death, the word "virus" was used to describe any cause of ...
... different strains of a virus with a segmented genome can shuffle and combine genes and produce progeny viruses or (offspring) ... Steinhardt E, Israeli C, Lambert R.A.. Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia. The Journal of Infectious Diseases ... Main articles: History of virology and Social history of viruses. Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies ... These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine.[201] ...
Although the main weapon used was vaccinia virus, which was used as the vaccine, no one seems to know exactly where vaccinia ... Viruses have transferred important genes to plants. About ten per cent of all photosynthesis uses the products of genes that ... Viruses are the main agents responsible for the rapid destruction of harmful algal blooms, which often kill other marine life, ... The Human Genome Project has revealed the presence of numerous viral DNA sequences scattered throughout the human genome. These ...
... the causative agent of human small pox, monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the prototypic member of the virus family. Within the ... the prototypic member of the virus family. Within the relatively large (~ 200 kb) vaccinia genome, three classes of genes are ... Using Reverse Genetics to Manipulate the NSs Gene of the Rift Valley Fever Virus MP-12 Strain to Improve Vaccine Safety and ... Optimization of Agrobacterium cultivation in AB medium allows direct dilution of the bacterial culture in Milli-Q water, ...
... the causative agent of human small pox, monkeypox, and vaccinia (VAC), the prototypic member of the virus family. Within the ... In order to understand regulation of both host and virus gene expression, we have utilized genome-wide approaches to analyze ... Optimization of Agrobacterium cultivation in AB medium allows direct dilution of the bacterial culture in Milli-Q water, ... Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in plants is a promising approach to produce vaccine antigens and ...
The most common notion is that vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, and variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) were all ... Vaccinia contains within its genome genes for several proteins that give the virus resistance to interferons: K3L (P18378) is a ... For this reason, vaccinia virus was, and still is, being used as a live-virus vaccine against smallpox. Unlike vaccines that ... Steinhardt E, Israeli C, Lambert RA (September 1913). "Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia". J. Inf Dis. 13 (2 ...
An overview of the regulation of influenza vaccines in the United States. Influenza Other Respir Viruses (2016) 10(5):354-60. ... Effects of the gene editing endonucleases (i.e., Cas9) on genome integrity and function of human iPSCs ... CBER scientists overcame that bottleneck by expressing H7N9 HA glycoprotein as a virus-like particle (VLP) using a vaccinia ... adventitious agents). CBER scientists evaluated a technique for improving the sensitivity of detecting adventitious viruses. ...
Steinhardt, E.; Israeli, C.; Lambert, R.A. (1913). "Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia" (PDF). J. Inf Dis. 13 ... Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a ... Oldstone 2009, p. 315 Goodpasture EW, Woodruff AM, Buddingh GJ (1931). "The cultivation of vaccine and other viruses in the ... formed genes. In Pasteurs day, and for many years after his death, the word "virus" was used to describe any cause of ...
9193-nucleotide sequence of the probable causative agent of AIDS, lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) has been determined. ... fragment of a gene is not proof of the existence of the whole gene and even less so for the existence of the whole genome "HIV ... Animal viruses were similarly plague-purified: polio in 1952; vaccinia around 1955. We used a plaque purification or ... In their effort to develop a vaccine, and because humans cannot be injected with either HIV or "mock" virus, Bess and his ...
The vaccinia virus is an attenuated vaccine that prevents variola infection. c. Variola virus is considered a potential ... 3. Herpes simplex virus type 2 a. HSV-2 is a causative agent of genital herpes, a common sexually transmitted disease (STD). ... Arboviruses include West RNA genome of the virus. These changes lead to Nile virus and western equine encephalitis virus. ... Antigenic drift is a slight change in a gene, usually a point mutation. 2L Influenza A, B, and C viruses can undergo anti- B. ...
... human papilloma virus) vaccine in 2006. However, radical changes in the density, age distribution and traveling habits of the ... This review will discuss viral vector and nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA and mRNA vaccines) as new approaches that might be ... This review will discuss viral vector and nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA and mRNA vaccines) as new approaches that might... ... human papilloma virus) vaccine in 2006. However, radical changes in the density, age distribution and travelling habits of the ...
... different strains of a virus with a segmented genome can shuffle and combine genes and produce progeny viruses or (offspring) ... Steinhardt E, Israeli C, Lambert R.A.. Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia. The Journal of Infectious Diseases ... Main articles: History of virology and Social history of viruses. Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies ... These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine.[201] ...
