Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Dahlia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that contains antifungal plant defensin.Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: A self-governing state of the Windward Islands in the West Indies, comprising Saint Vincent and the northern islets of the Grenadines. Its capital is Kingstown. It is one of the original homes of the Carib Indians supposed to have been sighted by Columbus in 1498. It was in English hands from 1627 till held by the French 1779-83. Saint Vincent subsequently became a British possession and, with other nearby British territories, was administered by the Governor of the Windward Islands till 1959. It attained a measure of independence in 1969 but achieved full independence as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 1979. Saint Vincent was the 4th century Spanish martyr on whose feast day Columbus discovered the island. Grenadines is derived from the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1054 & The Europa World Year Book 1993, p2441)Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Sorbose: A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Caulimoviridae: A family of DNA plant viruses with isometric or bacilliform virions and no envelope. The host ranges of most species are narrow. There are six genera: CAULIMOVIRUS; BADNAVIRUS; Cavemovirus; Soymovirus; Petuvirus; and TUNGROVIRUS.Cestrum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins and cause CALCINOSIS in grazing livestock due to high levels of 1 ALPHA,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksClassification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Sinorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Nobel PrizeBrazilMedicine in ArtHong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Badnavirus: A genus of DNA plant viruses with bacilliform morphology. Transmission in clonally-propagated plants is by vegetative propagation of infected plant materials. Transmission in nature is by mealybugs, seeds, and pollen. The type species is Commelina yellow mottle virus.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Dendrobium: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that contains dihydroayapin (COUMARINS) and phenanthraquinones.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Ginger: Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.Taraxacum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain chicoric and chlorogenic acids and germacrane- and eudesmane-type SESQUITERPENES.GlucuronidasePromoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Nyctaginaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida.Zingiberales: This plant order includes 8 families, 66 genera, and about 1,800 species. These herbaceous perennials are mainly found in the wet tropics. Members include the banana family (MUSACEAE) and GINGER family (ZINGIBERACEAE).Commelina: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE of perennial herbs with blue flowers.

Plant cell-directed control of virion sense gene expression in wheat dwarf virus. (1/230)

We have used particle bombardment (biolistics) to deliver replication-competent wheat dwarf virus (WDV)-based constructs, carrying reporter gene sequences fused to the virion sense promoter (Pv) or the CaMV 35S promoter, to suspension culture cells and immature zygotic embryos of wheat. While the replication of WDV double-stranded DNA forms (replicons) was equivalent between wheat suspension culture cells and embryos, GUS reporter gene activity was 20-40 times higher in the embryo cultures. Maximum expression of WDV replicons occurred in the embryonic axis tissue of wheat embryos but their expression in suspension cells was compromised, compared with transiently maintained input plasmid DNA containing the same sequences. From these studies, we propose that WDV replicons are subject to a host cell-controlled competency for virion sense transcription. The term competency is used to distinguish between the phenomenon described here and control of gene expression by specific transcription factors. Control of competency is independent of Pv, the replacement 35S promoter and of the complementary sense control of virion sense expression involving specific sequences in Pv. We propose that factors controlling the competency for replicon expression may be present in cells which, as well as maintaining high rates of DNA synthesis, are totipotent. Cell type control of active chromatin, methylation of specific sequences in WDV minichromosomes and/or interaction of virus-encoded proteins with specific host factors are considered as possible mechanisms.  (+info)

Altered patterns of gene expression in Arabidopsis elicited by cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) infection and by a CaMV gene VI transgene. (2/230)

Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) gene VI protein (P6) is an important determinant of symptom expression. Differential display polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis elicited by a P6 transgene that causes a symptomatic phenotype. We used slot blot hybridization to measure the abundance of mRNAs complementary to 66 candidate PCR products in transgenic, CaMV-infected, and uninfected Arabidopsis plants. CaMV-infected and P6 transgenic plants showed broadly similar changes in abundance of mRNA species. In P6 transgenic plants we detected 18 PCR products that showed unambiguous changes in abundance plus another 15 that showed more limited changes (approximately twofold). CaMV-infected plants showed 17 unambiguous and 13 limited changes. Down-regulated species include those encoding a novel, phenol-like sulfotransferase, and a glycine-rich, RNA-binding protein. Up-regulated species included ones encoding an myb protein, glycine-rich and stress-inducible proteins, and a member of a previously unreported gene family. CaMV infection causes alterations in expression of many Arabidopsis genes. Transgene-mediated expression of P6 mimics virus infection in its effect on host gene expression, providing a potential mechanism for this process.  (+info)

The Arabidopsis dwarf mutant shi exhibits reduced gibberellin responses conferred by overexpression of a new putative zinc finger protein. (3/230)

shi (for short internodes), a semidominant dwarfing mutation of Arabidopsis caused by a transposon insertion, confers a phenotype typical of mutants defective in the biosynthesis of gibberellin (GA). However, the application of GA does not correct the dwarf phenotype of shi plants, suggesting that shi is defective in the perception of or in the response to GA. In agreement with this observation, the level of active GAs was elevated in shi plants, which is the result expected when feedback control of GA biosynthesis is reduced. Cloning of the SHI gene revealed that in shi, the transposon is inserted into the untranslated leader so that a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in the transposon reads out toward the SHI open reading frame. This result, together with mRNA analysis, suggests that the phenotype of the shi mutant is a result of overexpression of the SHI open reading frame. The predicted amino acid sequence of SHI has acidic and glutamine-rich stretches and shows sequence similarity over a putative zinc finger region to three presumptive Arabidopsis proteins. This suggests that SHI may act as a negative regulator of GA responses through transcriptional control.  (+info)

Identification of inhibitory mutants of Cauliflower mosaic virus movement protein function after expression in insect cells. (4/230)

Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) encodes a movement protein (MP) which forms tubules in vivo and mediates the translocation of virus particles through plasmodesmata. The relationship between CaMV MP structure and function, in isolation from the complete virus infection, was studied by using MP expression in insect cells. The study allowed the MP domains necessary for tubule formation to be identified and potential MP-MP interactions to be investigated by using double infections with recombinant baculoviruses. Two MP domains which interfered with the ability of the wild-type MP to form tubules were identified. These mutant domains appeared to act as competitive, rather than dominant negative, inhibitors.  (+info)

A short open reading frame terminating in front of a stable hairpin is the conserved feature in pregenomic RNA leaders of plant pararetroviruses. (5/230)

In plant pararetroviruses, pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) directs synthesis of circular double-stranded viral DNA and serves as a polycistronic mRNA. By computer-aided analysis, the 14 plant pararetroviruses sequenced so far were compared with respect to structural organization of their pgRNA 5'-leader. The results revealed that the pgRNA of all these viruses carries a long leader sequence containing several short ORFs and having the potential to form a large stem-loop structure; both features are known to be inhibitory for downstream translation. Formation of the structure brings the first long ORF into the close spatial vicinity of a 5'-proximal short ORF that terminates 5 to 10 nt upstream of the stable structural element. The first long ORF on the pgRNA is translated by a ribosome shunt mechanism discovered in cauliflower mosaic (CaMV) and rice tungro bacilliform viruses, representing the two major groups of plant pararetroviruses. Both the short ORF and the structure have been implicated in the shunt process for CaMV pgRNA translation. The conservation of these elements among all plant pararetroviruses suggests conservation of the ribosome shunt mechanism. For some of the less well-studied viruses, the localization of the conserved elements also allowed predictions of the pgRNA promoter region and the translation start site of the first long ORF.  (+info)

