The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
The detection of long and short term side effects of conventional and traditional medicines through research, data mining, monitoring, and evaluation of healthcare information obtained from healthcare providers and patients.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The use of the GENETIC VARIATION of known functions or phenotypes to correlate the causal effects of those functions or phenotypes with a disease outcome.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.
The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Material prepared from plants.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Freedom from activity.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

Osteopenia in the patient with cancer. (1/1739)

Osteopenia is defined as a reduction in bone mass. It is commonly known to occur in elderly people or women who are postmenopausal due to hormonal imbalances. This condition, however, can result because of many other factors, such as poor nutrition, prolonged pharmacological intervention, disease, and decreased mobility. Because patients with cancer experience many of these factors, they are often predisposed to osteopenia. Currently, patients with cancer are living longer and leading more fulfilling lives after treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that therapists who are responsible for these patients understand the risk factors for osteopenia and their relevance to a patient with cancer.  (+info)

Onchocerciasis and epilepsy: a matched case-control study in the Central African Republic. (2/1739)

The occurrence of epileptic seizures during onchocercal infestation has been suspected. Epidemiologic studies are necessary to confirm the relation between onchocerciasis and epilepsy. A matched case-control study was conducted in dispensaries of three northwestern towns of the Central African Republic. Each epileptic case was matched against two nonepileptic controls on the six criteria of sex, age (+/-5 years), residence, treatment with ivermectin, date of last ivermectin dose, and the number of ivermectin doses. Onchocerciasis was defined as at least one microfilaria observed in iliac crest skin snip biopsy. A total of 561 subjects (187 cases and 374 controls) were included in the study. Of the epileptics, 39.6% had onchocerciasis, as did 35.8% of the controls. The mean dermal microfilarial load was 26 microfilariae per mg of skin (standard deviation, 42) in the epileptics and 24 microfilariae per mg of skin (standard deviation, 48) in the controls. This matched case-control study found some relation (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.81-1.80), although it was nonstatistically significant.  (+info)

Evaluation of the quality of an injury surveillance system. (3/1739)

The sensitivity, positive predictive value, and representativeness of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) were assessed. Sensitivity was estimated at four centers in June through August 1992, by matching independently identified injuries with those in the CHIRPP database. The positive predictive value was determined by reviewing all "injuries" in the database (at Montreal Children's Hospital) that could not be matched. Representativeness was assessed by comparing missed with captured injuries (at Montreal Children's Hospital) on demographic, social, and clinical factors. Sensitivity ranged from 30% to 91%, and the positive predictive value was 99.9% (i.e., the frequency of false-positive capture was negligible). The representativeness study compared 277 missed injuries with 2,746 captured injuries. The groups were similar on age, sex, socioeconomic status, delay before presentation, month, and day of presentation. Injuries resulting in admissions, poisonings, and those presenting overnight were, however, more likely to be missed. The adjusted odds ratio of being missed by CHIRPP for admitted injuries (compared with those treated and released) was 13.07 (95% confidence interval 7.82-21.82); for poisonings (compared with all other injuries), it was 9.91 (95% confidence interval 5.39-18.20); and for injuries presenting overnight (compared with those presenting during the day or evening), it was 4.11 (95% confidence interval 3.11-5.44). These injuries were probably missed because of inadequate education of participants in the system. The authors conclude that CHIRPP data are of relatively high quality and may be used, with caution, for research and public health policy.  (+info)

Power and sample size calculations in case-control studies of gene-environment interactions: comments on different approaches. (4/1739)

Power and sample size considerations are critical for the design of epidemiologic studies of gene-environment interactions. Hwang et al. (Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:1029-37) and Foppa and Spiegelman (Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:596-604) have presented power and sample size calculations for case-control studies of gene-environment interactions. Comparisons of calculations using these approaches and an approach for general multivariate regression models for the odds ratio previously published by Lubin and Gail (Am J Epidemiol 1990; 131:552-66) have revealed substantial differences under some scenarios. These differences are the result of a highly restrictive characterization of the null hypothesis in Hwang et al. and Foppa and Spiegelman, which results in an underestimation of sample size and overestimation of power for the test of a gene-environment interaction. A computer program to perform sample size and power calculations to detect additive or multiplicative models of gene-environment interactions using the Lubin and Gail approach will be available free of charge in the near future from the National Cancer Institute.  (+info)

An IgG1 titre to the F1 and V antigens correlates with protection against plague in the mouse model. (5/1739)