... the causative agent of human smallpox, ectromelia virus (ECTV) causing mousepox, cowpox virus (CPXV), monkeypox virus (MPXV), ... methods for the preparation of such recombinant MVA vaccinia viruses or vaccines, and to the use of these vaccines for the ... Attenuated african swine fever virus vaccine based in the deletion of mgf genes. ... purified virus. Particularly, the invention encompasses viruses obtained in a serum free cultivation process. [0077] In one ...
... sequence in the Autographa californica multinucleocapsid polyhedrosis virus genome promotes hyperexpression of foreign genes. ... Burkholderia pseudomallei, a causative agent of melioidosis, is a facultative intracellular gram-negative bacillus that is ... immunity was evaluated by priming mice with the beta-gal vaccinia virus then challenging the mice with the same virus. Vaccinia ... to improve resistance to avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced tumours, and to develop safer live virus vaccines in chick embryos ...
Článek Thy1 Nk Cells from Vaccinia Virus-Primed Mice Confer Protection against Vaccinia Virus Challenge in the Absence of ... tomato (Pto) is the causative agent of the bacterial speck disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a disease that occurs ... The total length of these genes is 3,543,009 nt.. Construction of whole genome trees. Based on silent, non-silent, intergenic, ... Článek The Cytokine Network of Acute HIV Infection: A Promising Target for Vaccines and Therapy to Reduce Viral Set-Point? ...
The complexity of gene function of GI increases due to the existence of paralogs showing changes in genome structure as well as ... There are not yet vaccine or efficacious treatment options to combat the causative SARS-CoV-2 infection. This paper describes ... Three viruses, grapevine Rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, grapevine leafroll-associated virus (GLR) 3 and 2 and hop ... In aerobic bioreactor cultivations C. glutamicum becomes exposed to oxygen concentrations surpassing the air saturation, which ...
Some Group I (poxviruses) and group IV virus genomes (e.g., norovirus, a causative agent of non-bacterial gastroenteritis, or " ... was recombined into the thymidine kinase gene encoded in the vaccinia genome (a model for smallpox). Recombinant viruses ... Synthetic genes can be immediately incorporated into recombinant virus or bacterial vaccine platforms and tested in animal ... In most cases these viruses replicate efficiently in culture, and animal models of disease exist, allowing for easy cultivation ...
Virus genes rarely have introns and often are arranged in the genome so that they overlap.[97] In general, RNA viruses have ... The cultivation of vaccine and other viruses in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos. Science. 1931;74(1919):371-372. ... Other diseases are under investigation to discover if they have a virus as the causative agent, such as the possible connection ... Vaccinia virus, by optical microscopy after staining it. Vaccinia was not known to be a virus at that time. (Buist J.B. ...
... related gene from the vaccinia virus could be transformed through the targeted mutation of 13 base pairs into the sequence of ... Anthrax is of course the first choice because the causative agent, B. anthracis, fulfils nearly all of these specifications ( ... the method for creating polio virus artificially cannot be directly transferred to the smallpox virus. The variola genome, with ... Expression of cereolysine ab genes in Bacillus anthracis vaccine strain ensures protection against experimental hemolytic ...
... optimization and validation of a multiplex PCR assay able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one ... Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify these diseases, but not ... camelpox virus (CMLV), camel parapox virus (CPPV) and camelus dromedary papilloma virus (CdPV). These diseases are often ... This assay provide rapid, sensitive and specific method for identifying three important viruses in specimens collected from ...
View Videos or join the Viruses discussion. Add Viruses to your PopFlock.com topic list or share. Viruses at popflock.com ... different strains of a virus with a segmented genome can shuffle and combine genes and produce progeny viruses (or offspring) ... Other diseases are under investigation to discover if they have a virus as the causative agent, such as the possible connection ... Goodpasture EW, Woodruff AM, Buddingh GJ (October 1931). "The cultivation of vaccine and other viruses in the chorioallantoic ...
... is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Sequencing the viral genome as the outbreak progresses is ... The Escherichia coli and vaccinia virus-based reverse genetics systems have been widely applied for the manipulation and ... We generated a stable mNeonGreen SARS-CoV-2 (icSARS-CoV-2-mNG) by introducing this reporter gene into ORF7 of the viral genome ... Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Virus Cultivation/methods , Animals , Australia , Betacoronavirus/ ...
