A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to the lower extremity. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and cutaneous sensory innervation of the inner thigh.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Ulnar neuropathies caused by mechanical compression of the nerve at any location from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its terminations in the hand. Common sites of compression include the retroepicondylar groove, cubital tunnel at the elbow (CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME), and Guyon's canal at the wrist. Clinical features depend on the site of injury, but may include weakness or paralysis of wrist flexion, finger flexion, and ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and impaired sensation over the ulnar aspect of the hand, fifth finger, and ulnar half of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)

Causalgia, pathological pain, and adrenergic receptors. (1/28)

Control of expression of molecular receptors for chemical messengers and modulation of these receptors' activity are now established as ways to alter cellular reaction. This paper extends these mechanisms to the arena of pathological pain by presenting the hypothesis that increased expression of alpha-adrenergic receptors in primary afferent neurons is part of the etiology of pain in classical causalgia. It is argued that partial denervation by lesion of peripheral nerve or by tissue destruction induces a change in peripheral nociceptors, making them excitable by sympathetic activity and adrenergic substances. This excitation is mediated by alpha-adrenergic receptors and has a time course reminiscent of experimental denervation supersensitivity. The change in neuronal phenotype is demonstrable after lesions of mixed nerves or of the sympathetic postganglionic supply. Similar partial denervations also produce a substantial increase in the number of dorsal root ganglion neurons evidencing the presence of alpha-adrenergic receptors. The hypothesis proposes the increased presence of alpha-adrenergic receptors in primary afferent neurons to result from an altered gene expression triggered by cytokines/growth factors produced by disconnection of peripheral nerve fibers from their cell bodies. These additional adrenergic receptors are suggested to make nociceptors and other primary afferent neurons excitable by local or circulating norepinephrine and epinephrine. For central pathways, the adrenergic excitation would be equivalent to that produced by noxious events and would consequently evoke pain. In support, evidence is cited for a form of denervation supersensitivity in causalgia and for increased expression of human alpha-adrenergic receptors after loss of sympathetic activity.  (+info)

The clinical efficacy of neuroendoscope in surgical treatment for deafferentation pain. (2/28)

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is one of the most minimally invasive and effective treatments for intractable pain. We report the efficacy of a very small diameter neuroendoscope on setting the electrode to the proper site in the epidural space. Our cases include thalamic hemorrhage, and each patient had unilateral intractable pain on L1 or less as the main complaint. They had been treated for over two years in other hospitals, but no significant relief was achieved. Because each patient had been given frequent epidural blocks, the adhesion in the epidural space was expected. In Group A (3 cases), we used very small diameter neuroendoscope to dissect adhesion in the epidural space and to make optimal space for lead placement under direct vision. Conventional lead placement under fluoroscopy was performed in Group B (3 cases). Medtronic's PISCES lead system was used for SCS. In Group A, stimulation and pain regions matched in all cases, and good pain relief was also achieved. In Group B, however, stimulation and pain regions matched incompletely and the increase in stimulation caused stimulation on the pain-free side.  (+info)

Receptor subtype-specific pronociceptive and analgesic actions of galanin in the spinal cord: selective actions via GalR1 and GalR2 receptors. (3/28)

Galanin is a 29-aa neuropeptide with a complex role in pain processing. Several galanin receptor subtypes are present in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord with a differential distribution. Here, we describe a generation of a specific galanin R2 (GalR2) agonist, AR-M1896, and its application in studies of a rat neuropathic pain model (Bennett). The results show that in normal rats mechanical and cold allodynia of the hindpaw are induced after intrathecal infusion of low-dose galanin (25 ng per 0.5 microl/h). The same effect is seen with equimolar doses of AR-M1896 or AR-M961, an agonist both at GalR1 and GalR2 receptors. In allodynic Bennett model rats, the mechanical threshold increased dose-dependently after intrathecal injection of a high dose of AR-M961, whereas no effect was observed in the control or AR-M1896 group. No effect of either of the two compounds was observed in nonallodynic Bennett model rats. These data indicate that a low dose of galanin has a nociceptive role at the spinal cord level mediated by GalR2 receptors, whereas the antiallodynic effect of high-dose galanin on neuropathic pain is mediated by the GalR1 receptors. Thus, a selective GalR1 agonist may be used to treat neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Sympathectomy for complex regional pain syndrome. (4/28)