A 69 bp fragment in the pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana activates minimal CaMV 35S promoter in a tissue-specific manner. (6/230)

The Arabidopsis thaliana gene that encodes pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (At-P5R), the last enzyme in proline biosynthesis in A. thaliana, is developmentally regulated and is highly expressed in cells that divide rapidly or undergo changes in osmotic potential. A 69 bp region (P69; -120 to -51) has previously been identified in a 5' deletion analysis of the At-P5R promoter to be necessary for the basal expression. Here, the essential role of P69 for tissue-specific expression of At-P5R is demonstrated by loss- and gain-of-function experiments.  (+info)

A stable hairpin preceded by a short open reading frame promotes nonlinear ribosome migration on a synthetic mRNA leader. (7/230)

The regulation of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) pregenomic 35S RNA translation occurs via nonlinear ribosome migration (ribosome shunt) and is mediated by an elongated hairpin structure in the leader. The replacement of the viral leader by a series of short, low-energy stems in either orientation supports efficient ribosomal shunting, showing that the stem per se, and not its sequence, is recognized by the translation machinery. The requirement for cis-acting sequences from the unstructured terminal regions of the viral leader was analyzed: the 5'-terminal polypyrimidine stretch and the short upstream open reading frame (uORF) A stimulate translation, whereas the 3'-flanking region seems not to be essential. Based on these results, an artificial leader was designed with a stable stem flanked by unstructured sequences derived from parts of the 5'- and 3'-proximal regions of the CaMV 35S RNA leader. This artificial leader is shunt-competent in translation assays in vivo and in vitro, indicating that a low-energy stem, broadly used as a device to successfully interfere with ribosome scanning, can efficiently support translation, if preceded by a short uORF. The synthetic 140-nt leader can functionally replace the CaMV 35S RNA 600-nt leader, thus implicating the universal role that nonlinear ribosome scanning could play in translation initiation in eukaryotes.  (+info)

Antisense inhibition of tomato fruit sucrose synthase decreases fruit setting and the sucrose unloading capacity of young fruit. (8/230)

The role of sucrose synthase (SuSy) in tomato fruit was studied in transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing an antisense fragment of fruit-specific SuSy RNA (TOMSSF) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Constitutive expression of the antisense RNA markedly inhibited SuSy activity in flowers and fruit pericarp tissues. However, inhibition was only slight in the endosperm and was undetectable in the embryo, shoot, petiole, and leaf tissues. The activity of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in parallel with that of SuSy, but acid invertase activity did not increase in response to the reduced SuSy activity. The only effect on the carbohydrate content of young fruit was a slight reduction in starch accumulation. The in vitro sucrose import capacity of fruits was not reduced by SuSy inhibition at 23 days after anthesis, and the rate of starch synthesized from the imported sucrose was not lessened even when SuSy activity was decreased by 98%. However, the sucrose unloading capacity of 7-day-old fruit was substantially decreased in lines with low SuSy activity. In addition, the SuSy antisense fruit from the first week of flowering had a slower growth rate. A reduced fruit set, leading to markedly less fruit per plant at maturity, was observed for the plants with the least SuSy activity. These results suggest that SuSy participates in the control of sucrose import capacity of young tomato fruit, which is a determinant for fruit set and development.  (+info)