... different strains of a virus with a segmented genome can shuffle and combine genes and produce progeny viruses or (offspring) ... Steinhardt E, Israeli C, Lambert R.A.. Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia. J. Inf Dis.. 1913;13(2):294-300. ... Main articles: History of virology and Social history of viruses. Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies ... These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine.[195] ...
Several recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have suggested that the histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) gene is associated ... Immune Signature of Enhanced Functional Avidity CD8+ T Cells in vivo Induced by Vaccinia Vectored Vaccine ▶ ... hominissuis (MAH) is the major causative agent of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, the representative case of environment- ... Efficient genome replication of hepatitis B virus using adenovirus vector: a compact pregenomic RNA-expression unit ▶ ...
Expression vectors are generally derived from yeast or bacterial genome or plasmid DNA, animal virus genome, or viral DNA, or ... a vaccinia virus, and a nuclear polyhedrosis virus. [0069]An "expression vector" is useful for expressing the DNA encoding the ... The probeless CEST agent generates MRI contrast through proton exchange. [0169]In an embodiment, the imaging reporter gene can ... 0087]Cultivation of cell lines is performed by methods known in the art. Cultivation conditions such as temperature, pH of the ...
Auguet JC, Montanie H, Hartmann HJ, Lebaron P, Casamayor EO, Catala P, Delmas D (2009) Potential effect of freshwater virus on ... CONCLUSION : Modifications of the vaccinia virus L1 gene including codon optimization and addition of a signal sequence with or ... In this study, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) responses to Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, ... BACKGROUND : The licensed smallpox vaccine, comprised of infectious vaccinia virus, has associated adverse effects, ...
Vaccinia Virus Herpesviruses are large dsDNA viruses with genomes ranging in size from 120 to 250 kbp. Herpesvirus genes are ... None has proved to be a unique causative agent, but it remains possible that such infections act as a trigger for the syndrome ... Simplex Virus Vaccine 352 Cytomegalovirus Vaccine 355 Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine 357 Parainfluenza Virus Vaccine 359 ... Cultivation restricted to B cell lymphocytes. No evidence of clinical disease in chimpanzees. Synonyms chimpanzee agent ...
The vaccinia virus (VACV) A27 protein and its homologs, which are found in a large number of members of the genus Orthopoxvirus ... OBJECTIVES: To develop a rapid and field applicable protocol to allow the identification of the causative agent of an outbreak ... Target genes are the porcine mitochondrial ND2 and equine ATP 6-8 genes. The pork and horse_RPA assays detected 16 and one DNA ... The multi-epitope chimeric vaccine was predicted as stable, antigenic and non-allergenic. Structural analysis of vaccine-TLR4 ...
Variola virus causes smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases in human history; and vaccinia virus, the weaker vaccine ... Multiple occurrences of giant virus core genes acquired by eukaryotic genomes: The visible part of the iceberg? Virology 466- ... the causative agent of Proliferative Kidney Disease, which can wipe out 90% of infected salmonid populations, and even caused ... favoring areas of dense foliage along forest edges and near cultivation. ...
All subjects were analyzed using conventional PCR and by metabarcoding analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 region, as ... and classification of the causative agent of EFB was difficult. In the earliest studies of this disease, the causative agent ... Bifidobacterium asteroides PRL2011 genome analysis reveals clues for colonization of the insect gut.. PLOS ONE 7(9):e44229 ... On the attempted cultivation of Bacillus Pluton, the susceptibility of individual larvae to inoculation with this organism and ...
Viruses , , , ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most ... different strains of a virus with a segmented genome can shuffle and combine genes and produce progeny viruses or (offspring) ... Steinhardt E, Israeli C, Lambert R.A.. Studies on the cultivation of the virus of vaccinia. J. Inf Dis.. 1913;13(2):294-300. ... Other diseases are under investigation to discover if they have a virus as the causative agent, such as the possible connection ...
right Vaccinia Virus Vaccines. Philadelphia, USA: Saunders. single fungal work( bandwidh) in the development. frequency, ... pressure bots; Andrade are the career genome of analysis genes. Rutherford has the large fully-funded wave of the Gram-negative ... key systems spaces by Colin K. rare images agents by Colin K. keep you for your name! is Club, but told not contribute any ... The obtained TRY THESE GUYS OUT cultivation is constant neoformans: t; . aware but the you turn clicking for ca as be ...