BACKGROUND: With the easier and earlier recognition of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a reappraisal of its therapy, particularly the role and timing of sympathectomy, is warranted. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a 9-year period, 42 patients with CRPS type II of the upper extremity were referred for sympathectomy. Patients were categorized according to the duration of the symptoms (group I, <3 months; group II, >3 months). All patients underwent initial medical treatment; stellate ganglion blocks were performed when symptoms persisted beyond 6 weeks. Patients were referred for thoracoscopic sympathectomy on persistence of the pain syndrome. A visual linear analogue scale was used to evaluate outcome of sympathectomy. RESULTS: Thoracoscopic dorsal sympathectomy was successfully undertaken in 32 patients. In the remaining 10 patients, thoracoscopy was not technically feasible and open sympathectomy was performed. There was an overall improvement in all 42 patients undergoing sympathectomy (P <.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The outcome in group I was significantly better than in group II (P <.003, Mann-Whitney U test). The diagnosis of sympathetically mediated pain with stellate blockade did not correlate with clinical outcome. Patients undergoing thoracoscopic sympathectomy had a better outcome than those undergoing open sympathectomy. There were no complications, and the hospital stay was shorter in the thoracoscopic group. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of CRPS and prompt recourse to surgical sympathectomy is a useful option in the management of CRPS.  (+info)

Rho-kinase inhibition enhances axonal plasticity and attenuates cold hyperalgesia after dorsal rhizotomy. (5/28)

Dorsal rhizotomy results in primary deafferentation of the dorsal horn with concomitant sprouting of spared intraspinal monoaminergic axons. Because descending monoaminergic systems are thought to mitigate nociceptive transmission from the periphery and because dorsal rhizotomy can result in neuropathic pain, we sought to determine whether the rhizotomy-induced sprouting response could be further augmented. Because myelin-derived molecules mask endogenous plasticity of CNS axons and because myelin-inhibitory signaling occurs through the Rho-GTPase pathway, we inhibited Rho-pathway signaling after cervical dorsal rhizotomy in rats. An increase in the density of serotonergic- and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers was seen in the dorsal horn 1 week after septuple rhizotomy, and axon density continued to increase for at least 1 month. One week after septuple rhizotomy, administration of intrathecal Y-27632, an antagonist of Rho-kinase (ROCK), increased the density of both fiber types over vehicle-treated controls. To examine behavioral effects of both cervical rhizotomy and ROCK inhibition, we examined responses to evoked pain: mechanical and thermal allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in the forepaw were examined after single, double, and quadruple rhizotomies of dorsal roots of the brachial plexus. The most notable behavioral outcome was the development of cold hyperalgesia in the affected forepaw after rhizotomies of the C7 and C8 dorsal roots. Application of Y-27632 both attenuated cold hyperalgesia and induced monoaminergic plasticity after C7/8 rhizotomy. Thus, inhibition of Rho-pathway signaling both promoted the sprouting of intact supraspinal monoaminergic fibers and alleviated pain after dorsal rhizotomy.  (+info)

Tail-flick latency and self-mutilation following unilateral deafferentation in rats. (6/28)

Unilateral deafferentation induced by transection of the C(4)-C(8) dorsal roots of spinal cord, followed by a complex of abnormal self-mutilating behavior, is interpreted as an animal model of chronic nociception. The objective of our study was to test the differences in tail-flick latency between intact control and unilaterally deafferented animals and to assess the changes in their acute nociceptive sensation. The initial hypothesis was that deafferentation-induced painful sensation might cause stress-induced analgesia that should be manifested as prolonged tail-flick latency. The experiment was carried out on 11 male and 10 female adult Wistar rats. The tail-flick latency was repeatedly measured over a period of 10 consecutive weeks both in the preoperative baseline period and following multiple cervical dorsal rhizotomy. Contrary to our hypothesis, unilateral deafferentation was followed by a significant shortening of the tail-flick latency both in males and females. In deafferented animals, compared to the controls, variations of tail-flick latency were reduced. In individual animals after deafferentation, concurrent dynamic changes were observed in self-mutilating behavior, in a loss and regaining of body weight, and in tail-flick latency. Our data suggest that changes in tail-flick latency may be interpreted in terms of central sensitization and that tail-flick latency might be considered as a useful marker of chronic nociception.  (+info)