The objective of this study was to identify an immunological correlate of protection for a two-component subunit vaccine for plague, using a mouse model. The components of the vaccine are the F1 and V antigens of the plague-causing organism, Yersinia pestis, which are coadsorbed to alhydrogel and administered intramuscularly. The optimum molar ratio of the subunits was determined by keeping the dose-level of either subunit constant whilst varying the other and observing the effect on specific antibody titre. A two-fold molar excess of F1 to V, achieved by immunizing with 10 micrograms of each antigen, resulted in optimum antibody titres. The dose of vaccine required to protect against an upper and lower subcutaneous challenge with Y. pestis was determined by administering doses in the range 10 micrograms F1 + 10 micrograms V to 0.01 microgram F1 + 0.01 microgram V in a two-dose regimen. For animals immunized at the 1-microgram dose level or higher with F1 + V, an increase in specific IgG1 titre was observed over the 8 months post-boost and they were fully protected against a subcutaneous challenge with 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) virulent Y. pestis at this time point. However, immunization with 5 micrograms or more of each subunit was required to achieve protection against challenge with 10(7) CFU Y. pestis. A new finding of this study is that the combined titre of the IgG1 subclass, developed to F1 plus V, correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with protection. The titres of IgG1 in vaccinated mice which correlated with 90%, 50% and 10% protection have been determined and provide a useful model to predict vaccine efficacy in man.  (+info)

Is perforation of the appendix a risk factor for tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy? An appraisal of the evidence. (6/1739)

OBJECTIVE: To critically assess the evidence that appendiceal perforation is a risk factor for subsequent tubal infertility or ectopic pregnancy. DATA SOURCES: Epidemiologic studies investigating the relationship between appendectomy and infertility or ectopic pregnancy were identified by searching the MEDLINE database from 1966 to 1997. Appropriate citations were also extracted from a manual search of the bibliographies of selected papers. STUDY SELECTION: Twenty-three articles were retrieved. Only 4 presented original data including comparisons to a nonexposed control group and they form the basis for this study. DATA EXTRACTION: Because the raw data or specific techniques of data analysis were not always explicitly described, indices of risk for exposure were extracted from the data as presented and were analysed without attempting to convert them to a common measure. DATA SYNTHESIS: Articles were assessed according to the criteria of the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group for evaluating articles on harm. Review of the literature yielded estimates of the risk of adverse fertility outcomes ranging from 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 2.5) for ectopic pregnancy after an appendectomy to 4.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 14.9) for tubal infertility from perforation of the appendix. Recall bias, and poor adjustment for confounding variables in some reports, weakened the validity of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: The methodologic weaknesses of the studies do not permit acceptance of increased risk of tubal pregnancy or infertility as a consequence of perforation of the appendix, so a causal relationship cannot be supported by the data currently available. Only a well-designed case-control study with unbiased ascertainment of exposure and adjustment for confounding variables will provide a definitive answer.  (+info)

Assessing public health capacity to support community-based heart health promotion: the Canadian Heart Health Initiative, Ontario Project (CHHIOP). (7/1739)

This paper presents initial findings of the Canadian Heart Health Initiative, Ontario Project (CHHIOP). CHHIOP has two primary objectives. The programmatic objective is to coordinate and refine a system for supporting effective, sustained community-based heart health activities. This paper addresses the scientific objective: to develop knowledge of factors that influence the development of predisposition and capacity to undertake community-based heart health activities in public health departments. A systems theory framework for an ecological approach to health promotion informs the conceptualization of the key constructs, measured using a two-stage longitudinal design which combines quantitative and qualitative methods. This paper reports the results of the first round of quantitative survey data collected from all health departments in Ontario (N = 42) and individuals within each health department involved in heart health promotion (n = 262). Results indicate low levels of implementation of heart health activities, both overall and for particular risk factors and settings. Levels of capacity are also generally low, yet predisposition to undertake heart health promotion activities is reportedly high. Analyses show that implementation is positively related to capacity but not predisposition, while predisposition and capacity are positively related. Overall, results suggest predisposition is a necessary but not sufficient condition for implementation to occur; capacity-related factors appear to be the primary constraint. These findings are used to inform strategies to address CHHIOP's programmatic objective.  (+info)

Immunologic parameters as predictive factors of cytomegalovirus disease in renal allograft recipients. (8/1739)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a major problem in renal transplant recipients, but few predictive markers of the disease are known. Several immunologic parameters of potential relevance for the defense against CMV were measured after renal transplantation in 25 patients before any manifestations of CMV infection occurred. In 10 patients who later developed CMV disease, plasma levels of interleukin-8 were significantly higher, whereas the levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) were significantly lower than in 15 patients who did not develop CMV disease. Also, lower numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were observed in patients who later had CMV disease. These findings were independent of previous rejection therapy and were particularly pronounced in patients with primary CMV infection. Interleukin-8 and MIP-1alpha may be predictive markers of CMV disease and could be of potential use in selecting patients for prophylactic treatment.  (+info)