  • Therefore, the large genome is required for encoding various enzymes and proteins involved in viral DNA replication and gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinia contains within its genome genes for several proteins that give the virus resistance to interferons: K3L (P18378) is a protein with homology to the protein eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2alpha). (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Uncoating occurs when there is either the separation of the capsid from the genome or rearrangement of the capsid proteins exposing the genome for transcription and replication. (issuu.com)
  • FINDINGS The epidemic lineages have significant codon adaptation in NS1 gene to translate these proteins in human and Aedes aegypti mosquito cells compared to the African zoonotic lineage. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3. The method of claim 2, wherein the infectious agent is a replication competent poxvirus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) non-structural protein NS1 is a multifunctional protein important for virus replication and induction of apoptosis in host cell. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1998) that is not essential for virus replication (Tratschin et al. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Whole-genome sequencing has revealed that vaccinia is most closely related to horsepox, and the cowpox strains found in Great Britain are the least closely related to vaccinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the whole genome sequences showed that the hCoV-19/Turkey/ERAGEM-001/2020 strain clustered with the strains primarily from Australia, Canada, England, Iran and Kuwait and that the cases in the nearby clusters were reported to have travel history to Iran and to share the common unique nucleotide substitutions. (bvsalud.org)
  • On the other hand, next-generation sequencing technologies allow rapid whole genome sequencing without previous knowledge of the target. (bvsalud.org)
  • Viruses were demonstrated to be particles, rather than a fluid, by Wendell Meredith Stanley, and the invention of the electron microscope in 1931 allowed their complex structures to be visualised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beijerinck maintained that viruses were liquid in nature, a theory later discredited by the American biochemist and virologist Wendell Meredith Stanley (1904-1971), who proved that they were in fact, particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The notion that viruses were particles was not considered unnatural and fitted in nicely with the germ theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is assumed that Dr. J. Buist of Edinburgh was the first person to see virus particles in 1886, when he reported seeing "micrococci" in vaccine lymph, though he had probably observed clumps of vaccinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the years that followed, as optical microscopes were improved "inclusion bodies" were seen in many virus-infected cells, but these aggregates of virus particles were still too small to reveal any detailed structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was not until the invention of the electron microscope in 1931 by the German engineers Ernst Ruska (1906-1988) and Max Knoll (1887-1969), that virus particles, especially bacteriophages, were shown to have complex structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an interview published in late 1998 which Montagnier gave to the French journalist Djamel Tahi, Montagnier was asked why he and his colleagues did not publish electron micrographs proving that the 1.16g/ml band (the "purified virus")contained isolated HIV particles. (theperthgroup.com)
  • Once inside living cells, viruses induce the host cell to synthesize virus particles. (issuu.com)
  • While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. (wikipedia.org)
  • 24] He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing, but as his experiments did not show that it was made of particles, he called it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble living germ) and re-introduced the word virus. (metal-invest.pl)
  • [18] He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing, but as his experiments did not show that it was made of particles, he called it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble living germ) and re-introduced the word virus . (gutenberg.us)
  • These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread. (jove.com)
  • Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which causes hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate abortion and fetal malformation in ruminants 1 , has been classified as a HHS/USDA overlap select agent and a risk group 3 pathogen. (jove.com)
  • The MP-12 strain (which is a risk group 2 pathogen and a non-select agent) is highly attenuated by several mutations in its M- and L-segments, but still carries virulent S-segment RNA 3 , which encodes a functional virulence factor, NSs. (jove.com)
  • Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, [2] about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, [3] although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, genome sequencing of many isolates of genetically monomorphic bacterial human pathogens has given new insights into pathogen microevolution and phylogeography. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here, we report a genome-based micro-evolutionary study of a bacterial plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. (prolekare.cz)
  • Only 267 mutations were identified between five sequenced isolates in 3,543,009 nt of analyzed genome sequence, which suggests a recent evolutionary origin of this pathogen. (prolekare.cz)
  • Further analysis with genome-derived markers of 89 world-wide isolates showed that several genotypes exist in North America and in Europe indicating frequent pathogen movement between these world regions. (prolekare.cz)
  • Genome-derived markers and molecular analyses of key pathogen loci important for virulence and motility both suggest ongoing adaptation to the tomato host. (prolekare.cz)
  • Furthermore, model plant pathogen strains studied for their molecular interactions with plants in laboratories may not be representative of the pathogens that cause disease in the field and genes required for pathogen success in the field may not even impact bacterial growth or virulence when evaluated under laboratory conditions, which are generally optimized for disease development. (prolekare.cz)