Microcoagulation of junctional dorsal root entry zone is effective treatment of brachial plexus avulsion pain: long-term follow-up study. (7/28)

AIM: To analyze long-term clinical results of coagulation lesions of the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) in patients with deafferentation pain due to brachial plexus avulsion and to correlate the pain relief after DREZ coagulation with pain duration before the DREZ coagulation. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with intractable deafferentation pain after brachial plexus avulsion lesion were treated for pain at the Department of Neurosurgery. Junctional coagulation lesion was made with bipolar forceps along the DREZ. The patients assessed post-operative analgesic effect using a visual analog scale at 1 week, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years after the surgery. RESULTS: The greatest pain relief was reported immediately after the DREZ procedure. Over the 5-year follow-up period, the pain relief effect gradually and significantly decreased. There were no significant differences between the pain relief evaluated at 1 week and after 1 year and between the pain relief evaluated at 1 week and after 3 years. There was a correlation between the pain duration before the surgery and pain relief after the surgery, with best correlation found between pain duration before surgery and pain relief 5 years after DREZ procedure (r = 0.623, P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The long-term follow up showed that the pain relief gradually decreased over 5 years after surgery. However, the pain relief still did not significantly decrease after 3 years.  (+info)

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the management of neuropathic pain: the effects of frequency and electrode position on prevention of allodynia in a rat model of complex regional pain syndrome type II. (8/28)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Complex regional pain syndrome type II (CPSII) is a painful condition that develops following a nerve injury. Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) relieves the pain of CPSII, the stimulation parameters that would best prevent the development of the condition are not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of several different stimulation strategies to reduce the development of allodynia. SUBJECTS: Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. METHODS: A chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the right sciatic nerve was used to induce allodynia. Two groups of CCI rats received high-frequency TENS to the lumbar paravertebral region with electrodes positioned on the skin overlying either the right or left paraspinal musculature. Two additional groups of CCI rats received low-frequency TENS to acupuncture points in the right or left hind limbs. A fifth group of CCI rats received no TENS intervention. Thermal and mechanical pain thresholds were assessed in the right hind paw before and 12 days after the CCI surgery. The TENS was delivered 1 hour per day beginning on the day of surgery. RESULTS: Daily high-frequency TENS reduced the development of mechanical allodynia in CCI rats, and low-frequency TENS reduced the development of thermal allodynia, but only when TENS was delivered on the left side. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results indicate that TENS delivered contralateral to a nerve injury best reduces allodynia development. Comprehensive reduction of allodynia development would require a combination of high- and low-frequency TENS intervention.  (+info)

Causalgia is a type of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that occurs after a nerve injury. It is characterized by severe, persistent burning pain, sensitivity to touch, and changes in skin color, temperature, and swelling in the affected limb. These symptoms are often disproportionate to the severity of the initial injury.

Causalgia was originally described as a symptom of nerve injuries sustained during wartime, but it can also occur after trauma, surgery, or other types of nerve damage. The exact cause of causalgia is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve abnormalities in the nervous system's processing of pain signals.

Treatment for causalgia typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and other therapies to manage pain and improve function. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation may be recommended.

Sympathectomy is a surgical procedure that involves interrupting the sympathetic nerve pathways. These nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, and digestion. The goal of sympathectomy is to manage conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), Raynaud's phenomenon, and certain types of chronic pain.

There are different types of sympathectomy, including thoracic sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the chest), lumbar sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the lower back), and cervical sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the neck). The specific type of procedure depends on the location of the affected nerves and the condition being treated.

