Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific): An enzyme responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern on adenine residues in a specific short base sequence in the host cell DNA. The enzyme catalyzes the methylation of DNA adenine in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to form DNA containing 6-methylaminopurine and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine. EC 2.1.1.72.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.XyloseOperon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.RNA Polymerase Sigma 54: A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Endopeptidase Clp: An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Potassium Acetate: A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Vanillic Acid: A flavoring agent. It is the intermediate product in the two-step bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin. (J Biotechnol 1996;50(2-3):107-13).Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Galactose Dehydrogenases: D-Galactose:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-galactose in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to D-galactono-gamma-lactone and NADH or NADPH. Includes EC 1.1.1.48 and EC 1.1.1.120.Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.PeptidoglycanDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.

Chromosome methylation and measurement of faithful, once and only once per cell cycle chromosome replication in Caulobacter crescentus. (1/444)

Caulobacter crescentus exhibits cell-type-specific control of chromosome replication and DNA methylation. Asymmetric cell division yields a replicating stalked cell and a nonreplicating swarmer cell. The motile swarmer cell must differentiate into a sessile stalked cell in order to replicate and execute asymmetric cell division. This program of cell division implies that chromosome replication initiates in the stalked cell only once per cell cycle. DNA methylation is restricted to the predivisional cell stage, and since DNA synthesis produces an unmethylated nascent strand, late DNA methylation also implies that DNA near the replication origin remains hemimethylated longer than DNA located further away. In this report, both assumptions are tested with an engineered Tn5-based transposon, Tn5Omega-MP. This allows a sensitive Southern blot assay that measures fully methylated, hemimethylated, and unmethylated DNA duplexes. Tn5Omega-MP was placed at 11 sites around the chromosome and it was clearly demonstrated that Tn5Omega-MP DNA near the replication origin remained hemimethylated longer than DNA located further away. One Tn5Omega-MP placed near the replication origin revealed small but detectable amounts of unmethylated duplex DNA in replicating stalked cells. Extra DNA synthesis produces a second unmethylated nascent strand. Therefore, measurement of unmethylated DNA is a critical test of the "once and only once per cell cycle" rule of chromosome replication in C. crescentus. Fewer than 1 in 1,000 stalked cells prematurely initiate a second round of chromosome replication. The implications for very precise negative control of chromosome replication are discussed with respect to the bacterial cell cycle.  (+info)

The CtrA response regulator mediates temporal control of gene expression during the Caulobacter cell cycle. (2/444)

In its role as a global response regulator, CtrA controls the transcription of a diverse group of genes at different times in the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. To understand the differential regulation of CtrA-controlled genes, we compared the expression of two of these genes, the fliQ flagellar gene and the ccrM DNA methyltransferase gene. Despite their similar promoter architecture, these genes are transcribed at different times in the cell cycle. PfliQ is activated earlier than PccrM. Phosphorylated CtrA (CtrA approximately P) bound to the CtrA recognition sequence in both promoters but had a 10- to 20-fold greater affinity for PfliQ. This difference in affinity correlates with temporal changes in the cellular levels of CtrA. Disrupting a unique inverted repeat element in PccrM significantly reduced promoter activity but not the timing of transcription initiation, suggesting that the inverted repeat does not play a major role in the temporal control of ccrM expression. Our data indicate that differences in the affinity of CtrA approximately P for PfliQ and PccrM regulate, in part, the temporal expression of these genes. However, the timing of fliQ transcription but not of ccrM transcription was altered in cells expressing a stable CtrA derivative, indicating that changes in CtrA approximately P levels alone cannot govern the cell cycle transcription of these genes. We propose that changes in the cellular concentration of CtrA approximately P and its interaction with accessory proteins influence the temporal expression of fliQ, ccrM, and other key cell cycle genes and ultimately the regulation of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Cell cycle-dependent polar localization of an essential bacterial histidine kinase that controls DNA replication and cell division. (3/444)

The master CtrA response regulator functions in Caulobacter to repress replication initiation in different phases of the cell cycle. Here, we identify an essential histidine kinase, CckA, that is responsible for CtrA activation by phosphorylation. Although CckA is present throughout the cell cycle, it moves to a cell pole in S phase, and upon cell division it disperses. Removal of the membrane-spanning region of CckA results in loss of polar localization and cell death. We propose that polar CckA functions to activate CtrA just after the initiation of DNA replication, thereby preventing premature reinitiations of chromosome replication. Thus, dynamic changes in cellular location of critical signal proteins provide a novel mechanism for the control of the prokaryote cell cycle.  (+info)

Identification and transcriptional control of the genes encoding the Caulobacter crescentus ClpXP protease. (4/444)

The region of the Caulobacter crescentus chromosome harboring the genes for the ClpXP protease was isolated and characterized. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the C. crescentus ClpP and ClpX proteins with those of their homologues from several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria revealed stronger conservation for the ATPase regulatory subunit (ClpX) than for the peptidase subunit (ClpP). The C. crescentus clpX gene was shown by complementation analysis to be functional in Escherichia coli. However, clpX from E. coli was not able to substitute for the essential nature of the clpX gene in C. crescentus. The clpP and clpX genes are separated on the C. crescentus chromosome by an open reading frame pointing in the opposite direction from the clp genes, and transcription of clpP and clpX was found to be uncoupled. clpP is transcribed as a monocistronic unit with a promoter (PP1) located immediately upstream of the 5' end of the gene and a terminator structure following its 3' end. PP1 is under heat shock control and is induced upon entry of the cells into the stationary phase. At least three promoters for clpX (PX1, PX2, and PX3) were mapped in the clpP-clpX intergenic region. In contrast to PP1, the clpX promoters were found to be downregulated after heat shock but were also subject to growth phase control. In addition, the clpP and clpX promoters showed different activity patterns during the cell cycle. Together, these results demonstrate that the genes coding for the peptidase and the regulatory subunits of the ClpXP protease are under independent transcriptional control in C. crescentus. Determination of the numbers of ClpP and ClpX molecules per cell suggested that ClpX is the limiting component compared with ClpP.  (+info)

Cell cycle expression and transcriptional regulation of DNA topoisomerase IV genes in caulobacter. (5/444)

DNA replication and differentiation are closely coupled during the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. We have previously shown that DNA topoisomerase IV (topo IV), which is encoded by the parE and parC genes, is required for chromosomal partitioning, cell division, and differentiation in this bacterium (D. Ward and A. Newton, Mol. Microbiol. 26:897-910, 1997). We have examined the cell cycle regulation of parE and parC and report here that transcription of these topo IV genes is induced during the swarmer-to-stalked-cell transition when cells prepare for initiation of DNA synthesis. The regulation of parE and parC expression is not strictly coordinated, however. The rate of parE transcription increases ca. 20-fold during the G1-to-S-phase transition and in this respect, its pattern of regulation is similar to those of several other genes required for chromosome duplication. Transcription from the parC promoter, by contrast, is induced only two- to threefold during this cell cycle period. Steady-state ParE levels are also regulated, increasing ca. twofold from low levels in swarmer cells to a maximum immediately prior to cell division, while differences in ParC levels during the cell cycle could not be detected. These results suggest that topo IV activity may be regulated primarily through parE expression. The presumptive promoters of the topo IV genes display striking similarities to, as well as differences from, the consensus promoter recognized by the major Caulobacter sigma factor sigma73. We also present evidence that a conserved 8-mer sequence motif located in the spacers between the -10 and -35 elements of the parE and parC promoters is required for maximum levels of parE transcription, which raises the possibility that it may function as a positive regulatory element. The pattern of parE transcription and the parE and parC promoter architecture suggest that the topo IV genes belong to a specialized subset of cell cycle-regulated genes required for chromosome replication.  (+info)

Feedback control of a master bacterial cell-cycle regulator. (6/444)

The transcriptional regulator CtrA controls several key cell-cycle events in Caulobacter crescentus, including the initiation of DNA replication, DNA methylation, cell division, and flagellar biogenesis. CtrA is a member of the response regulator family of two component signal transduction systems. Caulobacter goes to great lengths to control the time and place of the activity of this critical regulatory factor during the cell cycle. These controls include temporally regulated transcription and phosphorylation and spatially restricted proteolysis. We report here that ctrA expression is under the control of two promoters: a promoter (P1) that is active only in the early predivisional cell and a stronger promoter (P2) that is active in the late predivisional cell. Both promoters exhibit CtrA-mediated feedback regulation: the early P1 promoter is negatively controlled by CtrA, and the late P2 promoter is under positive feedback control. The CtrA protein footprints conserved binding sites within the P1 and P2 promoters. We propose that the P1 promoter is activated after the initiation of DNA replication in the early predivisional cell. The ensuing accumulation of CtrA results in the activation of the P2 promoter and the repression of the P1 promoter late in the cell cycle. Thus, two transcriptional feedback loops coupled to cell cycle-regulated proteolysis and phosphorylation of the CtrA protein result in the pattern of CtrA activity required for the temporal and spatial control of multiple cell-cycle events.  (+info)

Regulation of podJ expression during the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. (7/444)

The polar organelle development gene, podJ, is expressed during the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition of the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle. Mutants with insertions that inactivate the podJ gene are nonchemotactic, deficient in rosette formation, and resistant to polar bacteriophage, but they divide normally. In contrast, hyperexpression of podJ results in a lethal cell division defect. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the podJ promoter region revealed a binding site for the global response regulator, CtrA. Deletion of this site results in increased overall promoter activity, suggesting that CtrA is a negative regulator of the podJ promoter. Furthermore, synchronization studies have indicated that temporal regulation is not dependent on the presence of the CtrA binding site. Thus, although the level of podJ promoter activity is dependent on the CtrA binding site, the temporal control of podJ promoter expression is dependent on other factors.  (+info)