There are several types of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, including:

1. Common side effects: These are side effects that are commonly experienced by patients taking a particular medication. Examples include nausea, dizziness, and fatigue.
2. Serious side effects: These are side effects that can be severe or life-threatening. Examples include allergic reactions, liver damage, and bone marrow suppression.
3. Adverse events: These are any unwanted or harmful effects that occur during the use of a medication, including side effects and other clinical events such as infections or injuries.
4. Drug interactions: These are interactions between two or more drugs that can cause harmful side effects or reduce the effectiveness of one or both drugs.
5. Side effects caused by drug abuse: These are side effects that occur when a medication is taken in larger-than-recommended doses or in a manner other than as directed. Examples include hallucinations, seizures, and overdose.

It's important to note that not all side effects and adverse reactions are caused by the drug itself. Some may be due to other factors, such as underlying medical conditions, other medications being taken, or environmental factors.

To identify and manage drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, healthcare providers will typically ask patients about any symptoms they are experiencing, perform physical exams, and review the patient's medical history and medication list. In some cases, additional tests may be ordered to help diagnose and manage the problem.

Overall, it's important for patients taking medications to be aware of the potential for side effects and adverse reactions, and to report any symptoms or concerns to their healthcare provider promptly. This can help ensure that any issues are identified and addressed early, minimizing the risk of harm and ensuring that the patient receives the best possible care.

The definition of DILI has been revised several times over the years, but the most recent definition was published in 2013 by the International Consortium for DILI Research (ICDCR). According to this definition, DILI is defined as:

"A clinically significant alteration in liver function that is caused by a medication or other exogenous substance, and is not related to underlying liver disease. The alteration may be biochemical, morphological, or both, and may be acute or chronic."

The ICDCR definition includes several key features of DILI, including:

1. Clinically significant alteration in liver function: This means that the liver damage must be severe enough to cause symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction, such as jaundice, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
2. Caused by a medication or other exogenous substance: DILI is triggered by exposure to certain drugs or substances that are not related to underlying liver disease.
3. Not related to underlying liver disease: This means that the liver damage must not be caused by an underlying condition such as hepatitis B or C, alcoholic liver disease, or other genetic or metabolic disorders.
4. May be acute or chronic: DILI can occur as a sudden and severe injury (acute DILI) or as a slower and more insidious process (chronic DILI).

The ICDCR definition provides a standardized way of defining and diagnosing DILI, which is important for clinicians and researchers to better understand the cause of liver damage in patients who are taking medications. It also helps to identify the drugs or substances that are most likely to cause liver injury and to develop strategies for preventing or treating DILI.

Some common types of perceptual disorders include:

1. Visual perceptual disorders: These disorders affect an individual's ability to interpret and make sense of visual information from the environment. They can result in difficulties with recognizing objects, perceiving depth and distance, and tracking movement.
2. Auditory perceptual disorders: These disorders affect an individual's ability to interpret and make sense of sound. They can result in difficulties with hearing and understanding speech, as well as distinguishing between different sounds.
3. Tactile perceptual disorders: These disorders affect an individual's ability to interpret and make sense of touch. They can result in difficulties with recognizing objects through touch, as well as interpreting tactile sensations such as pain, temperature, and texture.
4. Olfactory perceptual disorders: These disorders affect an individual's ability to interpret and make sense of smells. They can result in difficulties with identifying different odors and distinguishing between them.
5. Gustatory perceptual disorders: These disorders affect an individual's ability to interpret and make sense of tastes. They can result in difficulties with identifying different flavors and distinguishing between them.
6. Balance and equilibrium disorders: These disorders affect an individual's ability to maintain balance and equilibrium. They can result in difficulties with standing, walking, and maintaining posture.

Perceptual disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's daily life, making it difficult to perform everyday tasks and activities. Treatment for perceptual disorders often involves a combination of sensory therapy, behavioral therapy, and assistive technologies. The goal of treatment is to help the individual compensate for any impairments in sensory processing and improve their ability to function in daily life.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are many different types of epilepsy, each with its own unique set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of epilepsy include:

1. Generalized Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects both sides of the brain and can cause a range of seizure types, including absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and atypical absence seizures.
2. Focal Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects only one part of the brain and can cause seizures that are localized to that area. There are several subtypes of focal epilepsy, including partial seizures with complex symptoms and simple partial seizures.
3. Tonic-Clonic Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy is also known as grand mal seizures and can cause a loss of consciousness, convulsions, and muscle stiffness.
4. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that typically develops in early childhood and can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.
5. Dravet Syndrome: This is a rare genetic form of epilepsy that typically develops in infancy and can cause severe, frequent seizures.
6. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder that can cause intellectual disability, developmental delays, and various types of seizures.
7. Other forms of epilepsy include Absence Epilepsy, Myoclonic Epilepsy, and Atonic Epilepsy.