Sympathectomy is usually performed using minimally invasive techniques, such as endoscopic surgery, which involves making small incisions and using specialized instruments to access the nerves. While sympathectomy can be effective in managing certain conditions, it carries risks such as nerve damage, bleeding, infection, and chronic pain.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD), also known as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), is a chronic pain condition that most often affects a limb after an injury or trauma. It is characterized by prolonged or excessive pain and sensitivity, along with changes in skin color, temperature, and swelling.

The symptoms of RSD/CRPS are thought to be caused by an overactive sympathetic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating. In RSD/CRPS, the sympathetic nerves are believed to send incorrect signals to the brain, causing it to perceive intense pain even in the absence of any actual tissue damage.

RSD/CRPS can be classified into two types: Type 1, which occurs after an injury or trauma that did not directly damage the nerves, and Type 2, which occurs after a distinct nerve injury. The symptoms of both types are similar, but Type 2 is typically more severe and may involve more widespread nerve damage.

Treatment for RSD/CRPS usually involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and other therapies such as spinal cord stimulation or sympathetic nerve blocks. Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Neuralgia is a type of pain that occurs along the pathway of a nerve, often caused by damage or irritation to the nerve. It is typically described as a sharp, stabbing, burning, or electric-shock like pain that can be severe and debilitating. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it most commonly occurs in the facial area (trigeminal neuralgia) or in the nerves related to the spine (postherpetic neuralgia). The pain associated with neuralgia can be intermittent or constant and may be worsened by certain triggers such as touch, temperature changes, or movement. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain, as well as other therapies such as nerve blocks, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) are a group of chronic pain conditions that typically affect a limb after an injury or trauma. They are characterized by prolonged, severe and often debilitating pain that is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. CRPS is divided into two types:

1. CRPS-1 (also known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): This type occurs without a clearly defined nerve injury. It usually develops after an illness or injury that didn't directly damage the nerves.
2. CRPS-2 (also known as Causalgia): This type is associated with a confirmed nerve injury.

The symptoms of CRPS include:

* Continuous, burning or throbbing pain in the affected limb
* Changes in skin temperature, color and texture
* Swelling and stiffness in the joints
* Decreased range of motion and weakness in the affected limb
* Sensitivity to touch or cold
* Abnormal sweating pattern in the affected area
* Changes in nail and hair growth patterns

The exact cause of CRPS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a dysfunction in the nervous system's response to injury. Treatment for CRPS typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and psychological support. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation may be recommended.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

An autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that involves injecting a local anesthetic or other medication into or near the nerves that make up the autonomic nervous system. This type of nerve block is used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, such as neuropathy or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling many involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and body temperature. It is made up of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for preparing the body for "fight or flight" responses, while the parasympathetic nervous system helps the body relax and rest.

An autonomic nerve block can be used to diagnose a problem with the autonomic nervous system by temporarily blocking the nerves' signals and observing how this affects the body's functions. It can also be used to treat pain or other symptoms caused by damage to the autonomic nerves. The injection is usually given in the area near the spine, and the specific location will depend on the nerves being targeted.

It is important to note that an autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that should only be performed by a qualified healthcare professional. As with any medical procedure, there are risks and benefits associated with an autonomic nerve block, and it is important for patients to discuss these with their doctor before deciding whether this treatment is right for them.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

The Obturator Nerve is a nerve that originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami of spinal nerves L2-L4. It travels through the pelvis and exits the pelvic cavity via the obturator foramen, hence its name. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh, specifically the adductor muscles (adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis, and obturator externus). It also provides sensory innervation to a small area on the inner aspect of the thigh.

The Peroneal nerve, also known as the common fibular nerve, is a branch of the sciatic nerve that supplies the muscles of the lower leg and provides sensation to the skin on the outer part of the lower leg and the top of the foot. It winds around the neck of the fibula (calf bone) and can be vulnerable to injury in this area, leading to symptoms such as weakness or numbness in the foot and leg.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

The femoral nerve is a major nerve in the thigh region of the human body. It originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves (L2-L4). The femoral nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and areas in the lower limb.

