Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Spiperone: A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Nomifensine: An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)Quipazine: A pharmacologic congener of serotonin that contracts smooth muscle and has actions similar to those of tricyclic antidepressants. It has been proposed as an oxytocic.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Butaclamol: A benzocycloheptapyridoisoquinolinol that has been used as an antipsychotic, especially in schizophrenia.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Huntington Disease: A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.NortropanesSubstantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Intuition: Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Schizoid Personality Disorder: A personality disorder manifested by a profound defect in the ability to form social relationships, no desire for social involvement, and an indifference to praise or criticism.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Red Nucleus: A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Mazindol: Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Tiapamil Hydrochloride: A phenylethylamine derivative that acts as a calcium antagonist showing hemodynamic effects in patients with acute myocardial infarction.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Domperidone: A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Homovanillic AcidCytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).5-Hydroxytryptophan: The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (1/891)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Effect of psychotropic drugs on caudate spindle in cats. (2/891)

To ascertain whether neuroleptics act on the caudate nucleus itself, the effects of these compounds as well as other centrally acting drugs were examined in relation to caudate spindle and EEG arousal responses (sciatic nerve stimulation) in gallamine-immobilized cats. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle at a dose which had no effect on the EEG arousal response. On the other hand, clozapine and a higher dose of chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle, but depressed the arousal response. High frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve suppressed the caudate spindle. Pentobarbital, biperiden and diazepam, while depressing the arousal response, caused an enhancement of the caudate spindle. Imipramine at a low dose had no effect on either response, whereas at a high dose this drug enhanced the caudate spindle with concomitant depression of the arousal response. From these results, it may be concluded that the enhancing action on the caudate spindle induced by haloperidol and a low dose of chlorpromazine is due to an increase in susceptibility of the caudate nucleus itself. In addition, it is suggested that depression of the activating system is involved in an appearance of the caudate spindle.  (+info)

N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain. (3/891)

Morbidity and mortality from head trauma is highest among children. No animal model mimicking traumatic brain injury in children has yet been established, and the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration after traumatic injury to the developing brain are not understood. In infant rats subjected to percussion head trauma, two types of brain damage could be characterized. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hr and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hr and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus and striatum. Secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate and dizocilpine protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage. 2-Sulfo-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone, a free radical scavenger, did not affect primary excitotoxic damage but mitigated apoptotic damage. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determine neuropathologic outcome after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Whereas free radical scavengers may prove useful in therapy of head trauma in children, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists should be avoided because of their propensity to increase severity of apoptotic damage.  (+info)

Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage. (4/891)

The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22/1000 and of HMD 4-44/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the incidence of IVH in babies weighing 1001-1500 g was three times as great as that reported in the 1658 British Perinatal Mortality Survey. Most IVH deaths were in babies with HMD, but the higher frequency of IVH was not associated with any prolongation of survival time of babies who died with HMD as compared with the 1958 survey. IVH was seen frequently at gestations of up to 36 weeks in babies with HMD but was rare above 30 weeks' gestation in babies without HMD. This indicated that factors associated with HMD must cause most cases of IVH seen at gestations above 30 weeks. Comparison of clinical details in infants with HMD who died with or without IVH (at gestations of 30-37 weeks) showed no significant differences between the groups other than a high incidence of fits and greater use of alkali therapy in the babies with IVH. During the 12 hours when most alkali therapy was given, babies dying with IVD received a mean total alkali dosage of 10-21 mmol/kg and those dying without IVH 6-34 mmol/kg (P less than 0-001). There was no difference in severity of hypoxia or of metabolic acidosis between the 2 groups. Babies who died with HMD and germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) without IVH had received significantly more alkali than those who died with HMD alone, whereas survivors of severe respiratory distress syndrome had received lower alkali doses than other groups. It is suggested that the greatly increased death rate from IVH in babies with HMD indicates some alteration of management of HMD (since 1958) as a causative factor. Liberal use of hypertonic alkali solutions is the common factor which distinguishes babies dying with GLH and IVH from other groups of babies with HMD. Although the causal nature of this association remains unproved, it seems justifiable to lrge caution in alkali usage.  (+info)

Clozapine preferentially increases dopamine release in the rhesus monkey prefrontal cortex compared with the caudate nucleus. (5/891)

Despite substantial differences between species in the organization and elaboration of the cortical dopamine innervation, little is known about the pharmacological response of cortical or striatal sites to antipsychotic medications in nonhuman primates. To examine this issue, rhesus monkeys were chronically implanted with guide cannulae directed at the principal sulcus, medial prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, and caudate nucleus. Alterations in dopamine release in these discrete brain regions were measured in response to administration of clozapine or haloperidol. Clozapine produced significant and long-lasting increases in dopamine release in the principal sulcus, and to a lesser extent, in the caudate nucleus. Haloperidol did not produce a consistent effect on dopamine release in the principal sulcus, although it increased dopamine release in the caudate. Clozapine's preferential augmentation of dopamine release in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex supports the idea that clozapine exerts its therapeutic effects in part by increasing cortical dopamine neurotransmission.  (+info)

Memory guided saccade deficit after caudate nucleus lesion. (6/891)

The role of the caudate nucleus in ocular motor control is not well determined in humans. Eye movements were recorded from a 45 year old man with infarctions involving bilaterally the body of the caudate nucleus, with a greater extent on the left side. The patient exhibited a pattern of eye movement abnormalities in which a delay dependent decrease of accuracy of memory guided saccades predominated. By contrast, memory guided pointing was normal. It is concluded that the body of the caudate nucleus participates in a spatial short term memory network devoted to eye movements.  (+info)

Sequential bilateral transplantation in Parkinson's disease: effects of the second graft. (7/891)

Five parkinsonian patients who had received implants of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue unilaterally in the striatum 10-56 months earlier were grafted with tissue from four to eight donors into the putamen (four patients) or the putamen plus the caudate nucleus (one patient) on the other side, and were followed for 18-24 months. After 12-18 months, PET showed a mean 85% increase in 6-L-[18F]fluorodopa uptake in the putamen with the second graft, whereas there was no significant further change in the previously transplanted putamen. Two patients exhibited marked additional improvements after their second graft: 'on-off' fluctuations virtually disappeared, movement speed increased, and L-dopa could be withdrawn in one patient and reduced by 70% in the other. The improvement in one patient was moderate. Two patients with atypical features, who responded poorly to the first graft, worsened following the second transplantation. These findings indicate that sequential transplantation in patients does not compromise the survival and function of either the first or the second graft. Moreover, putamen grafts that restore fluorodopa uptake to normal levels can give improvements of major therapeutic value.  (+info)

Massive subependymal hemorrhage caused by an occult vascular malformation--two case reports. (8/891)

Two patients presented with massive subependymal hemorrhage caused by vascular anomalies occult to angiography, computed tomography (CT) scanning, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A 47-year-old male initially presented with a headache and became comatose 3 weeks later. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a massive hematoma in the right caudate head projecting into the lateral ventricle. A 60-year-old male sustained heaviness of his left extremities 8 days prior to admission and his condition gradually deteriorated. Neuroimaging revealed a right thalamic hematoma adjacent to the lateral ventricle. Cerebral angiography, CT, and MR imaging failed to detect any vascular anomaly. The hematomas increased in size gradually and were surgically explored. The histological diagnosis was arteriovenous malformation for the first case and cavernous angioma for the second case that had ruptured repeatedly. These cases were unique in the unusual location in the subependyma, and diagnostic neuroimaging modalities could not disclose the vascular anomalies, and the hematomas enlarged progressively to become critically symptomatic. Surgical intervention is mandatory for mass reduction and correct diagnosis of such lesions, with favorable outcome as long as the surgery is not delayed until too late.  (+info)

We have demonstrated that volume of the head and body of the caudate nucleus differs significantly and substantially (ranging from 93% to 75% of control caudate volumes) in subtypes of FTLD. We also found that caudate nucleus volume was correlated with cognition measured via MMSE score, with lower volume correlating with poorer cognition. This finding complements previous meta-analyses showing functional and structural change in the caudate within subtypes of FTLD as well as in cortical regions.1. Krishnamoorthy30 has postulated that increase in volume of brain structures associated with emotion, such as the amygdala, may reflect either a predilection for emotional reactivity or plasticity and growth of the structure due to hyperactivity. The corollary is that neurodegenerative processes may result in atrophy and underactivity of the structure. Therefore, the caudate may be reduced in volume due to underactivity and/or degeneration as part of the FTLD process. That smaller caudate nucleus volume ...