Bacterial cells: The migrating kinase and the master regulator. (8/444)

It is becoming clear that, as in eukaryotes, proteins in bacterial cells are targeted to specific cellular locations. The most recently discovered example is a remarkable histidine kinase that oscillates between polar and global distributions while temporally regulating transcription and DNA replication in Caulobacter.  (+info)

Caulobacter crescentus is an oligotrophic alpha-proteobacterium with a complex cell cycle involving sessile-stalked and piliated, flagellated swarmer cells. Because the natural lifestyle of C. crescentus intrinsically involves a surface-associated, sessile state, we investigated the dynamics and control of C. crescentus biofilms developing on glass surfaces in a hydrodynamic system. In contrast to biofilms of the well-studied Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio cholerae, C. crescentus CB15 cells form biphasic biofilms, consisting predominantly of a cell monolayer biofilm and a biofilm containing densely packed, mushroom-shaped structures. Based on comparisons between the C. crescentus strain CB15 wild type and its holdfast (hfsA; DeltaCC0095), pili (DeltapilA-cpaF::Omegaaac3), motility (motA), flagellum (flgH) mutants, and a double mutant lacking holdfast and flagellum (hfsA; flgH), a model for biofilm formation in C. crescentus is proposed. For both biofilm forms, the holdfast ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of transmissible plasmids as cloning vectors in Caulobacter crescentus. AU - Schoenlein, Patricia V. AU - Gallman, Lilly M.. AU - Ely, Bert. PY - 1988/10/30. Y1 - 1988/10/30. N2 - Cloning vectors for studies of Caulobacter crescentus genes should be transferable between Escherichia coli and C. crescentus since a transformation system has not been developed for C. crescentus. We have tested a large number of vectors containing IncP or IncQ replicons and found that many of the vectors containing IncQ replicons, and all but one of the vectors containing IncP replicons, are readily transferred by conjugation into C. crescentus. All of the plasmids tested were maintained in C. crescentus at 1 to 5 copies per cell, but plasmids containing IncP replicons were more stable than plasmids containing IncQ replicons. Further studies with a derivative of the IncQ plasmid R300B showed that when a promoterless kanamycin (Km)-resistance gene (npt2) was inserted into the intercistronic region ...
This chapter focuses on the aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, which divides asymmetrically during each cell division cycle, yielding progeny cells that differ both structurally and functionally. The initially motile swarmer cell progeny sheds its flagellum and differentiates into a nonmotile stalked cell. In addition to morphological differences, the stalked- and swarmer cell progeny inherit different competencies for chromosome replication. A central component of any cell cycle is the initiation of chromosome replication coupled with strict controls to prevent repeated rounds of DNA replication without intervening cell divisions. The Caulobacter origin of replication was identified and cloned by taking advantage of the observation that replication is always initiated in the stalked cell. Microbial cells are able to monitor changes in their environment, detect changes in cell density, and communicate with each other and with other organisms through signals. The Caulobacter DnaA protein is a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flagellin redundancy in Caulobacter crescentus and its implications for flagellar filament assembly. AU - Faulds-Pain, Alexandra. AU - Birchall, Christopher. AU - Aldridge, Christine. AU - Smith, Wendy D.. AU - Grimaldi, Giulia. AU - Nakamura, Shuichi. AU - Miyata, Tomoko. AU - Gray, Joe. AU - Li, Guanglai. AU - Tang, Jay X.. AU - Namba, Keiichi. AU - Minamino, Tohru. AU - Aldridge, Phillip D.. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Bacterial flagella play key roles in surface attachment and host-bacterial interactions as well as driving motility. Here, we have investigated the ability of Caulobacter crescentus to assemble its flagellar filament from six flagellins: FljJ, FljK, FljL, FljM, FljN, and FljO. Flagellin gene deletion combinations exhibited a range of phenotypes from no motility or impaired motility to full motility. Characterization of the mutant collection showed the following: (i) that there is no strict requirement for any one of the six flagellins to assemble a filament; ...
The requirement for transcription during development of the stalked bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, was studied with synchronous cultures of swarmer cells. The developmental pattern in these bacteria was first established by determination of the times at which specific changes in cell structure and function occurred. These changes could be divided into those characteristic of (a) development of the swarmer cell into the stalked cell: loss of motility and synthesis of the stalk, and (b) development of the stalked cell into the asymmetric dividing cell: chromosome replication, synthesis of the flagellum, motility, and division. The effect of rifampin in blocking several of these steps-loss of motility, initiation of chromosome replication, and cell division-indicates that RNA synthesis is required throughout the cell cycle for normal differentiation.. ...
The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complex plays an important role in chromosome organization and segregation in most living organisms. In Caulobacter crescentus, SMC is required to align the left and the right arms of the chromosome that run in parallel down the long axis of the cell. However, the mechanism of SMC-mediated alignment of chromosomal arms remains elusive. Here, using genome-wide methods and microscopy of single cells, we show that Caulobacter SMC is recruited to the centromeric parS site and that SMC-mediated arm alignment depends on the chromosome-partitioning protein ParB. We provide evidence that SMC likely tethers the parS-proximal regions of the chromosomal arms together, promoting arm alignment. Furthermore, we show that highly transcribed genes near parS that are oriented against SMC translocation disrupt arm alignment, suggesting that head-on transcription interferes with SMC translocation. Our results demonstrate a tight interdependence of bacterial chromosome
Genome analysis identified a large number of genes that would enable utilization of dilute carbon sources and provides a comprehensive picture of the strategies used by C. crescentus for survival in nutrient-limiting conditions. Unlike E. coli and Vibrio cholerae, C. crescentus has no OmpF-type outer membrane porins that allow the passive diffusion of hydrophilic substrates across the outer membrane. However, it does possess 65 members of the family of TonB-dependent outer membrane channels that catalyze energy-dependent transport across the outer membrane. This is more than any other organism thus far characterized, with the next highest being 34 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32), and with no other sequenced proteobacteria possessing more than 10. C. crescentus has substantially fewer cytoplasmic membrane transporters relative to genome size than either E. coli or V. cholerae (33). Given C. crescentus low nutrient habitat, it is surprising that PTS or ATP-binding cassette domain transporters, ...
Virginia Tech scientists have developed a quantitative, mathematical model of DNA replication and cell division for the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus.
Urs Jenal is a Swiss Microbiologist and Professor at the Biozentrum University of Basel, Switzerland. Urs Jenal studied Experimental Biology at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich and received his PhD from there in 1991. Subsequently, he completed postdoctoral research at the ETH Zurich and at Stanford University, USA. Since 1996, Jenal has taught and conducted research at the Biozentrum University of Basel; first as an Assistant Professor and since 2002 as a Professor of Molecular Microbiology. The research of Urs Jenal explores the molecular basis of signal transduction controlling the growth, development and behavior of bacteria. Jenal received international acclaim through his discovery of a new pathway, which is based on a new cyclic di-nucleotide (c-di-GMP) and which coordinates the formation of microbial biofilms and contributes to the development of chronic bacterial infections. With the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, Jenal discovered that c-di-GMP controls ...
The holdfast is important for the attachment of C. crescentus cells to surfaces; however, little is known about the regulation of holdfast synthesis and holdfast attachment genes during the cell cycle. Furthermore, the time of holdfast appearance at the pole of the cell is not known. In this paper, we investigate two aspects of holdfast synthesis: the transcription of a holdfast attachment gene, hfaA, and the appearance of the holdfast at the pole of the cell. We demonstrate that hfaA transcription is temporally controlled during the cell cycle, with maximal transcription in the swarmer pole of the predivisional cell. We show that the holdfast is not present in swarmer cells or at the swarmer poles of predivisional cells. Our results suggest that the holdfast appears during the differentiation of swarmer to stalked cells.. The hfaA gene possesses a ς54 promoter sequence at the requisite distance from the transcription start site (16). However, our results indicate that hfaA is not transcribed ...
It is thought that S-layers protect cells from phages and large molecules. Using a combination of cellular electron cryo tomography (cryo-ET) with subtomogram averaging and X-ray crystallography we have determined the structure of the complete and intact S-layer lattice on Gram negative Caulobacter crescentus cells. We showed that the lattice formed in the crystals matches perfectly the lattice formed on cells as determined at 7.4 Å, directly on cells ...
I will discuss our recent work that combined single-molecule imaging, fluorescence-recovery-after-photobleaching and optical tweezers to determine how the flagellar motor senses mechanical signals. I will present data that provides evidence that the chemotactic output of a molecular switch within the motor is influenced by the response to perturbations in viscous loads. The switch changes the direction of motorrotation and the torque generated is anisotropic. Yet, Caulobacter Crescentus cells that carry a single rigid flagellum, unlike E. coli cells that carry many, swim with similar speeds in the forward and backward directions. The resulting paradox that arises due to the time-reversibility of Stokes flow can be resolved with a simple model that incorporates cell-precession during swimming. Our observations indicate that motor mechanics are similar between the two species belonging to different classes of bacteria, and suggest that motor-mechanosensing might also be conserved. I will conclude ...