The symptoms of epilepsy can vary widely depending on the type of seizure disorder and the individual affected. Some common symptoms of epilepsy include:

1. Seizures: This is the most obvious symptom of epilepsy and can range from mild to severe.
2. Loss of consciousness: Some people with epilepsy may experience a loss of consciousness during a seizure, while others may remain aware of their surroundings.
3. Confusion and disorientation: After a seizure, some people with epilepsy may feel confused and disoriented.
4. Memory loss: Seizures can cause short-term or long-term memory loss.
5. Fatigue: Epilepsy can cause extreme fatigue, both during and after a seizure.
6. Emotional changes: Some people with epilepsy may experience emotional changes, such as anxiety, depression, or mood swings.
7. Cognitive changes: Epilepsy can affect cognitive function, including attention, memory, and learning.
8. Sleep disturbances: Some people with epilepsy may experience sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or sleepiness.
9. Physical symptoms: Depending on the type of seizure, people with epilepsy may experience physical symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, and sensory changes.
10. Social isolation: Epilepsy can cause social isolation due to fear of having a seizure in public or stigma associated with the condition.

It's important to note that not everyone with epilepsy will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may have different symptoms depending on the type of seizure they experience. Additionally, some people with epilepsy may experience additional symptoms not listed here.

Here the notion of causality is one of contributory causality as discussed above: If the true value a j ≠ 0 {\displaystyle a_{j ... Judea Pearl (2000). Causality: Models of Reasoning and Inference CAUSALITY, 2nd Edition, 2009 Cambridge University Press ISBN ... Some writers have held that causality is metaphysically prior to notions of time and space. Causality is an abstraction that ... The contemporary philosophical literature on causality can be divided into five big approaches to causality. These include the ...
... is a physical principle suggested in 2009. Information Causality states that information gain that a ... "Information causality as a physical principle". Nature. 461 (7267): 1101-1104. arXiv:0905.2292. Bibcode:2009Natur.461.1101P. ...
The weaker the causality condition on a spacetime, the more unphysical the spacetime is. Spacetimes with closed timelike curves ... A manifold satisfying any of the weaker causality conditions defined above may fail to do so if the metric is given a small ... There is a hierarchy of causality conditions, each one of which is strictly stronger than the previous. This is sometimes ... In the study of Lorentzian manifold spacetimes there exists a hierarchy of causality conditions which are important in proving ...
Thus, maybe, causality lies in the foundation of the spacetime geometry. In causal set theory, causality takes an even more ... Causality is the relationship between causes and effects. While causality is also a topic studied from the perspectives of ... ISBN 0-9536772-1-4. Includes three chapters on causality at the microlevel in physics. Bunge, Mario (1959). Causality: the ... Causality in this context is not associated with definitional principles such as Newton's second law. As such, in the context ...
Look up causality or causal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Causality is the influence that connects one process or state, ... Causality may also refer to: Granger causality, a statistical hypothesis test Causal layered analysis, a technique used in ... in mathematics Causality (book), a 2009 book by Judea Pearl Causality (video game), 2017 video game by Loju Casualty ( ... the proposition that everything in the universe has a cause and is thus an effect of that cause Causality (physics) Causal sets ...
Thus, Causality is a major statement, which all who claim to know what causality is must read. - Stephen L. Morgan (2004) The ... Causality Causal inference Structural equation modeling Scholia has a work profile for Causality (book). Scholia has a topic ... Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference (2000; updated 2009) is a book by Judea Pearl. It is an exposition and analysis of ... Judea Pearl (2009). Causality (2nd ed.). New York City: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89560-6. OCLC 1261134347. OL ...
As its name implies, Granger causality is not necessarily true causality. In fact, the Granger-causality tests fulfill only the ... "predictive causality". Using the term "causality" alone is a misnomer, as Granger-causality is better described as "precedence ... An extension of Granger (non-)causality testing to panel data is also available. A modified Granger causality test based on the ... Non-parametric tests for Granger causality are designed to address this problem. The definition of Granger causality in these ...
"Causality Tips, Cheats and Strategies". Gamezebo. 2017-02-27. Retrieved 2017-03-12. "Causality for iPhone/iPad Reviews". ... Perricone, Marcello (2017-02-25). "Causality Review , GameGrin". GameGrin. Retrieved 2017-03-12. "Causality Review". Pocket ... "Causality Review: Playing With Paradoxes". Gamezebo. Retrieved 2017-03-12. "Time Manipulation Puzzler 'Causality' Hits the App ... Causality is a game by British studio Loju. The game is about guiding a group of astronauts to safety. It was released on Steam ...
