Causalgia: A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)Sympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic: Soft, supple contact lenses made of plastic polymers which interact readily with water molecules. Many types are available, including continuous and extended-wear versions, which are gas-permeable and easily sterilized.Contact Lenses, Extended-Wear: Hydrophilic contact lenses worn for an extended period or permanently.Contact Lens Solutions: Sterile solutions used to clean and disinfect contact lenses.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Neon: Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Brachial Plexus Neuritis: A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)Darier Disease: An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by warty malodorous papules that coalesce into plaques. It is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene encoding SERCA2 protein, one of the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. The condition is similar, clinically and histologically, to BENIGN FAMILIAL PEMPHIGUS, another autosomal dominant skin disorder. Both diseases have defective calcium pumps (CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES) and unstable desmosomal adhesion junctions (DESMOSOMES) between KERATINOCYTES.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Fagopyrum: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that is used as an EDIBLE GRAIN. Although the seeds are used as cereal, the plant is not one of the cereal grasses (POACEAE).Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

Causalgia, pathological pain, and adrenergic receptors. (1/28)

Control of expression of molecular receptors for chemical messengers and modulation of these receptors' activity are now established as ways to alter cellular reaction. This paper extends these mechanisms to the arena of pathological pain by presenting the hypothesis that increased expression of alpha-adrenergic receptors in primary afferent neurons is part of the etiology of pain in classical causalgia. It is argued that partial denervation by lesion of peripheral nerve or by tissue destruction induces a change in peripheral nociceptors, making them excitable by sympathetic activity and adrenergic substances. This excitation is mediated by alpha-adrenergic receptors and has a time course reminiscent of experimental denervation supersensitivity. The change in neuronal phenotype is demonstrable after lesions of mixed nerves or of the sympathetic postganglionic supply. Similar partial denervations also produce a substantial increase in the number of dorsal root ganglion neurons evidencing the presence of alpha-adrenergic receptors. The hypothesis proposes the increased presence of alpha-adrenergic receptors in primary afferent neurons to result from an altered gene expression triggered by cytokines/growth factors produced by disconnection of peripheral nerve fibers from their cell bodies. These additional adrenergic receptors are suggested to make nociceptors and other primary afferent neurons excitable by local or circulating norepinephrine and epinephrine. For central pathways, the adrenergic excitation would be equivalent to that produced by noxious events and would consequently evoke pain. In support, evidence is cited for a form of denervation supersensitivity in causalgia and for increased expression of human alpha-adrenergic receptors after loss of sympathetic activity.  (+info)

The clinical efficacy of neuroendoscope in surgical treatment for deafferentation pain. (2/28)

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is one of the most minimally invasive and effective treatments for intractable pain. We report the efficacy of a very small diameter neuroendoscope on setting the electrode to the proper site in the epidural space. Our cases include thalamic hemorrhage, and each patient had unilateral intractable pain on L1 or less as the main complaint. They had been treated for over two years in other hospitals, but no significant relief was achieved. Because each patient had been given frequent epidural blocks, the adhesion in the epidural space was expected. In Group A (3 cases), we used very small diameter neuroendoscope to dissect adhesion in the epidural space and to make optimal space for lead placement under direct vision. Conventional lead placement under fluoroscopy was performed in Group B (3 cases). Medtronic's PISCES lead system was used for SCS. In Group A, stimulation and pain regions matched in all cases, and good pain relief was also achieved. In Group B, however, stimulation and pain regions matched incompletely and the increase in stimulation caused stimulation on the pain-free side.  (+info)

Receptor subtype-specific pronociceptive and analgesic actions of galanin in the spinal cord: selective actions via GalR1 and GalR2 receptors. (3/28)

Galanin is a 29-aa neuropeptide with a complex role in pain processing. Several galanin receptor subtypes are present in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord with a differential distribution. Here, we describe a generation of a specific galanin R2 (GalR2) agonist, AR-M1896, and its application in studies of a rat neuropathic pain model (Bennett). The results show that in normal rats mechanical and cold allodynia of the hindpaw are induced after intrathecal infusion of low-dose galanin (25 ng per 0.5 microl/h). The same effect is seen with equimolar doses of AR-M1896 or AR-M961, an agonist both at GalR1 and GalR2 receptors. In allodynic Bennett model rats, the mechanical threshold increased dose-dependently after intrathecal injection of a high dose of AR-M961, whereas no effect was observed in the control or AR-M1896 group. No effect of either of the two compounds was observed in nonallodynic Bennett model rats. These data indicate that a low dose of galanin has a nociceptive role at the spinal cord level mediated by GalR2 receptors, whereas the antiallodynic effect of high-dose galanin on neuropathic pain is mediated by the GalR1 receptors. Thus, a selective GalR1 agonist may be used to treat neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Sympathectomy for complex regional pain syndrome. (4/28)

BACKGROUND: With the easier and earlier recognition of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a reappraisal of its therapy, particularly the role and timing of sympathectomy, is warranted. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a 9-year period, 42 patients with CRPS type II of the upper extremity were referred for sympathectomy. Patients were categorized according to the duration of the symptoms (group I, <3 months; group II, >3 months). All patients underwent initial medical treatment; stellate ganglion blocks were performed when symptoms persisted beyond 6 weeks. Patients were referred for thoracoscopic sympathectomy on persistence of the pain syndrome. A visual linear analogue scale was used to evaluate outcome of sympathectomy. RESULTS: Thoracoscopic dorsal sympathectomy was successfully undertaken in 32 patients. In the remaining 10 patients, thoracoscopy was not technically feasible and open sympathectomy was performed. There was an overall improvement in all 42 patients undergoing sympathectomy (P <.001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The outcome in group I was significantly better than in group II (P <.003, Mann-Whitney U test). The diagnosis of sympathetically mediated pain with stellate blockade did not correlate with clinical outcome. Patients undergoing thoracoscopic sympathectomy had a better outcome than those undergoing open sympathectomy. There were no complications, and the hospital stay was shorter in the thoracoscopic group. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of CRPS and prompt recourse to surgical sympathectomy is a useful option in the management of CRPS.  (+info)