The citrate cycle (TCA cycle, Krebs cycle) is an important aerobic pathway for the final steps of the oxidation of carbohydrates and fatty acids. The cycle starts with acetyl-CoA, the activated form of acetate, derived from glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation for carbohydrates and from beta oxidation of fatty acids. The two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl-CoA is transferred to the four-carbon compound of oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon compound of citrate. In a series of reactions two carbons in citrate are oxidized to CO2 and the reaction pathway supplies NADH for use in the oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes. The pathway also supplies important precursor metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate. At the end of the cycle the remaining four-carbon part is transformed back to oxaloacetate. According to the genome sequence data, many organisms seem to lack genes for the full cycle [MD:M00009], but contain genes for specific segments [MD:M00010 M00011 ...
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental carcinogens, and exposure to UV-light. In humans hereditary defects in the NER pathway are linked to at least three diseases: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). The repair of damaged DNA involves at least 30 polypeptides within two different sub-pathways of NER known as transcription-coupled repair (TCR-NER) and global genome repair (GGR-NER). TCR refers to the expedited repair of lesions located in the actively transcribed strand of genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). In GGR-NER the first step of damage recognition involves XPC-hHR23B complex together with XPE complex (in prokaryotes, uvrAB complex). The following steps of GGR-NER and TCR-NER are similar ...
The SWISS-MODEL Repository is a database of annotated 3D protein structure models generated by the SWISS-MODEL homology-modelling pipeline
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My research interests include Bacterial Cell Cycle Regulation and Signal Transduction mechanisms.. 1. Bacterial Cell Cycle Regulation- Epigenetic mechanisms regulating various physiological activities in the prokaryotic cells are increasingly being appreciated. Methylation of specific bases of the DNA molecule by methyltransferases is the most common epigenetic modification observed in the bacterial cells. This modification of nucleotides adds another level of regulation at the transcription; furthermore, it has a fundamental role in the cell physiological processes such as DNA replication, DNA mismatch repair, and virulence mechanisms in many pathogens. Among the prokaryotic DNA methyltransferases, Dam expressed among the Gammaproteobacteria is the most intensively studied. In contrast to Dam, another DNA methyltransferase CcrM (Cell Cycle Regulated Methylase) has been described in the Alphaproteobacteria, where it plays an important role in the cell cycle regulation of Caulobacter crescentus ...
To see our full project description see initial project presentation: [[1]] The goal of our project is to clone the gene, mreB, from Caulobacter crescentus (stalked shaped cell) into Escherchia coli (rod shaped cell) to see if mreB will affect E. colis cell shape in some way. We expect to see the E. coli cells lyse or change from their normal rod shape. Normal E. coli cell shape [[2]] Normal C. crescentus cell shape [[3]] Lysed E. coli cells [[4]] Abnormal E. coli cells [[5]], [[6]] MreB is a rod-shape determining gene that appears as bands or spirals encircling the cell. It is known to associate with mreC and penicillin-binding proteins to catalyze precursors for the peptidoglycan cell wall and correctly position polar bacterial proteins. It is also homologous of actin in eukaryotes. ...
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1MB0: Crystallographic and Biochemical Studies of DivK Reveal Novel Features of an Essential Response Regulator in Caulobacter crescentus.
The study of chromosomal replication and cell division of bacteria has extended beyond Escherichia coli, and important insights have emerged recently from studies in other species, especially Bacillus subtilis and Caulobacter crescentus. Cell division is coordinated with other cell cycle events such as genomic DNA synthesis that leads to chromosomal replication and partition, increase of cell mass, and cell expansion by cell wall synthesis. This chapter reviews the information about predicted genes related to chromosomal replication, plasmid replication, and cell division in Helicobacter pylori, and a plausible replication machinery of the bacterium is discussed in light of the current understanding of bacterial organization and function of replication and cell division. The DnaA protein is essential for the initiation of chromosomal replication and is highly conserved among different bacteria. Clinical isolates of H. pylori have been reported to carry plasmids ranging in size from 1.5 to 40 kb. Three
TDE0214-mediated regulation of motility.PilZ domain proteins have been studied in several motile bacteria, and they are often implicated in regulation of cell motility (12, 13, 26-28). In these bacteria, mutations in the genes encoding those c-di-GMP effectors have different effects on cell motility. For instance, disruptions of B. burgdorferi plzA and V. cholerae plzB impair the cell motility (27, 28). In contrast, mutations of E. coli ycgR and Caulobacter crescentus dgrA or dgrB have no impact on the wild-type cell motility (12, 13, 70). Instead, mutations in these three genes can relieve the inhibition of motility that is caused by either deletions of PDE proteins or overexpression of DGC proteins, highlighting that these PilZ domain proteins affect cell motility only at conditions where the level of c-di-GMP is elevated (12, 13, 26). In this report, we found that inactivation of TDE0214 impaired the cell motility (Fig. 4; see also Movies S1 and S2 in the supplemental material), which is ...
By William Margolin | The division of one cell into two daughter cells is the crux of biological reproduction. But how do cells determine where along their dimensions division will occur? For bacteria, the best-studied species for basic biology, including cytokinesis, are the old standbys Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Caulobacter crescentus, mainly because of their easy cultivation…
ChIP-Chip stands for Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and chip in the sense of DNA microarray. It is a technique to determine the genome-wide binding sites of a DNA-binding protein. While the basic principle is the same for all species, there are some differences in handling cells. This protocol is developed and tested for E. coli. It should work the same way for other bacteria but that remains to be proven. Published protocols also exist for other bacterial species, including Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Because E. coli can be grown to high cell densities relative to eukaryotes, it is possible to generate sufficient DNA to label without using a PCR-based method [1]. This method uses strand displacement primer extension with Klenow DNA polymerase and amplifies the DNA ~10-fold, while simultaneously incorporating dye-coupled nucleotide. Related protocols can be found here: ...
C. crescentus undergoes a developmental step during its division cycle from a motile cell unable to replicate its DNA to a nonmotile cell that is competent for chromosome replication. We use synchronized populations of motile G1-phase cells to study the events that occur during development. C. crescentus also divides asymmetrically, producing one motile and one nonmotile cell at each division. Proteins in the predivisional cell are segregated to opposite ends to mediate the differentiation of identity after division. We study the locations and movements of individual proteins using fluorescence microscopy.. Specific problems that we are investigating include the following: regulated degradation of a key transcription factor during the motile-sessile developmental step; the roles, locations, and interactions of enzymes that participate in cell wall biosynthesis; and the regulatory functions of protein phosphorylation on serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues. ...
Caulobacter is a single-celled organism with a filament-like tail called a flagellum. As it swims, its rounded cellular head rotates in one direction, while the tail rotates in the opposite direction. This creates torque, which helps explain the bacteriums nonlinear movement through a fluid. What Tang and his team found, however, is that Caulobacter also is influenced by Brownian motion, which is the zigzagging motion that occurs when immersed particles are buffeted by the actions of the molecules of the surrounding medium. What that means, in effect, is that Caulobacter is being pinballed by the water molecules surrounding it as it swims ...
Marques, R. C., Marques, M. do V., Menck, C. F. M., Martins-Pinheiro, M., Galhardo, R. S., & Italiani, V. C. S. (2003). Identification of DNA repair genes in the Caulocater crescentus genome through the selection of clones sensitive to genotoxic agents. In Resumos. São Paulo: Comissão de Pesquisa do ICB/USP ...
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Principal Investigator:NAGAI Kazuo, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:応用微生物学・応用生物化学
The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) was established by Presidential Initiative in 1989 and mandated by Congress in the Global Change Research Act (GCRA) of 1990 to
Urazy amputacyjne w obrębie ręki z towarzyszącym wielopoziomowym uszkodzeniem tkanek stanowią przeciwwskazanie do replantacji. Szczególnie trudną decyzją jest dyskwalifikacja z zabiegu dotycząca kciuka. Doświadczenie mikrochirurgiczne oraz umiejętności rekonstrukcyjne pozwalają na podjęcie próby ratowania części kończyn z założenia nienadających się do uratowania. Ma to szczególnie istotne znaczenie w aspekcie poprawy jakości życia pacjentów. W pracy przedstawiono przypadek 42-letniego mężczyzny, który doznał subtotalnej amputacji ze zniszczeniem szkieletu kostnego oraz tkanek miękkich na całej długości powierzchni dłoniowej i grzbietowej kciuka prawej ręki. Pomimo przeciwwskazań podjęto próbę ratowania uszkodzonych tkanek kciuka. Napływ krwi tętniczej został odtworzony poprzez zespolenie tętnicy głównej kciuka z dystalnym naczyniem żylnym i wytworzenie w taki sposób przetoki tętniczo-żylnej. Układ kostny tymczasowo odtworzono dzięki ustabilizowaniu
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Zapraszamy do podjęcia studiów na wyjątkowych w skali kraju kierunkach: zootechnika, bioinżynieria produkcji żywności, zwierzęta w rekreacji, edukacji i terapii
By herself, Bloodtip is not too much a threat. Its the waves of Bloodtip Swarmer you need to be careful about. Though the adds have only 5 hp, they deliver a poison debuff that stacks and can really hurt if theyre not dealt with ASAP.. Update: Now a rare elite due to the removal of The Ashweb Matriarch in patch 5.4. ...
By herself, Bloodtip is not too much a threat. Its the waves of Bloodtip Swarmer you need to be careful about. Though the adds have only 5 hp, they deliver a poison debuff that stacks and can really hurt if theyre not dealt with ASAP.. Update: Now a rare elite due to the removal of The Ashweb Matriarch in patch 5.4. ...
Looking for online definition of Caulobacter crescentus in the Medical Dictionary? Caulobacter crescentus explanation free. What is Caulobacter crescentus? Meaning of Caulobacter crescentus medical term. What does Caulobacter crescentus mean?