Define caudate nucleus. caudate nucleus synonyms, caudate nucleus pronunciation, caudate nucleus translation, English dictionary definition of caudate nucleus. n. A basal ganglion located in the lateral ventricle of the brain that has a curved, taillike extension and functions in motor control. Noun 1.
The cat caudate nucleus has been reported to possess a rich and fairly even distribution of nerve endings, containing both dopamine- and cholecystokinin-like peptides. In this study, the effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) on basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus previously labeled with [3H]dopamine was examined. Evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus was Ca2+ dependent and abolished by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that it reflects action potential-induced [3H]dopamine release. In the presence of bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, the sulfated but not the unsulfated form of CCK-8 inhibited both basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus at very low concentrations. CCK-8 sulfate was efficient in causing this effect in concentrations down to 10(-14) M, and the maximum effect was obtained with 10(-11) M. In contrast, without bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, no inhibitory effect of CCK-8 ...
The caudate nucleus is one of three basic structures that make up the basal ganglia. Along with the putamen and globus pallidus, as well in conjunction with the thalamus and two related structures (the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus), the caudate nucleus constitutes a system that is responsible largely for voluntary movement. While this system has long been associated with motor processes due primarily to the basal ganglias role in Parkinsons disease, there is mounting evidence that the structures that make up the basal ganglia-the caudate nucleus included-play important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well. Organizationally, the interplay between the basal ganglia and various regions in the brain is best described as a series of cortico-striatal loops, in which the striatum receives axons from the cortex (along with the putamen, the caudate nuclei are the main input regions for the basal ganglia), processes the information, then relays this back to distinct cortical ...
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Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio (CC/IT) is used in assessing patients with neurodegenerative diseases that affect the caudate nuclei. It is best known for assessing individuals with suspected Huntingtons disease but is in no way...
To test the hypothesis that craving for alcohol in the alcohol-dependent individual is mediated by a limbic circuit involving the caudate nuclei, regional cerebral blood flow was measured with [99mTc]HMPAO SPECT during control and craving conditions in 9 alcohol-dependent subjects. In all subjects, blood flow in the head of the right caudate nucleus increased during the craving condition, and these blood flow increases were strongly correlated with the experimentally induced increases in craving for alcohol. These new findings suggest a functional role for the limbic striatum in the mediation of craving and impaired control over alcohol consumption.
Love. Brain imaging has to be interpreted with some degree of care; the relationship between brain and mind is only beginning to emerge. With that caution, some interesting results. The "madly in love" infatuation phase doesnt actually seem to involve the emotional brain. Instead, it heavily involves the motivation and reward areas of the brain (dopamine heaven). Its only later, as a relationship matures, that the regions of the brain associated with emotion become more involved. (Personal note: This supports a belief Ive long held, Im sure in common with many readers, that the strongest long-term relationships start off as gradually-deepening friendships.) Said another way, the wild infatuation phase has much more in common with powerful drives like hunger and thirst than with the complexities and satisfactions of love in the long term. An aside to gratify a certain segment of the SBAA membership, the same regions activated when madly in love - the right caudate nucleus and the right ...
By Luke Davies. Follow Luke on Twitter.. A recent article in the New York Times has advocated extending the notion of personhood, and the rights associated with that status, to dogs. Gregory Burns, the author of the article, argued for this position on the basis of the structural and functional similarity between the caudate nucleus of dogs and humans. The caudate nucleus, Burns tells us, is that part of the brain responsible for our feeling of anticipation of things we enjoy. More than this, the activity of the caudate nucleus is so consistent in MRI scans that he claims we may be able to use our monitoring of its activity to predict our tastes for certain things (he lists music, food and beauty). Importantly for Burns, activity in the caudate increased in dogs in response to positive stimulus: a gesture signaling food, or the appearance of the owner. The tentative conclusion to these findings is that the MRI images signal the possibility of canine emotion. Burns makes clear that without the ...
Contemporary associative theory distinguishes between habitual S-R associations and a combination of S-O, O-R, and R-O associations thought to mediate goal-directed performance (Balleine and Ostlund, 2007). In this study, we used multivariate pattern analysis to assess whether dissociable regions of the human brain encode these distinct associative structures. Unlike previous work in humans, contrasting qualitatively different experimental conditions designed to encourage different action-selection strategies, or comparing largely parameter-driven value signals generated by RL algorithms, our approach sought to identify a neural implementation of the associative content of goal-directed versus habitual behavioral control. We found evidence for stimulus-elicited response representations but no outcome representations, indicative of habits, in the DLS (posterior putamen). Conversely, in the vmPFC, dlPFC, and anterior caudate nucleus, both response and outcome representations were present, ...
By comparison with these reports our results demonstrate a different pattern of hyperechogenic lesions in Huntingtons disease, primarily affecting the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra. Considering different basal ganglia regions, hyperechogenic lesions of the substantia nigra were detectable in Huntingtons disease half as often as reported previously in Parkinsons disease.9 The rate of hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus was similar in Huntingtons disease and dystonia. Nevertheless, we found a considerably high signal intensity in most patients showing caudate nucleus hyperechogenic lesions, possibly pointing towards the predominant localisation of neuronal loss, whereas hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus in dystonia were described as mild. The precise morphological and pathological interpretation of basal ganglia hyperechogenicity demonstrated by TCS is still speculative. The fact that in the present study hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus were ...
There is still considerable controversy regarding the influence of blood viscosity upon CBF. We have measured CBF with microspheres in 23 cats. Autoregulation was disturbed in the left caudate nucleus by microsurgical occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Induced hypertension or hypotension was used and i.v. mannitol (1 g/kg) administered. In all cats blood viscosity decreased an average of 16% at 15 minutes and, in 16 cats, increased 10% at 75 minutes post-mannitol. CBF in the right caudate was 79 +/- 6 ml/100g/min, in the left 38 +/- 6 (p less than 0.001). Only minor changes of CBF occurred in areas with presumed normal autoregulation, including the right caudate, in conjunction with pressure or viscosity changes. In the left caudate CBF decreased 21% with hypotension and 18% with higher viscosity, more than on the right (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.2, respectively). CBF increased in the left caudate 56% with hypertension and 47% with lower viscosity, again much more than on the ...