Rho-kinase inhibition enhances axonal plasticity and attenuates cold hyperalgesia after dorsal rhizotomy. (5/28)

Dorsal rhizotomy results in primary deafferentation of the dorsal horn with concomitant sprouting of spared intraspinal monoaminergic axons. Because descending monoaminergic systems are thought to mitigate nociceptive transmission from the periphery and because dorsal rhizotomy can result in neuropathic pain, we sought to determine whether the rhizotomy-induced sprouting response could be further augmented. Because myelin-derived molecules mask endogenous plasticity of CNS axons and because myelin-inhibitory signaling occurs through the Rho-GTPase pathway, we inhibited Rho-pathway signaling after cervical dorsal rhizotomy in rats. An increase in the density of serotonergic- and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers was seen in the dorsal horn 1 week after septuple rhizotomy, and axon density continued to increase for at least 1 month. One week after septuple rhizotomy, administration of intrathecal Y-27632, an antagonist of Rho-kinase (ROCK), increased the density of both fiber types over vehicle-treated controls. To examine behavioral effects of both cervical rhizotomy and ROCK inhibition, we examined responses to evoked pain: mechanical and thermal allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in the forepaw were examined after single, double, and quadruple rhizotomies of dorsal roots of the brachial plexus. The most notable behavioral outcome was the development of cold hyperalgesia in the affected forepaw after rhizotomies of the C7 and C8 dorsal roots. Application of Y-27632 both attenuated cold hyperalgesia and induced monoaminergic plasticity after C7/8 rhizotomy. Thus, inhibition of Rho-pathway signaling both promoted the sprouting of intact supraspinal monoaminergic fibers and alleviated pain after dorsal rhizotomy.  (+info)

Tail-flick latency and self-mutilation following unilateral deafferentation in rats. (6/28)

Unilateral deafferentation induced by transection of the C(4)-C(8) dorsal roots of spinal cord, followed by a complex of abnormal self-mutilating behavior, is interpreted as an animal model of chronic nociception. The objective of our study was to test the differences in tail-flick latency between intact control and unilaterally deafferented animals and to assess the changes in their acute nociceptive sensation. The initial hypothesis was that deafferentation-induced painful sensation might cause stress-induced analgesia that should be manifested as prolonged tail-flick latency. The experiment was carried out on 11 male and 10 female adult Wistar rats. The tail-flick latency was repeatedly measured over a period of 10 consecutive weeks both in the preoperative baseline period and following multiple cervical dorsal rhizotomy. Contrary to our hypothesis, unilateral deafferentation was followed by a significant shortening of the tail-flick latency both in males and females. In deafferented animals, compared to the controls, variations of tail-flick latency were reduced. In individual animals after deafferentation, concurrent dynamic changes were observed in self-mutilating behavior, in a loss and regaining of body weight, and in tail-flick latency. Our data suggest that changes in tail-flick latency may be interpreted in terms of central sensitization and that tail-flick latency might be considered as a useful marker of chronic nociception.  (+info)

Microcoagulation of junctional dorsal root entry zone is effective treatment of brachial plexus avulsion pain: long-term follow-up study. (7/28)

AIM: To analyze long-term clinical results of coagulation lesions of the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) in patients with deafferentation pain due to brachial plexus avulsion and to correlate the pain relief after DREZ coagulation with pain duration before the DREZ coagulation. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with intractable deafferentation pain after brachial plexus avulsion lesion were treated for pain at the Department of Neurosurgery. Junctional coagulation lesion was made with bipolar forceps along the DREZ. The patients assessed post-operative analgesic effect using a visual analog scale at 1 week, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years after the surgery. RESULTS: The greatest pain relief was reported immediately after the DREZ procedure. Over the 5-year follow-up period, the pain relief effect gradually and significantly decreased. There were no significant differences between the pain relief evaluated at 1 week and after 1 year and between the pain relief evaluated at 1 week and after 3 years. There was a correlation between the pain duration before the surgery and pain relief after the surgery, with best correlation found between pain duration before surgery and pain relief 5 years after DREZ procedure (r = 0.623, P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The long-term follow up showed that the pain relief gradually decreased over 5 years after surgery. However, the pain relief still did not significantly decrease after 3 years.  (+info)