Generation and filtering of gene expression noise by the bacterial cell cycle. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In fact, it was only in the late 1990s that biologists discovered bacteria even had a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton was first identified in the cells of eukaryotic organisms (those, such as plants and animals, whose cells have specialized organelles and a discrete nucleus). Bacteria are tiny, for one thing, and until the advent of advanced imaging technology, scientists could not get a good look inside. The species Goley studies, Caulobacter crescentus, is a mere 500 nanometers across, or about one one-hundredth the size of an average human cell.. Second, a cell wall encases most bacterial species, and scientists assumed this semi-rigid structure obviated the need for a cytoskeleton.. These assumptions turned out to be wrong. In 1998, structural biologist Jan Löwe, in the United Kingdom, demonstrated that a bacterial protein called FtsZ is an evolutionary counterpart of tubulin, a key protein component of the eukaryote cytoskeleton. The finding implied that the cytoskeleton was not a ...
ID CAUSK_1_PE109 STANDARD; PRT; 537 AA. AC CAUSK_1_PE109; B0T9X1; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE SubName: Full=Drug resistance transporter, EmrB/QacA subfamily;Flags: DE Precursor; (CAUSK_1.PE109). GN OrderedLocusNames=Caul_5403; OS CAULOBACTER SP. K31. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Caulobacterales; OC Caulobacteraceae; Caulobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=366602; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS CAUSK_1.PE109. CC Caulobacter sp. K31 plasmid pCAUL02, complete sequence. CC (1809 nt) ; CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:B0T9X1_CAUSK CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000219979 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot; B0T9X1; -. DR EMBL; CP000929; ABZ74520.1; -; Genomic_DNA. DR RefSeq; YP_001672179.1; NC_010333.1. DR STRING; B0T9X1; -. DR GeneID; 5897187; -. DR GenomeReviews; CP000929_GR; Caul_5403. DR KEGG; cak:Caul_5403; -. DR OMA; HAGNSAT; -. DR ...
The correct functioning of cells requires the orchestration of multiple cellular processes, many of which are inherently dynamical. The conditions under which these dynamical processes entrain each other remain unclear. Here we use synthetic biology to address this question in the case of concurrent cellular oscillations. Specifically, we study at the single-cell level the interaction between the cell division cycle and a robust synthetic gene oscillator in Escherichia coli. Our results suggest that cell division is able to partially entrain the synthetic oscillations under normal growth conditions, by driving the periodic replication of the genes involved in the oscillator. Coupling the synthetic oscillations back into the cell cycle via the expression of a key regulator of chromosome replication increases the synchronization between the two periodic processes. A simple computational model allows us to confirm this effect ...
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Complete information for PLEC gene (Protein Coding), Plectin, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Localization of CC2233 changes during the cell cycle.Swarmer cells were isolated from cultures of C. crescentus producing CC2233(1-62)-GFP and the cells were
When encountering new environments or changes to their external milieu, bacteria use elaborate mechanisms to respond accordingly. Here we describe how Vibrio parahaemolyticus coordinates two such mechanisms - differentiation and chemotaxis. V. parahaemolyticus differentiates between two distinct cell types: short rod-shaped swimmer cells and highly elongated swarmer cells. We show that the intracellular organization of chemotactic signaling arrays changes according to the differentiation state. In swimmer cells chemotaxis arrays are strictly polarly localized, but in swarmer cells arrays form both at the cell poles and at irregular intervals along the entire cell length. Furthermore, the formation of lateral arrays increases with cell length of swarmer cells. Occurrence of lateral signaling arrays is not simply a consequence of the elongated state of swarmer cells, but is instead differentiation state-specific. Moreover, our data suggest that swarmer cells employ two distinct mechanisms for
Date: Mon, 20 Oct 2014 17:22:28 -0400 From: Susan Gottesman [[email protected]] Subject: lambda lunch update, Double Header on Thursday To: [[email protected]] 10/23/14*: DOUBLE HEADER THIS WEEK: seminars at 9:30 and 11:00. 9:30: Eduardo Groisman (Yale) "How Salmonella turns virulence on and off" (S. Gottesman) 11:00: George Liechtl (Tony Maurelli lab, USUHS): "Peptidoglycan biosynthesis and degradation confirmed in pathogenic Chlamydia" 10/30/14*: Darren Sledjeski (NIGMS) "Program Officer Q and A : What we do, how we do it. Getting an NIH grant and Careers in Extramural." 11/6/14*: Andrew Kouse (Storz lab) 11/13/14*: Mandy Oglesby-Sherrouse (U. MD School of Medicine) (Gigi Storz) 11/19/14: Time TBA; Bldg. 37, Rm. 5111: Peter Chien (U. Mass, Amherst) "Regulated protein degradation during a bacterial cell cycle" (Kumaran Ramamurthi) 11/20/14*: Jonathan Dworkin (Columbia) (Kumaran Ramamurthi) 12/4/14*: Julia Oh (J. Segre lab) 12/10/14: WALS (3 PM, Bldg. 10): John Mekalanos (Harvard) ...
Date: Sun, 9 Nov 2014 16:23:07 -0500 From: Susan Gottesman [[email protected]] Subject: Lambda lunch update To: [[email protected]] UPCOMING EVENTS IN DECEMBER: Stadtman minisymposia. Ive listed information available on the Microbiology subcommittee candidates; please send me information on other relevant candidates coming as part of these searches, and Ill advertise them on the lambda lunch list. Details of room/time/precise titles are still lacking but will be added as they become available. 11/13/14*: Mandy Oglesby-Sherrouse (U. MD School of Medicine) "Role of Small RNAs in Iron Homeostasis and Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa" (Gigi Storz) 11/19/14: 10 AM, Bldg. 37, Rm. 5111: Peter Chien (U. Mass, Amherst) "Regulated protein degradation during a bacterial cell cycle" (Kumaran Ramamurthi) 11/20/14*: Jonathan Dworkin (Columbia) (Kumaran Ramamurthi) 12/4/14*: Julia Oh (J. Segre lab) "The host, its microbes, and disease: the landscape of the skin microbiome" 12/10/14: WALS (3 ...
The decoding of genetic information into protein sequence relies upon the interaction of messenger RNA (mRNA), which contains information in the form of a string of three-nucleotide codons, and transfer RNA (tRNA), which contains complementary anticodons at one end and the designated amino acid at the other. In bacteria, a quality control system utilizes a hybrid molecule known as tmRNA that binds to ribosomes lodged on a defective mRNA. The alanine residue of tmRNA accepts the incomplete protein, and the ribosome then switches over to begin translating a portion of the tmRNA that encodes a tag that targets the finished (but defective) protein for proteolytic degradation.. Keiler et al. describe the identification of a circularly permuted, two-piece tmRNA in Caulobacter. This bipartite RNA species is functional, and similar sequences are found in cyanobacteria and Rickettsia and even the mitochondrion of the protist Reclinomonas. Not only does this finding open a new door to studying the ...
From a biological point, the rewritten genome is also interesting. Beat Christen added that- Their method is a litmus test to find out whether we biologists have correctly understood genetics, and it allows us to highlight potential gaps in our knowledge. Obviously, the rewritten genome can contain only information that the researchers have actually understood. Additional information that is situated in the DNA sequence, and has not yet been understood by scientists this information would have been lost in the process of producing the new code.. For study purposes, the scientists generated also and strains of bacteria that contained the naturally occurring Caulobacter genome segments of the new genome. By turning off certain genes in these bacteria, the researchers were able to check the functions of the genes. They tested each of the artificial genes in a multistep process.. In such experiments, the researchers found out that just about 580 of the 680 artificial genes were functional. Christen ...
A basic chocolate flavour flan type dessert. A french dairy flan is a custard like product, different to English flan which is like a sponge ...
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Genome instability leads to changes in a cells properties. In bacteria it frequently leads to resistance against antibiotics. Collapse and disintegration of the DNA during replication is a major cause of genome instability. We study proteins which act on DNA in order to discover the mechanisms by which DNA is replicated, segregated and repaired. We also study the regulatory mechanisms of the bacterial cell cycle, and are interested in how initiation of replication and segregation is controlled and coordinated with cell growth and cell division in the model organisms Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Some of the projects are basic bacterial cell biology projects and some are aimed at developing novel antibacterial drugs and understanding antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. In a wider perspective the aim of the group is to increase knowledge about DNA transactions and use this knowledge to combat disease.. Current research involves:. ...
Welcome to Julies Diary! Every week during the season, Vampire Diaries showrunner Julie Plec will add an entry to her diary. From…
Sinorhizobium meliloti is a Gram-negative alphaproteobacterium and nitrogen-fixing symbiont, which undergoes a novel cell cycle modification during its host-microbe interaction. I intend to monitor the transcriptional regulation of cell cycle-related genes during free-loving growth, in addition to monitoring their expression during symbiosis. Using genes known to be regulated by CtrA in C. crescentus or predicted to be regulated by CtrA in S. meliloti, I aim to show how certain cell cycle genes are regulated in S. meliloti. In C. crescentus, CtrA acts as a transcription factor that is active when phosphorylated and inactive when not phosphorylated. In S. meliloti, CbrA is a histidine kinase that ultimately inhibits CtrA phosphorylation. Using a ΔcbrA null mutant, which leads to increased levels of CtrA in S. meliloti, and the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene, I can monitor the expression levels of target genes that are potentially regulated by CbrA and CtrA. Promoter regions, transcription start
Summary The molecular mechanisms that serve to couple DNA replication, chromosome segregation and cell division are largely unknown in bacteria. This led a considerable interest to the study of Escherichia coli FtsK, an essential cell division protein that assembles into DNA-pumps to transfer chromosomal DNA between the two daughter cell compartments during septation. Indeed, our recent work suggests that FtsK might regulate the late stages of septation to ensure DNA is fully cleared from the septum before it is allowed to close. This would be the first example of a cell cycle checkpoint in bacteria. FtsK-mediated DNA transfer is required in 15% of the cells at each generation in E. coli, in which it serves to promote the resolution of topological problems arising from the circularity of the chromosome by Xer recombination. However, the FtsK checkpoint could be a more general feature of the bacterial cell cycle since FtsK is highly conserved among eubacteria, including species that do not ...
