IcelandEnvironment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Twin Studies as Topic: Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genetic Pleiotropy: A phenomenon in which multiple and diverse phenotypic outcomes are influenced by a single gene (or single gene product.)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Receptors, Dopamine D4: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
  • Thus, while GWAS already today provide new candidates for disease-associated genes and potential drug targets, very few of the currently identified (sets of) genotypic markers are of any practical use for accessing risk for predisposition to any of the complex diseases that have been studied. (unil.ch)
  • Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have employed this technology to genotype large cohorts whose individuals have been phenotyped for various clinical parameters. (unil.ch)
  • We consider issues of study design, and we discuss common variant approaches including candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). (cdc.gov)
  • The narrower GWAS-defined genome regions will allow more precise marker-assisted allele selection and will expedite positional cloning of the causal gene(s). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the availability of high throughput DNA sequencing and genotyping technologies has provided a platform for conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early candidate gene studies rarely replicated, but GWAS hits do. (blogspot.com)
  • Taking advantage of rapid technical innovations over the past decade, EPIC researchers have both led and collaborated in a wide range of candidate gene studies, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and post-GWAS investigations, including investigations of gene-environment, gene-gene and gene-diet interactions and risk modelling. (iarc.fr)
  • The completion of the Human Genome Project has greatly accelerated the technology development for linkage analysis, candidate gene association studies, and, more recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS). (usc.edu)
  • This position will focus in particular on reconstructing causal gene networks for specific phenotypic subcategories of patients, and validating these networks in the context of existing GWAS, regulatory genomics (e.g. (michoel.info)
  • Bioinformatic integration of transcriptomic data with recent GWAS data identified specific candidate genes and cell types for inflammatory pathologies. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, recently research has been initiated to study the nature and frequency of gene mutations/variations in individuals with CAD and subtle combined hyperlipidaemia. (bmj.com)
  • Despite recent progress in finding highly informative mutations in some cases a majority of nonsyndromic birth defects still does not appear to be accounted for by a single gene or chromosomal abnormality. (cdc.gov)
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is caused by a variety of mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins, the structural proteins in heart muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • People with dominant mutations that cause Alzheimer's disease succumb to symptoms at widely different ages, but some trends emerge when people are stratified by mutated gene. (alzforum.org)
  • Researchers have so far identified 230 familial AD (FAD) mutations within the genes encoding for amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PS1), and presenilin 2 (PS2) (see Alzforum Mutations database ). (alzforum.org)
  • When stratified by gene, people with a mutation in PS1 tended to develop cognitive symptoms earlier than those with mutations in PS2 or APP, or people with APP duplication. (alzforum.org)
  • To date, causal mutations with a known functional effect have not yet been described. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The frequency of each of the four mutations within these genes is less than 5%, but more than 80% of subjects with these mutations develop breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Individual genes demonstrating the strongest associations were TGFBR2 in the TGF-β pathway and SMAD7 (which is involved in both the TGF-β and WNT pathways). (springer.com)
  • For example, Annotex and Marker2sequence are two applications developed by Plant Breeding, which rely on this semantic web technology to integration genes, proteins, metabolites, pathways, and literature. (wur.nl)
  • Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we review evidence for the involvement of these pathways in the pathogenesis of IgAN, highlighting studies of IgA1 glycosylation defects and anti-glycan immune responses as well as evidence arising from gene-mapping efforts. (jci.org)
  • In the first QTL, the RIM15 gene was identified as major regulator of aging under low glucose condition, lending further support to the importance of nutrient-sensing pathways in longevity control under calorie restriction. (nature.com)