Methods 25 NOTCH3 mutation carriers and 18 healthy controls were examined using high-resolution T2*-weighted imaging on a 7 T whole body MRI scanner. Susceptibility-weighted MRI scans were analysed for areas of signal loss and increased phase shift. Phase shift measurements in deep grey nuclei, cortex and subcortical white matter were compared between mutation carriers and controls. For confirmation, ex vivo brain specimens from another three patients with CADASIL were analysed for iron deposition using ex vivo MRI combined with iron histochemistry.. ...
Huntingtons disease (HD) pathology is well understood at a histological level but a comprehensive molecular analysis of the effect of the disease in the human brain has not previously been available. To elucidate the molecular phenotype of HD on a genome-wide scale, we compared mRNA profiles from 44 human HD brains with those from 36 unaffected controls using microarray analysis. Four brain regions were analyzed: caudate nucleus, cerebellum, prefrontal association cortex [Brodmanns area 9 (BA9)] and motor cortex [Brodmanns area 4 (BA4)]. The greatest number and magnitude of differentially expressed mRNAs were detected in the caudate nucleus, followed by motor cortex, then cerebellum. Thus, the molecular phenotype of HD generally parallels established neuropathology. Surprisingly, no mRNA changes were detected in prefrontal association cortex, thereby revealing subtleties of pathology not previously disclosed by histological methods. To establish that the observed changes were not simply the ...
In the absence of visual input, the question arises as to how complex spatial abilities develop and how the brain adapts to the absence of this modality. As such, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between visual status and an important brain structure with a well established role in spatial cognition and navigation, the caudate nucleus. We conducted a volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in congenitally and late blind individuals, as well as in matched sighted control subjects ...
Laura Igual, Joan Carles Soliva, Antonio Hernandez-Vela, Sergio Escalera, Xavier Jimenez, Oscar Vilarroya and Petia Radeva (2011), "A Fully-Automatic Caudate Nucleus Segmentation of Brain MRI: Application in Volumetric Analysis of Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder", BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2011, 10:105 doi:10.1186/1475-925X-10-105, ISSN: 1475-925X, Published: 5 December 2011 ...
The performances of 12 patients with Parkinsons disease (PD), 16 with Huntingtons disease (HD), and young and old healthy controls were assessed on a number of tests of verbal and nonverbal declarative memory, on a test of nonmotor conditional associative learning (words and colors), and on a number of reaction time (RT) tasks. The RT tasks consisted of cued simple and choice reactions. The relationship between the precue and the imperative stimulus in the S1-S2 paradigm was nonarbitrary in the first series and arbitrary in the second series. The series with arbitrary S1-S2 associations was repeated across two successive blocks of trials. The rationale of the study was to investigate the function of the basal ganglia "complex loop," and it was postulated that HD patients would show greater deficits because of greater involvement of the caudate nucleus. The patients with HD had the slowest RTs. Across the two blocks with arbitrary S1-S2 associations, the patients with HD but not PD nevertheless ...
Every exposure to caffeine can produce cerebral stimulant effects. This is especially true in the areas that control locomotor activity (eg, caudate nucleus) and structures involved in the sleep-wake ... more
WebTemp -свободно распространяемая программа для отображения аппаратной составляющей компьютера. Предоставляет человеку подробную информацию о следующих данных, например, температура CPU, материнской памяти и видеокарты, скорость вентилятора, загрузка CPU и ОЗУ и много другой информации.
ASPERGERS SYNDROME LESSON. Directions:. Print the Aspergers Syndrome reading comprehension passage and questions (see below).. Students should read the passage silently, then answer the questions. Teachers may also use the text as part of a classroom lesson plan.. Lesson Excerpt. Aspergers Syndrome is a disorder in which people have extreme difficulty with social interaction. There is much more to it than just being shy around other people. This disorder is severe to the point that it causes major problems socially, at work, and in other areas of life. Many cases of Aspergers Syndrome go undetected. It was not even recognized as a disorder until 1994.. There are many symptoms of Aspergers Syndrome. A person may have difficulty using nonverbal gestures like eye contact, facial expression, and body posture. There may be difficulty in developing relationships with peers. A person may not seek to enjoy things with other people. He/she may be socially or emotionally unresponsive.. People with ...
Find Aspergers Syndrome Therapists, Psychologists and Aspergers Syndrome Counseling in Plainview, Nassau County, New York, get help for Aspergers Syndrome in Plainview.
We describe an atypical neuropatholgical phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 64-year-old man presenting with a 5-month history of rapidly progressive dementia, comprising behavioral disturbances, memory complaints, disorientation and language alterations. MRI showed diffuse atrophy and hyperintensities in parietal, occipital, temporal and frontal cortices and left caudate nucleus on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. No typical EEG alterations were observed. Repeated 14-3-3 assay was positive after a first negative test. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes with small cortical foci of large confluent vacuoles and relatively well-preserved cerebellar cortex. The most striking feature was the presence of abundant Kuru-type plaques in both cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter. Sparse Kuru-type plaques were also seen in cerebellum, although only in white matter. Immunohistochemistry showed, in addition to unicentric plaques, diffuse ...
The goal of this study was to determine if regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)in the left and right hemithalami or the left and right heads of the cau
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder of childhood characterized by motor and vocal tics. Patients with TS have decreased volume of the striatum (a region of the basal ganglia composed by caudate and putamen), and the decrease in caudate volume in childhood is inversely correlated with the severity of symptoms in adulthood. We have shown a large decrease in density of three classes of striatal interneurons in the striatum of TS: Parvalbumin+-GABAergic; NOS+/NPY+/SST+-GABAergic; and cholinergic (Kalanithi et al, 2005; Kataoka et al, 2010). Transcriptome analysis revealed a corresponding decreased expression of 308 genes encompassing genes related to these three classes of interneuron and inhibitory neurotransmission in general, as well as an up-regulation of 822 genes representing inflammatory response- and immune system-related genes (Lennington et al., 2014). Current studies in the lab aim to analyze genetic and epigenetic differences in the striatum and cortex as a whole and ...
My 33-year-old son, who had ADHD as a child, is now showing symptoms of Aspergers syndrome. What kind of support is out there for him?
Aspergers syndrome (AS) is one of the pervasive developmental disorders-a group of neurodevelopmental conditions of early onset characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and by restricted interest and behaviors. This chapter provides an overview of the historical and research background of AS leading to current debates; the changing nature of this discussion given the transformative changes in autism research in general in the past decade; the unchanging nature of these individuals needs whether or not the term survives new updates in psychiatric classification; and suggestions for a future more likely to clarify old questions while raising new and more scientifically helpful ones. To anchor this discussion in clinical realities, an overview of clinical features, treatment, and support services is also provided.
Crystals have beneficial effects on the aura and energy fields of humans. They can help to energise and rejuvenate cells in the body and provide deep healing to the mind, spirit and soul. This makes crystals excellent for children and adults with autism and aspergers syndrome.