Viral Biorealm Family}} ==Baltimore Classification== Leviviridae; Levivirus ==Higher Order Categories== Family: Leviviridae Genus: Levivirus Species: Enterobacteria phage BZ13, Enterobacteria phage MS2[4] ==Description and Significance== ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage Levivirus is one of two known genera of the family Leviviridae, with Allolevivirus being the other. It replicates in only three bacteria genera: Escherichia, Pseudomonas, and Caulobacter. The virus attaches to the pili, sometimes the virion receptor site, and transiently exposes viral RNA while penetrating the cell [2]. The family Leviviridae is found to have one of the fastest known mutation rates, at 10-3 bp/replication, but also one of the smallest genomes at 4,268 nt which code for 4 protein subunits [3]. The distinguishing factor of levivirus is a cell-lysis protein coded within its genome, something that is absent in allelovirus. In 1976 the species Enterobacteria phage MS2 became the first organism ever to have ...
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Bacterial Cell Division 2016 is a Chemistry, Life Science, Biology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Workshop, organized in Prague, Czech Republic.
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Am fost invitat sa particip la proiectul Nikon Romania "SUNT ghid de calatorie". Pe scurt, urma sa plec, in calitatea mea de fotograf, la Barcelona pentru a pune la grea incercare aparatul Nikon Coolpix P500. A fost o experienta frumoasa, orasul este minunat, iar Coolpix P500 s-a dovedit a fi un aparat capabil.. Citeste aici toata povestea si vezi fotografiile cu care m-am intors pe site-ul Nikonisti ...
Several systems were examined for the production and delivery of recombinant vaccines for fish. C. crescentus was employed to produce a fragment of the IHNV glycoprotein. When administered by injection to 0.5 gram rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), one of the fusion proteins (184 amino acids of the IHNV glycoprotein fused to 242 amino acids of the C-terminus of the Caulobacter crescentus) protected the fish against lethal challenge with IHNV. Attenuated strains of Yersinia ruckeri were generated using allelic exchange mutagenesis. These strains were characterized in terms of in vitro growth characteristics and invasiveness. Attenuated E. coli and Y. ruckeri were exploited to deliver plasmid DNA to fish cells in vitro; attenuated Y. ruckeri bacteria were examined in vivo as bivalent vaccine delivery vehicles, either through the expression of a fragment of the IHNV glycoprotein or by carrying a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the complete IHNV glycoprotein. A cell wall deficient strain (11.29Δdap) ...
Title:Finding the Smoking Gun: Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases as Tools and Targets of Unicellular Microorganisms and Viruses. VOLUME: 19 ISSUE: 10. Author(s): P. Heneberg. Affiliation:Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Ruska 87, CZ-100 00 Prague, Czech Republic.. Keywords:poliovirus, Cotesia vestalis bracovirus, polydnavirus substrate-trapping pseudophosphatase, Salmonella enterica SptP, Mycobacterium tuberculosis PtpB, Mycobacterium avium PtpA, Trypanosoma brucei phosphatome, Tritrichomonas foetus LMW-PTP, phosphatase inhibition, Caulobacter crescentus. Abstract:. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are increasingly recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. Since Guan and Dixon reported in 1990 that phosphatase YopH serves as an essential virulence determinant of Yersinia, the field shifted significantly forward, and dozens of PTPs were identified in various microorganisms and even in viruses. The discovery of extensive tyrosine signaling networks in ...
In all living organisms, the phosphorylation of proteins modulates various aspects of their functionalities. In eukaryotes, protein phosphorylation plays a key role in cell signaling, gene expression, and differentiation. Protein phosphorylation is also involved in the global control of DNA replication during the cell cycle, as well as in the mechanisms that cope with stress-induced replication blocks. Similar to eukaryotes, bacteria use Hanks-type kinases and phosphatases for signal transduction, and protein phosphorylation is involved in numerous cellular processes. However, it remains unclear whether protein phosphorylation in bacteria can also regulate the activity of proteins involved in DNA-mediated processes such as DNA replication or repair. Accumulating evidence supported by functional and biochemical studies suggests that phospho-regulatory mechanisms also take place during the bacterial cell cycle. Recent phosphoproteomics and interactomics studies identified numerous phosphoproteins
How did life begin? For those who reject the testimony of Genesis, the search is restricted to clues in nature.. One such clue is the minimum essentials required for growth and reproduction. If that number is small enough, then life might conceivably have formed by chance.. The 2008 documentary movie Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed presented 250 proteins as an estimated minimum required for cell function. The odds of that many forming by chance was equated to a man winning at a slot machine 250 consecutive times.. But the real odds are much more staggering. Molecular biologist Doug Axe said, "Were talking about something thats staggeringly improbable: roughly one in a trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion."1 Based on new research, Axe may have to quadruple those already impossible odds.. A team of biologists at the Stanford University School of Medicine employed a new method to estimate the minimum genetic information required for the survival of bacteria called Caulobacter ...
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated PLEC primer pair, for the Rhesus Monkey genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Excellent news for the sweet-toothed: Sugar is even more helpful than bread in taming that fiery sensation, according to the study. "Sugar is the better of the two," said Boland. He adds that the reason why red peppers dont tend to be as hot as green ones is because they have more sugar. And heres possibly the best news of all: Boland says "traditional Mexican desserts like flan and sopapillas with honey" bring together all three of the fire-fighting ingredients in one neat little package because theyre "made from breads, sugars and milk." Were not sure what it would be like to alternate bites of flan with dips of that scorching-hot salsa as we eat our dinner, but were definitely willing to give it a shot.. ...
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From Mexico City, Marilyn Tausend Cocina de la Familia. The ancho chiles add a little heat and and depth to spice up the dessert.
Swarming is the fastest known bacterial mode of surface translocation and enables the rapid colonization of a nutrient-rich environment and host tissues. This complex multicellular behavior requires the integration of chemical and physical signals, which leads to the physiological and morphological differentiation of the bacteria into swarmer cells. Here, we provide a review of recent advances in the study of the regulatory pathways that lead to swarming behavior of different model bacteria. It has now become clear that many of these pathways also affect the formation of biofilms, surface-attached bacterial colonies. Decision-making between rapidly colonizing a surface and biofilm formation is central to bacterial survival among competitors. In the second part of this article, we review recent developments in the understanding of the transition between motile and sessile lifestyles of bacteria.
For centuries, physicians and the public have wondered about the nature of cancer: What is it? How does it arise? Why do most cancers appear in the later years of life? By the turn of the century, many authorities were already convinced that a cancer represented a highly related aberrant group of cells, the errant offspring of a single original cell of the body. This cell presumably had, through uncontrolled growth and division, given rise to many generations of progeny cells which eventually formed a much larger and ever-proliferating lesion.. By the late 1940s, the mutational theory was gathering considerable excitement, even though the techniques to find mutations in the tumors had not yet been developed. One author in 1949 noted, "The recent work on carcinogenesis and mutagenesis is of ... importance since the rational control of a disease should be based upon its true biological nature" (Yale J Biol Med 21:293, 1949). By the early 1950s, there were attempts to estimate the number of ...
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Another factor that likely shapes the composition of the plant microbiome is interaction between microbes. In 2016, Eric Kemen of the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research and colleagues surveyed the microbes thriving in and on wild Arabidopsis leaves at five natural sites in Germany sampled in different seasons. They then plotted correlations between the abundances of more than 90,000 pairs of microbial genera identified in their survey, revealing six "microbial hubs"-nodes with significantly more connections than other nodes within the network. These hubs were represented by the oomycete genus Albugo, the fungal genera Udeniomyces and Dioszegia, the bacterial genus Caulobacter, and two distinct members of the bacterial order Burkholderiales.5 Given the high degree of connectivity within the communities, it is likely that these microbial hubs play a disproportionate role in the microbiome, akin to that of keystone species in an ecosystem ...
Like the honey that slithers down this low-fat version of a classic dessert, the flavor and history of this flan cling to taste buds and refuse to let go. Like the honey that slithers down this low-fat version of a classic dessert, the flavor and history of this flan cling to taste buds and refuse to let go. Like the honey that slithers down this low-fat version of a classic dessert, the flavor and history of this flan cling to taste buds and refuse to let go.
Bacterial cell division occurs by a highly conserved process predominantly, termed binary fission, that requires the microbial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. of VX-765 manufacture the unipolar development and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid patient. This system of cell department offers not really been recorded in additional human being microbial pathogens recommending the potential for developing is definitely the leading microbial trigger of sexually sent attacks. will not really communicate FtsZ, which is definitely required for the extremely conserved procedure of binary fission that most bacterias use to separate. non-etheless, it provides been believed that this microbial virus splits by binary fission. We Rabbit Polyclonal to Cox1 present right here that splits VX-765 manufacture by a polarized cell department procedure that can be identical to the flourishing procedure of some various other bacterias that absence FtsZ, such as the Planctomycetes. This story setting of cell ...
Superresolution microscopes can be made even sharper with arrays of nanoscale apertures that compensate for optical aberrations more effectively than