... is a causality condition for scattering matrix (S-matrix) in axiomatic quantum field theory. The ... The Bogoliubov causality condition in terms of variational derivatives has the form: δ δ g ( x ) ( δ S ( g ) δ g ( y ) S † ( g ...
... is an album by American fingerstyle guitarist and composer John Fahey, released in 1989. With the ... "God, Time and Causality > Review". Allmusic. Retrieved March 22, 2010. Larkin, Colin (2011). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music ... ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. "God, Time and Causality > Review". CMJ New Music. November 2000. (Articles with short description, Short ...
David Hume coined a sceptical, reductionist viewpoint on causality that inspired the logical-positivist definition of empirical ...
Other attempts to define causality include Granger causality, a statistical hypothesis test that causality (in economics) can ... Causality is relevant to the second ladder step. Associations are on the first step and provide only evidence to the latter. A ... Causality is assessed by experimentally performing some action that affects one of the events. Example: if we doubled the price ... They are the highest step on Pearl's causality ladder. Definition: A potential outcome for a variable Y is "the value Y would ...
Pearl, Judea (2000). Causality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 9780521773621. Tian, Jin; Pearl, Judea (2002). "A general ... White, Halbert; Chalak, Karim; Lu, Xun (2011). "Linking granger causality and the pearl causal model with settable systems" ( ... PDF). Causality in Time Series Challenges in Machine Learning. 5. Rothman, Kenneth J.; Greenland, Sander; Lash, Timothy (2008 ...
Pearl, Judea (2000). Causality. Cambridge University Press. "Review of the paper: M. L. Ginsberg, "Counterfactuals," Artificial ... Judea Pearl (2000). Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77362-1. Thompson, ... Philosophy portal Alvin Goldman Angelika Kratzer Causality Conditional sentence David Lewis (philosopher) Import-Export ...
However, a network may accurately embody the Markov condition without depicting causality, in which case it should not be ... In the event that the structure of a Bayesian network accurately depicts causality, the two conditions are equivalent. ... Pearl, Judea (2009). Causality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511803161. ISBN 9780511803161. ...
Granger causality can also be used to find the causality between two observational variables under different, but similarly ... Granger causality has been applied to fMRI data. CCD tested their tools using biomedical data [4]. ECA is used in physics to ... Granger causality (there is also the Scholarpedia entry [1]) transfer entropy convergent cross mapping causation entropy PC ... Guo, Ruocheng; Cheng, Lu; Li, Jundong; Hahn, P. Richard; Liu, Huan (2020). "A Survey of Learning Causality with Data". ACM ...
Heckman, J. J. (2008). "Econometric Causality". International Statistical Review. 76 (1): 1-27. doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.2007. ...
R package [1] Python package [2] Causal inference Causal model Causality Causal reasoning Causality Workbench team tools and ... Pearl, Judea (2000). Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521773621. Granger, C. W ... Guo, Ruocheng; Cheng, Lu; Li, Jundong; Hahn, P. Richard; Liu, Huan (2020). "A Survey of Learning Causality with Data". ACM ... David Hume argued that beliefs about causality are based on experience, and experience similarly based on the assumption that ...
Conditional mutual information Causality Causality (physics) Structural equation modeling Rubin causal model Mutual information ... Massey, James (1990). "Causality, Feedback And Directed Information" (ISITA). CiteSeerX {{cite journal}}: Cite ... Hence, it is advantageous when the model assumption of Granger causality doesn't hold, for example, analysis of non-linear ... Hlaváčková-Schindler, Katerina; Palus, M; Vejmelka, M; Bhattacharya, J (1 March 2007). "Causality detection based on ...
Brukner, Časlav (2014). "Quantum causality". Nature Physics. 10 (4): 259-263. Bibcode:2014NatPh..10..259B. doi:10.1038/ ...
The quantum-comb framework also enabled a new understanding of causality in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. This ... Brukner, Časlav (2014). "Quantum causality". Nature Physics. 10 (4): 259-263. Bibcode:2014NatPh..10..259B. doi:10.1038/ ...
... , or Agent causality, is an idea in philosophy which states that a being who is not an event-namely an agent-can ... "Agent-Causality". Retrieved 2016-11-23. Rowe, William L. (1991). "Responsibility, Agent-Causation, ... v t e (CS1: Julian-Gregorian uncertainty, Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Causality, Free ...
Alfredo Morabia (2005). "Epidemiological causality". History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences. 27 (3-4): 365-79. PMID ... Michael Kundi (July 2006). "Causality and the interpretation of epidemiologic evidence". Environmental Health Perspectives. 114 ...
Causal determinism is the concept that events within a given paradigm are bound by causality in such a way that any state (of ... In 1739, David Hume in his A Treatise of Human Nature approached free will via the notion of causality. It was his position ... Kayser, A.S.; Sun, F.T.; D'Esposito, M. (2009). "A comparison of Granger causality and coherency in fMRI-based analysis of the ... Some explanations of free will focus on the internal causality of the mind with respect to higher-order brain processing - the ...