The genome contains a single molecule of circular and is not segmented. The genome is made of a double stranded DNA and is -RT. Virions do not contain minor species of non-genomic nucleic acid. The complete genome is sequenced, but can only be estimated at about 8000 nucleotides long. It has single-stranded discontinuities at specific sites and the transcribed strand has at least one discontinuity while the non-trnascribed strand has two discontinuities. The genome may have an intergenic poly (A) region. Members of this genus have 6 or 7 open reading frames (ORFs); viruses in the Caulimoviridae family with either more or fewer ORFs have been reclassified into other genera in the family (sources: [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB/00.015.0.01.htm ICTVdB], [http://www.dpvweb.net/notes/showgenus.php?genus=Caulimovirus Descriptions of Plant Viruses ...
Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is a member of the genus Caulimovirus, one of the six genera in the Caulimoviridae family, which are pararetroviruses that infect plants. Pararetroviruses replicate through reverse transcription just like retroviruses, but the viral particles contain DNA instead of RNA. Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is the type species of the family Caulimoviridae. This family is grouped together with Hepadnaviruses into the Pararetrovirus group due to its mode of replication via reverse transcription of a pre-genomic RNA intermediate. CaMV infects mostly plants of the Brassicaceae family (such as cauliflower and turnip) but some CaMV strains (D4 and W260) are also able to infect Solanaceae species of the genera Datura and Nicotiana. CaMV induces a variety of systemic symptoms such as mosaic, necrotic lesions on leaf surfaces, stunted growth, and deformation of the overall plant structure. The symptoms exhibited vary depending on the viral strain, host ecotype, and environmental ...
Translation of the polycistronic 35S RNA of CaMV (cauliflower mosaic virus) occurs via a reinitiation mechanism, which requires TAV (transactivator/viroplasmin). To allow translation reinitiation of the major open reading frames on the polycistronic RNA, TAV interacts with the host translational machinery via eIF3 (eukaryotic initiation factor 3) and the 60S ribosome. Accumulation of TAV and eIF3 in the polysomal fraction isolated from CaMV-infected cells suggested that TAV prevents loss of eIF3 from the translating ribosomes during the first initiation event. The TAV-eIF3-80S complex could be detected in vitro by sucrose-gradient-sedimentation analysis. The question is whether TAV interacts directly with the 48S preinitiation complex or enters polysomes after the first initiation event. eIF4B, a component of the 48S initiation complex, can preclude formation of the TAV-eIF3 complex via competition with TAV for eIF3 binding; the eIF4B- and TAV-binding sites on eIF3g overlap. eIF4B out-competes ...
Vincent and Dickson continue virology 101 with a discussion of information flow from RNA to DNA, a process known as reverse transcription, which occurs in cells infected with retroviruses, hepatitis B virus, cauliflower mosaic virus, foamy viruses, and even in uninfected cells.. This episode is sponsored by Data Robotics Inc. To receive $50 off a Drobo or $100 off a Drobo S, visit drobostore.com and use the promotion code VINCENT.. [powerpress url="http://traffic.libsyn.com/twiv/TWiV066.mp3″]. Click the arrow above to play, or right-click to download TWiV #66 (50 MB .mp3, 68 minutes). Subscribe to TWiV (free) in iTunes , at the Zune Marketplace, by the RSS feed, or by email.. Links for this episode:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the cauliflower mosaic virus ORF VI transgene has a late flowering phenotype. AU - Zijlstra, Carolien. AU - Schärer-Hernández, Nania. AU - Gal, Susannah. AU - Hohn, Thomas. PY - 1996/11/20. Y1 - 1996/11/20. N2 - Expression of open reading frame (ORF) VI of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana caused a typical syndrome characterised by leaf chlorosis, vein clearing, plant stunting and reduced fertility. In addition and in comparison to untransformed controls we observed the formation of much larger rosettes of leaves combined with much later flowering and more extensive tillering. In these aspects, the ORF VI transgenic plants resembled late flowering mutants. All these phenotypes correlated with expression of ORF VI in three lines of transgenic plants which were produced independently, with different Ti-plasmid derived vectors and with different selective markers. The late flowering phenotype cosegregated with the ...
The genome contains a single molecule of circular and is not segmented. The genoms is made of a double stranded DNA and is -RT. Virions do not contain minor species of non-genomic nucleic acid. The complete genome is about 8000 nucleotides long. The genome is sequenced but only an estimate is available. The complete sequence is 6800-7771-8175 nucleotides long. The genome has a guanine+cytosine content of 28-35.5-43 %. It has single-stranded discontinuities at specific sites and the transcribed strand has at least one discontinuity while the non-trnascribed strand has two discontinuities. The genome may have an intergenic poly (A) region. (source: ICTV dB Descriptions) ...
Unscramble cauliflower, Unscramble letters cauliflower, Point value for cauliflower, Word Decoder for cauliflower, Word generator using the letters cauliflower, Word Solver cauliflower, Possible Scrabble words with cauliflower, Anagram of cauliflower
Posted By Caulimovirus on July 22, 2011 .: I bought a five-year one line a day memory book, or a "calendar diary". As lame as that sounds, I think its a pretty neat idea: each page is dedicated to a day of the year, so that as you finish one year you wrap around to where you started, only one line below. Its a nice reminder of how much or how little time has passed since certain events, and Ive just recently completed my first year. To celebrate, Im going to post a summary once a week of last years week. When appropriate, Ill post the entire original entry as is, and then elaborate as much as my memory allows. Friday, July 16th, 2010. Purchased twitter analog. Designed maize chloroplast target sequence w/ Pal & Toey. Failed to yield to plain-clothes cop at crosswalk.. .: I had ambitions at one time to genetically engineer the chloroplast of maize. It would have been a real achievement - Monsanto and Dupont having spent half a decade each on the project before giving up - but I suffered a ...
½ t chili powder. Preheat the oven to 375º.. Mix all the ingredients for the dipping sauce in a small bowl and place in the refrigerator to chill.. Using your fingers, snap off individual cauliflower florets or cut them off with the tip of a sharp knife from the core. Slice any of the florets in half that are 2" round or larger.. Place a buttered, glass, baking dish or cookie sheet in the oven to heat that will fit all the cauliflower in a single layer and allow for space in between the florets.. Beat the two eggs together with a fork, in a large, deep bowl. Add the remainder of the ingredients with only as much water needed to form a thick batter that will not quite pour.. Toss the cauliflower florets into the mixture and coat evenly. Then spread the battered cauliflower out on the hot baking dish, leaving space between each floret. Bake for 20 minutes or until the bottoms are crusty.. Using a thin metal spatula to preserve the coating, turn the cauliflower and bake for another 15-20 minutes ...
Find and save ideas about Cauliflower benefits on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Benefits of cauliflower, Broccoli health benefits and Cheesy cauliflower recipes.
The majority of crop plant constructions for herbicide or disease resistance employ a Promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Regardless of the gene transferred, all transfers require a promoter, which is like a motor driving production of the genes message. Without a promoter, the gene is inactive, but replicated, CaMV is used because it is a powerful motor which drives replication of the retrovirus and is active in both angiosperms and gymnosperms. The CaMV pararetrovirus replication cycle involves production vegetative virus containing RNA which is reverse transcribed to make DNA similar to HIV, Human Leukemia Virus and Human hepatitis B. (Bonneville et al. RNA Genetics Vo.11, Retroviruses, Viroids and RNA Recombination pp. 23-42, 1988). CaMV is closely related to hepatitis B and is closely related to HIV (Doolittle et al. Quart.Rev.Biol. 64,2, 1989; Xiong and Eickbush, EMBO Joumal 9, 3353, 1990). The CaMV promoter is preferred above other potential promoters because it is a more ...
Cauliflower is the new bread - or at least thats what this trend would have you believe. Cauliflower pizza crust, cauliflower pasta, cauliflower...