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for the management of neuropathic pain: the effects of frequency and electrode position on prevention of allodynia in a rat model of complex regional pain syndrome type II. (8/28)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Complex regional pain syndrome type II (CPSII) is a painful condition that develops following a nerve injury. Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) relieves the pain of CPSII, the stimulation parameters that would best prevent the development of the condition are not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of several different stimulation strategies to reduce the development of allodynia. SUBJECTS: Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. METHODS: A chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the right sciatic nerve was used to induce allodynia. Two groups of CCI rats received high-frequency TENS to the lumbar paravertebral region with electrodes positioned on the skin overlying either the right or left paraspinal musculature. Two additional groups of CCI rats received low-frequency TENS to acupuncture points in the right or left hind limbs. A fifth group of CCI rats received no TENS intervention. Thermal and mechanical pain thresholds were assessed in the right hind paw before and 12 days after the CCI surgery. The TENS was delivered 1 hour per day beginning on the day of surgery. RESULTS: Daily high-frequency TENS reduced the development of mechanical allodynia in CCI rats, and low-frequency TENS reduced the development of thermal allodynia, but only when TENS was delivered on the left side. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results indicate that TENS delivered contralateral to a nerve injury best reduces allodynia development. Comprehensive reduction of allodynia development would require a combination of high- and low-frequency TENS intervention.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Deafferentation pain resulting from cervical posterior rhizotomy is alleviated by chromaffin cell transplants into the rat spinal subarachnoid space. AU - Guenot, Marc. AU - Lee, Jeung Woon. AU - Nasirinezhad, Farinaz. AU - Sagen, Jacqueline. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation pain is common after posttraumatic brachial plexus avulsion in humans. Alleviation of such pain is poorly achieved by most therapeutic interventions; the only efficient neurosurgical procedure currently available is lesioning of the dorsal root entry zone. Previous work has demonstrated that adrenal medullary transplants into the lumbar spinal subarachnoid space can alleviate neuropathic pain behavior resulting from peripheral nerve or spinal cord injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of adrenal medullary transplants on brachial plexus deafferentation pain. METHODS: The cervical posterior rhizotomy model was selected as an upper segmental ...
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TY - CHAP. T1 - Peripheral Nerve Surgery for Pain. AU - Ko, Andrew L.. AU - Burchiel, Kim. PY - 2015/4/23. Y1 - 2015/4/23. N2 - There are two approaches to surgery on the peripheral nervous system for pain control: destructive procedures and implants for neuromodulation. This chapter addresses ablative procedures to the peripheral nerves, the sympathetic chain, and dorsal and ventral spinal roots.In general, these procedures are effective more often than not, at least in the acute period. There is a significant chance of pain recurrence, and deafferentation pains may result in the long term. There is limited evidence supporting these procedures, but the presence of factors such as discrete nerve syndrome may be helpful in clinical decision making. The duration, character, and etiology of pain are also important indicators of surgical approach. Well-designed studies on the efficacy of these interventions are necessary. For now, destructive surgery on the peripheral nervous system is most often ...
Matt and his team at University of British Columbia study primary sensory nerve cells (neurons), which are responsible for the transmission of somatic (bodily) sensations such as touch, pain, hot, cold and so on from the periphery (skin, muscles and viscera) to the central nervous system (CNS, spinal cord and brain). His research extends to therapeutic potential of neurotrophins on regeneration in spinal cord injury and deafferentation pain ...
We are committed to improving the health and quality of life of the people and the communities that we serve across the globe by achieving excellence innovations, quality, manufacturing and ethical marketing of pharmaceutical formulations".. ...
Causalgia symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Causalgia (Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
It is known that lesions of the substantia gelatinosa and Lissauer Tract (LT) are associated with the occurrence of pain in cases of BPA [38]. The posterior horn of the spinal cord (PHSC) and LT are the first integration centers of the primary sensory afferents in the neuroaxis [34]. The LT is located at the apex of PHSC and its fibers are distributed longitudinally along the spinal cord [35]. About one third of its fibers are primary afferents projecting, rostral or caudally for one or more spinal segments [36]. The other fibers originate in the PHSC itself [37,39,40]. Both the medial and lateral sides of the LT contain propriospinal fibers, but only the medial component is associated with nociceptive transmission [41].. It seems that both the medial and lateral components of the LT play an important role in modulating a normal overlapping of receptive fields from different dorsal roots. As the lateral LT plays an inhibitory effect, its lesion leads to a net facilitation of the local neurons ...
CRPS is essentially a result of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. It can be categorized as CRPS Type 1 (formally Reflex sympathetic dystrophy) or CRPS Type 2 (formally Causalgia). It may or may not involve the sympathetic nervous system, hence the phrase sympathetically independent pain. Only one thing is certain about CRPS and that is the unpredictability of the condition. The cause is obscure and elusive, although we may identify sympathetic nervous system involvement in a subset of this population, hence the phrase sympathetically maintained pain.. Multimodal treatment is often necessary (and what I typically employ in my practice): Physical Therapy, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, occasional opioids, sympathetic nerve blocks, epidural infusions, bier blocks, intravenous infusions, radiofrequency ablation of sympathetic nervous system, and spinal cord stimulation. Also, CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) may be necessary.. The category of phases may be considered as an older way to view ...
Feeling HYPOAESTHESIA while using Celexa? HYPOAESTHESIA Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Celexa Reports and Side Effects.
Feeling HYPOAESTHESIA while using Plavix? HYPOAESTHESIA Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Plavix Reports and Side Effects.