In most bacteria and archaea, filaments of FtsZ protein organize cell division. FtsZ forms a ring structure at the division site and starts the recruitment of 10 to 20 downstream proteins that together form a multiprotein complex termed the divisome. The divisome is thought to facilitate many of the steps required to make two cells out of one. FtsQ and FtsB are part of the divisome, with FtsQ being a central hub, interacting with most... ...
Bladderwrack is often used for medicinal purposes, especially for thyroid support. It contains pre-cursors to the T3 and T4 hormones produced by the thyroid gland, and is typically added to food in small quantities in flake form. ...
Bloggers are suspicious about the timing of a massive air assault by American and Iraqi forces and equally dubious about the pre-emptive nature of the ...
Kidding...Im now 12 weeks along and besides feeling like crud most days, the pregnancy is moving along perfectly fine. I was FINALLY weaned from all of the meds from CCRM, thank the LORT! Im almost certain that my hiney couldnt have taken one more injection; although, I must say that my 13 y/o daughter was the most awesome shot giver ever! ☺ She took over the task one day that Kevin wasnt available and was my go-to person ever since. Its a family affair ...
I just read a series of studies about Vitamin E that makes me wonder why in the world CCRM recommended such a high amount of it. I have been taking 230 IU a day (30 IU in my prenantal, 200 IU supplement in addition to that). This babymed article puts the information most simply: too much…
Bacteria regulate chromosome replication and segregation tightly with cell division to ensure faithful segregation of DNA to daughter generations. The underlying mechanisms have been addressed in several model species. It became apparent that bacteria have evolved quite different strategies to regulate DNA segregation and chromosomal organization. We have investigated here how the actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum organizes chromosome segregation and DNA replication. Unexpectedly, we found that C. glutamicum cells are at least diploid under all of the conditions tested and that these organisms have overlapping C periods during replication, with both origins initiating replication simultaneously. On the basis of experimental data, we propose growth ratedependent cell cycle models for C. glutamicum. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cell cycles are known for few model organisms and can vary significantly between species. Here, we studied the cell cycle of Corynebacterium glutamicum, an emerging cell ...
Bacterial cell division has been studied extensively under laboratory conditions. Despite being a key event in the bacterial cell cycle, cell division has not been explored in vivo in bacterial pathogens interacting with their hosts. We discovered in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium a gene absent in nonpathogenic bacteria and encoding a peptidoglycan synthase with 63% identity to penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3). PBP3 is an essential cell division-specific peptidoglycan synthase that builds the septum required to separate daughter cells. Since S. Typhimurium carries genes that encode a PBP3 paralog-which we named PBP3(SAL)-and PBP3, we hypothesized that there are different cell division events in host and nonhost environments. To test this, we generated S. Typhimurium isogenic mutants lacking PBP3(SAL) or the hitherto considered essential PBP3. While PBP3 alone promotes cell division under all conditions tested, the mutant producing only PBP3(SAL) proliferates under acidic conditions ...
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So, what are my thoughts? I wouldnt have posted the article if it hadnt struck a nerve with me. Im scared. Im scared that politics (which I ABSOLUTELY LOATHE) are now entering my bedroom, or petri dish as the case is with us. If the government can tell us what we have to do with our unborn children, then whats next? Ill tell you: overturning Roe vs. Wade. Most of you have probably figured out from previous posts that Im a registered Republican. But what you dont know is that I have some strong opinions that fall into line with the Democratic party. The one Im discussing is Pro-Choice. Ive always been Pro-Choice. It doesnt mean that I would have chosen abortion if Id ever been pregnant previously, but I never had to address it personally. I dont think I couldve or wouldve in that position, but I dont think you can ever really know unless youve been faced with making that decision. We all have our life stories and I believe that someones decision should be just that: their ...
How bacterial cells divide in two is not fully understood. LMU physicists now show that, at high concentrations, a crucial protein can assemble into ring-shaped filaments that constrict the cell, giving rise to two daughter cells. In the final step in bacterial cell division, constriction of the more …. ...
I have always shied away from gelatin in cooking because its a bit weird. You use it to make things wobbly and I never really understood it. So i suppose I have missed out on making a fair few flans and tarts. BUT I have most certainly made up for lost time by making FLOWERS out of the stuff! I will apologise now for all the capital letters but the truth is, I just find it all a bit exciting ...
Cell structureCell envelopeBiosynthesis and degradation of murein sacculus and peptidoglycanrod shape-determining protein MreC (TIGR00219; HMM-score: 147) ...
... (Caulobacter response to famine RNA) is a family of non-coding RNAs found in Caulobacter crescentus. CrfA is expressed ... Landt SG, Abeliuk E, McGrath PT, Lesley JA, McAdams HH, Shapiro L (May 2008). "Small non-coding RNAs in Caulobacter crescentus ... Hinz AJ, Larson DE, Smith CS, Brun YV (February 2003). "The Caulobacter crescentus polar organelle development protein PodJ is ... Ely B (1991). "Genetics of Caulobacter crescentus". Meth. Enzymol. 204: 372-84. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(91)04019-K. PMID 1658564 ...
2001). "Complete genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (7): 4136-41. Bibcode:2001PNAS... ...
Braz, Vânia S.; Marques, Marilis V. (2005-10-15). "Genes involved in cadmium resistance in Caulobacter crescentus". FEMS ...
A well established example of bacterial aging is Caulobacter crescentus. This bacteria begins its life as a motile swarmer cell ... such as Caulobacter crescentus, show signs of replicative aging. The results for symmetrically dividing bacteria are more ...
This was verified with the resolution of the crystal structure of the DGC PleD from Caulobacter crescentus in complex with c-di ... The GGDEF domain was first identified in the regulatory protein, PleD of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. It was later ... In the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus, DGC PleD is known to control pole morphogenesis. In Pseudomonas fluorescens DGC ... Skerker, J.M.; Laub, M.T. (April 2004). "Cell-cycle progression and the generation of asymmetry in Caulobacter crescentus". ...
The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus contains a third protein, crescentin, that is related to the intermediate filaments of ... "Multiple large filament bundles observed in Caulobacter crescentus by electron cryotomography". Molecular Microbiology. 62 (1 ...
More work can be found that focus on modeling a particular cellular process such as the growth cycle of Caulobacter crescentus ... "Temporal Controls of the Asymmetric Cell Division Cycle in Caulobacter crescentus". PLoS Comput Biol. 5 (8): e1000463. doi: ...
... biprosthecum is a stalked bacterial species phylogenetically closely related to the species Caulobacter crescentus. However, ... Poindexter, JS (Sep 1964). "BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE CAULOBACTER GROUP". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 28 ( ...
In the less common type, such as the Bacillus subtilis sporulation factor Spo0B or the Caulobacter crescentus protein ChpT, the ... as in the case of the Caulobacter crescentus ChpT HPt involved in cell cycle regulation, or, alternatively, pathways in which ... an essential regulator of stalk biogenesis in Caulobacter crescentus". Journal of Molecular Biology. 390 (4): 686-98. doi: ...
"Two RND proteins involved in heavy metal efflux in Caulobacter crescentus belong to separate clusters within proteobacteria." ...
... is required for proper cytokinesis in bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Caulobacter crescentus, and Bacillus subtilis. ...
This type of regulation seems to occur in other species such as Bacillus subtilis and Caulobacter crescentus. However, other ...
Laccases are also widely distributed among bacterial species, including Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus, Escherichia ...
... concave side of the crescent-shaped bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Both MreB and crescentin are necessary for C. crescentus ... MreB condenses from its normal helical network and forms a tight ring at the septum in Caulobacter crescentus right before cell ... Several rod shaped species, including Escherichia coli and Caulobacter crescentus, use one or more inhibitors of FtsZ assembly ... stalk formation by Caulobacter crescentus, and helical shape of Helicobacter pylori. Crenactin is an actin homologue unique to ...
Caulobacter crescentus, and began attempting to identify the specific biological processes controlling the cell's cycle. What ... The process of the Caulobacter cell cycle also show similarities to stem cell division, in which two distinct cells arise, one ... In each cell cycle, Caulobacter divides asymmetrically into two daughters. One, the swarmer cell, has a tail-like flagellum ... Examining the cell cycle control logic of Caulobacter as a state machine leads to understanding of bacterial cell cycle ...
... was recently discovered in the prokaryote Caulobacter crescentus, an aquatic bacterium which uses its crescent- ... To influence the shape of the Caulobacter cells, the helices of crescentin filaments associate with the cytoplasmic side of the ... Crescentin is necessary for both shapes of the Caulobacter prokaryote (vibroid/crescent-shape and helical shape, which it may ... Margolin W (March 2004). "Bacterial shape: concave coiled coils curve caulobacter". Curr. Biol. 14 (6): R242-4. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Bacillus subtilis - an endospore forming Gram-positive bacterium Caulobacter crescentus - a bacterium that divides into two ...
Scientists have developed and explored a variety of scientific models, from Lucy Shapiro's single-celled Caulobacter crescentus ...
H7 and Caulobacter crescentus CB15. The sugar is also found in perimycin, an antibiotic produced by the Gram-positive organism ...
Regulatory Response to Carbon Starvation in Caulobacter crescentus. PLoS One. Landt S.G., Abeliuk E., McGrath P.T., Lesley J.A ... McAdams H.H., Shapiro L. (2008) Small non-coding RNAs in Caulobacter crescentus. Journal of Molecular Microbiology. Srinivasan ... Goley E.D., Yeh Y.C., Hong S.H., Fero M.J., Abeliuk E., McAdams H.H., and Shapiro L. (2011) Assembly of the Caulobacter cell ... The global regulatory architecture of transcription during the Caulobacter cell cycle., PLoS Genet. Abeliuk E, Christen B, Fero ...