  • History Martinus Beijerinck in his laboratory in 1921 Main articles: History of virology and Social history of viruses Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope. (metal-invest.pl)
  • BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) was recognised as a zoonotic pathogen in Africa and southeastern Asia. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the origins of the smallpox vaccine became murky over time, especially after Louis Pasteur developed laboratory techniques for creating vaccines in the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Louis Pasteur and Edward Jenner developed the first vaccines to protect against viral infections, they did not know that viruses existed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, the rapid spread of severe infections such as HIV, SARS, Ebola, and Zika have highlighted the dire need for global preparedness for pandemics, which necessitates the extremely rapid development and comprehensive distribution of vaccines against potentially previously unknown pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • The invention relates to the methods and kits comprising modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) to provide immediate protection against pathogens. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Therefore, it can be difficult to determine whether plant diseases affecting crops in the field today are caused by the same pathogens described in the literature as their causal agents. (prolekare.cz)
  • The assay detects correctly the target pathogens by amplification of targeted genes, even in case of co-infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 890366FDA Approves Novel Gene Fig. for Rare Form of Vision LossLuxturna is for questions and pathogens with a risk of human shower image that may Join to part. (plywoodskyscraper.com)
  • The history of virology - the scientific study of viruses and the infections they cause - began in the closing years of the 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the end of the 19th century, viruses were defined in terms of their infectivity, their ability to be filtered, and their requirement for living hosts. (metal-invest.pl)
  • Several reverse genetics systems for the RVFV MP-12 vaccine strain 2,3 as well as wild-type RVFV strains 4-6 , including ZH548 and ZH501, have been developed since 2006. (jove.com)
  • The Escherichia coli and vaccinia virus-based reverse genetics systems have been widely applied for the manipulation and engineering of coronavirus genomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • E3L (P21605) is another protein encoded by Vaccinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3) Biological products often elicit immune responses that, depending on the product, might be a desired outcome of the intervention (i.e., vaccine-induced protective immune response) or an unwanted outcome (i.e., immunogenicity of a recombinant protein, cell, or gene therapy). (frontiersin.org)
  • Atreya CD, Kulkarni S, Mohan KV (2004) Rubella virus P90 associates with the cytokinesis regulatory protein Citron-K kinase and the viral infection and constitutive expression of P90 protein both induce cell cycle arrest following S phase in cell culture. (univ-amu.fr)
  • Many countries and regions, where 30 years ago biotechnology merely meant brewing beer and baking bread, have established high‐tech facilities for vaccine or single‐cell‐protein production that could be subverted for the production of biological weapons. (embopress.org)
  • Ingestion of pneumococci by host cells via vitronectin required a dynamic actin cytoskeleton and was dependent on integrin-linked kinase (ILK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase B (Akt), as demonstrated by gene silencing or in inhibition experiments. (univ-amu.fr)
  • 13. The method of claim 12, wherein the reporter gene encodes a protein that is directly imageable. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The results showed that NS1 protein was expressed stably in the established cell lines and had a strong activation activity on the HBoV1 promoter driving luciferase gene. (bvsalud.org)
  • FINDINGS Seven complete ZIKV envelope protein (1,571 kb) and six partial NS5 (0,798 Kb) were obtained using the protocol, with no amplification of NS5 gene from urine sample. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1993). Exchange of each of these residues against lysine in the E™* protein of a CSFV vaccine strain resulted in the destruction of RNase activity (Hulst et al. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. (jove.com)
  • In 1796, the British doctor Edward Jenner proved that an infection with the relatively mild cowpox virus would also confer immunity to the deadly smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinia virus infection is typically very mild and often does not cause symptoms in healthy individuals, although it may cause rash and fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines , which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A method for inducing an immune response against an infectious agent in a human, comprising administering to the human an immunogenic composition comprising an MVA between 36 hours prior to infection with the infectious agent and 72 hours after infection with the infectious agent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the immunogenic composition comprising an MVA is administered between 36 hours prior to infection with the infectious agent and 48 hours after infection with the infectious agent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 15. The method according to claim 14, wherein the administration of the immunogenic composition comprising an MVA to the human is between 0 and 24 hours prior to infection with an infectious agent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 16. The method according to claim 14, wherein the administration of the immunogenic composition comprising an MVA to the human is between 0 and 48 hours after infection with an infectious agent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In utero infection of developing fetus by Rubella virus (RV) causes cell division inhibition of critical precursor cells in organogenesis, CNS-associated birth defects and induction of apoptosis in cell culture. (univ-amu.fr)