People with acquired brain damage like a stroke could have complex limitations with everyday activities, especially following hemiplegia of the upper limb. Studies have proven the effectiveness of mirror therapy for motor recovery. Detailed descriptions of how to practice mirror therapy are lacking, however. One of the few published manuals is the "Bonner Therapie protokoll" by Bieniok and colleagues from 2011. It gives contributed valuable information on the fundamentals of mirror therapy for the further development of standardized treatment protocols. We evaluated the Berlin version of the Bonner Therapieprotokoll in the terms of the basic principles of motor learning and by questionnaires for patients and therapists. The results revealed a practicable and clear standardized treatment protocol. All patients showed a benefit in their attention. After optimizing the evaluated protocol, the "Berliner Spiegeltherapieprotokoll" (BEST) was established. This manual is a further, science-based ...
Drez V Cream is used for treating bacterial vaginitis. Order more than 3 tubes and save upto $43.20 at InternationalDrugMart.com.
SINCE the American Civil War, clinicians and neuroscientists have been mystified by patterns of persistent pain and cutaneous hypersensitivity after injuries to the limbs that are accompanied by remarkable neurovascular, sudomotor, motor, and trophic changes.1 These syndromes traditionally were labeled as reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia, according to the absence or presence of identifiable injury to major nerve trunks. The designations reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia were replaced in most part with the terms complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types 1 and 2, respectively, by an international consensus group in 1994,2 and revised3 to improve diagnostic specificity. The roles of the sympathetic nervous system in initiation or maintenance of this syndrome are matters of controversy, and the revised diagnostic criteria deemphasized the sympathetic nervous system as the primary pathophysiology and specific treatment target. Surgical interruption of sympathetic nervous system ...
BACKGROUND: The partial form of the complex regional pain syndrome of the hand type 1 (CRPS 1), involving only 1 to 3 fingers, is a rare condition first described in 1972. The aim of the study is to define more precisely the diagnosis workup and the
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may develop as a disproportionate consequence of a trauma affecting the limbs without nerve injury (CRPS I, or reflex sympathetic dystrophy [RSD]) or with obvious nerve lesions (CRPS II, or causalgia). (See images below and Images 1-4.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk Factors for Post-treatment Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). T2 - An Analysis of 647 Cases of CRPS from the Danish Patient Compensation Association. AU - Petersen, Pelle B. AU - Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby. AU - Lauritzen, Jes B. AU - Krogsgaard, Michael R. N1 - © 2017 World Institute of Pain.. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - OBJECTIVES: Complex regional pain syndrome is a challenging condition that includes a broad spectrum of sensory, autonomic, and motor features predominantly in extremities recovering from a trauma. Few large-scale studies have addressed occurrence of and factors associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) following orthopedic treatment. The present study aimed to identify factors associated with post-treatment development of CRPS.METHODS: Using the Danish Patient Compensation Associations database, we identified 647 patients claiming post-treatment CRPS between 1992 and 2015. Age, gender, initial diagnosis, treatment, and amount of compensation ...
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS) has been recognized since the Civil War when it was called causalgia, a name chosen to describe intense, burning extremity pain after an injury. Since then, RSDS has had a number of name changes.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (or Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that is thought to be the
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If complex regional pain syndrome makes it difficult for you to do things you enjoy, ask your doctor about ways to get around the obstacles.. Keep in mind that your physical health can directly affect your mental health. Denial, anger and frustration are common with chronic illnesses.. At times, you may need more tools to deal with your emotions. A therapist, behavioral psychologist or other professional may be able to help you put things in perspective. They also may be able to teach you coping skills, such as relaxation or meditation techniques.. Sometimes joining a support group, where you can share experiences and feelings with other people, is a good approach. Ask your doctor what support groups are available in your community.. The following measures may help you reduce the risk of developing complex regional pain syndrome:. ...
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS) - also known as complex regional pain syndrome - is a chronic condition characterized by severe burning pain, pathological changes in bone and skin, excessive sweating, tissue swelling, and extreme sensitivity to touch. The syndrome, which is a variant of a condition known as causalgia, is a nerve disorder that occurs at the site of an injury (most often to the arms or legs). It occurs especially after injuries from high-velocity impacts such as those from bullets or shrapnel. However, it may occur without apparent injury.. The symptoms of RSDS usually occur near the site of an injury, either major or minor, and include: burning pain, muscle spasms, local swelling, increased sweating, softening of bones, joint tenderness or stiffness, restricted or painful movement, and changes in the nails and skin. One visible sign of RSDS near the site of injury is warm, shiny red skin that later becomes cool and bluish. The pain that patients report is out of ...
Complex regional pain syndrome is pain that may occur after an injury to an arm or a leg. In rare cases, the syndrome develops after surgery, a heart attack, a stroke or other medical problem. The pain is often described as a burning feeling and is much worse than expected for the injury. Your doctor may also call this condition reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The cause of the syndrome is not known ...
WebMD looks at complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a chronic pain condition in which high levels of nerve impulses are sent to an affected site. Learn about causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments.