Motor Innervation:
The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to several muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, including:

1. Iliacus muscle
2. Psoas major muscle
3. Quadriceps femoris muscle (consisting of four heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius)

These muscles are involved in hip flexion, knee extension, and stabilization of the hip joint.

Sensory Innervation:
The sensory distribution of the femoral nerve includes:

1. Anterior and medial aspects of the thigh
2. Skin over the anterior aspect of the knee and lower leg (via the saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve)

The saphenous nerve provides sensation to the skin on the inner side of the leg and foot, as well as the medial malleolus (the bony bump on the inside of the ankle).

In summary, the femoral nerve is a crucial component of the lumbar plexus that controls motor functions in the anterior thigh muscles and provides sensory innervation to the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh and lower leg.

The inguinal canal is a narrow passage in the lower abdominal wall. In males, it allows for the spermatic cord and blood vessels to travel from the abdomen to the scrotum. In females, it provides a pathway for the round ligament of the uterus to pass through. The inguinal canal is located in the groin region, and an inguinal hernia occurs when a portion of the intestine protrudes through this canal.

The Tibial nerve is a major branch of the sciatic nerve that originates in the lower back and runs through the buttock and leg. It provides motor (nerve impulses that control muscle movement) and sensory (nerve impulses that convey information about touch, temperature, and pain) innervation to several muscles and skin regions in the lower limb.

More specifically, the Tibial nerve supplies the following structures:

1. Motor Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles in the back of the leg (posterior compartment), including the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) and the small muscles in the foot (intrinsic muscles). These muscles are responsible for plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward) and inversion (turning the foot inward) of the foot.
2. Sensory Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides sensory innervation to the skin on the sole of the foot, as well as the heel and some parts of the lower leg.

The Tibial nerve travels down the leg, passing behind the knee and through the calf, where it eventually joins with the common fibular (peroneal) nerve to form the tibial-fibular trunk. This trunk then divides into several smaller nerves that innervate the foot's intrinsic muscles and skin.

Damage or injury to the Tibial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the calf and foot muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the sole of the foot, and difficulty walking or standing on tiptoes.

Ulnar nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the entrapment or compression of the ulnar nerve, leading to various symptoms. The ulnar nerve provides motor function to the hand muscles and sensation to the little finger and half of the ring finger.

There are several sites along the course of the ulnar nerve where it can become compressed, resulting in different types of ulnar nerve compression syndromes:

1. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: This occurs when the ulnar nerve is compressed at the elbow, within the cubital tunnel - a narrow passage located on the inner side of the elbow. Symptoms may include numbness and tingling in the little finger and half of the ring finger, weakness in gripping or pinching, and pain or discomfort in the elbow.

2. Guyon's Canal Syndrome: This type of ulnar nerve compression syndrome happens when the nerve is compressed at the wrist, within the Guyon's canal. Causes can include ganglion cysts, bone fractures, or repetitive motion injuries. Symptoms may include numbness and tingling in the little finger and half of the ring finger, weakness or paralysis in the hand muscles, and muscle wasting in severe cases.

Treatment for ulnar nerve compression syndromes depends on the severity and location of the compression. Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, bracing, or anti-inflammatory medications may be recommended for milder cases. Severe or persistent symptoms may require surgical intervention to relieve the pressure on the ulnar nerve.