Knowing what type of cauliflower diseases may afflict the veggie and troubleshooting these cauliflower problems will aid in the healthy production and yield of the plant. Click this article to learn more about treating these issues.
Jeremiah Cornelius writes Researchers with the European Food Safety Authority discovered variants of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S in the most widely harvested varieties of genetically-modified crops, including Monsantos RoundupReady Soy and Maze. According to the researchers, Podevin and du J...
Jeremiah Cornelius writes Researchers with the European Food Safety Authority discovered variants of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S in the most widely harvested varieties of genetically-modified crops, including Monsantos RoundupReady Soy and Maze. According to the researchers, Podevin and du J...
The calculated maximum value of the transmission factor for the specimen. Its value does not include the effects of absorption in the specimen mount. The presence of this item does not imply that the structure factors have been corrected for absorption. The applied correction should be given by _exptl_absorpt_correction_T_max ...
Cauliflower Mashed Potatoes with Truffle Oil - cauliflower and potatoes, scented with truffle oil, makes a lower carb option for special occasions.
If you have been wondering how to plant cauliflower, you will find that it is not difficult. Growing cauliflower can be done right along with your other garden crops. Click here for more information.
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Penne with Cauliflower based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Whole Wheat Penne (dry), Olive Oil, Cauliflower, raw, Red Ripe Tomatoes, Parmesan Cheese, grated and the other ingredients in this recipe.
Cauliflower provides Vitamin C and Vitamin K. It also provides minerals to the diet including selenium, iron, zinc, and copper. Cauliflower contains the
Looking for a delicious way to add cauliflower to your diet? Try this easy 3 ingredient roasted cauliflower recipe from Erin Kuh.
Full nutritional breakdown of the calories in Roasted Cauliflower based on the calories and nutrition in each ingredient, including Olive Oil, Cauliflower, raw, Parmesan Cheese, grated and the other ingredients in this recipe.
Is Cauliflower Good for Diabetics? Cauliflower is a Vegetable That is Ultra Healthy for You & if Youre a Diabetic Its Even More Important to Have in Your Diet
Preheat oven to 200°C. Line a large baking tray with baking paper. Toss cauliflower florets with oil in a large bowl. Place florets on prepared tray in a single layer and transfer to oven. Roast ...
A first class infographic about the health benefits of cauliflowers along with a detailed article on the topic. The health benefits are elaborated and segmented on topics for easy reading.
Potent Cancer Fighter. (How does Cauliflower fight cancer? Within minutes of being eaten, sulforaphane enters the bloodstream and turbocharges the bodys antioxidant defense systems. When it reaches the cells, it activates phase-2 detoxification enzymes in the liver, which then "disarm" carinogenic molecules and help remove them from the cells.)[1] ...
By Dr. Mercola From Mercola.com Cauliflower is a member of the cruciferous family of vegetables, often overshadowed by its green cousin broccoli. This is (...)
You may have heard some health buffs saying that you should avoid white foods. The truth is there may be some merit to that, as most white foods are sources of bad carbs. Cauliflower, though, is not one of those…. Read More ...
... - BellaOnline Nutrition Database - BellaOnline is committed to helping our visitors become healthy and happy. Our BellaOnline Nutrition Database will help you choose the healthiest foods for your chosen lifestyle.
Make the best Herbed Cauliflower Casserole with this easy recipe. Find thousands of free, expert-tested, printable recipes on HowStuffWorks.com.
You may have heard some health buffs saying that you should avoid white foods. The truth is there may be some merit to that, as most white foods are sources of bad carbs. Cauliflower, though, is not one of those…. Read More ...
The laws that govern how intricate surface patterns, such as those found in the cauliflower, develop over time have been described, for the first time, by a group of European researchers.
... - BellaOnline Nutrition Database - BellaOnline is committed to helping our visitors become healthy and happy. Our BellaOnline Nutrition Database will help you choose the healthiest foods for your chosen lifestyle.
As part of a school assignment I had to think of a new stir fry recipe to make for lunch! When I looked up some ideas I saw a lot of recipes that had rice and spaghetti in them. I decided to make my own paleo version of a rice stir fry. Here is my…
Cassava vein mosaic virus (CVMV) was found to be widespread throughout the north-eastern region of Brazil. The complete sequence of CVMV was determined, and the genome was 8158 bp in size. A cytosolic initiator methionine tRNA (tRNAmet i)-binding site that probably acts as a primer for minus-strand synthesis was present. The genome contained five open reading frames that potentially encode proteins with predicted molecular masses of 186 kDa, 9 kDa, 77 kDa, 24 kDa and 26 kDa. The putative 186 kDa protein had regions with similarity to the zinc finger-like RNA-binding domain that is a common element in the capsid proteins and similarity to the intercellular transport domain of the plant pararetroviruses. The predicted 77 kDa protein had regions with similarity to aspartic proteases, reverse transcriptase and RNase H of pararetroviruses. This gene order was confirmed by the amplification of similar PCR products from total DNA extracted from CVMV-infected cassava plants. The genomic organization of CVMV was
Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is transmitted to crucifers in a noncirculative manner by several aphid species. CaMV is preferentially acquired from the phloem, although acquisition also occurs after brief intracellular stylet punctures of aphid vectors in nonvascular leaf tissues. In the present work, we used the electrical penetration graph technique to study the specific aphid stylet activities and behavioral events leading to the inoculation of CaMV to turnip plants by its two major vectors, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Aphids subjected to an 8-h acquisition access time on infected plants were transferred to test plants and removed immediately after specific behavioral events were recorded. CaMV was readily inoculated after the first intracellular puncture in nonvascular tissues by both vector species. Inoculation rate of CaMV by B. brassicae was the highest after a 3-h inoculation access period, regardless of whether aphids had reached the phloem phase during ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 10:394-400...Continual Green-Fluorescent Protein Monitoring of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter Activity in Nematode-Induced Feeding Cells in Arabidopsis thaliana...
Natural mixed infections of plant viruses are frequent, often leading to unpredictable variations in symptoms, infectivity, accumulation and/or vector transmissibility. Cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus (CaMV) has often been found in mixed infections with turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) in plants of the genus Brassica. This study addressed the effect of mixed infection on infectivity, pathogenicity and accumulation of CaMV and TuMV in Arabidopsis thaliana plants inoculated mechanically with cDNA infectious clones. In singly infected plants, TuMV accumulation was approximately 8-fold higher than that of CaMV. In co-infected plants, there was 77 % more TuMV accumulation compared with single infections, whilst the accumulation of CaMV was 56 % lower. This outcome describes a biological game in which TuMV always plays the winner strategy, leading to the competitive exclusion of CaMV. However, the infectivity of each virus was not affected by the presence of the other, and no symptom synergism was ...
Several new cultivars of cauliflower with green curds have been introduced to growing practice in Poland lately. They yield very well in Polish climatic conditions. These cultivars are a result of crossing between white cauliflower and broccoli cultivars [4]. Optimum storage conditions for white cauliflower are: temperature of 0-1°C and 95-98% RH. Wrapping curds with a stretch plastic film is also recommended [1, 20, 21]. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage offers moderate benefit to white cauliflower cultivars, however the best CA gas composition is 3-5% CO2 + 2-3% O2. Storage of cauliflowers for more than 3-4 weeks is not recommended. Some flavour changes of cauliflowers, when CO2 concentration in the atmosphere exceed 5% was observed [1]. Green cultivars show a better storage ability than the white ones and they store well in CA composed of 5% CO2 + 3% O2, or 3% CO2 + 3% O2 [5, 6]. Green cauliflowers have dif ferent sensory characteristics than the white ones and they content more dry matter ...