Structural studies of PleD from Caulobacter crescentus show that this domain forms a five-stranded beta sheet surrounded by ...
Caulobacter crescentus, and Vibrio alginolyticus, the filament is made up of 11 protofilaments approximately parallel to the ...
Caulobacter crescentus and B. subtilis cell size is controlled by a simple mechanisms in which cell division occurs after a ...
Caulobacter crescentus CB15 Enzyme: cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase subunit I Caulobacter crescentus CB15 Enzyme: cytochrome d ...
With the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, Jenal discovered that c-di-GMP controls the transition from motile bacteria to ...
Pilt näitab kolmemõõtmelist superresolutsiooniga kujutist Caulobacter crescentus'e bakteriraku pinnast (hall) ja märgistatud ...
Role of Transcription in the Temporal Control of Development in Caulobacter crescentus. Austin Newton ... The requirement for transcription during development of the stalked bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, was studied with ... Role of Transcription in the Temporal Control of Development in Caulobacter crescentus ... Role of Transcription in the Temporal Control of Development in Caulobacter crescentus ...
Dynamics and control of biofilms of the oligotrophic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus.. Title. Dynamics and control of biofilms ... Caulobacter crescentus is an oligotrophic alpha-proteobacterium with a complex cell cycle involving sessile-stalked and ... Bacterial Adhesion, Biofilms, Caulobacter crescentus, Culture Media, Fimbriae, Bacterial, Flagella, Fresh Water, Gene ... The involvement of pili in mushroom architecture is a novel function for type IV pili in C. crescentus. These unique biofilm ...
Cloning vectors for studies of Caulobacter crescentus genes should be transferable between Escherichia coli and C. crescentus ... "Cloning vectors for studies of Caulobacter crescentus genes should be transferable between Escherichia coli and C. crescentus ... Cloning vectors for studies of Caulobacter crescentus genes should be transferable between Escherichia coli and C. crescentus ... Cloning vectors for studies of Caulobacter crescentus genes should be transferable between Escherichia coli and C. crescentus ...
Flagellin redundancy in Caulobacter crescentus and its implications for flagellar filament assembly. Journal of bacteriology. ... Flagellin redundancy in Caulobacter crescentus and its implications for flagellar filament assembly. / Faulds-Pain, Alexandra; ... Here, we have investigated the ability of Caulobacter crescentus to assemble its flagellar filament from six flagellins: FljJ, ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Flagellin redundancy in Caulobacter crescentus and its implications for flagellar ...
In Caulobacter crescentus, SMC is required to align the left and the right arms of the chromosome that run in parallel down the ... Here, using genome-wide methods and microscopy of single cells, we show that Caulobacter SMC is recruited to the centromeric ... In Caulobacter crescentus, SMC is required to align the left and the right arms of the chromosome that run in parallel down the ... SMC Progressively Aligns Chromosomal Arms in Caulobacter crescentus but Is Antagonized by Convergent Transcription. *. Ngat T. ...
This was verified with the resolution of the crystal structure of the DGC PleD from Caulobacter crescentus in complex with c-di ... The GGDEF domain was first identified in the regulatory protein, PleD of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. It was later ... In the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus, DGC PleD is known to control pole morphogenesis. In Pseudomonas fluorescens DGC ... Skerker, J.M.; Laub, M.T. (April 2004). "Cell-cycle progression and the generation of asymmetry in Caulobacter crescentus". ...
Complete genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus. William C. Nierman, Tamara V. Feldblyum, Michael T. Laub, Ian T. Paulsen, ... Complete genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus. William C. Nierman, Tamara V. Feldblyum, Michael T. Laub, Ian T. Paulsen, ... Complete genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus. William C. Nierman, Tamara V. Feldblyum, Michael T. Laub, Ian T. Paulsen, ... The complete genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus was determined to be 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular ...
1984) Caulobacter crescentus flagellar filament has a right-handed helical form. J Mol Biol 173(1):125-130. ... Helical motion of the cell body enhances Caulobacter crescentus motility. Bin Liu, Marco Gulino, Michael Morse, Jay X. Tang, ... Helical motion of the cell body enhances Caulobacter crescentus motility Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... 2006) Low flagellar motor torque and high swimming efficiency of Caulobacter crescentus swarmer cells. Biophys J 91(7):2726- ...
C. crescentus is synonymous with Caulobacter vibrioides. The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single ... Caulobacter crescentus is a member of a group of bacteria that possess the stalk structure, a tubular extension from the cell ... Caulobacter crescentus is a Gram-negative, oligotrophic bacterium widely distributed in fresh water lakes and streams. ... Presumably, It does so by gain of function after protein expansion from around 400 amino acids in Caulobacter crescentus to ...
Walker S.G., Smit J. (1993) Attachment of the S-Layer of Caulobacter crescentus to the Cell Surface. In: Beveridge T.J., Koval ... Smit, J., Grano, D.A., Glaser, R.M., and Agabian, N., 1981, Periodic surface array in Caulobacter crescentus: fine structure ... Gilchrist, A., Fisher, J.A., and Smit, J., 1992, Nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene encoding the Caulobacter crescentus ... Smit, J., Engelhardt, H., Volker, S., Smith, S.H., and Baumeister, W., 1992, The Slayer of Caulobacter crescentus: Three- ...
From left to right: i) The number of proteins in the reference proteome of Caulobacter crescentus, ii) the total number of ... The bar plot shows the coverage for every protein in the reference proteome of Caulobacter crescentus for which there is at ... Caulobacter crescentus is a Gram-negative, oligotrophic bacterium widely distributed in freshwater lakes and streams. ... The plot shows the evolution over years (x-axis) of the fraction of Caulobacter crescentus reference proteome residues (y-axis ...
A histidine protein kinase is involved in polar organelle development in Caulobacter crescentus.. S P Wang, P L Sharma, P V ... Mutations having pleiotropic effects on polar organelle development (pod) in Caulobacter crescentus have been identified and ... A histidine protein kinase is involved in polar organelle development in Caulobacter crescentus. ... A histidine protein kinase is involved in polar organelle development in Caulobacter crescentus. ...
... and cell division in stalked cells of the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The model is formulated in terms of ... for the spatial asymmetry of Caulobacter reproduction (swarmer cells as well as stalked cells), the correlation of cell growth ... nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the major cell cycle regulatory proteins in Caulobacter: CtrA, GcrA, DnaA, CcrM, ... Caulobacter crescentus Is the Subject Area "Caulobacter crescentus" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Apparently, C. crescentus is not well adapted for efficient growth on high xylose levels, and responds by an extended lag phase ... C. crescentus was grown on xylose, arabinose and glucose, and maximum specific growth rates determined for the three substrates ... Caulobacter crescentus is a gram-negative bacterium that can utilize xylose as a substrate using the Weimberg pathway, which ... Caulobacter crescentus; Weimberg pathway; xylose; arabinose; physiological characterization; enzyme activity Caulobacter ...
Nucleotide excision repair - Caulobacter crescentus CB15 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
High throughput 3D super-resolution microscopy reveals Caulobacter crescentus in vivo Z-ring organization. Seamus J. Holden, ... 1A shows this process for Caulobacter crescentus). FtsZ is a highly conserved tubulin homolog that forms homopolymeric linear ... 2011) A DNA damage checkpoint in Caulobacter crescentus inhibits cell division through a direct interaction with FtsW. Genes ... 2008) Characterization of the SOS regulon of Caulobacter crescentus. J Bacteriol 190(4):1209-1218. ...
Caulobacter vibrioides (Caulobacter crescentus). Caulobacter sp. 410. Caulobacter flavus. Caulobacter sp. FWC26. 231. UniRef90_ ... Caulobacter crescentus (strain ATCC 19089 / CB15). 231. UniRef100_B8H627. Cluster: Ribonuclease 3. 2. ... sp,B8H627,RNC_CAUCN Ribonuclease 3 OS=Caulobacter crescentus (strain NA1000 / CB15N) OX=565050 GN=rnc PE=3 SV=1 ... Caulobacter vibrioides › Caulobacter crescentus (strain ATCC 19089 / CB15) ...
... small bacterial cells was developed and used to identify chemoreceptor arrays in cryotomograms of intact Caulobacter crescentus ... Location and Architecture of the Caulobacter Crescentus Chemoreceptor Array Mol Microbiol. 2008 Jul;69(1):30-41. doi: 10.1111/j ... The arrays were always found on the convex side of the cell, further demonstrating that Caulobacter cells maintain dorsal/ ... small bacterial cells was developed and used to identify chemoreceptor arrays in cryotomograms of intact Caulobacter crescentus ...
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle) - Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Caulobacter vibrioides (Caulobacter crescentus). Caulobacter sp. 410. Caulobacter flavus. Caulobacter sp. FWC2. Caulobacter sp ... Caulobacter sp. X. Caulobacter sp. FWC26. Caulobacter segnis (strain ATCC 21756 / DSM 7131 / JCM 7823 / NBRC 15250 / LMG 17158 ... Caulobacter crescentus (strain ATCC 19089 / CB15). 358. UniRef100_B8GZ33. Cluster: Modification methylase CcrMI. 2. ... sp,B8GZ33,MTC1_CAUCN Modification methylase CcrMI OS=Caulobacter crescentus (strain NA1000 / CB15N) OX=565050 GN=ccrMIM PE=3 SV ...
The Genetic Basis of Laboratory Adaptation in Caulobacter crescentus Melissa E. Marks, Cyd Marie Castro-Rojas, Clotilde Teiling ... The Genetic Basis of Laboratory Adaptation in Caulobacter crescentus Melissa E. Marks, Cyd Marie Castro-Rojas, Clotilde Teiling ... The Genetic Basis of Laboratory Adaptation in Caulobacter crescentus Melissa E. Marks, Cyd Marie Castro-Rojas, Clotilde Teiling ... The Genetic Basis of Laboratory Adaptation in Caulobacter crescentus Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
... Author(s). Chen, Yiyin Erin ... In this work, I use the model organism Caulobacter crescentus to investigate how intracellular asymmetry within the mother cell ... Caulobacter is an alpha-proteobacterium that always divides asymmetrically to generate two daughter cells that are ... The genetic separability of the spatial and temporal controls of replication in Caulobacter suggests that DnaA comprises an ...
Envelope-associated nucleoid from Caulobacter crescentus stalked and swarmer cells.. M Evinger, N Agabian ... Envelope-associated nucleoid from Caulobacter crescentus stalked and swarmer cells. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Envelope-associated nucleoids have been isolated from Caulobacter crescentus by using a modification of the procedure of T. ...