In 1959, Noordenbos observed in causalgia patients that "the damage of the nerve is always partial." Misuse of the terms, as ... Richards RL (January 1967). "The term 'causalgia'". Medical History. 11 (1): 97-99. doi:10.1017/s0025727300011789. PMC 1033672 ... "causalgia". However, this term was actually coined by Mitchell's friend Robley Dunglison from the Greek words for heat and for ... with causalgia and RSD as subtypes. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National ...
Doupe, J; Cullen, CH; Chance, GQ (January 1944). "Post-traumatic pain and the causalgia syndrome". Journal of Neurology and ...
Schott, G D (1998). "Interrupting the sympathetic outflow in causalgia and reflex sympathetic dystrophy". BMJ. 316 (7134): 792- ... Trench foot Causalgia Pachydermoperiostosis Pretibial myxedema Gustatory sweating associated with: Encephalitis Syringomyelia ...
Type II, formerly known as causalgia, refers to CRPS with observed nerve damage. This form, similarly to other forms of AMPS, ...
Mitchell discovered and treated causalgia (today known as CRPS/RSD), a condition most often encountered by hand surgeons. ... He is considered the father of medical neurology, and he discovered causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome) and ...
Mayfield wrote numerous papers and a book about the treatment of causalgia (intense pain resulting from wounds to peripheral ...
"Causalgia treatment" and in 1947 his thesis was on "Intracranial pressure". He authored more than 50 research publications. ...
... causalgia, neuralgia, and phantom limb pain. Although the task of measuring and describing pain has been problematic, the ...
... credited for discovering causalgia (b. 1829); Mark Melford, British stage actor and playwright, pioneer of British farce (b. ...
5.7 million verdict on behalf of an injured journeyman carpenter who suffered stage III CRPS-II (causalgia) after a drill bit ...
... hypertension Catel-Manzke syndrome Caudal appendage deafness Caudal duplication Caudal regression syndrome Causalgia Cavernous ...
Brain injury Brain infarction Brain tumor Brody myopathy Canavan disease Capgras delusion Carpal tunnel syndrome Causalgia ...
... tunnel syndrome 354.1 Other lesion of median nerve 354.2 Lesion of ulnar nerve 354.3 Lesion of radial nerve 354.4 Causalgia ...
... causalgia MeSH C10.177.195.800 - reflex sympathetic dystrophy MeSH C10.228.140.042 - akinetic mutism MeSH C10.228.140.055 - ... causalgia MeSH C10.668.829.250.800 - reflex sympathetic dystrophy MeSH C10.668.829.300 - diabetic neuropathies MeSH C10.668. ... causalgia MeSH C10.668.829.600.550 - neuralgia, postherpetic MeSH C10.668.829.600.800 - sciatica MeSH C10.668.829.650 - ...
... such as causalgia, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, and secondary paralysis.[clarification needed] After the war concluded, Keen ...
... causalgia or painful peripheral neuropathies) Nonketotic hyperglycinemia Olivopontocerebellar atrophy (some recessive forms) ...
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II (Causalgia). What is causalgia?. Causalgia is technically known as complex regional pain ... Causalgia Carolina Pain Scrambler. Carolina Pain Scrambler, Chronic Pain, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, CRPS, Nerve Pain, ... Causes of causalgia. At the root of CRPS II is peripheral nerve injury. That injury can result from a fracture, sprain, or ... How causalgia is diagnosed. There is no one test that can definitively diagnose CRPS II. Your doctor will perform a physical ...
In 1959, Noordenbos observed in causalgia patients that "the damage of the nerve is always partial." Misuse of the terms, as ... Richards RL (January 1967). "The term causalgia". Medical History. 11 (1): 97-99. doi:10.1017/s0025727300011789. PMC 1033672 ... "causalgia". However, this term was actually coined by Mitchells friend Robley Dunglison from the Greek words for heat and for ... with causalgia and RSD as subtypes. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National ...
CRPS; RSDS; Causalgia - RSD; Shoulder-hand syndrome; Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome; Sudeck atrophy; Pain - CRPS ...
Genito-femoral causalgia. Can Med Assoc J. 1945. 53:213-6. *. Magee RK. Genito-femoral causalgia. Can Med Assoc J. 1942. 46:326 ...
Formally described as causalgia (a result of specific nerve damage). *This type occurs with documented nerve injury ...
Additionally, many patients report maddening pruritus and/or causalgia. Finally, some patients experience flexion contractures ...
Complex Regional Pain Syndromes Type I), Causalgia, CRPS 22. (Complex Regional Pain Syndromes Type II), ...