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And its very simple to make. You just cut a head of cauliflower into pieces about 1 1/2 inches thick. Combine the pieces with the salt and butter, then put it all in a large skillet and pour in enough water to nearly cover the contents. Bring the water to a boil, throw on a lid and let it steam for 10 minutes or just until the cauliflower becomes tender.. Now for the hardest part. Youre going to boil and reduce the water in which the veggie was steamed as a way to concentrate its flavor - a step that requires you to wait patiently. Afterward, you can resume charging ahead, pureeing the reduced liquid and the cooked cauliflower in a blender until silky smooth.. Thats it. Not only is this puree tasty, smooth and light, its also the perfect vehicle for any sauce ... just like mashed potatoes.. Cauliflower Mashed Potatoes. Start to finish: 55 minutes (25 minutes hands-on). Servings: 6. 1 small head cauliflower (about 2 1/4 pounds), core removed and cut into 1 1/2-inch pieces. 1/2 teaspoon kosher ...
To "rice" the Cauliflower: Take 1 large head of fresh cauliflower, remove stems and leaves, and chop the florets into chunks. Add to food processor and pulse until it looks like grain. Do not over-do pulse or you will puree it. (If you dont have a food processor, you can grate the whole head with a cheese grater). Place the riced cauliflower into a microwave safe bowl and microwave for 8 minutes. There is no need to add water, as the natural moisture in the cauliflower is enough to cook itself. One large head should produce approximately 3 cups of riced cauliflower. The remainder can be used to make additional pizza crusts immediately, or can be stored in the refrigerator for up to one week ...
Nutritional. If you have a lack of the vitamins B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine) and B9 (folic acid), the cauliflower is the perfect vegetable for you.. Besides being rich in omega-3 fatty acids, it also contains vitamin K. Cauliflower is a very good source of proteins, phosphorus and potassium. The cauliflower is also famous for containing powerful antioxidants such as vitamin C and manganese.. Antioxidant. Even though we have mentioned some of its powerful antioxidants above, the cauliflower also contains carotenoids such as beta-carotene and phytonutrients that include kaempferol, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and caffeic acid.. You will protect yourself from free radical damage and reduce your risk of getting a disease that is caused by oxidative stress such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, if you include cauliflower in your everyday diet. Providing your body with these antioxidants will bring you positive results.. Detoxification. If ...
Business Directory for Cauliflower Suppliers in Delhi - Get contact details of Cauliflower Manufacturers, Wholesale Cauliflower Exporters, Best Cauliflower Traders & Distributors Across the Delhi.
Looking for cauliflower contracture? Find out information about cauliflower contracture. The narrowing of a section of a column. Shortening, as of muscle or scar tissue, producing distortion or deformity or abnormal limitation of movement of a... Explanation of cauliflower contracture
Cauliflower has been described as a vegetable with a high nutritional value due to its high content of vitamins, antioxidants and anti-carcinogenic compounds. Cauliflower inflorescences are harvested while they are totally immature, which implies severe changes in nutrient, water and hormonal status. Harvesting and the following processing can cause severe stress determining the appearance of accelerated senescence symptoms. The effects of processing and cold storage of minimally processed cauliflower were investigated. Florets were treated with antioxidants before storage in PE bags at 4°C for 21 days. During the storage period the weight loss, colour, firmness, SSC and pH were evaluated. Cauliflower showed a good shelf-life and overall quality maintenance but also a susceptibility to browning of cut zones ...
The synthetic gox gene. An open reading frame (ORF; EMBL Bank: GU214711.1) of 1296 bp was previously reported as a goxgenesequence. The sequence was optimized based on the canola plant codon preference, and the regulatory Kozak sequence was added before the start codon to improve the efficiency of transcription and translation (Kozak, 1989; Gustafsson et al. 2004). The BamHI and SacI restriction sites were introduced at the 5 and 3 ends of the synthetic gene, respectively. The synth-gox gene was synthesized by Shine Gene Molecular Biotech, Incorporated (Shanghai, China), and the sequence was submitted to GenBank (Accession Number, HQ110097).. Construction of plant expression vector. The synth-gox gene was used to replace the gus fragment in the binary vector pBI121 (Clontech) using BamHI and SacI restriction sites. By this strategy, the synth-gox gene came under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (nos) terminator (pBI-synth-gox) ...
Cauliflower is a cool-season crop in the cole family, which includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, collards, kale, and kohlrabi. Get expert tips for growing cauliflower.
Ingredients: 1 DOLE® head cauliflower, core removed, cut into florets, 1 tablespoon olive oil, Salt and pepper, sliced green onions for garnish, Directions:Blend half the cauliflower florets in the bowl of a food processor. Pulse until it resembles couscous. Repeat with remaining florets.Heat oil over medium heat in a large skillet with a lid. Add cauliflower. Season with salt and pepper. Cook and stir for 1 minute. Cover and cook for 5 to 6 minutes, stirring once.Garnish with sliced green onions. Serve warm. ...
Slightly hot. Slightly creamy. And full on delicious. This easy twist on roasted cauliflower will keep you coming back for more. All cauliflower all the time. Maybe I should start a cauliflower blog. Kidding. But I seriously feel like the […]
Health Benefits of Cauliflower - Cauliflower is a cruciferous vegetable and is a part of the brassicaceae family. Its florets are usually consumed, though..
The results presented here represent the highest reported level of plant-based protein production without the use of viral replication. We report the creation of an expression system based on a version of CPMV RNA-2 that is hypertranslatable relative to the wild-type version. By the removal of an upstream AUG that appears to inhibit translation, the system allows a variety of proteins to be produced to levels similar to that from state-of-the-art viral vectors in a matter of days, and without concomitant shortcomings of viral replication of transcripts. A recent study (Lindbo, 2007) showed 100-fold better expression for a single protein, GFP, from a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector than when P19 was coinfiltrated with a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter-driven construct. The HT constructs used in this study produced GFP levels in the same order of magnitude as the highest achieved with the TMV vector used in that study.. A significant disadvantage of vectors based on monopartite ...
Purpose: To obtain an analytical empirical formula for the photon dose source term in forward direction from bremsstrahlung generated from laser-plasma accelerated electron beams in aluminum solid targets, with electron-plasma temperatures in the 10-100 keV energy range, and to calculate transmission factors for iron, aluminum, methacrylate, lead and concrete and air, materials most commonly found in vacuum chamber labs. Methods: Bremsstrahlung fluence is calculated from the convolution of thin-target bremsstrahlung spectrum for monoenergetic electrons and the relativistic Maxwell-Juettner energy distribution for the electron-plasma. Unattenuatted dose in tissue is calculated by integrating the photon spectrum with the mass-energy absorption coefficient. For the attenuated dose, energy dependent absorption coefficient, build-up factors and finite shielding correction factors were also taken into account. For the source term we use a modified formula from Hayashi et al., and we fitted the ...
Cauliflower, green, raw from the USDA Nutrition Facts on RecipeTips.Com Cauliflower, green, raw: USDA Nutrition Facts: RecipeTips.com - 2
Find Out How Many Calories Are In Uno Smashed Cauliflower, Good or Bad Points and Other Nutrition Facts about it. Take a look at Uno Smashed Cauliflower related products and other millions of foods.