Lichtblau, Klaus (1 August 1991). "Causality or Interaction? Simmel, Weber and Interpretive Sociology". Theory, Culture & ...
Farmer, Lindsay (2007). "Complicity beyond causality". Criminal Law and Philosophy. Springer Science+Business Media. 1 (2): 151 ...
Causality before Hume.) Clatterbaugh, Kenneth (July 1998). "What is problematic about 'masculinities'?". Men and Masculinities ... Clatterbaugh, Kenneth; Bobro, Marc (July 1996). "Unpacking the Monad: Leibniz's Theory of Causality". The Monist. 79 (3): 408- ... "Cartesian causality, explanation, and divine concurrence". History of Philosophy Quarterly. University of Illinois Press. 12 (2 ...
One theory states that stable wormholes are possible, but that any attempt to use a network of wormholes to violate causality ... Since the underlying behavior does not violate local causality or allow FTL communication, it follows that neither does the ... A number of authors have published papers disputing Nimtz's claim that Einstein causality is violated by his experiments, and ... Fearn, Heidi (2007). "Can Light Signals Travel Faster than c in Nontrivial Vacuua in Flat space-time? Relativistic Causality II ...
Model specification can be useful in determining causality that is slow to emerge, where the effects of an action in one period ... Notably, correlation does not imply causation, so the study of causality is as concerned with the study of potential causal ... In the 20th century the Bradford Hill criteria, described in 1965 have been used to assess causality of variables outside ... It is worth reiterating that regression analysis in the social science does not inherently imply causality, as many phenomena ...
Fundamentals of Causality. In: Rouse, W., Boff, K. and Sanderson, P., eds., Complex Socio-Technical Systems: Understanding and ... Causality is one of the key concepts employed in the sciences. In our attempt to understand and influence the world around us, ... Causality, Contemporary philosophy, Metaphysics of science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Philosophy academics, ... Influencing the Causality of Change IOS Press. Mumford, S., 2012. Metaphysics: A Very Short Introduction Oxford University ...
Excerpts from the 2nd edition of Causality (Cambridge University Press, 2009) Preface. Table of Contents ( Book / Chapter 11). ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (‎WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2005)‎ ...
Levels of Causality. And theres more from Dr Austin. Taking emergent as high and fundamental as low, he talks of higher level ...
New research on potential causes of male infertility hold key messages for urologists at this years AUA annual meeting, according to Craig S. Niederberger, MD, of the University of Illinois, Chicago.
The causality between inventor mobility and inventor productivity ... Working Paper: Tracing Mobile Inventors - The Causality between ... Tracing mobile inventors--The causality between inventor mobility and inventor productivity. Karin Hoisl (. ) Research Policy, ...
... causality, and decision-making in climate variability and change will run from 6-10 June 2022. Click the heading above for ... MPE Virtual Summer School on Attribution, causality, and decision-making Details Published: 21 March 2022 A virtual summer ... Topics will include event attribution, trend attribution, philosophical issues in attribution, causality, and decision-making. ... school on Attribution, causality, and decision-making in climate variability and change will run from 6-10 June 2022. ...
For over twenty years Douglas Berger has advanced research and reflection on Indian philosophical traditions from both classical and cross-cultural perspectives…
Clean water: One of the first causalities of partisan attacks to roll back regulations ...
Causality Conclusion. Conclusion 12.1: The evidence is inadequate to accept or reject a causal relationship between the ... Causality Conclusion. Conclusion 12.2: The evidence convincingly supports a causal relationship between the injection of a ... Causality Conclusion. Conclusion 12.3: The evidence convincingly supports a causal relationship between the injection of a ... Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality (2012) Chapter:12 Injection-Related Adverse Events. ...
The direction of causality between the variables is investigated by the vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality ... Giles, J. A and Williams, C. L., (2000). Export-led growth: a survey of the empirical literature and some non-causality results ... The causality analysis reveals feedback hypothesis that exists between financial development and economic growth, financial ... Jordaan, A. C and Eita, J. H., (2007). Export and economic growth in Namibia: a granger causality analysis. South African ...
Collapse of Causality is Temporal Paradox to the Nth degree. A continual miasma of competing timelines and rewritten history ... In his book Hyperspace, Michio Kaku devotes just over a page to discussion of the notion of the Collapse of Causality, a ... For slapstick randomness or a surreal nightmare, set a game After The End, where Collapse of Causality has already happened (or ... This is all that stands between you and total collapse of causality:. *Chronology Protection Conjecture - as Hawking says, Time ...
Quantile Causality and Dependence between Crude Oil and Precious Metal Prices. Muhammad Shafiullah, Sajid Chaudhry*, Muhammad ... Quantile Causality and Dependence between Crude Oil and Precious Metal Prices. International Journal of Finance and Economics. ... Quantile causality and dependence between crude oil and precious metal prices. © 2020 The Authors. This is an open access ... Quantile Causality and Dependence between Crude Oil and Precious Metal Prices. In: International Journal of Finance and ...