Students with Aspergers syndrome are invited to join this group to meet new friends in a nonjudgmental setting andd share their experiences, successes, and struggles. NOTE: The final meeting for both groups is Friday, April 25.
USA Today has uncovered a 2008 Pentagon report that claims Russian President Vladimir Putin has exhibited symptoms of Aspergers syndrome.
Comedian D. L. Hughley explains on Oprahs Where Are They Now that his son has aspergers syndrome and how he was worried for him
Sherlock Holmes, Aspergers syndrome, BBC Sherlock, high functioning sociopath, antisocial, Benedict Cumberbatch, Aspie aspergers. High intelligence Aspergian.
It is well-known that social influences affect consumption decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with social influence with regard to a common consumer good: music. Our study population was adolescents, age 12-17. Music is a common purchase in this age group, and it is widely believed that adolescent behavior is influenced by perceptions of popularity in their reference group. Using 15-s clips of songs from MySpace.com, we obtained behavioral measures of preferences and neurobiological responses to the songs. The data were gathered with, and without, the overall popularity of the song revealed. Song popularity had a significant effect on the participants likability ratings of the songs. fMRI results showed a strong correlation between the participants rating and activity in the caudate nucleus, a region previously implicated in reward-driven actions. The tendency to change ones evaluation of a song was positively ...
i am a self diagnosed Aspie. I am becoming a psycologist because my interest is schizophrenia, I cant make eye contact, I have terrible social skills and it all makes me feel so outcasted. I am in the...
Your Asperger Child: The Reasons Behind the Behavior You need to understand what your child or teenager is thinking, how he interprets what is going on, and how his deficits cause problems before you can begin any intervention strategy. Do not ru ...
My 6 year old son has exhibited some questionable behaviour. Some info on him: At 6 years old (almost 7) he has had only a handful of dry nights. Most nights he wets the bed at least twice, sometimes u...
British singing sensation Susan Boyle has stepped forward to admit that a Scottish specialist diagnosed her with Aspergers syndrome last yeara realization that has led her to become more at ease with herself and hopeful that others will show h
Jeffrey does not have ADHD. Jeffrey has Aspergers Syndrome. Weve suspected it for quite some time, so the diagnosis comes as zero surprise. Any questions? Ill be explaining more later.
Some in the newsroom hope so, and many believe so, and even think they know who his replacement might be-but only Rupert Murdoch knows for sure.
Your child may have just been diagnosed or he is showing symptoms of an autism spectrum disorders and you now wonder, What is Aspergers Syndrome? With a recent - or anticipated - diagnosis you are wondering where to turn. Perhaps you are trying to figure out what this will mean for your child and your familys future. Here you can find an overview on what Aspergers Syndrome is and what to expect in the future.. First of all, Aspergers is an autism spectrum disorder. Autism is a developmental disorder than affects the way a child...or adult...interacts with, perceives and interprets the world. A spectrum means that there are many different forms of autism, ranging from very severe to very mild. Those on the more high functioning side usually get a diagnosis of Aspergers Syndrome.. Many children as well as adults may be misdiagnosed...this is unfortunately all too common. Many are initially diagnosed with ADHD or OCD or some other condition before a proper diagnosis is reached. This is ...
Most symptoms persist through the teen years. And although teens with Aspergers can begin to learn those social skills they lack, communication often remains difficult. They will probably continue to have difficulty "reading" others behavior. Your teen with Aspergers syndrome (like other teens) will want friends but may feel shy or intimidated when approaching other teens. He or she may feel "different" from others. Although most teens place emphasis on being and looking "cool," teens with Aspergers may find it frustrating and emotionally draining to try to fit in. They may be immature for their age and be naive and too trusting, which can lead to teasing and bullying.. All of these difficulties can cause teens with Aspergers to become withdrawn and socially isolated and to have depression or anxiety.footnote 1. But some teens with Aspergers syndrome are able to make and keep a few close friends through the school years. Some of the classic Aspergers traits may also work to the benefit of ...
250 µCi quantities of Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), ?-[2,3-3H(N)]- , Specific Activity: 70-100Ci/mMole are available for your research. Application of [3H] GABA can be found in: effects of diazepam in pharmacology biochemistry/behavior, in vivo release in cat caudate nucleus in brain research, electrically evoked release from rat cerebral cortex in pharmacology, uptake by oligodendrocytes in autoradiographic and immunocytochemical studies, etc. ...
1 mCi quantities of Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), ?-[2,3-3H(N)]- , Specific Activity: 70-100Ci/mMole are available for your research. Application of [3H] GABA can be found in: effects of diazepam in pharmacology biochemistry/behavior, in vivo release in cat caudate nucleus in brain research, electrically evoked release from rat cerebral cortex in pharmacology, uptake by oligodendrocytes in autoradiographic and immunocytochemical studies, etc. ...
1) Dear Alice,. Do I really have Aspergers Syndrome? The other day, one of my friends suggested that I was showing some autistic signs, which made me quite worried. I thought something may have been wrong with me. Since then Ive taken several AQ tests on the internet and most of them say I may be an "Aspie." Im too frightened to tell my peers because theyll most like treat me differently, and Im to embarrassed to tell my close family. What should I do to be certain whether or not I have Aspergers Syndrome?. (2) Dear Alice,. I just turned 18, and Im a girl. Ive been diagnosed with Aspergers "traits" by my psychiatrist in the past (I was also diagnosed with ADHD Inattentive Type), but since Ive started working at a school for kids with Spectrum disorders, Ive started to realize how similar some of my behaviors and reactions to them. For instance, I dont recognize facial expressions, unless theyre extreme, I love sensory things - like rolling one of those squishy toys with the rubber ...
A number of genetic polymorphisms are related to individual differences in cognitive performance. Striatal dopamine (DA) functions, associated with cognitive performance, are linked to the TaqIA polymorphism of the DRD2/ANKK1 gene. In humans, presence of an A1 allele of the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIA polymorphism is related to reduced density of striatal DA D2 receptors. The resource-modulation hypothesis assumes that aging-related losses of neurochemical and structural brain resources modulate the extent to which genetic variations affect cognitive functioning. Here, we tested this hypothesis using functional MRI during long-term memory (LTM) updating in younger and older carriers and noncarriers of the A1-allele of the TaqIa polymorphism. We demonstrate that older A1-carriers have worse memory performance, specifically during LTM updating, compared to noncarriers. Moreover, A1-carriers exhibited less blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in left caudate nucleus, a region critical to updating. ...
What distinguishes Aspergers Disorder from classic autism are its less severe symptoms and the absence of language delays. Children with Aspergers Disorder may be only mildly affected, and they frequently have good language and cognitive skills. To the untrained observer, a child with Aspergers Disorder may just seem like a neurotypical child behaving differently.. Children with autism are frequently viewed as aloof and uninterested in others. This is not the case with Aspergers Disorder. Individuals with Aspergers Disorder usually want to fit in and have interaction with others, but often they dont know how to do it. They may be socially awkward, not understand conventional social rules or show a lack of empathy. They may have limited eye contact, seem unengaged in a conversation and not understand the use of gestures or sarcasm.. Their interests in a particular subject may border on the obsessive. Children with Aspergers Disorder often like to collect categories of things, such as rocks ...