Broccoli and Cauliflower are in the same family, both look like small trees, and are two vegetables that pack a serious nutrition punch. Pound for pound, its harder to eat anything else that has more nutrients in one serving. Although cauliflower has fewer calories, carbohydrates and sugars, the amounts for both of these foods is…
Comprehensive nutrition resource for Cauliflower, Boiled W/salt. Learn about the number of calories and nutritional and diet information for Cauliflower, Boiled W/salt. This is part of our comprehensive database of 40,000 foods including foods from hundreds of popular restaurants and thousands of brands.
ISIS first raised concerns over the CaMV 35S and similar promoters in a paper published in the journal Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease in 1999 [4] (Cauliflower Mosaic Viral Promoter - A Recipe for Disaster?) when it was discovered to have a recombination (fragmentation) hotspot that would enhance unintended horizontal gene transfer and recombination, and in the process create new viruses or activate old ones, and trigger cancer in animal cells by well-known processes of insertion carcinogenesis. The CaMV 35S promoter was known to be highly promiscuous in being able to function in most if not all species across the living world (including human cells, as it turned out). To make matters worse, many synthetic versions of the promoter have been constructed with additional enhancers for gene expression and sequences from other sources, all of which increase its instability (tendency to fragment) as well as its ability to drive inappropriate gene expression. (We also reported the overlap of ...
Dormant viruses can be reactivated with genetically modified organisms - new research see also http://www.scup.no/mehd/ho New Research Results on Genetically Modified Organisms The use of the Cauliflower Mosaic Viral promotor (CaMV) has the potential to reactivate dormant viruses or create new viruses in all species to which it is transferred. CaMV is known to be found in practically all current transgenic crops released commercially or undergoing field trials. This transgenic instability increases the possibility of promotion of an inappropriate over-expression of genes to the transferred species. The development of cancer may be one consequence of such inappropriate over-expression of genes. The scientists behind the research strongly recommend that all transgenic crops containing CaMV 35S or similar promoters which are recombinogenic should be immediately withdrawn from commercial production or open field trials. All products derived from such crops containing transgenic DNA should also be ...
The authentic version of this Greek vegetable dish calls for twice as much olive oil I like the combination of kalamata olives, cauliflower and tomatoes Serve it with whole grains, such as spelt, bulgur or barley.
(93 days) F-1 hybrid. On Oct. 11 our trialer noted, I went out today and found two absolutely beautiful large heads of Snow Mystique. Big, tight and gorgeous! Mystique has all the attributes we loved in Cassius: clean white dense well-proportioned heads, the same good upright habit and the dome shape to ward off excess moisture plus a tender flavor not expected from such a massive plant. Massive it was, heads rated at 1.8 lb average by our supplier, but double that weight in our trial. Perfect for end of September and early October when cauliflower is at its best in our climate. Can be slow-growing in higher elevations and cold spots. Tested negative for BR and BL.
This Cajun Cauliflower Dirty Rice is loaded with meat, vegetables and spices thatll provide bursts of flavor, and help boost your health too.
A lighter version of a classic white sauce coats this cauliflower dish thats perfect for a potluck buffet. —Taste of Home Test Kitchen
Yes, thats right, Sue. But in highland tropic cauliflowers grow so well. In the middle land and low land, the heat always be a problem, although we use heat-tolerant variety.. Delete ...
Creamy cauliflower and cumin soup is a quick and easy delicious soup. Its the perfect go-to winter comfort soup and ideal as a starter for a meal.
There are 20 calories in 1 serving, 1/2 cup of Golden Corral Cauliflower Steamed. Youd need to walk 5 minutes to burn 20 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
If your memories of cauliflower are haunted by unpleasant odors, you can fix most of the problem by steaming. Steaming is a great choice from both a sensory and nutritional perspective. It cooks ...
Roasting isnt usually the first cooking method you think of for cauliflower but the results are quite delicious. The florets are cut into thick slices and tossed with extra-virgin olive oil and herbs. Wherever the flat surfaces come into contact with the hot roasting pan, a deep browning occurs that results in a sweet, nutty flavor.
Roasting isnt usually the first cooking method you think of for cauliflower but the results are quite delicious. The florets are cut into thick slices and tossed with extra-virgin olive oil and herbs. Wherever the flat surfaces come into contact with the hot roasting pan, a deep browning occurs that results in a sweet, nutty flavor.
My LO (little one) is getting bored of puréed jar food... I made this http://lowcarbdiets.about.com/od/lowcarbsidedishes/r/cauliflowermash.htm Today and cant wait for him to wake up and try it... Not that he needs low carb I just want to introduce some other veggies and he likes textures. I used real potatoes instead of instant..
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Cauliflower steaks with raisin and courgette relish recipe. 23 Insanely Clever Ways To Eat Cauliflower Instead of Carbs. 27 Of The Most Delicious Things You Can
Threaded Hotdog Spaghetti Pinterest : Nailed It! _________________________________________________ Low Carb Cauliflower Tortilla/Bread Pinterest: Nailed It!
Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) is a pararetrovirus, and a member of the family Caulimoviridae in the genus Badnavirus. RTBV has a long open reading frame that encodes a large polyprotein (P3). Pararetroviruses show similarities with retroviruses in molecular organization and replication. P3 contains a putative movement protein (MP), the capsid protein (CP), the aspartate protease (PR) and the reverse transcriptase (RT) with a ribonuclease H activity. PR is a member of the cluster of retroviral proteases and serves to proteolytically process P3. Previous work established the N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences of CP and RT, processing of RT by PR, and estimated the molecular mass of PR by western blot assays. A molecular mass of a protein that was associated with virions was determined by in-line HPLC electrospray ionization mass spectral analysis. Comparison with retroviral proteases amino acid sequences allowed the characterization of a putative protease domain in this protein. Structural
Bevan, M.W.; Mason, S.E.; Goelet, P., 1985: Expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein by a cauliflower mosaic virus promoter in plants transformed by Agrobacterium
Like Brussels sprouts, cauliflower is one of those misunderstood vegetables. Its certainly not the prettiest veggie on campus, but its one of the healthiest.. When properly cooked and seasoned, cauliflower is delicious-one of my favorites. I buy it at least once a week, usually to steam or roast as a side dish.. These days, cauliflower is available year-round. A member of the Brassicaceae family (broccoli, cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens), it delivers a cancer-fighting compound called sulforaphane. A half-cup of cooked cauliflower provides 45% of your daily vitamin C requirement, as well as 2 g fiber, while weighing in at only 15 calories.. When choosing an organic cauliflower, look for a head thats white or creamy, firm, compact, and heavy for its size. Toss aside heads that have dark spots, brown patches or other discolorations.. When you arrive home, place your cauliflower (stem side up) in your refrigerators crisper, where it should last for up to five days. If you buy ...
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Pre-heat the oven to 140C. Place a heavy-bottomed frying pan over a high heat. Add 2 tbsp of oil and brown the cheeks on all sides (you will need to do this in batches). Decant to a large casserole or oven-proof saucepan with a lid.. Add more oil to the pan and fry the onion until golden on all sides. Add the carrots and garlic halves and sauté for 2 mins more, before transferring to the casserole. Deglaze the pan with the red wine and reduce for 1 min, before adding to the casserole with the pedro ximenez. Season with the thyme leaves, salt and pepper, gently mix then bring to a simmer.. Place a lid on the saucepan and cook in the oven for a total of 3-4 hours. Add the peppers to the cheeks after 90 mins of cooking. Occasionally check the progress of the dish, and when doing so push the beef under the cooking liquor. Its ready when the cheeks are tender, near wobbly.. Meanwhile, trim the green leaves from the cauliflowers and put them to one side. Cut the florets from the cauliflower and then ...