  • To understand the biochemistry of existing and novel causative Parkinson's disease gene products, and their pathways, to describe the regulation and function of these proteins. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Despite tremendous progress in the identification of genes associated with Parkinson's and related disorders over the last decade, there is still only outline and sketchy information about the molecular pathways involved, and their constituents and their interactions. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • It will then identify and characterise the biochemical pathways that these genes determine, and explore their role in the development of disease. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Significant associations have, however, been found with candidate genes related to neurotransmitter pathways, especially in the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems. (els.net)
  • Candidate gene association studies indicate significant relationships between personality disorders and genes related to neurotransmitter pathways, especially in the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems. (els.net)
  • Among the areas receiving attention were genetic epidemiology and the array of approaches for identifying candidate genes for disease, emerging strategies - particularly transcriptional profiling - for identifying novel molecular targets and pathways, animal models (including rat and mouse) for human disease, and gene therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PM pathogenesis is associated with up-regulation of specific MLO genes during early stages of infection, causing down-regulation of plant defense pathways. (wur.nl)
  • This study aimed to explore potential crucial genes and pathways associated with OA that can be used as potential biomarkers forearly treatment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Gene expression patterns clearly differentiated intestinal T cells from counterparts in peripheral blood and revealed distinct signalling pathways for each intestinal T cell subset. (bmj.com)
  • This creates the possibility to study a major resistance mechanism against vascular pathogens in this model plant and to clone relevant genes of the involved pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In epidemiology, Mendelian randomization is a method of using measured variation in genes of known function to examine the causal effect of a modifiable exposure on disease in observational studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • R.A. Fisher Mendelian randomization is a method that allows one to test for, or in certain cases to estimate, a causal effect from observational data in the presence of confounding factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the polymorphism is the instrument, Mendelian randomization is dependent on genetic association studies having provided good candidate genes for response to risk exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP19A1 fine-mapping and Mendelian randomization: estradiol is causal for endometrial cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Traditional gene‐mapping approaches, such as linkage analysis and association studies ( Botstein and Risch, 2003 ), though succeeded in identifying causative genes for many Mendelian diseases, have less power in identifying genes for complex and common diseases such as autism, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, coronary heart diseases, various cancers, and many others. (embopress.org)
  • These syndromes often have simple Mendelian inheritance patterns and are thus amenable to gene identification. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • C may be the causal variant or closely linked to it. (genetics.org)
  • Second, even assuming the causal variant can be identified, interpretation is limited by incomplete knowledge of non-coding regulatory elements, their mechanisms of action, and the cellular states and processes in which they function. (nature.com)
  • The determinant risk ratio and risk difference magnitude for the association between a gene variant and disease is a function of the prevalence of the interacting factors that activate the gene, and the background rate of disease. (bmj.com)
  • On the test of gene-environment interaction in ARIC EA participants, the index variant at MUC1 had 2.5 times stronger association in postmenopausal women with progestin use (beta = −0.028, p = 7.3x10 −5 ) than in those without any hormone use (beta = −0.011, p = 7.0x10 −8 , p for interaction 0.03). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? (hi.is)
  • We identified a novel variant in the PTCHD3 gene that is significantly associated with asthma (rs660498, p = 2.2 × 10 −7 ) independent of obesity status. (springer.com)
  • A HuGE review and meta-analysis including over 35,000 type-2 diabetes cases and 39,000 controls concluded that the Bayesian odds ratio for rs7903146 (T;T) homozygotes and (C;T) heterozygotes versus (C;C) homozygotes was 1.968 (95% credible interval (CrI): 1.790 - 2.157) and 1.406 (95% CrI: 1.341 - 1.476), respectively, and the population attributable risk (PAR) for the (C;T)/(T;T) genotypes of this variant is 16.9% overall. (snpedia.com)
  • A Genetic Variant in the IGF2BP2 Gene may Interact with Fetal Malnutrition on Glucose Metabolism. (snpedia.com)
  • The design strengths of the study include the extraction of participants without consanguinity, the use of stratified analyses to test the existence of an interaction effect and a comparison of the interaction exploration results from two models. (bmj.com)
  • While genetic effect sizes appear to be smaller than originally anticipated, analyses considering possible interactions between both genetic and environmental factors, as well as methods that attempt to address the symptomatic heterogeneity of depression, may point the way to fruitful new research avenues for identifying clinically valuable predictors of treatment response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conventional analyses of gene-environment (G × E) interaction require much larger sample size than for studying main effects. (usc.edu)