In my opinion its a shitty diagnosis, a burning ring of fire. Complex regional pain syndrome, formally known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is the name given to a collection of symptoms the worst of which is continuing pain out of the ordinary for the event that caused it. Abnormal changes in temperature, colour, sweating, hair and nail growth, in addition to ongoing pain set crps apart from other pain syndromes. The initiating event may be as simple as hitting your elbow. Light touch is unpleasant or painful, touch that might normally be painful is excessively so. Early diagnosis and treatment usually results in a better outcome. In many sufferers pain persists for years. ...
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, CRPS, formerly known as RSD Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, is a progressive disease of the Autonomic Nervous System, and more specifically, the Sympathetic Nervous System. The pain is characterized as constant, extremely intense, and out of proportion to the original injury. The pain is typically accompanied by swelling, skin changes, extreme sensitivity, and can often be debilitating. It usually affects one or more of the four limbs but can occur in any part of the body and in over 70% of the victims it spreads to additional areas. CRPS is ranked as the most painful form of chronic pain that exists today by the McGill Pain Index.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), which used to be called reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), is a disease of intense pain in the arms and legs. Learn more about CRPS/RSD symptoms and causes.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a limb-confined posttraumatic pain syndrome with sympathetic features. The cause is unknown, but the results of a randomized crossover trial on low-dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) treatment point to a possible autoimmune mechanism. We tested purified serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with longstanding CRPS for evidence of antibodies interacting with autonomic receptors on adult primary cardiomyocytes, comparing with control IgG from healthy and diseased controls, and related the results to the clinical response to treatment with low-dose IVIG. We simultaneously recorded both single-cell contractions and intracellular calcium handling in an electrical field. Ten of 18 CRPS preparations and only 1/57 control preparations (P|0.0001) increased the sensitivity of the myocytes to the electric field, and this effect was abrogated by preincubation with α-1a receptor blockers. By contrast, effects on baseline calcium were blocked by preincubation with
Executive summary: The efficacy of the current standard rehabilitation treatments for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a painful syndrome mostly occurring after musculoskeletal trauma, is suboptimal. For instance, the first line of treatment in rehabilitation, progressive motor imagery (GMI), only induces a 50% improvement in symptoms. Although such improvement is interesting, further solutions should be sought to enhance clinical outcomes. It is thus essential to explore new options of therapy. A potential solution to enhance clinical outcomes would be to add an electrotherapeutic procedure, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Given the positive results previously obtained in patients with neuropathic pain, we hypothesize that tDCS will induce functional and structural reorganization in the cortex and lead to better pain relief. The cortical reorganization frequently observed in CRPS patients mainly involves a shrinkage of cortical map of the affected limb on primary ...
Decrease perception to certain types of painful stimuli in patients with RSD (also called complex regional pain syndrome type 1) is relatively common and has led to confusion and misunderstanding among physicians. In turn, patients can suffer for not receiving appropriate care from health providers or, even worse, the health provider accuses the patient of suffering more from a mental disorder than a genuine neurological disorder. This problem has led to delayed treatment that can lead to a poorer outcome. The phenomenon of altered perception to painful stimuli is illustrated by two patients who have benefited by the administration of ketamine: CASE #1 Prior to a 3-day treatment with escalating doses of ketamine Janice Beasley had complete numbness in her left lower extremity for 10 years (which makes her more prone to injury). After 3 days of treatment with ketamine on an outpatient basis she had return of sensation for pain (as evidenced in your post treatment pain thresholds). In addition, ...
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a complicated condition that is not yet fully understood. CRPS is chronic pain that usually continues after a seemingly minor injury but the pain is not in proportion with the original injury. CRPS often affects the arms or legs and you may feel like the arm or leg is persistently in pain for no reason at all. The pain may be localized to one of the limbs or seem to "jump" from limb to limb. The research into CRPS has shown that the cause of CRPS related pain is a neurological condition in which the brain continues to transmit pain signals to an area even after the injury has healed.. CRPS can have many symptoms and these symptoms may be intermittent, but the symptoms can include:. ...
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. The key symptom of CRPS is continuous, intense pain out of proportion to the severity of the injury, which gets worse rather than better over time. CRPS most often affects one of the arms, legs, hands, or feet. Often the pain spreads to include the entire arm or leg. Typical features include dramatic changes in the color and temperature of the skin over the affected limb or body part, accompanied by intense burning pain, skin sensitivity, sweating, and swelling. Doctors arent sure what causes CRPS. In some cases the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in sustaining the pain. Another theory is that CRPS is caused by a triggering of the immune response, which leads to the characteristic inflammatory symptoms of redness, warmth, and swelling in the affected area.. ...
Available or current treatment guidelines. Awareness of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) by general practicing physicians is poor, which often leads to delays in treatment. Rehabilitative therapies coupled with pharmacotherapy are the mainstays of early treatment. Interventional treatments are considered if conservative strategies fail.1 There are no well-accepted treatment guidelines for pharmacotherapy.1 Best evidence supports multidisciplinary care.. Traditional Treatments. 1. Physical therapy and occupational therapy. Physical therapy (PT) and Occupational therapy (OT) can improve outcomes in CRPS, when started early (symptoms for less than 1 year).3Objectives of PT and OT in CRPS are to improve range of motion, desensitization, minimize swelling, promote normal positioning, decrease muscle guarding, and increase functional use of the extremity.4. 2. Mirror box therapy. Mirror box therapy may improve affected limb range of motion (ROM) by cortical reorganization of pain and motor neural ...