1/2 cup fresh bread crumbs. Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F.. Cook the cauliflower florets in a large pot of boiling salted water for 5 to 6 minutes, until tender but still firm. Drain.. Meanwhile, melt 2 tablespoons of the butter in a medium saucepan over low heat. Add the flour, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon for 2 minutes. Pour the hot milk into the butter-flour mixture and stir until it comes to a boil. Boil, whisking constantly, for 1 minute, or until thickened. Off the heat, add 1 teaspoon of salt, the pepper, nutmeg, 1/2 cup of the Gruyere, and the Parmesan.. Pour 1/3 of the sauce on the bottom of an 8 by 11 by 2-inch baking dish. Place the drained cauliflower on top and then spread the rest of the sauce evenly on top. Combine the bread crumbs with the remaining 1/4 cup of Gruyere and sprinkle on top. Melt the remaining 2 tablespoons of butter and drizzle over the gratin. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Bake for 25 to 30 minutes, until the top is browned. Serve hot or at room ...
1. Put all the ingredients into a pot and cover with water.. 2. Simmer until chicken in poached, then remove chicken.. 3. Continue to cook the rest of the ingredients until cauliflower is soft.. 4. Using a blender/stick blender/thermomix blender soup into a smooth texture.. 5. Salt and Pepper to taste.. 6. Serve with Chicken sliced over top.. * I have written Per Person/ Per Meal next to some of the ingredients, one of the ways to help you stay organise on the HCG diet is to make meals in bulk when you can. So this can easily be one of those meals that you make and freeze or put in the fridge for later.. ** I made this for my family. For my children I served theirs with grated cheese over the time to help bulk up the Calories for them. My whole family enjoyed this meal, and asked for more. So that is always a bonus in our house hold.. *** this recipe can also easy be converted to GAPS, or Paleo, by using Bone broth instead of water, and using as much chicken and cauliflower as you like.. ...
Calories in Birds Eye Cauliflower Florets Frozen. Find nutrition facts for Birds Eye Cauliflower Florets Frozen and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database.
Did you know?Cauliflower is low in fat, high in dietary fiber, folate, water and vitamin C, possessing a very high nutritional density. As a member of the brassica family, cauliflower shares with broccoli and cabbage several phytochemicals which are beneficial to human health, including sulforaphane, an anti-cancer compound released when cauliflower is chopped or chewed. In addition, the compound indole-3-carbinol, which appears to work as an anti-estrogen, appears to slow or prevent the growth of tumors of the breast and prostate.Cauliflower also contains other glucosinolates besides sulfurophane, substances which may improve the livers ability to detoxify carcinogenic substances.A high intake of cauliflower has been found to reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.. ...
Theres a molecular gastronomy site I read occasionally that described the synergistic gustatory effects of combining cauliflower and chocolate. I have neither the time nor the funds nor the equipment nor the skills to execute the more impressive sorts of molecular gastronomy, but I have cauliflower, and I have cocoa powder. And Parmesan. And gelatin. Enter caramelized cauliflower with cocoa gelée and crispy Parmesan cocoa crumbles. The dish is so high-falutin that Im blushing with shame. But its... surprisingly good. Really good, actually, though I cant help but think that cauliflower drizzled with some sort of Parmesan ganache might be better. In true high-falutin fashion, the current version is photographed with only a few tiny slices of cauliflower on the plate, for which I would theoretically charge $20. It would cost an extra dollar if it were topped with a few big crystals of pink Himalayan salt ...
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A brilliant violet-magenta cauliflower that turns light purple with cooking, it offers terrific resistance to downy mildew, which makes it great for humid and rainy climates. Tender, rich flavor. Order seeds today from Park Seed.
The cauliflower crust of this pizza is not only gluten free, but it also packs tons of vitamin C, vitamin K and folate (a B vitamin). Whats more, tomatoes are abundant in lycopene, which reduces the risk of developing prostate cancer.
Preheat oven to 400°F. Cut cauliflower into small florets and place in a large bowl. Toss with olive oil and Ras el Hanout. Place florets on the center of an aluminum lined baking sheet. Fold aluminum around the florets and seal closed. Roast in the oven for 20 minutes. Carefully open seal and roast for 10 more minutes. Meanwhile, dry toast the walnuts in a small skillet for 4-5 minutes, stirring. In a food processor, add the toasted walnuts and the remaining Muhammara ingredients. Pulse until finely chopped, but not pureed. Unfold the two sheets of thawed puff pastry sheets and place on a greased baking sheet, overlapping by an inch. Trim to size, if necessary. Using your fingers, dampen both sides of the overlapped portions of the puff pastry sheets and then pinch together. Pinch all edges up to form a crust. With a fork, lightly puncture the pastry sheet every couple inches. Place in 400°F oven and bake for 15 minutes. Remove and spread the Muhammara sauce evenly inside the crust. Top with ...
Eating vegetables like cauliflower and cabbage are known to prevent breast cancer. But the mechanism by which the active substances in these vegetables inhibit cancer cell proliferation was unknown - until now.
One broccoli (Early Dividend), one cauliflower (Early Dawn), but whats that Violet Queen in the middle? The EDs are standbys, the VQ is new. It looks like
I chose manchego for this soup, but pecorino will do as well. Depending on the age of the cheese it will carry a mild or more distinctive taste. I actually had some of the soup without the cheese and it was tasty too so if you just wanted cauliflower, omit the cheese part. Nick had his with sheep yogurt as sour cream and it was light but filling which kept us going for the next few hours when the dog had to be taken to the vet as she has a habit of swallowing her bones instead of chewing ...
This roasted cauliflower toast with whipped goat cheese is the perfect appetizer for a party, or a simple lunch any day of the week!
Fast Food Effects On ... Not only is cauliflower helpful in the ... Its a delicious vegetable to add to any new vegetable tray else heated at the same time of the side dishes ...
2. Gradually add 150ml (5fl oz) of the milk, stirring constantly, until smooth. Bring to the boil, then turn down the heat and simmer, stirring constantly, for 2 minutes. Add the nutmeg and season to taste. Cover with cling film and set aside to cool completely. Once cool, divide the sauce between 4 large ice-cube tray indents and freeze for at least four hours, or overnight ...
2. Gradually add 150ml (5fl oz) of the milk, stirring constantly, until smooth. Bring to the boil, then turn down the heat and simmer, stirring constantly, for 2 minutes. Add the nutmeg and season to taste. Cover with cling film and set aside to cool completely. Once cool, divide the sauce between 4 large ice-cube tray indents and freeze for at least four hours, or overnight ...
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Harissa, the popular hot pepper paste used in North African cuisine, steals the spotlight in this vinaigrette. Serve drizzled over our Charred Cauliflower Salad for a little extra kick.
Read "Upstream and downstream sequence elements determine the specificity of the rice tungro bacilliform virus promoter and influence RNA production after transcription initiation, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
One way of enhancing and broadening resistance of plants to different biotic and abiotic stresses is to combine transgenes expressing several genes into a single line. This can be done using different strategies such as crossing, single vector with multiple genes, co-transformation, sequential transformation and IRES elements. In the present study conventional crossing method was used. Parental transgenic lines transformed via Agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated gene transformation with pGreenII binary vector harbouring a bar gene as selectable marker in combination with the family 19 chitinase gene from Streptomyces olivaceoviridis for one line and 1,3-β-glucanase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) for the other line were used for crossing. Both chitinase and glucanase genes were cloned into pGreenII vector under the control of the constitutive double 35S-promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus. Progenies expressing the two genes were characterised at the molecular level using PCR, RT-PCR and ...