  • Using a biallelic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ( C / T ) in the candidate region, we confirmed its association with flowering time variation in a panel of 317 maize inbred lines. (genetics.org)
  • Race-specific resistance genes have been found to largely fall into few classes of genes, the most common being the group containing nucleotide binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) motifs ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The phenotypic data were related to genotype scores for 5398 gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. (deepdyve.com)
  • Genetic studies in the Finnish population have shown a perfect correlation between LCT persistence and the T allele in a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approximately 14 kb upstream of the LCT gene ( 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The design was first proposed in 1986 and subsequently described by Gray and Wheatley as a method for obtaining unbiased estimates of the effects of a putative causal variable without conducting a traditional randomised trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9 In addition, a second putative gene for stroke has been described by the same group. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lewontin and Layzer argued that in order to conclude causal mechanisms, the gene-environment interaction could not be ignored in the context of the study while Jensen defended that interaction was purely a statistical phenomenon and not related to development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to previous debates, Moffitt and Caspi were now using the statistical analysis to prove that interaction existed and could be used to uncover the mechanisms of a vulnerability trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, several types of novel defense-related genes conditioning quantitative resistance have been recently identified ( 8 - 11 ), supporting the proposition that a range of genes and mechanisms are involved in QDR ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The cross-sectional design cannot realise an investigation of the causal pathway of the association between the ACE genotype and salt intake interaction with hypertension, although possible mechanisms were suggested for the interaction effect on hypertension. (bmj.com)
  • EPIC is making a major contribution to the Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON) initiative, contributing approximately 23 000 samples from EPIC nested case-control studies of five cancer sites (breast, colorectum, lung, ovary, and prostate) to the OncoArray genotyping project. (iarc.fr)
  • Whereas heritable expression differences resulting from trans-acting mechanisms appear to be quantitatively more important, cis-acting variation may explain up to 25 to 35% of interindividual differences in gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. (isciii.es)
  • The difficulties in distinguishing consequence from causality in these studies and the critical role of animal models for testing causal relationships and providing insight into underlying mechanisms are also addressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It remains unclear, however, whether variation in specific genes might be relevant to the process of friend selection or, distinctly, whether the process of choosing friends might result in correlated genotypes between friends. (pnas.org)
  • Many investigators have taken the candidate gene approach, using genetic engineering technologies to generate transgenic or gene-deficient mice to study the role of specific genes in experimental stroke models. (ahajournals.org)
  • Molecular genetic studies aimed at identifying specific genes have been applied, to a limited extent, to personality. (els.net)
  • The different genotypes possible from the same mating have been beautifully randomised by the meiotic process. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more perfect control of conditions is scarcely possible, than that of different genotypes appearing in the same litter. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, QDR tends to be associated with more durable resistance, as a pathogen strain that overcomes a single allele of small effect does not gain a large selective advantage, and loss of effectiveness of a single gene does not leave the host completely susceptible ( 1 , 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • ETI is typically activated by the presence of specific pathogen "effectors" and then triggers strong antimicrobial responses (see R gene section below). (wikipedia.org)
  • These techniques should allow us to expand our understanding of the Mr /cacao interaction using field samples without fixed treatments, incorporating divergent plant and pathogen genetic backgrounds. (apsnet.org)
  • Due to low resolution of previous QTL mapping studies, it has been difficult to use this information in breeding programs, to identify positional candidate genes or to make strong inferences on the linkage relationships among these and other QTL. (pnas.org)