Gene expression data provide invaluable insights into disease mechanisms. In Huntingtons disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease caused by a tri-nucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene, extensive transcriptional dysregulation has been reported. Conventional dysregulation analysis has shown that e.g. in the caudate nucleus of the post mortem HD brain the gene expression level of about a third of all genes was altered. Owing to this large number of dysregulated genes, the underlying relevance of expression changes is often lost in huge gene lists that are difficult to comprehend. To alleviate this problem, we employed weighted correlation network analysis to archival gene expression datasets of HD post mortem brain regions. We were able to uncover previously unidentified transcription dysregulation in the HD cerebellum that contained a gene expression signature in common with the caudate nucleus and the BA4 region of the frontal cortex. Furthermore, we found that yet unassociated pathways, e
Aspiritech, a Chicago-based tech startup, is a software testing firm that exclusively hires people with Aspergers syndrome. Why? Because apparently, people suffering from Aspergers make for the perfect software tester. And this isnt even news! Studies have shown people with Aspergers thriving in tech fields...
Trust and reputation are so vital to social interaction-especially when money is involved-that they may have dedicated circuitry in the brain.. The decision to trust ones partner in an investment game correlates with activity in a part of the brain called the caudate nucleus, according to a study by P. Read Montague and colleagues at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, and the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. In each of 10 rounds of the game, one partner, the investor, was given $20 and sent some, all, or none to the other player, the trustee. The money appreciated, tripling in value; the trustee then decided how much to return to the investor. The researchers monitored the players brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging.. The caudate nucleus of the trustee showed a change in activity when the trustee intended to increase repayment in the next round of play. As the game progressed, this "intention to trust" signal appeared about 14 seconds sooner-even before ...
Aspergers syndrome, sometimes called nerd syndrome, is a neurological disorder categorized under the umbrella of Autistic Spectrum Disorders.
The basal ganglia (the odd "snail-shaped" region in the diagram below, which includes the aforementioned putamen, globus pallidus and caudate nucleus, as well as a few other sub regions we havent yet discussed) is another key brain region which is believed to be involved in ADHD and other related disorders. The basal ganglia region of the brain essentially determine how fast a persons brain "idles". This region has often been found to be underactive in ADHD and similar disorders and overactive in obsessive compulsive or anxiety-related disorders. Thus the basal ganglia function can have some far-reaching implications. Not surprisingly, then, is the fact that mis-development in the "wiring process" of the basal ganglia (such as seen in the formative years), may play a crucial role on the onset of ADHD both directly, and indirectly (via interaction with other key "ADHD" brain regions ...
This section, 7 mm. above the previous level, illustrates the anterior limb of the internal capsule as it passes forward between the head of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus ...
We merged three large datasets as follows: Firstly, we accessed expression data drawn from massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) covering 182,719 tag signatures across 32 tissues [2]. Tissues represented on the MPSS data included nine different central nervous system (CNS) areas (amygdale, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, corpus callosum, fetal brain, hypothalamus, thalamus, spinal cord, and pituitary gland) and 23 non-CNS organs (adrenal gland, bladder, bone marrow, heart, kidney, lung, mammary gland, pancreas, placenta, prostate, retina, salivary gland, small intestine, spleen, stomach, testis, thymus, thyroid, trachea, uterus, colon, monocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes). A total of 18,677 unique genes were represented on the MPSS data and the number of expressed genes per tissue averaged 8,943 and ranged from 5,845 in pancreas to 12,267 in testis.. Secondly, we downloaded a set of 55,606 true positive interactions among 7,197 genes that were defined from functional studies [15]. ...
Aspergers Syndrome is finally moving into the spotlight. Questions that have perplexed Aspergers (AS) and neurotypical (NT) family members alike are now finding answers.
ABSTRACTS:. 1. Heuser, G. Stress in Disease. 60th Annual Session of The Academy, Chicago, IL. October 1955. Tr. Am. Academy Ophthalm-Otolaryng, p. 151, March-April, 1955.. 2. Heuser, G. and Selye, H. Conditioning for Anesthesia with Cortisol Hemisuccinate Sodium. 38th meeting of the Endocrine Society, June 1956. Journal Clinical Endocrinology, 61:952. 1956.. 3. Heuser, G.; Buchwald, N.A. and Wyers, E.J. Inhibition of Caudate Induced"Spindling" by Stimulation of Thalamic and Basal Ganglionic Structures. 14th American EEG Society meeting. 1960.. 4. Buchwald, N.A.; Wyers, E.J. and Heuser, G. Relation of the Caudate Nucleus to an Inhibitory Feedback Mechanism. 14th American EEG Society meeting. 1960.. 5. Buchwald, N.A.; Wyers, E.J.; Lauprecht, C.W. and Heuser, G. An Electrical Indication of Behavioral Inhibition. AAA meeting, Anat. Rec., 139-212. March 1961.. 6. Heuser, G. and Eidelberg, E. Convulsions Induced by a Steroid Hormone in Cats. West. Pharm. Soc. Proc., 4:67. 1961.. 7. Heuser, G.; ...
Iakimovskii A.F.; Bobrova I.V. The effect of the chronic injection of leu-enkephalin and its tetrapeptide analog into the canine caudate nucleus on the realization of conditioned food reflexes Vliianie khronicheskogo vvedeniia v khvostatoe iadro sobak leǐ-énkefalina i ego analoga tetrapeptida na realizatsiiu pishchevykh uslovnykh refleksov.. ZH. VYSSH. NERVN. DEYAT. IM. I. P. PAVLOVA 1992, 42(2), 378-380 ...
Dr. Gaskill responded: Aspergers. Yes for sure but seek out a good md and licensed psychologist who can differentiate issues associated with both. |a href="/topics/autism" track_data="{
They need to be given proper guidance to develop relationship skills throughout the course of their life. Starting at a young age, the childs parents need to focus on the necessity of developing healthy friendships that will also promote stronger self-esteem. Once they have reached adolescence, theres an ongoing need to teach an accurate portrayal of attraction, dating, and sexuality. It would be a good idea to have a trusted friend or family member meet possible dates. They can give insight and perspective on whether that person will be a good choice before the dating process begins ...
A website and virtual community dedicated to lifelong learning and support for people who have an intellectual disability, their families and support networks.
My son is 21 years old and a junior in college. He lives at home, drives short distances, works long hours on the weekends as a cashier in a nearby
A 22-year-old man was diagnosed as ADHD when he was 3 years old. He was restless, had problems in human relations, and obstructed classes at his elementary school. His mother attended the classes to support him for months. He hardly sit down and stayed at his classroom, and medicines did not help him. He had becoming violent since 11 years old because he could not communicate with others. Thus, his doctor diagnosed him Aspergers Syndrome. After a while, he stopped going to school. ...
Inside and out, Brandons world looks and feels different. Brandon Wise lives every day with Aspergers syndrome - a form of autism.
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Are traditional autism and Aspergers two distinct conditions, as depicted in DSM IV? Or are they points on a curve, and properly combined into the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) of DSM5? I explain and translate recent studies that shed light on the question.