The goal of the International Research Consortium (IRC) is to promote research directed to relieving the pain and disability, prevention, and cure of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) - a rare chronic pain condition.
The goal of the International Research Consortium (IRC) is to promote research directed to relieving the pain and disability, prevention, and cure of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) - a rare chronic pain condition.
A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that can last for months or even years. It is a syndrome that doesnt discriminate, often occurring after an injury such as a fracture or sprain.
Patients diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) demonstrate significant structural and functional brain changes in regions associated with movement and pain.
Emed has years of experience dealing with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome and other chronic conditions. Make an appointment today!
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome can be alleviated at ProActive Pain Care. CRPS is caused by damage, malfunction of the peripheral & central nervous systems.
&nbsp;Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a poorly understood painful condition, which typically arises after distal limb trauma; 20% of patients may develop lifelong severe incessant pain with few therapeutic options. In this study, we show tha
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a pain condition that is believed to be the result of dysfunction in the central or peripheral nervous systems.
A person with complex regional pain syndrome has chronic, intense pain. This eMedTV article takes an in-depth look at this condition, including information on its causes, symptoms and treatment options.
Yesterday I attended a meeting in Westminster organised by sufferers of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). Like most people, I had never heard of this condition before. It is an excruciating, debilitating, and chronic condition which causes sufferers to feel extreme pain constantly.
Complex regional pain syndrome is diagnosed in people of all ages, although it its most common in middle aged women. While the severity of CRPS is very individual, the syndrome can have a significant impact on the lives of those who are diagnosed. It can even lead to a lasting disability if not treated quickly. Not…
complex regional pain syndrome (crps) most likely doesnt have a single cause. instead, multiple causes create similar symptoms.
Learn more about Complex Regional Pain Syndrome at Heartland Womens Group DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about complex regional pain syndrome and what you should do if your condition is caused by somebody elses negligence.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is a chronic condition affecting many workers. While workers comp coverage is available, the main obstacle is diagnosis.
Learn more about Complex Regional Pain Syndrome at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
... (CPRS) is condition which is a mystery to many simply due to the fact that is not easily identified, is often misunderstood and misdiagnosed, and is also not very well publicised.
I am trying to locate other individuals who are diagnosed with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), known prior as RSD. My cousin has this rare disease and I am trying to help her find others who su...
A mirror therapy program is an effective intervention for upper-limb motor recovery and motor function improvement in patients with acute stroke, say authors of an article published in American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. For this study, 26 patients who had an acute stroke within 6 months of study commencement were assigned to the experimental group (n = 13) or the control group (n = 13). Both experimental and control group patients participated in a standard rehabilitation program, but only the experimental group members participated in mirror therapy program for 25 minutes twice a day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. Researchers used the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Brunnstrom motor recovery stage, and Manual Function Test to assess changes in upper-limb motor recovery and motor function after intervention.. In upper-limb motor recovery, the scores of Fugl-Meyer Assessment (by shoulder/elbow/forearm items, 9.54 vs 4.61; wrist items, 2.76 vs 1.07; hand items, 4.43 vs 1.46, ...
From BioPortfolio: AXS-02 is an oral, non-opioid treatment with a novel mechanism of action for chronic pain CRPS is a debilitating pain syndrome with no approved pharmacological ...
Part of taking ownership of your CRPS is being proactive in finding the right help. Many patients suffer added stress through the lack of a diagnosis and appropriate treatments. It is worth searching for a GP or pain management specialist experienced in treating CRPS and neuropathic pain. Research, ask questions before you make an appointment and if you feel you are not being offered the appropriate support and treatment options keep searching. The same advice applies to psychologists, find one who is knowledgeable about CRPS or who is willing to research some of the basic facts about it. If you do not feel like they are helping and you leave the session feeling frustrated and misunderstood, keep looking. ...
There is strong clinical research supporting the disuse model as a basis for most of the signs and symptoms of CRPS. Most people diagnosed with CRPS have experienced an inciting injury, such as a fracture or an identifiable soft tissue trauma with a period of immobilization or an invasive procedure requiring immobilization. The explanation that most of the signs and symptoms of CRPS may be due to immobilization has been mostly ignored.107 The IASP diagnostic criteria itself requires the presence of an initiating noxious event, or a cause of immobilization for diagnosing CRPS. Bonicas 1953 Staging of RSD describes limitation of movement and limitation of motion as indicators of RSD.108 Immobilization leads to both motor and sensory changes that have been the hallmark of CRPS.109 A typical history involving a twisting injury or fracture involves casting, with the added complaint of burning pain, several more casts or walking boots may be applied for months.110 Signs and symptoms associated with ...
Cleveland Clinic pain consultant Dr. Michael Stanton-Hicks, whose career paralleled the development of neuromodulation therapy, became the fourth International Neuromodulation Society Giant of Neuromodulation.
Author: Philip Getson. Comments on the prevalence of CRPS and its relation to fibromyalgia from a practitioner and professor of neurology.. ...
CRPS can make a normal everyday stimulus, like a soft breeze across the skin painful, and a normally painful stimulus excruciating.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