  • Antibodies to the virus are rare among monkeys in the wild but the infection spreads rapidly when they are brought together in captivity. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • BACKGROUND A number of Zika virus (ZIKV) sequences were obtained using Next-generation sequencing (NGS), a methodology widely applied in genetic diversity studies and virome discovery. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although smallpox no longer exists in the wild, vaccinia virus is still studied widely by scientists as a tool for gene therapy and genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, classical biowarfare agents can be made much more efficiently than their natural counterparts, with even the simplest genetic techniques. (embopress.org)
  • [9] Viruses are considered by some biologists to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection , although they lack the key characteristics, such as cell structure, that are generally considered necessary criteria for life . (popflock.com)
  • Two non-synonymous mutations in the flagellin-encoding gene fliC allowed identifying a new microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP) in a region distinct from the known MAMP flg22. (prolekare.cz)
  • 1998). Introduction of these mutations into the genome of the CSFV vaccine strain did not influence viral viability or growth properties but led to a virus exhibiting a, cytopathogenic phenotype (Hulst et al. (allindianpatents.com)
  • A long amplicon/read length-based RT-PCR sequencing approach focused on the Oxford Nanopore MinION/GridION platforms was developed to identify and sequence the SARS-CoV-2 genome in samples from patients with or suspected of COVID-19. (bvsalud.org)
  • MAIN CONCLUSIONS The present study provided a simple and low-cost Sanger protocol to sequence relevant genes of the ZIKV genome. (bvsalud.org)
  • It has a linear, double-stranded DNA genome approximately 190 kbp in length, which encodes approximately 250 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The genome is either DNA or RNA (single or double stranded). (issuu.com)
  • Skin infections: Rash site and, depending on the virus, serum and urine b. (issuu.com)
  • Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus) has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) which contains five ORFs. (jove.com)
  • The vaccinia virus is the source of the modern smallpox vaccine, which the World Health Organisation used to eradicate smallpox in a global vaccination campaign in 1958-1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allan Watt Downie demonstrated in 1939 that the modern smallpox vaccine was serologically distinct from cowpox, and vaccinia was subsequently recognized as a separate viral species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common notion is that vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, and variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) were all derived from a common ancestral virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also speculation that vaccinia virus was originally isolated from horses, and analysis of DNA from an early (1902) sample of smallpox vaccine showed that it was 99.7% similar to horsepox virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20. The kit of claim 17, wherein the infectious agent is smallpox. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 25. The kit of claim 22, wherein the infectious agent is smallpox. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus replicates in white sturgeon epidermal cell cultures, inducing syncytia. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Virus replicates with CPE in vervet monkey kidney cell cultures, also in human thyroid , Vero cells and many other cell lines. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • 1) The challenge of ensuring product sterility, i.e., the absence of unwanted infectious agents, is compounded with the use of biological materials (e.g., cells, viruses, and bacteria) in the manufacture of biological products. (frontiersin.org)
  • The first evidence of the existence of viruses came from experiments with filters that had pores small enough to retain bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms , from animals and plants to microorganisms , including bacteria and archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids -pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • 25] In the early 20th century, the English bacteriologist Frederick Twort discovered a group of viruses that infect bacteria, now called bacteriophages[26] (or commonly phages), and the French-Canadian microbiologist Félix d'Herelle described viruses that, when added to bacteria on an agar plate, would produce areas of dead bacteria. (metal-invest.pl)
  • He accurately diluted a suspension of these viruses and discovered that the highest dilutions (lowest virus concentrations), rather than killing all the bacteria, formed discrete areas of dead organisms. (metal-invest.pl)
  • The study of phages provided insights into the switching on and off of genes, and a useful mechanism for introducing foreign genes into bacteria. (metal-invest.pl)
  • Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope , as they are one-hundredth the size of most bacteria. (popflock.com)
  • A virus is a small animals and plants to bacteria and archaea . (gutenberg.us)
  • Causes viremia in chickens and protective immunity against Marek's disease virus 1 (GaHV2). (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Sustaining control of VL in terms of proper and prevailing immunity development is a global necessity amid unavailability of a prophylactic vaccine. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pestiviruses are causative agents of economically important diseases of animals in many countries worldwide. (allindianpatents.com)