A proposed new definition of autism is sure to spark an outcry among parents, professionals and many currently diagnosed with Aspergers Syndrome and Pervasive
Treatment for Aspergers syndrome strives to improve your childs abilities to interact with other people and thus to function effectively in society and be self - sufficient.
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The present study examined the regional differences in dopamine transporter binding sites and NMDA receptor complex binding based on autoradiographic images obtained in postmortem sections of human normal brain tissues. in middle-aged control tissues, high and comparable levels of [H-3]CFT binding were observed in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and accumbens nucleus without significant alteration along the rostrocaudal axis and ventral and dorsal parts of these nuclei. in aging normal brain tissues, dopamine binding sites for [H-3]CFT were significantly reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and accumbens nucleus. L-[H-3]Glutamate, [H-3]MK-801, and [H-3]glycine binding to the NMDA receptor complex was lower in aging brain tissues than in middle-aged controls. Significant correlation did occur between age and [H-3]CFT binding and between age and L-[H-3]glutamate, [H-3]MK-801, and [H-3]glycine binding sites. These results demonstrate that the basal ganglia have age-associated reductions in ...
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In the current study, three portions of the ARAS (the dorsal lower ARAS, ventral lower ARAS and upper ARAS) in a patient with impaired consciousness following DPHL caused by CO poisoning were evaluated using DTT. We found that these three portions of the ARAS were injured in both hemispheres: the upper ARAS - decreased neural connectivity to both frontal cortexes, basal forebrains, basal ganglia and thalami, the dorsal lower ARAS - non-reconstruction in the right side and narrowing in the left side and the ventral lower ARAS -non-reconstruction in both sides. We believe that the impaired consciousness in this patient was ascribed to the injury of the three portions of the ARAS.. Many studies have reported abnormality of the white matter including basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) in patients with DPHL using various neuroimaging tools including conventional MRI [5-13]. Neurological manifestations were observed as follows: 1) cognitive impairments - confusion, ...
Note - This is from a personal and professional perspective. The previous linear diagnostic seperation between Autism and Aspergers was IQ and speech delay in this blog post I shall be challenging those concepts. Different Worlds - All Human I think in the ever growing diversity of the distinct and person-centred presentations of autism it…
Haddon has written his first novel for adults, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time. The narrator of the story is an autistic teenager who is obsessed with Sherlock Holmes and who must prove his innocence when a neighborhood dog is killed. Haddon lives in England and teaches creative writing for the Arvon Foundation and for Oxford University. Terry Gross discusses the book with the author. [19:27 Realaudio broadcast] (June 26, 2003) ...
The number of people being diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders is on the rise, and while there are many different types, a new book looks at one of the best-known from the inside.
Abraham Lincoln, Jane Austen, Nikola Tesla, Albert Einstein, Sir Isaac Newton, Henry Ford, George Washington, Marilyn Monroe, and Amadeus Mozart and even of recent, the late Steve Jobs
I have Aspergers Syndrome, a form of autism, sometimes called High Functioning Autism, since folks with it have normal to above average intelligence, but are impaired in other ways typical of the autism spectrum. Heres some posts Ive written about coming to realize this, and reflections on my life seen through the eyes of autism:…
A new study found that the hormone oxytocin, which fosters mother-infant bonding and trust, helped people with Aspergers syndrome improve their social learning skills.
Growing up with a father with Aspergers Syndrome, having a Aspergers myself and raising a son with Aspergers has taught me quite a bit about life on the Autism Spectrum. I hope to help others on and off the spectrum gain understanding.
Growing up with a father with Aspergers Syndrome, having a Aspergers myself and raising a son with Aspergers has taught me quite a bit about life on the Autism Spectrum. I hope to help others on and off the spectrum gain understanding.
A couple of years ago, a psychologist that I was chatting to at a party told me that she thought I had Aspergers. I wasnt upset. I was actually rather relieved, as it explained everything. Since then, several more people, who work for "Disability Challengers", working with children with severe ASDs (Autism Spectrum Disorders) have told me much the same thing ...
A couple of years ago, a psychologist that I was chatting to at a party told me that she thought I had Aspergers. I wasnt upset. I was actually rather relieved, as it explained everything. Since then, several more people, who work for "Disability Challengers", working with children with severe ASDs (Autism Spectrum Disorders) have told me much the same thing ...
I learned one thing from my studies, that it was a repetitive nature that mattered in weightloss. Perfect for someone with aspergers syndrome whose never happier than when following a routine. The take home message from my time at Loughborough University was that it wasnt how much you ate, it was that you ate the same all the time. So its possible to loose weight eating 400 calories a day with lighter life, but the main problem comes from the fact that you simply cant keep it up. The more sensible (but frightening) option is to feed yourself the exact number of calories that you need per day based upon weight/height/activity level. I had a great deal of success with this both for myself and for clients. As usual I went to the extreme and set out to prove that I wouldnt get fat eating 6000 calories a day, everyday for a year. The exact opposite happened and I ended up weighing 10 stones. I got sick to death of people telling me I was too skinny and that I needed to eat more. I never really ...
Today on TSPC tesla batteries, pest problems, Aspergers syndrome, maple sap, side businesses, growing trees, walk away from the job income and more.
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A number of psychiatric illnesses have been recognized to have some level of insight deficits, including developmental disorders, such as Aspergers Syndrome (ASP). However insight into illness has not been empirically investigated in ASP and little
Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional signaling protein primarily expressed in mouse pyramidal neurons of hippocampal area CA2 where it regulates synaptic plasticity important for learning and memory. However, very little is known about RGS14 protein expression in the primate brain. Here, we validate the specificity of a new polyclonal RGS14 antibody that recognizes not only full-length RGS14 protein in primate, but also lower molecular weight forms of RGS14 protein matching previously predicted human splice variants. These putative RGS14 variants along with full-length RGS14 are expressed in the primate striatum. By contrast, only full-length RGS14 is expressed in hippocampus, and shorter variants are completely absent in rodent brain. We report that RGS14 protein immunoreactivity is found both pre- and postsynaptically in multiple neuron populations throughout hippocampal area CA1 and CA2, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and amygdala in ...
The cortex of the upper half of the insula has been scraped away to reveal the underlying medullary substance. The ependymal layer which covered the caudate nucleus has been removed. Much of the choroid plexus in the central part of the lateral ventricle has been cut away to expose its attachment to the lips (taeniae) of the choroidal fissure (cleft between fornix and lamina affixa). Note the choroidal artery (a branch of the a. cerebri posterior) passing anteriorly in this region ...
Today no less than seven million young ones and kids are stricken with Aspergers ailment. interpreting the etiology, analysis, and remedy of this situation, this quantity offers the mandatory tips to psychiatrists and neurologists to allow them to thoroughly differentiate Aspergers from different neurodevelopmental problems. The e-book discusses mind morphology, chemistry, and serve as; similar neuropathological findings; and screening tools and imaging suggestions. additionally mentioned are the genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics of Aspergers, suitable gene-environment interplay, social assimilation within the lecture room, and organic remedy. Case reviews improve the text. ...
A childhood disorder predominately affecting boys and similar to Autism (Autistic Disorder). It is characterized by severe, sustained, clinically significant impairment of social interaction, and restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of Behavior. In contrast to Autism, there are no clinically significant delays in Language or cognitive development. (From DSM-IV ...