Chain of causality. This helps to create what appears to be a clear chain of causality whereby we tend to deploy a range of ...
LearnDA: Learnable Knowledge-Guided Data Augmentation for Event Causality Identification. Xinyu Zuo, Pengfei Cao, Yubo Chen, ... LearnDA: Learnable Knowledge-Guided Data Augmentation for Event Causality Identification. In Proceedings of the 59th Annual ... LearnDA: Learnable Knowledge-Guided Data Augmentation for Event Causality Identification. In Proceedings of the 59th Annual ... LearnDA: Learnable Knowledge-Guided Data Augmentation for Event Causality Identification (Zuo et al., ACL-IJCNLP 2021). Copy ...
Want to keep up with our efforts to transform the way you research through causal AI? Stay up to date with our most recent news announcements and media coverage ...
Simple modular syntactic causality analysis. Can reject correct 16 programs, especially if the program is not flattened first ... if auts != [] then assert false (* No call on causality on a Lustre model ... constants/inputs: not needed for causality/scheduling, needed only for detecting useless vars ...
Misunderstandings regarding the application of Granger causality in neuroscience. Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
by Clyde C. Lowstuter For the Want of a Nail For want of a nail the shoe was lost. For want of a shoe the horse was lost. For want… ...
Causality Pirate Ship is just another special causality adventure, where you have the occasion and the opportunity to use the ... What is Causality Pirate Ship ?. Embed. Causality Pirate Ship is just another special causality adventure, where you have the ... because this is the great scenario from this version of causality, this time! Start with the first level, where there are four ...
Causality Argument. There is biologic plausibility for a causal relation between measles vaccine and GBS. GBS has been shown to ... Causality Argument. The data relating death and measles or mumps vaccine are from case reports and case series. The largest ... Causality Argument. Evidence from individual reports in VAERS and the literature is consistent with a causal relation between ... Causality Argument. There is no question that measles virus is causally related to SSPE. Therefore, it is biologically ...
The metaphysical distinctions of causality are crucial in understanding Reformed… ... Five Distinctions of Causality. Causa: cause; that which brings about motion or mutation. Following Aristotle, the medieval ... Examples of this schema of causality. Creation. "In the creation of the world God is the efficient cause; materia prima [i.e. ... This logic of causality was used by the supralapsarians among the Reformed to argue the correctness of their teaching over the ...
There are comments on PubPeer for publication: Statistics, Causality and Bells Theorem (2012)
The Geometry of Causality , Space Time, Physics, Science, Physics Encyclopedia ...
The Poetics of Causality. Life poetry and love poems by alcoholic poet. ... Sad Poems : Alcoholic Poet: The Poetics of Causality Life Poetry Alcoholic Poet. ...
Granger causality has certain limitations, since it is not true causality. For example, if both X and Y are part of the same ... The causality is the principle or origin of something. The concept is used to name the relationship between a cause and its ... Granger causality test. Clive WJ Granger, an economist born in 1934 in Great Britain and winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics ... For philosophy, causality is the law by virtue of which effects are generated. Philosophers consider that the fact of any event ...
I have always expected and requested investigators to review each adverse event and document the causality in the medical notes ... I wanted to clarify what the expectation is when monitoring for the documentation of causality assessment of AE by an ... Assessment of AE causality in source data I wanted to clarify what the expectation is when monitoring for the documentation of ... Which will require assessment of serious and causality for each AE. If a signature of investigator is not required on the form ...
Can we say anything about causality with such models? For example, can we say that flu vaccinations causally increase Covid-19 ... 25) Models And Causality. Can we say anything about causality with such models? For example, can we say that flu vaccinations ... Causality. In my opinion, the still cleverest and as yet unsurpassed analysis of causality is by David Hume [1], who, ... Since there are no temporal components in them, it is difficult to make causality statements. One can only gain causality in ...
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PASQUALI, Luiz e MOURA, Cristiane Faiad de. Atribution of causality to divorce. Aval. psicol. [online]. 2003, vol.2, n.1, pp. ... Data showed also that the variables sex and civil state are relevant to the internal attribution of causality to the divorce, ... Thus, the objective of the present study was: 1) construction and validation of a Scale of Attribution of Causality to the ...
  • Questions on causality in the biological and medical sciences, and published in French in a book entitled: Causality in the biological and medical sciences (EDP Sciences, 2017). (
  • Effect of measurement noise on Granger causality. (