  • 12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the virus is selected from Influenza virus, Flavivirus, Paramyxovirus, Hepatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and viruses causing hemorrhagic fever. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In 1926, Thomas Milton Rivers defined viruses as obligate parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1926, he was invited to speak at a meeting organised by the Society of American Bacteriology where he said for the first time, "Viruses appear to be obligate parasites in the sense that their reproduction is dependent on living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They include camelpox, which is caused by the Camelpox virus (CMLV), of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) also named Auzdik disease or orf in camels, which is caused by a tentative member of the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV), both viruses belong to the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae and the family Poxviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 (MeHV-1) A species in the genus 'Marek's disease-like viruses' in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), represents a zoonosis from non-human primates in West-central Africa and has claimed more than 35 million lives since its discovery in 1983 2 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Influenza A viruses occur in annual seasonal outbreaks. (frontiersin.org)
  • While the occurrence of a future influenza pandemic is almost certain, it is impossible to predict the characteristics of the virus and the severity of the symptoms it induces. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2. Croup and bronchitis can be caused by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, RSV, and adenovirus. (issuu.com)
  • 4. Pneumonia in adults can be caused by influenza virus, VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and RSV. (issuu.com)
  • Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1906, Ross Granville Harrison invented a method for growing tissue in lymph, and, in 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, and R. A. Lambert used this method to grow vaccinia virus in fragments of guinea pig corneal tissue. (metal-invest.pl)
  • Given these changes, established methods for the identification of new vaccine candidates are no longer sufficient to ensure global protection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify these diseases, but not simultaneously in a single tube. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Development of novel point of care diagnostic methods in order to help in implementing disease control program and identifying the causative agent of an outbreak is crucial. (bvsalud.org)
  • [11] He was also examining if one could become immune to cancer by developing an acquired immune response in hopes of creating a vaccine for cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 11. The method according to claim 10, wherein the infectious agent is selected from viruses, fungi, pathogenic unicellular eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and parasitic organisms. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 10, wherein the imaging reporter probe is a probe that has the characteristic of being able to detect the expression of a HSV1-tk or a HSV1-sr39tk PET reporter genes in cells within humans. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Existing vaccines proved to be ineffective against this new genetically engineered strain. (embopress.org)
  • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the engineered cell has been genetically modified ex vivo to express an imaging reporter gene. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 10. The method according to claim 9, wherein the antigenic epitope is an antigenic epitope of the infectious agent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The multi-epitope chimeric vaccine was predicted as stable, antigenic and non-allergenic. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sequencing the viral genome as the outbreak progresses is important, particularly in the identification of emerging isolates with different pathogenic potential and to identify whether nucleotide changes in the genome will impair clinical diagnostic tools such as real-time PCR assays. (bvsalud.org)
  • Molecular detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) is a key element of outbreak management. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a multiplex PCR assay able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structural analysis of vaccine-TLR4 receptor docked complex and its molecular dynamics simulation suggest sufficiently stable binding interface along with prospect of non-canonical receptor activation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Three distinct viruses may cause them: camelpox virus (CMLV), camel parapox virus (CPPV) and camelus dromedary papilloma virus (CdPV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Screening of experimental proteome of the human disease propagating form of Leishmania donovani (amastigote) can be more pragmatic for in silico mining of novel vaccine candidates. (bvsalud.org)
  • Individual cells are simulated as independent agents, and each cell accurately reacts to changes in its local environment affected by diffusing molecules. (jove.com)
  • He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing and he called it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble living germ) and re-introduced the word virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are adhesion-dependent cells that require cultivation in colonies to maintain growth and pluripotency. (healthcareintheuk.co.uk)
  • The recombinant lentivirus plasmid containing a regulatable promoter fused with ns1 gene was constructed and transfected into HEK 293T cells using transfection reagent. (bvsalud.org)
  • Indeed, many research projects in basic science show-sometimes unwillingly and unwittingly-how to overcome current scientific and technological limits in the military use of pathogenic agents. (embopress.org)
  • This review will discuss viral vector and nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA and mRNA vaccines) as new approaches that might be able to tackle these challenges to global health. (frontiersin.org)
  • 5. The classification of viruses is based on nucleic acid type, size and shape of virion, and presence or absence of an envelope. (issuu.com)
  • Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies* (Cowdry, 1934), morphological and nucleic acid characteristics resemble those of other herpes-type viruses (Farley, 1978 Francki et al. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Later, in 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitry Ivanovsky (1864-1920) used a Chamberland filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 22] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. (metal-invest.pl)
  • Adsorption is attachment of the virus to a specific receptor on the host cell. (issuu.com)
  • Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presently known virus isolates have been grouped into four different species which together form one genus within the family Flaviviridae. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Aberrations in cytokinesis and subsequent apoptosis do occur in specific cell types when the CK gene is knocked out or, its regulatory function is perturbed. (univ-amu.fr)
  • viruses in plants are often transmitted from plant to plant by vectors. (gutenberg.us)
  • The protocol, termed Rapid Sequencing Long Amplicons (RSLAs) used random primers to generate cDNA from RNA purified from a sample from a patient, followed by single or multiplex PCRs to generate longer amplicons of the viral genome. (bvsalud.org)
  • The precise origin of vaccinia virus is unknown due to the lack of record-keeping, as the virus was repeatedly cultivated and passaged in research laboratories for many decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriophage capsids constitute icosahedral shells of exceptional stability that protect the viral genome. (healthcareintheuk.co.uk)
  • Quite often, other means of inactivating or removing potentially contaminating infectious agents also cannot be applied without compromising the biological activity of the product. (frontiersin.org)
  • 23] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium - this was part of the germ theory of disease. (metal-invest.pl)
  • Martinus Beijerinck called the filtered, infectious substance a "virus" and this discovery is considered to be the beginning of virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck (1851-1931), a microbiology teacher at the Agricultural School in Wageningen repeated experiments by Adolf Mayer and became convinced that filtrate contained a new form of infectious agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck repeated the experiments and became convinced that the filtered solution contained a new form of infectious agent. (metal-invest.pl)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the imaging reporter probe is a nuclear imaging probe that has the characteristic of being able to detect the expression of a nuclear imaging reporter gene. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (bvsalud.org)
  • This novel assembly method not only results in stable coronavirus infectious full-length cDNAs cloned in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae but also fosters and accelerates the manipulation of their genomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is increasingly important to monitor the transmission and adaptive evolution of the virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the same year, 1898, Friedrich Loeffler (1852-1915) and Paul Frosch (1860-1928) passed the first animal virus through a similar filter and discovered the cause of foot-and-mouth disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ever since the development of the first vaccine more than 200 years ago, vaccinations have greatly decreased the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, famously leading to the eradication of small pox and allowing the restriction of diseases such as polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and measles. (frontiersin.org)
  • The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets and was validated with viral genomic DNA extracted from known virus strains ( n = 14) and DNA extracted from homogenized clinical skin specimens ( n = 86). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This assay provide rapid, sensitive and specific method for identifying three important viruses in specimens collected from dromedary camels with varying clinical presentations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IV Border disease virus (BDV) is typically found in sheep and causes border disease (BD. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Poxviruses are unique among DNA viruses because they replicate only in the cytoplasm of the host cell, outside of the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinia virus is able to undergo multiplicity reactivation (MR). MR is the process by which two, or more, virus genomes containing otherwise lethal damage interact within an infected cell to form a viable virus genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory oversight of blood, tissues, and complex medical products that include vaccines, allergenic products, blood-derived products, certain diagnostics and devices, live biotherapeutics, and novel medical products, such as stem cell-derived products, and other cell and gene therapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2. Pentration is entry of the virus into the host cell. (issuu.com)
  • 6. Viruses are then released from the host cell. (issuu.com)
  • Cell lysis: Naked viruses lyse host cell and leave through a hole in the plasma membrane. (issuu.com)
  • When infected, a host cell is forced to rapidly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. (popflock.com)
  • andnon-invasively imaging the human subject, wherein detecting the presence of the imaging reporter gene product corresponds to the presence of the engineered cell. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The virus is strongly cell-associated. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • [5] [6] The study of viruses is known as virology , a sub-speciality of microbiology . (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] [8] The study of viruses is known as virology , a subspeciality of microbiology . (popflock.com)
  • 3. In 1983, when B-S et al published their paper entitled, "Isolation of a T-lymphotrophic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)", and called the 1.16g/ml band "pure labelled virus", did they mislead the scientific community? (theperthgroup.com)
  • Leishmania infantum, a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, is able to infect host macrophages and modulate a myriad of signalling pathways that contributes to the disease outcome. (prolekare.cz)