Over thirty years in a marriage which has been an emotional rollar coaster ride brought increasing confusion, loneliness, heart ache and a deep desire that someone could understand what my marriage consisted of behind the doors of our home.
uncountable, neurology) An autism-related developmental disorder characterised by sustained impairment in social interaction and nonverbal communication and by repetitive behaviour as well as restricted interests and routines ...
Theres a good chance most people are familiar with autism, which is the most well-publicized pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) given the alarming rise in autism rates over the past 20-30 years. But did you know that ... Read More ...
A seven year old with Aspergers Syndrome finds an unlikely buddy at a local aquarium. The instant they bond will bring a smile to your face.
DS1 has Aspergers Syndrome and ADHD. He is 12. In November, he started taking Strattera (atomoxetine) as very much a last resort to help him concen
You had a disagreement with your Aspergers Syndrome spouse two weeks ago and rather than resolving it, he walked away and has been giving you "The Silent Treatment" ever since. (This could just as easily be describing an Aspie woman.) Hes nice to everyone who calls on the phone. But you dont exist. He completely ignores you and shuts you out. He sleeps with his back to you. He leaves the house without saying goodbye to you, although he loves on the dog, making it a point that you see it. He mutters under his breath when he walks past you. And you feel like youre going mad! Does this describe anything youve experienced? If so, you are not alone ...
18-year old Jacob has Aspergers syndrome and is accused of murder, after his tutors corpse is found in a wood, in Jodi Picoults latest compelling page-turner. Paddy Kehoe has been reading the 600-page novel.
Major changes to the diagnostic criteria for autism and other conditions are on track to take effect after the nations psychiatrists gave final approval to a
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Figure 11:TPP stimulation of KGDHC activity in four cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and caudate nucleus of controls and ... Each hemisphere contains a caudate nucleus and is divided into four sections, the frontal, parietal, temporal, and the ... amygdala and caudate nucleus) was measured by monitoring the formation of NADH (Figure 9) in the presence and absence of the ... amygdala and caudate nucleus). This result was explained by stabilization of α-KGDHC through TPP, which further supported by a ...
It is bounded medially by the front part of the septum pellucidum, and laterally by the head of the caudate nucleus. Its apex ... Its roof is formed chiefly by the inferior surface of the tapetum of the corpus callosum, but the tail of the caudate nucleus ... and curves around the front of the caudate nucleus. Its floor is formed by the upper surface of the reflected portion of the ... the tail of the caudate nucleus joins the putamen. Its floor presents the following parts: the hippocampus, the fimbria ...
Caudate nucleus) -> 3rd order neuron -> VPLN of thalamus -> 4th order neuron -> posterior limb of internal capsule -> corona ... From here, the information is brought to deep nuclei of the cerebellum including the fastigial and interposed nuclei. From the ... either the nucleus gracilis or the nucleus cuneatus, depending on the pathway it took. At this point, the secondary axon leaves ... The midbrain nuclei include four motor tracts that send upper motor neuronal axons down the spinal cord to lower motor neurons ...
"Spontaneous blink rates correlate with dopamine levels in the caudate nucleus of MPTP-treated monkeys". Experimental Neurology ... of the globus pallidus of the lenticular nucleus-a body of nerve cells between the base and outer surface of the brain. ...
The tail (cauda) of the caudate nucleus forms the upper portion of the lateral edge, but it is not large enough to cover the ... Between the inferior horn and the main body of the ventricle is the Putamen, which emerges from the head of the Caudate Nucleus ... Immediately below the tail of the caudate nucleus, the next portion of the lateral edge is formed by the comparatively narrow ... The remaining boundary - that facing interior to the ventricle curvature - comprises the posterior edge of the caudate nucleus ...
Asher, I. M.; Aghajanian, G. K. (1974). "6-hydroxydopamine lesions of olfactory tubercles and caudate nuclei: Effect on ... First, it is considered to be part of the basal forebrain, the nucleus accumbens, and the amygdaloid nuclei because of its ... These cells also project into the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen, thus linking the olfactory tubercle with the pallidum. ... These cells clusters, called the islands of calleja, are innervated by dopaminergic projections from the nucleus accumbens and ...
The extrapyramidal subcortical nuclei include the substantia nigra, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, red nucleus ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... The medial vestibulospinal tract originates in the medial vestibular nucleus or Schwalbe's nucleus.[2] The Schwalbe's nucleus ... nucleus in the pons.[2] The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the ...
See the experimental case study D.L.A published by Dennis in 1976.) It is associated with lesions in the left caudate nucleus. ... the head of the caudate nucleus, or both. Examples These errors can be semantic, in which the meaning of the word is related to ...
Along with the caudate nucleus it forms the dorsal striatum. The caudate and putamen contain the same types of neurons and ... The other nuclei of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) can be seen as well. Putamen Putamen Lentiform ... When a cell body of a neuron (in the putamen or caudate nuclei) fires an action potential, dopamine is released from the ... Since projections from the putamen and caudate nuclei modulate the dendrites of the substantia nigra, the dopamine influences ...
... between the head of the caudate nucleus and the lenticular nucleus the posterior limb or crus posterius is the part behind the ... It carries information past the basal ganglia, separating the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the putamen and the globus ... fibers connecting the lentiform and caudate nuclei; fibers connecting the cortex with the corpus striatum; and fibers passing ... between the thalamus and lenticular nucleus the retrolenticular portion is caudal to the lenticular nucleus and carries the ...
This was including the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the fundus. The Vogt-Vogt syndrome is an extrapyramidal disturbance ... She distinguished from back to front the lemnical radiation and a particular nucleus, in front of it the cerebellar ( ... prelemniscal) radiation with another nucleus and more anteriorly the "lenticular" radiation. This system still describes the ...
Evidence indicates that the left caudate nucleus -- a centrally located brain feature that is near the thalamus and the basal ... 2012). "Structual plasticity of the left caudate nucleus in bimodal bilinguals". Cortex. 48 (9): 1197-1206. CS1 maint: Explicit ...
Reward Dependence correlated with decreased grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus. The five factor model is a widely used ... to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. All of these circuits heavily rely on neurotransmitters and their precursors, ...
The researchers found interictally decreased cerebral blood flow in the posterior parts of the bilateral caudate nucleus. ... "Perfusion abnormality of the caudate nucleus in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis". European Journal of ...
"Progressive hemifacial atrophy with agenesis of the head of the caudate nucleus". Journal of Medical Genetics. 31 (12): 969-71 ...
... the anterior and lateral thalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex).[5][7] ... decreased connectivity with caudate nucleus". Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 63 (6): 754-61. doi:10.1111/j.1440- ... Dense connections to the thalamus in the form of a continuous strip that crosses numerous pulvinar nuclei and the striatum. ... while another shows that untreated patients had decreased functional connectivity from the PCC to the caudate.[23] Other ...
The striatum is made up of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus. The lentiform nucleus is made up of the larger ... The nucleus accumbens is made up of the nucleus accumbens core and the nucleus accumbens shell, which differ by neural ... The dorsal striatum consists of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. A white matter, nerve tract (the internal capsule) in the ... The dorsal striatum is composed of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. Staining can differentiate the dorsal striatum into ...