Causalgia (from Greek kausos ["heat"] and algos ["pain"]) was first described in patients with arterial and nerve injuries ... CRPS II (ie, causalgia), which is associated with a demonstrable nerve injury ... Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPSs; eg, posttraumatic pain syndromes, causalgia, mimocausalgia, Sudeck atrophy, reflex ...
CRPS is also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia.. CRPS usually develops in a limb after an injury (such as a ...
Magee, R. K. (1943). Genitofemoral Causalgia: New Syndrome. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 98(3), 311.. Sunderland ... Lyon, E. K. (1945). Genitofemoral causalgia. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 53(3), 213.. ...
Complex regional pain syndrome/causalgia was considered an individual CSS.12. Pain drawing. Patients were asked to mark all ...
... and type II was known as causalgia. Both types occur most often in young adults and are 2 or 3 times more common among women. ...
Causalgia del nervio mediano y simpaticotonía secundaria plexual.. Subject(s):. Sympathicotonia. Journal Title Abbreviation:. ...
H. Causalgia due to electric current. I. Definitions of some signs and symptoms. J. Abnormal response to cold in RSD. K. Edema ... Reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia. Chapter 18. Cardiac and Respiratory Effects of Electrical Injury. 18.1 Introduction ... 17.4 Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy and Causalgia. A. RSD is a syndrome. B. Criteria for diagnosing reflex sympathetic dystrophy ...
CRPS II (caused by damage to a nerve) was previously called causalgia. The symptoms and treatments of the two types are almost ...
Additionally, many patients report maddening pruritus and/or causalgia. Finally, some patients experience flexion contractures ...
Causalgia is usually due to irritation of a nerve by injury; the median or sciatic nerves are most commonly involved. ... causalgia 1. Persistent severe burning sensations, usually following partial injury of a peripheral nerve (especially median ...
A pioneer of medical neurology, Silas Weir Mitchell not only discovered the causalgia and erythromelalgia but also penned more ...
Causalgia 27-Jul-13 Dr.PR Khuman,MPT(Ortho & Sport) 25 ...
Casale R, Atzeni F, Sarzi-Puttini P. From Mitchells causalgia to complex regional pain syndromes: 150 years of definitions and ...
... causalgia, severe psychogenic and cancer pains), from patients under the effects of hypnotic suggestion (Barber 1964; Rainville ...
... causalgia): a case report. ID: PAIN-D-13-11643R2. ...
... and causalgia, as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II, respectively. ...
Complex regional pain syndrome (reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome, causalgia). *Diabetic/peripheral neuropathy ...
Causalgia. Nervous DiseasesBy Artur Kh.. 06.10.2022. Leave a comment. Causalgia is an intense burning pain accompanied by local ...
Selles RW, Schreuders TA, Stam HJ, . Mirror therapy in patients with causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome type II) ...
causalgia * chronic inflammation granuloma in tarsus of eyelid due to inflammation of meibomian gland ...
... causalgia, Sudeks atrophy, algoneurodystrophy, shoulder-hand syndrome, including ICD-9-CM codes 337.9, 354.4, and 733.7. ...
  • This injection is typically ordered by your doctor for pain located in the head, neck, chest or arm caused by sympathetically maintained pain (reflex sympathetic dystrophy), causalgia (nerve injury), herpes zoster (shingles), or intractable angina (pain related to decreased blood flow to the heart). (umms.org)
  • Causalgia is technically known as complex regional pain syndrome type II (CRPS II). (carolinapainscrambler.com)
  • CRPS II (caused by damage to a nerve) was previously called causalgia . (eorthopod.com)
  • Two types exist: CRPS Type 1, previously referred to as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, and CRPS Type 2, previously referred to as causalgia. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRPS is also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. (medtronic.com)
  • CRPS type I was previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (see also Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Treatment Guidelines ), and type II was known as causalgia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Proclaim TM DRG Neurostimulation System, which targets the dorsal root ganglion nerves near the spinal cord, to relieve pain of the lower limbs due to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and nerve damage called causalgia. (abbott.com)
  • Causalgia (from Greek kausos ["heat"] and algos ["pain"]) was first described in patients with arterial and nerve injuries sustained during the American Civil War. (medscape.com)