  • In order to uncover genomic regions associated to reduced FER and FB1 contamination and identify molecular markers for assisted selection, an F 2:3 population of 188 progenies was developed crossing CO441 (resistant) and CO354 (susceptible) genotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers have since identified many genes that display differential expression at male- vs. female-producing temperatures. (genetics.org)
  • However, differential expression alone does not reveal whether genes (1) are involved in sex determination per se , (2) are downstream effectors involved in differentiation of ovaries and testes, or (3) are thermo-sensitive but unrelated to sex determination or gonad differentiation. (genetics.org)
  • Depending on the developmental stage, up to 10% of the genes in these strains show differential expression linked to genotype. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the second QTL, we could show that the SER1 gene, encoding a conserved aminotransferase of the serine synthesis pathway not previously linked to aging, is causally associated with CLS regulation, especially under high glucose condition. (nature.com)
  • Interestingly, some of the genes with indirect or associative effects in hens involve the serotonin pathway, which has also been shown to influence social behavior in humans ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Moreover, 44 common marker-genes between fibroblastic-like chondrocytes and fibroblasts were identified and the focal adhesions pathway was further identified as a significant potential mechanism of OA via functional enrichment analysis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We use NGS methods and mouse models to examine the risk factors for NTDs, especially genes involved in the folic acid (FA) metabolic pathway, which is the primary methyl donor for nucleic acids. (masonlab.net)
  • We did not identify master transcriptional regulators in hotspot locations: rather, the presence of hotspots may be driven by complex interactions between multiple transcription factors. (g3journal.org)
  • The LT-α gene polymorphism, position +252 (rs909253), seems not to be an important candidate for the development of preeclampsia. (scielo.br)
  • Alternatively, a polymorphism may have no discernable effect on the protein product and may lie within DNA regions that are not involved in gene transcription or translation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 11,12 Elevated homocysteine was associated with a risk for stroke in one study, 13 but another found no increase in stroke risk associated with a common polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) gene, which leads to increased serum homocysteine concentrations. (ahajournals.org)
  • selected a set of 14 known flowering-time genes and showed that RAP2 had a higher importance score based on genetic marker data but not from transcript data. (plantcell.org)
  • Additional improvements involved selection on flowering time genes to extend the growing period and thereby increase yield-bearing capacity (Borlaug, 1983). (deepdyve.com)
  • In conclusion, elite sporting performance is the result of the interaction between genetic and training factors, with the result that both talent identification and management systems to facilitate optimal training are crucial to sporting success. (bmj.com)
  • Maternal and fetal genes may have independent or interactive effects on the risk of pre-eclampsia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A haplotype at 13q12-13 spanning the gene ALOX5AP encoding 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) is associated with a 2-fold greater risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Genotype may add to our understanding of factors that not only contribute to but also reduce risk of types of stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods being used are procedures such as random forest for classification or multiple regression in cases where the number of predictor variables (e.g. molecular markers, genes, metabolites) is much larger than the number of samples in which they have been measured (plants, tissues). (wur.nl)
  • This development is a likely consequence of the maturation of our field to include increasing interest in identifying important, but low-level risks, in discovering interactions as well as main effects, and in taking advantage of scientific and technological advances in molecular biology allowing targeted or agnostic assessment of the role of thousands to millions of potential biomarkers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Oseguera-Moguel J. Enfermedades cardiovasculares: presente y futuro basados en la biolog a molecular. (medigraphic.com)
  • In genetic epidemiology, gene-environment interactions are useful for understanding some diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the ing genetic epidemiology results are published annually.1 This application of such massive genomic testing platforms to large field started with assessments of small numbers of `candidate' case-control and cohort studies2, the amount of information per study and overall is increasing very rapidly. (cdc.gov)
  • Functional validation in human adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells (SKMCs) confirmed the relevance of the key driver candidate genes for insulin responsiveness. (stanford.edu)
  • For many the causal gene has not been defined and little is known about the cell types which may be most relevant for their functional effects. (bmj.com)