1.. Kwun BS, Park JW, Lee HJ, Kim AS, Ryu GH.Complex regional pain syndrome by vaccination: A case of complex regional pain syndrome after vaccination of influenza A(H1N1). Pediatrics International 54: e4-e6, No. 3, Jun 2012. Available from: URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-200X.2011.03526.x - South Korea ...
Lynch syndrome type II information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome- type 1 (CRPS-I) Clinical Research Trial Listings in Musculoskeletal Neurology Trauma (Emergency, Injury, Surgery) Family Medicine on CenterWatch
About RSD Advisory is an information, resource, support and research friendly adversaria relating to RSD(S)/CRPS, Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome, known also as, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Included here will also be information which may not be directly associated with CRPS/RSD. Diagnosed in 2003, after a 2 year delay, I can honestly say its been a hard and…
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
The Nerve Center at Relievus treats patients with ENR Therapy, a nerve treatment for conditions like diabetic nerve pain and complex regional pain syndrome.
Lewis, J. S., Kersten, P., McPherson, K. M., Taylor, G. J., Harris, N., McCabe, C. and Blake, D. R. (2010) Wherever is my arm? Impaired upper limb position accuracy in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Pain, 149 (3). pp. 463-469. ISSN 0304-3959 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/10845 ...
I am the last person to be sanctimonious about doing all the right things. Managing the symptoms and pain of complex regional pain syndrome is hard work. Its too easy to think "just get on with your life". This doesnt work for me and I suspect a lot of other people. Getting the balance between doing everyday things and physical therapy and social and other family activities is almost walking a tight rope. I dont like to have to pace myself, even though I know its the best thing. I am embarrassed when I lose concentration when people are talking to me. I dont want to tell people "dont overload me with too much information. Take it slowly and have breaks so I can absorb what you say." I feel dumbed down and I dont take medication like many others. It must be so much worse for them. Like most if not all of us, Im very much over this ...
2010) Sensory disturbances in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: clinical observations, autonomic interactions, and possible mechanisms. Pain Medicine, 11 (8). pp. 1257-1266. Anderson, J.R., Zorbas, J.S., Phillips, J.K., Harrison, J.L., Dawson, L.F., Bolt, S.E., Rea, S.M., Klatte, J.E., Paus, R., Zhu, B., Giles, N.L., Drummond, P.D., Wood, F.M. and Fear, M.W. ...
These antibodies are known or have been proposed to play a role in POTS, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and CFS, and serious adverse reactions...
Back in July, my hip started hurting and its gotten progressively worse over time. I gave in and saw a hip specialist who x-rayed and MRId me. And promptly passed me off to an even more special specialist. I finally got to meet with him yesterday. its not happy news at all. My labrum is torn alright, but its because of the severe arthritis in that joint. He cant fix the labrum because the ball in the socket joint is not aligned correctly. And even if he could, it would probably just tear again since he cant fix the arthritis. And even if he could fix it, and the arthritis, and the arthritis didnt return, theres still the huge risk of getting RSD. Read about Complex Regional Pain Syndrome here. ...
In the June 30, 2008, issue of the magazine, Atul Gawande wrote about the use of mirror therapy to solve cases of phantom-limb pain and unresolvable …
Sure, its kinda juveneille, but I found this funny: Drez wrote: So, apparently Ive been sleeping on my PSP for days. Not directly. I was sleeping on my bed, and my PSP was under the wooden front of it. So there was...well a lot of pressure on it, even when I wasnt sleeping there. So…
The Stimpod NMS460 includes a nerve-mapping pen-like probe which allows practitioners to locate nerves and evaluate the treatment progress.
Type II (causalgia) has distinct evidence of a nerve injury.[5] Complex regional pain syndrome is uncommon, and its cause isn't ... According to the IASP, CRPS II (causalgia) is diagnosed as follows: *The presence of continuing pain, allodynia, or ... Type II, formerly known as causalgia, has evidence of obvious nerve damage. Despite there being evidence of nerve injury, the ... Noordenbos observed in causalgia patients that "the damage of the nerve is always partial."[58] Misuse of the terms, as well as ...
"Interrupting the sympathetic outflow in causalgia and reflex sympathetic dystrophy". BMJ. 316 (7134): 792-3. doi:10.1136/bmj. ...
Schott, G D (1998). "Interrupting the sympathetic outflow in causalgia and reflex sympathetic dystrophy". BMJ. 316 (7134): 792- ... Trench foot Causalgia Pachydermoperiostosis Pretibial myxedema Gustatory sweating associated with: Encephalitis Syringomyelia ...
... discovered and treated causalgia (today known as CRPS/RSD), a condition most often encountered by hand ... was an American physician and writer known for his discovery of causalgia (complex regional pain syndrome) and erythromelalgia ...
Mayfield wrote numerous papers and a book about the treatment of causalgia (intense pain resulting from wounds to peripheral ...
"Causalgia treatment" and in 1947 his thesis was on "Intracranial pressure". He authored more than 50 research publications. ...
INDICATIONS rest pain, ischemic ulcers, hyperhydrosis, raynaud's phenomenon, causalgia, buerger's disease Lumbar sympathectomy ...
... causalgia, neuralgia, and phantom limb pain. Although the task of measuring and describing pain has been problematic, the ...
5.7 million verdict on behalf of an injured journeyman carpenter who suffered stage III CRPS-II (causalgia) after a drill bit ...
... hypertension Catel-Manzke syndrome Caudal appendage deafness Caudal duplication Caudal regression syndrome Causalgia Cavernous ...
Causalgia of upper limb (354.5) Mononeuritis multiplex (354.8) Other mononeuritis of upper limb (354.9) Mononeuritis of upper ...
Causalgia (G56.8) Other mononeuropathies of upper limb Interdigital neuroma of upper limb (G56.9) Mononeuropathy of upper limb ...
Brain nerve damage Brain injury Brain tumor Brody myopathy Canavan disease Capgras delusion Carpal tunnel syndrome Causalgia ...
... was the first to observe the correlation between the altered cutaneous fibres and the burning pain that he named causalgia. For ...
... and Causalgia), fibromyalgia, diffuse idiopathic pain (also called diffuse amplified pain), localized idiopathic pain (also ...
... causalgia MeSH C10.177.195.800 --- reflex sympathetic dystrophy MeSH C10.228.140.042 --- akinetic mutism MeSH C10.228.140.055 ... causalgia MeSH C10.668.829.250.800 --- reflex sympathetic dystrophy MeSH C10.668.829.300 --- diabetic neuropathies MeSH C10.668 ... causalgia MeSH C10.668.829.600.550 --- neuralgia, postherpetic MeSH C10.668.829.600.800 --- sciatica MeSH C10.668.829.650 --- ...
... causalgia or painful peripheral neuropathies) Nonketotic hyperglycinemia Olivopontocerebellar atrophy (some recessive forms) ...