  • Causalgia is an intense burning pain accompanied by local vasomotor, trophic, and motor disorders. (medic-journal.com)
  • Mitchell referred to the cluster of symptoms he noticed in some of the Civil War soldiers who were under his care as 'causalgia. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Sympathetic reflex dystrophy and causalgia]. (nih.gov)
  • Two types exist: CRPS Type 1, previously referred to as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, and CRPS Type 2, previously referred to as causalgia. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition has had many synonyms, including minor causalgia, post-traumatic vasomotor disorder, Sudeck's atrophy (a term which, strictly speaking, applies to the radiological appearance of osteoporosis), algodystrophy, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy. (bmj.com)
  • 3. Traumatic neuralgias: complex regional pain syndromes (reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia): clinical characteristics, pathophysiological mechanisms and therapy. (nih.gov)
  • The classic neuropathic pain disorders are the agonizing conditions known as causalgia -- 'the most terrible of all tortures', in the words of S. Weir Mitchell , the Civil War physician who first described it -- and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) (more recently termed chronic regional pain syndrome). (nih.gov)
  • CRPS type I was previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (see also Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Treatment Guidelines ), and type II was known as causalgia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and causalgia, can be a debilitating complication of pain associated with limb trauma, including surgery. (bcmj.org)
  • It is also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. (epsteinmd.com)
  • Sympathetic Dystrophy or causalgia (pain) is a disability following traumatic injury. (csuohio.edu)
  • Causalgia syndrome is a pain syndrome caused by damage to the peripheral nerve and irritation of its sympathetic fibers, manifested by intense pains of a burning nature, vasomotor and trophic disorders of the zone of its innervation. (medprep.info)
  • Dorsal root ganglion stimulation yielded higher treatment success rate for complex regional pain syndrome and causalgia at 3 and 12 months: a randomized comparative trial. (medtechdive.com)
  • Causalgia is technically known as complex regional pain syndrome type II (CRPS II). (catherineshalini.com)
  • At the time, the common treatment for causalgia was amputation, so he would observe his causalgia patients undergo the process and help them recover afterwards. (eyewire.org)
  • further: causalgia, disorders arising from amputation stumps. (unitedremedies.com)
  • Because patients with ischaemic limbs were often treated by sympathectomy, Leriche argued by analogy that causalgia was due to an "irritation of the sympathetic" and might be alleviated by sympathectomy. (bmj.com)
  • In 1864 Silas Weir Mitchell, a founding father of American neurology, together with Morehouse and Keen, described the clinical condition of causalgia in soldiers injured in the American civil war. (bmj.com)
  • Most outstanding of the many additions to our knowledge are the value of sympathectomy in the treatment of causalgia, the importance of early surgical repair, the dangers of prolonged immobilization and inactivity. (jamanetwork.com)
  • This was the first observation of the chronic constriction injury model: the rat with symptoms similar to causalgia or RSD. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with CRPS who have more easily diagnosed symptoms are also commonly said to have "causalgia. (carolinalaw.com)
  • Earlier this century, others noted that there were patients with a similar but less severe condition that resembled causalgia and again often followed trauma but without major nerve injury (although "major" has never been clarified). (bmj.com)
  • Type II CRPS is the term reserved for when the condition is associated with nerve injury-that is, causalgia. (bmj.com)
  • Usually occurring after nerve injury to a hand, foot, arm or leg, causalgia and RSD may be triggered by any minor injury, by a surgical procedure, or a serious trauma. (nih.gov)
  • Causalgia is usually caused by brachial plexus injuries, involving nerves that run from the neck to the arm. (catherineshalini.com)
  • The French surgeon Leriche had already noted that the limbs of patients with causalgia showed features that he thought reminiscent of vascular insufficiency. (bmj.com)
  • Bennett and Xie recognized the characteristic guarding action of a causalgia or RSD patient. (nih.gov)