  • The direction of causality between the variables is investigated by the vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality test and robustness of causality analysis is tested by applying innovative accounting approach (IAA). (
  • We provide two programs, 3dGC.R and 1dGC.R, for Granger causality analysis via multivariate (or vector) auto-regressive modeling. (
  • By what name was A Matter of Causality (2021) officially released in Canada in English? (
  • Structural change in exports and economic growth: cointegration and causality analysis for Spain (1961-2000). (
  • A virtual summer school on 'Attribution, causality, and decision-making' in climate variability and change will run from 6-10 June 2022 . (
  • Thus, the objective of the present study was: 1) construction and validation of a Scale of Attribution of Causality to the Divorce (ACD) and 2) analysis of some hypotheses in relation to the causal attribution of divorce. (
  • Data showed also that the variables sex and civil state are relevant to the internal attribution of causality to the divorce, whereas the attribution to external factors is affected more by age and social economic level. (
  • In his book Hyperspace , Michio Kaku devotes just over a page to discussion of the notion of the Collapse of Causality , a Disaster that is a likely consequence of the spread and proliferation of time travel technology . (
  • To solve the data lacking problem, we introduce a new approach to augment training data for event causality identification, by iteratively generating new examples and classifying event causality in a dual learning framework. (
  • The field of empirical economics has developed rigorous methods to establish causality even when randomized controlled trials are not available. (
  • Although most share common characteristics, the results of the causality assessment are variable depending on the algorithm used. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Causality. (
  • The causality analysis reveals feedback hypothesis that exists between financial development and economic growth, financial development and exports, and, exports and economic growth. (
  • Foreign direct investment, exports and output growth of Turkey: causality analysis. (
  • There have been attempts to understand the underlying mechanisms describing the causality of similar symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 and the Brain: What Do We Know about the Causality of 'Cognitive COVID? (
  • In block designs with blocks of relatively long duration, you could extract the time points of those blocks, which might be tricky, and then feed them into the causality model. (
  • The subject of causality needed more depth. (
  • Modern models for event causality identification (ECI) are mainly based on supervised learning, which are prone to the data lacking problem. (
  • Although the ADR causality assessment algorithms were poorly reproducible, our data suggest that WHO -UMC algorithm is the most consistent for imputation in hospitals , since it allows evaluating the quality of the report . (
  • This paper examines long‐run dependence and causality between oil and precious metal (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, steel, and titanium) prices across quantiles by exploiting their time series properties with the help of novel econometric techniques. (
  • Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard to establish causality, but they are not always practical. (
  • This review, therefore, is attempting to highlight the current understanding of the various direct and indirect mechanisms, focusing on the role of neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2, the general pro-inflammatory state, and the pandemic-associated psychosocial stressors in the causality of 'Cognitive COVID. (
  • Using ten causality algorithms , four judges independently assessed the first 44 cases of ADRs reported during the first year of implementation of a risk management service in a medium complexity hospital in the state of Sao Paulo ( Brazil ). (
  • However, to improve the ability of assessing the causality using algorithms , it is necessary to include criteria for the evaluation of drug -related problems, which may be related to confounding variables that underestimate the causal association . (
  • Owing to variations in the terminology used for causality , the equivalent imputation terms were grouped into four categories definite, probable, possible and unlikely. (
  • This latter finding, they note, is somewhat at odds with prior findings in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), [ 3 ] where associations of low SBP with mortality were most evident in frailer subjects, a finding somewhat supportive of reverse causality. (
  • The Ministry of Health of Oman, in close collaboration with WHO, hosted a WHO regional training workshop on revised WHO methodology for causality assessment of adverse events following immunization in Muscat, Oman, on 23-26 June 2014. (
  • More than 20 participants from various countries throughout the Eastern Mediterranean Region were in Oman to build their skills in the detection and investigation of adverse events using the new WHO methodology for assessing the causality of adverse events following immunization. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Causality. (
  • Data showed also that the variables sex and civil state are relevant to the internal attribution of causality to the divorce, whereas the attribution to external factors is affected more by age and social economic level. (