Most people with Bell's palsy start to regain normal facial function within 3 weeks-even those who do not receive treatment.[37] In a 1982 study, when no treatment was available, of 1,011 patients, 85% showed first signs of recovery within 3 weeks after onset. For the other 15%, recovery occurred 3-6 months later. After a follow-up of at least 1 year or until restoration, complete recovery had occurred in more than two-thirds (71%) of all patients. Recovery was judged moderate in 12% and poor in only 4% of patients.[38] Another study found that incomplete palsies disappear entirely, nearly always in the course of one month. The patients who regain movement within the first two weeks nearly always remit entirely. When remission does not occur until the third week or later, a significantly greater part of the patients develop sequelae.[39] A third study found a better prognosis for young patients, aged below 10 years old, while the patients over 61 years old presented a worse prognosis.[14]. Major ...
The nerve dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome is caused by an immune attack on the nerve cells of the peripheral nervous system and their support structures. The nerve cells have their body (the soma) in the spinal cord and a long projection (the axon) that carries electrical nerve impulses to the neuromuscular junction where the impulse is transferred to the muscle. Axons are wrapped in a sheath of Schwann cells that contain myelin. Between Schwann cells are gaps (nodes of Ranvier) where the axon is exposed.[8] Different types of Guillain-Barré syndrome feature different types of immune attack. The demyelinating variant (AIDP, see below) features damage to the myelin sheath by white blood cells (T lymphocytes and macrophages); this process is preceded by activation of a group of blood proteins known as complement. In contrast, the axonal variant is mediated by IgG antibodies and complement against the cell membrane covering the axon without direct lymphocyte involvement.[8] Various ...
Diagnosis is based upon physical examination findings. Patients' pain history and a positive Tinel's sign are the first steps in evaluating the possibility of tarsal tunnel syndrome. X-ray can rule out fracture. MRI can assess for space occupying lesions or other causes of nerve compression. Ultrasound can assess for synovitis or ganglia. Nerve conduction studies alone are not, but they may be used to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis. Common causes include trauma, varicose veins, neuropathy and space-occupying anomalies within the tarsal tunnel. Tarsal tunnel syndrome is also known to affect both athletes and individuals that stand a lot.[1] A Neurologist or a Physiatrist usually administers nerve conduction tests or supervises a trained technologist. During this test, electrodes are placed at various spots along the nerves in the legs and feet. Both sensory and motor nerves are tested at different locations. Electrical impulses are sent through the nerve and the speed and intensity at ...
Symptoms of ulnar neuropathy or neuritis do not necessarily indicate an actual physical impingement of the nerve; indeed, any injury to the ulnar nerve may result in identical symptoms. In addition, other functional disturbances may result in irritation to the nerve and are not true "impingement". For example, anterior dislocation and "snapping" of ulnar nerve across the medial epicondyle of the elbow joint can result in ulnar neuropathy.[2] Entrapment of other major sensory nerves of the upper extremities result in deficits in other patterns of distribution. Entrapment of the median nerve causes carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by numbness in the thumb, index, middle, and half of the ring finger. Compression of the radial nerve causes numbness of the back of the hand and thumb, and is much rarer. A simple way of differentiating between significant median and ulnar nerve injury is by testing for weakness in flexing and extending certain fingers of the hand. Median nerve injuries ...
The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve most often becomes injured by entrapment or compression where it passes between the upper front hip bone (ilium) and the inguinal ligament near the attachment at the anterior superior iliac spine (the upper point of the hip bone). Less commonly, the nerve may be entrapped by other anatomical or abnormal structures, or damaged by diabetic or other neuropathy or trauma such as from seat belt injury in an accident. The nerve may become painful over a period of time as weight gain makes underwear, belting or the waistband of pants gradually exert higher levels of pressure. Pain may be acute and radiate into the rib cage, and into the groin, thigh, and knee. Alternately, weight loss or aging may remove protective fat layers under the skin, so the nerve can compress against underwear, outer clothing, and-most commonly- by belting. Long periods of standing or leg exercise that increases tension on the inguinal ligament may also cause pressure. The lateral cutaneous ...
Talk:Causalgia. *Talk:Cave of septum pellucidum. *Talk:Central facial palsy. *Talk:Central hypoventilation syndrome ...
Causalgia, erythromelalgia[5]. Treatment. Avoiding cold, calcium channel blockers, iloprost[3]. Frequency. 4% of people[3]. ...
ಈ ಕಾಯಿಲೆಯು ಮುಖದಲ್ಲಿ ವ್ಯಕ್ತವಾಗಲ್ಪಡುವ ಕೆಲವು ಸೆಕೆಂಡುಗಳಿಂದ ಹಲವಾರು ನಿಮಿಷಗಳವರೆಗಿನ ತೀವ್ರವಾದ ನೋವಿನ ಛಾಯೆಗಳ ಮೂಲಕ ಗುಣಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳನ್ನು ವಿವರಿಸಲ್ಪಡುತ್ತದೆ. ತೀವ್ರವಾದ ನೋವಿನ ಘಟನೆಗಳು ಆವೇಶದ ಕಾರಣದಿಂದಾಗಿ ಸಂಭವಿಸುತ್ತದೆ. ನೋವಿನ ಸಂವೇದನೆಯನ್ನು ವರ್ಣಿಸುವುದಕ್ಕಾಗಿ, ರೋಗಿಗಳು ಮುಖದ ಮೇಲಿನ ತುಂಬಾ ಸೂಕ್ಷ್ಮಸಂವೇದನಾಶೀಲವಾಗಿರುವ ಮತ್ತು ಒಂದು ಸ್ಪರ್ಶ ಅಥವಾ ಗಾಳಿಯ ಬೀಸುವಿಕೆಯೂ ಕೂಡ ನೋವನ್ನು ಪ್ರಚೋದಿಸುವಂತಹ ಸನ್ನೆಕೀಲಿನ ...
Type 2. Once referred to as causalgia, this type follows a distinct nerve injury. ...
... type II or causalgia. Generally, causalgia provides more objective evidence of disease due to neurological changes (numbness ... Causalgia (Minor or Major) *Sudecks Atrophy *Post Traumatic Dystrophy (Minor or Major) *Shoulder Hand Syndrome *Reflex ... 1-8 The term Complex was added to convey the reality that RSD and causalgia express varied signs and symptoms. Many ... felt the respective names reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia were inadequate to represent the full spectrum of signs ...
Causalgia - severe burning type pain following injury to a major nerve. Cyanotic - blue color due to decreased oxygen in blood ...
... and causalgia, and renamed them complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II, respectively.. ...
CRPS II (caused by damage to a nerve) was previously called causalgia. The symptoms and treatments of the two types are almost ...
Causalgia *Algodystrophy *Algodynia *Sudeks atrophy *Sudek atrophy *Shoulder-hand syndrome *RSD Reflex sympathetic dystrophy ... Trigeminal causalgia *Reflex sympathetic osteodystrophy *Phantom limb syndrome *Superior orbital fissure syndrome *Infraorbital ...
... causalgia, and sympathetically-maintained pain. ...

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