... from the cytoplasm to the cell wall to regulate key developmental shape changes in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus ... Caulobacter crescentus Is the Subject Area "Caulobacter crescentus" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
An image of slice 210 from the reconstructed volume of a tomographic data set from Caulobacter crescentus. This image has been ... An image of slice 210 from the reconstructed volume of a tomographic data set from Caulobacter crescentus. This image has been ... Caulobacter cultures (strain 3724) were cryofixed using a cocktail of 2% Osmium tetroxide, 0.5% uranyl acetate in anhydrous ... Lucy Shapiro, Harley McAdams (2012) CIL:40007, Caulobacter crescentus CB15. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi:10.7295/ ...
  • Here, using genome-wide methods and microscopy of single cells, we show that Caulobacter SMC is recruited to the centromeric parS site and that SMC-mediated arm alignment depends on the chromosome-partitioning protein ParB. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The active form of diguanylate cyclase PleD localizes to the stalked pole of differentiating C. crescentus cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data indicate that R300B does not contain sequences which would provide promoter function in C. crescentus in the orientation opposite to that of the sul operon and that any genes cloned in this orientation would require native promoters for expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Specific clones from these libraries containing genes of interest were identified by complementation of the appropriate C. crescentus mutants. (elsevier.com)
  • This report suggests that another outer membrane component, termed the S-layer-associated oligosaccharide (SAO), is the molecule responsible for the attachment of RsaA, the S-layer protein of Caulobacter crescentus , to the cell surface. (springer.com)
  • From left to right: i) The number of proteins in the reference proteome of Caulobacter crescentus , ii) the total number of models, iii) the number of unique protein sequences for which at least one model is available and iv) a coverage bar plot is shown. (expasy.org)
  • The bar plot shows the coverage for every protein in the reference proteome of Caulobacter crescentus for which there is at least one model. (expasy.org)
  • A histidine protein kinase is involved in polar organelle development in Caulobacter crescentus. (pnas.org)
  • B) Genes in the C. crescentus general stress response locus with the protein domain structures for the sensor histidine kinase PhyK (CC_3474/CCNA_03588) and the response regulator PhyR (CC_3477/CCNA_03591). (asm.org)
  • In C. crescentus , a P168V mutant is not activating in vivo , although in vitro , the P168V protein showed a modest reduction in the affinity for GDP. (umich.edu)
  • The method by which the protein subunits composing the S-layer of C. crescentus, RsaA, interact to form the array and attach to the cell was examined in this thesis. (ubc.ca)
  • Here, using genome-wide methods and microscopy of single cells, we show that Caulobacter SMC is recruited to the centromeric parS site and that SMC-mediated arm alignment depends on the chromosome-partitioning protein ParB. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we track single copies of PleC labeled with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) in the membrane of live Caulobacter cells over a time scale of seconds. (pnas.org)
  • A strain of Caulobacter expressing the inner membrane protein PleC fused to EYFP from the chromosome, under the control of the PleC promoter, was constructed to observe the location and movement of single PleC-EYFP molecules. (pnas.org)
  • Three-dimensional superresolution colocalization of intracellular protein superstructures and the cell surface in live Caulobacter crescentus. (mendeley.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the C. crescentus HME-RND proteins showed that CzrA-like proteins, in contrast to those similar to NczA, are almost exclusively found in the Alphaproteobacteria group, and the characteristic protein signatures of each group were highlighted. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Identification of the protease and the turnover signal responsible for cell cycle-dependent degradation of the Caulobacter FliF motor protein. (nih.gov)
  • By comparison to self-assembling protein networks and polar cell growth mechanisms in other bacterial species, we suggest that the cooligomeric PopZ-SpmX protein complex in Caulobacter illustrates a paradigm for coupling cell cycle progression to the controlled geometry of cell pole establishment. (asm.org)
  • Further, we find that overexpression of the bridge protein SpmX in Caulobacter disrupts this ordered assembly, generating ectopic cell poles containing both PopZ and DivJ. (asm.org)
  • In the less common type, such as the Bacillus subtilis sporulation factor Spo0B or the Caulobacter crescentus protein ChpT, the bundle is assembled as a protein dimer, with similarity to the structure of histidine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. crescentus is, to our knowledge, the first free-living α-class proteobacterium to be sequenced and will serve as a foundation for exploring the biology of this group of bacteria, which includes the obligate endosymbiont and human pathogen Rickettsia prowazekii , the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens , and the bovine and human pathogen Brucella abortus . (pnas.org)
  • The genetic separability of the spatial and temporal controls of replication in Caulobacter suggests that DnaA comprises an ancient and phylogenetically widespread control module for replication in almost all bacteria while CtrA developed later in c-proteobacteria and was recruited to enforce replicative asymmetry in daughter cells. (mit.edu)
  • Since C. crescentus move in places where there is not much to eat, it is believed that these bacteria also use their superglue to pick up nutrients. (listverse.com)
  • We report the response of C. crescentus to carbon starvation, a common form of nutritional stress encountered by free-living bacteria, that induces stasis. (omicsdi.org)
  • Instead of dividing two form two identical daughter cells as other bacteria do (a process termed binary division), Caulobacter crescentus undergoes what is termed symmetric division. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Caulobacter crescentus can be grown in the laboratory so that all the bacteria in the population undergoes division at the same time. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Like many bacteria, Caulobacter responds to phosphate limitation through a conserved two-component signaling pathway called PhoR-PhoB, but the direct regulon of PhoB in this organism is unknown. (datamed.org)
  • From this perspective, biofilm formation may be viewed as a developmental process that shares some of the features of other bacterial developmental processes such as sporulation of gram-positive bacteria ( 9 ), fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus ( 33 , 40 , 44 ), and stalked-cell formation by Caulobacter crescentus ( 13 , 19 , 24 , 37 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Asymmetrically dividing bacteria, such as Caulobacter crescentus, show signs of replicative aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almqvist H, Jonsdottir Glaser S, Tufvegren C, Wasserstrom L, Lidén G. Characterization of the Weimberg Pathway in Caulobacter crescentus . (mdpi.com)
  • We report that the soluble histidine kinase LovK and the single-domain response regulator LovR also function within the C. crescentus general stress pathway. (asm.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that the Caulobacter crescentus SLP readily crystallizes into sheets in vitro via a calcium-triggered multistep assembly pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Together these data indicate that PopA adopted a novel role as topology specificity factor to help recruit components of the CtrA degradation pathway to the protease specific old cell pole of C. crescentus. (elsevier.com)
  • Caulobacter crescentus mutants that lack the trans translation pathway have a defect in the cell cycle and do not initiate DNA replication at the correct time. (asm.org)
  • C. crescentus is a simple and highly manipulable single-celled model system to study cellular differentiation, asymmetric division, and their coordination with cell cycle progression ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Modeling Asymmetric Cell Division in Caulobacter crescentus Using a Boolean Logic Approach. (ginsim.org)
  • The transmembrane histidine kinase PleC regulates polar organelle formation, motility, and asymmetric cell division in Caulobacter ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • She selected a single-celled organism, Caulobacter crescentus, and began attempting to identify the specific biological processes controlling the cell's cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The link between the City University of New York and Caulobacter crescentus dates back far before this study, however, as Brooklyn College alumnus Lucy Shapiro pioneered the study of Caulobacter crescentus as a model system. (eurekalert.org)
  • To quantitatively explore the correlation between cell kinematics and motility, we use a 3D tracking microscope-a digital implementation of the instrument first developed by Berg ( 11 )-to follow individuals of Caulobacter crescentus for extended periods of time. (pnas.org)
  • In Caulobacter crescentus , c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown. (asm.org)
  • Here we describe a novel c-di-GMP effector, HfsK, that contributes to the cohesive properties and stability of the holdfast adhesin in C. crescentus . (asm.org)
  • Goley E.D., Yeh Y.C., Hong S.H., Fero M.J., Abeliuk E., McAdams H.H., and Shapiro L. (2011) Assembly of the Caulobacter cell division machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Landt S.G., Abeliuk E., McGrath P.T., Lesley J.A., McAdams H.H., Shapiro L. (2008) Small non-coding RNAs in Caulobacter crescentus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that the activity of a highly conserved σ 54 -activator, TacA, is spatiotemporally coordinated with that of the master cell cycle transcriptional regulator A (CtrA) in Caulobacter crescentus . (pnas.org)
  • We define the conserved σ 54 -dependent transcriptional activator TacA as a global regulator in Caulobacter whose activation by phosphorylation is indirectly down-regulated by SpmX. (pnas.org)
  • The conserved transcriptional regulator CdnL is required for metabolic homeostasis and morphogenesis in Caulobacter. (nih.gov)
  • Early in the division process, FtsZ assembles into a band located at midcell, known as the Z-ring, which constricts to a small spot as cell division progresses ( Fig. 1 A shows this process for Caulobacter crescentus ). (pnas.org)
  • A ) Microscale localization of FtsZ (in green) during the C. crescentus cell cycle. (pnas.org)
  • Transcriptional Profiling of Caulobacter crescentus during Growth on C" by Craig Stephens, Alison K. Hottes et al. (scu.edu)
  • Many of the regulatory mechanisms and pathways in the C. crescentus cell-cycle circuit operate very rapidly so that they approximate discrete switching elements, whereas others, e.g., the transcriptional regulatory networks, operate relatively slowly. (pnas.org)