Preheat the oven to 200C/gas mark 6.. Put the chicken, potatoes, cauliflower and onions into a roasting tin (the tin should be large enough for everything to lie in a single layer, otherwise the chicken and vegetables will sweat instead of roasting).. Add the thyme (tear it roughly and throw it in), olive oil and some seasoning. Toss all this around with your hands.. The chicken should finish with the skin-side facing up. Sprinkle a little flaked sea salt over each piece of chicken - this will help the skin to crisp.. Roast for 35 minutes, tossing occasionally - you have to ensure that the cauliflower gets golden all over, not just on one side. Sprinkle with the Parmesan, then toss to combine and roast for another 10 minutes.. The chicken and potatoes should be cooked through, the onions slightly scorched at the tips and the surface of everything golden.. ...
... (CaMV) is a member of the genus Caulimovirus, one of the six genera in the Caulimoviridae family, ... "The leading sequence of caulimovirus large RNA can be folded into a large stem-loop structure". Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (17): ...
Strawberry vein banding caulimovirus: biology and characterization. PhD dissertation. University of California, Davis. pp. 124 ...
Caulimovirus Carnation etched ring virus Cauliflower mosaic virus Dahlia mosaic virus Figwort mosaic virus Horseradish latent ...
Caulimovirus Carnation etched ring virus Cauliflower mosaic virus Dahlia mosaic virus Figwort mosaic virus Horseradish latent ...
... caulimovirus MeSH B04.715.464.150 --- comovirus MeSH B04.715.464.180 --- cucumovirus MeSH B04.715.464.600 --- potyvirus MeSH ...
C2likevirus C5likevirus Cafeteriavirus Capillovirus Capripoxvirus Cardiovirus Cardoreovirus Carlavirus Carmovirus Caulimovirus ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Caulimoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently ten ... Group: ssRNA-RT Order: Unassigned Family: Caulimoviridae Genus: Caulimovirus Carnation etched ring virus Cauliflower mosaic ... Viruses in Caulimovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=7, T=7 symmetry. The diameter is around 50 nm. ...
Genus Caulimovirus (mit Species Blumenkohlmosaikvirus, en. Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV )). *Genus Cavemovirus ...
Vincent and Dickson continue virology 101 with a discussion of information flow from RNA to DNA, a process known as reverse transcription, which occurs in cells infected with retroviruses, hepatitis B virus, cauliflower mosaic virus, foamy viruses, and even in uninfected cells.. This episode is sponsored by Data Robotics Inc. To receive $50 off a Drobo or $100 off a Drobo S, visit drobostore.com and use the promotion code VINCENT.. [powerpress url="http://traffic.libsyn.com/twiv/TWiV066.mp3″]. Click the arrow above to play, or right-click to download TWiV #66 (50 MB .mp3, 68 minutes). Subscribe to TWiV (free) in iTunes , at the Zune Marketplace, by the RSS feed, or by email.. Links for this episode:. ...
Virion Structure of a Caulimovirus. The virions of a caulimovirus consis of a capsid that is not envelped but round with ... Caulimovirus. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 17:58, 29 June 2006 by Mschlemm. (talk ... Viruses; Retro-transcribing viruses; Caulimoviridae; Caulimovirus Species. Blueberry red ringspot virus, Carnation etched ring ... Caulimovirus is not transmitted by seeds or pollen. As regards vector transmission, the virus is trasmitted by insects of the ...
Caulimovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Caulimoviridae. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently ten ... Group: ssRNA-RT Order: Unassigned Family: Caulimoviridae Genus: Caulimovirus Carnation etched ring virus Cauliflower mosaic ... Viruses in Caulimovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=7, T=7 symmetry. The diameter is around 50 nm. ...
Virion Structure of a Caulimovirus. The virions of a caulimovirus consis of a capsid that is not envelped but round with ... Caulimovirus is not transmitted by seeds or pollen. As regards vector transmission, the virus is trasmitted by insects of the ... Reproduction Cycle of a Caulimovirus in a Host Cell. The genome of caulivirus replicates in the nucleus or the cytoplasm and ... Viruses; Retro-transcribing viruses; Caulimoviridae; Caulimovirus Species. Blueberry red ringspot virus, Carnation etched ring ...
Image:Caulimovirus.jpeg,thumb,right,Electron Micrograph of Caulimovirus.. [[Image:Caulimovirus.jpeg,thumb,right,Electron ... Virion Structure of a Caulimovirus. The virions of a caulimovirus consist of a round, non-enveloped capsid that has icosahedral ... Virus; Retro-transcribing viruses; Caulimoviridae; Caulimovirus Species. Blueberry red ringspot virus, Carnation etched ring ... Cauliflower mosaic virus, in the genus Caulimovirus of the family Caulimoviridae, was the first plant virus discovered to use ...
Virion Structure of a Caulimovirus. The virions of a caulimovirus consist of a round, non-enveloped capsid that has icosahedral ... Virus; Retro-transcribing viruses; Caulimoviridae; Caulimovirus Species. Blueberry red ringspot virus, Carnation etched ring ... Cauliflower mosaic virus, in the genus Caulimovirus of the family Caulimoviridae, was the first plant virus discovered to use ... Electron Micrograph of Caulimovirus. Copyright notice: This notice must accompany any copy of the images. The images must not ...
Caulimoviridae; Integrated Virus; Caulimovirus-5_ArHy Source: Arachis hypogaea Organism: Arachis hypogaea Taxonomy: Eukaryota; ...
14 March 2018: Caulimovirus. 13 March 2018: Rhodocrinus. 12 March 2018: Pediculus humanus capitis. 12 March 2018: Tiliaceae. 12 ...
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Caulimovirus:. cauliflower mosaic virus. Plants. Hepadnaviridae:. Orthohepadnavirus. hepatitis B virus. Vertebrates. ...
Genus: Caulimovirus Species: Strawberry vein banding virus Name[edit]. Strawberry vein banding virus ...
1998). Caulimovirus isolation and DNA extraction. Methods Mol Biol. 81: 53-63.. ...
Study Virology term 1 - positive strand viruses. flashcards from Isabel Leach
Caulimovirus. Circovirus. Cladosporium Coronavirus. Cystoviridae. Enterovirus. Filoviridae. Flaviviridae. Fuselloviridae. ...
... conserved ORF V polyprotein coding region indicated that the Lamium virus is a possible new member of the genus Caulimovirus. ... conserved ORF V polyprotein coding region indicated that the Lamium virus is a possible new member of the genus Caulimovirus. ...
A novel caulimovirus associated with a complete fruit drop symptom in Bluecrop blueberry. Acta Horticulture Proceedings. 1180 ... A novel caulimovirus associated with a complete fruit drop symptom in Bluecrop blueberry - ...
Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is a member of the genus Caulimovirus, one of the six genera in the Caulimoviridae family, ... "The leading sequence of caulimovirus large RNA can be folded into a large stem-loop structure". Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (17): ...
Horseradish Latent Virus, a New Member of the Caulimovirus Group. R. D. Richins, R. J. Shepherd. Pages 749-754. VIEW ABSTRACT ...
Strawberry vein banding caulimovirus: biology and characterization. PhD dissertation. University of California, Davis. pp. 124 ...
HYBRID CAULIMOVIRUS PROMOTERS AND CONSTRUCTS THEREOF. The present invention relates to novel hybrid promoters comprising a ... caulimovirus promoter operably linked to one or more of an EF1.alpha., Act8, Act2 or Act11... ...
Hybrid caulimovirus promoters and constructs thereof. The present invention relates to novel hybrid promoters comprising a ... caulimovirus promoter operably linked to one or more of an EF1.alpha., Act8, Act2 or Act11... ...
Strawberry veinbanding caulimovirus. Baktérie Baktériová spala sóje (osivo). Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. ...
talk , contribs) moved page Caulimoviridae to Caulimovirus (The web page is about Caulimovirus in the genus level, and not the ... talk , contribs) uploaded File:Caulimovirus.jpeg (Electron Micrograph of Caulimovirus. Copyright notice: This notice must ...
Strawberry vein banding Caulimovirus. *Sugarcane Fiji disease fijivirus. *Sugarcane mosaic potyvirus. *Sugarcane sereh disease ...
In Vitro Translation of the Full-Length RNA Transcript of Figwort Mosaic Virus (Caulimovirus) pp. 143-153(11) Authors: RANU, ...
  • Integrated caulimovirus from the peanut genome, consensus. (girinst.org)
  • A short intergenic region is present between ORFs V ( Pol ) and VI (TAV) as observed in the genome of other Caulimovirus-like species such as LLDAV. (gydb.org)