Rodríguez Delgado had implanted a stimoceiver in the caudate nucleus of a fighting bull. He could stop the animal mid-way that ... The region of the brain Rodríguez Delgado stimulated when he pressed the hand-held transmitter was the caudate nucleus. This ... region was chosen to be stimulated because the caudate nucleus is involved in controlling voluntary movements. Rodríguez ...
... dependent neurotransmitter release in the neuronal network of the rat caudate nucleus". Neurochem Int. 50 (1): 159-163. doi: ... It is regulated by a hypothalamic nucleus. Here as well there are sensors that record changes in both blood glucose[page needed ...
Projections from the caudate nucleus to the superior colliculus also modulate saccadic eye movement. Altered patterns of pars ... The substantia nigra, along with four other nuclei, is part of the basal ganglia. It is the largest nucleus in the midbrain, ... The subthalamic nucleus gives excitatory input that modulates the rate of firing of these spontaneous action potentials. ... However, lesion of the subthalamic nucleus leads to only a 20% decrease in pars reticulata firing rate, suggesting that the ...
The caudate nucleus, is a region of the brain that is highly responsive to dopamine. The caudate nucleus is another component ... Research has suggested the role of the caudate nucleus anticipates the possibility of and is in anticipation of reward of ... The nucleus accumbens is a formation of neurons and is important in reward pathway activation. As previously mentioned, the ... In addition, the sensation pleasure of "liking" can occur when opioids are released by nucleus accumbens. This helps someone ...
Calcifications in the caudate, dentate nuclei, putamen and thalami are also common. Occasionally calcifications begin or ... The most commonly affected region of the brain is the lenticular nucleus and in particular the internal globus pallidus. ...
The striatum, in red, includes the caudate nucleus (top), the putamen (right), and, when including the term 'corpus' striatum, ... Kontopoulos E, Parvin JD, Feany MB (October 2006). "Alpha-synuclein acts in the nucleus to inhibit histone acetylation and ... valproic acid had a neuroprotective effect by preventing translocation of alpha-synuclein into cell nuclei.[24]. Vorinostat. In ... are likely causing cellular toxicity after they are spliced out of the c9orf72 mRNA transcripts and accumulate in the nuclei of ...
The DRD1 gene expresses primarily in the caudate putamen in humans, and in the caudate putamen, the nucleus accumbens and the ... caudate and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle). Lower levels of DRD1 mRNA expression ... Expression of D1 receptor mRNA is highest in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Lower levels of ...
... the caudate nucleus and subthalamic nucleus also have a role in mediating inhibitory control. Cognitive control is impaired in ... Functional neuroimaging in humans demonstrates activation of the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus (part of the striatum) ... The subthalamic nucleus appears to play a critical role in preventing such impulsive or premature responding (Frank 2006). ... or nucleus accumbens; Chapter 15). ... In conditions in which prepotent responses tend to dominate behavior, such as in drug ...
... or apraxia Caudate nucleus - Contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral conjugate gaze paresis, or confusion Brain stem - ...
caudate nucleus synonyms, caudate nucleus pronunciation, caudate nucleus translation, English dictionary definition of caudate ... nucleus. n. A basal ganglion located in the lateral ventricle of the brain that has a curved, taillike extension and functions ... Related to caudate nucleus: lentiform nucleus, putamen, internal capsule caudate nucleus. n.. A basal ganglion located in the ... Caudate nucleus - definition of caudate nucleus by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/caudate+nucleus ...
The caudate nuclei are located near the center of the brain, sitting astride the thalamus. There is a caudate nucleus within ... Therefore, the caudate nucleus has been suggested to play a role in human sleep cycles. The caudate nucleus has been implicated ... Caudate nucleus Caudate nucleus Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view, horizontal section, deep dissection ... The amygdala sends direct projections to the caudate nucleus. Both the amygdala and the caudate nucleus have direct and ...
caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus synonyms, caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus pronunciation, caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus ... English dictionary definition of caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus. n. pl. nu·cle·i or nu·cle·us·es 1. A central or essential ... part around which other parts are gathered or grouped; a core: the nucleus of a city. 2. ... Caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus - definition of caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus by The Free Dictionary https://www. ...
The presence of significant relationships between (a) VO2max and caudate nucleus volume and (b) caudate nucleus volume and ... caudate nucleus (. 𝑟. (. 1. 5. 0. ). =. 0. .. 0. 6. 2. , 𝑃. =. 0. .. 4. 4. 6. ), putamen (r(150) = 0.131, 𝑃. =. 0. .. 1. 0. 6. ... associated with volume of the caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens in late adulthood and that the size of the caudate nucleus ... and caudate nucleus (. 𝑟. (. 1. 5. 1. ). =. 0. .. 1. 8. 6. , 𝑃. =. 0. .. 0. 2. 2. ). In both cases, individuals with higher ...
The cat caudate nucleus has been reported to possess a rich and fairly even distribution of nerve endings, containing both ... Effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide on dopamine release from slices of cat caudate nucleus. R Markstein and T Hokfelt ... Evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus was Ca2+ dependent and abolished by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that it ... Effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide on dopamine release from slices of cat caudate nucleus ...
Nagy, A., Eördegh, G., Norita, M., Benedek, G. (2003) Visual receptive field properties of neurons in the caudate nucleus. Eur ... Pouderoux, C., Freton, E. (1979) Patterns of unit responses to visual stimuli in the cat caudate nucleus under chloralose ... Modality Distribution of Sensory Neurons in the Feline Caudate Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra. ... little is known concerning the sensory functions of the caudate nucleus (CN) and the substantia nigra (SN). In the present ...
What is tail of caudate nucleus? Meaning of tail of caudate nucleus medical term. What does tail of caudate nucleus mean? ... Looking for online definition of tail of caudate nucleus in the Medical Dictionary? tail of caudate nucleus explanation free. ... tail of caudate nucleus. tail of cau·date nu·cle·us. [TA] the elongated posterior extension of the caudate nucleus that ... Tail of caudate nucleus , definition of tail of caudate nucleus by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Similarly, the affinity of [3H]paroxetine binding in the frontal cortex and caudate nucleus was not different. By contrast, the ... 3H]paroxetine binding is altered in the hippocampus but not the frontal cortex or caudate nucleus from subjects with ... and caudate nucleus from subjects who had or had not had schizophrenia was measured. The density of [3H]paroxetine binding to ...
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on the hippocampus and caudate nucleus during navigation while taking ... These findings suggest that the aging process involves a shift from using the hippocampus toward the caudate nucleus during ... Decreased functional magnetic resonance imaging activity in the hippocampus in favor of the caudate nucleus in older adults ... navigation in a virtual maze relies on spatial or response strategies known to depend on the hippocampus and caudate nucleus, ...
Between-Group Comparisons of Caudate Nucleus Volume. MANCOVA was conducted to assess the volume of the caudate nucleus (right ... Within the PNFA group, there was hemispheric asymmetry of caudate nucleus volume, with the right caudate nucleus volume ... Within controls, there was hemispheric asymmetry of caudate nucleus volume with the right caudate nucleus volume significantly ... the caudate nucleus. Caudate nucleus volume is correlated with cognition as assessed by MMSE scores across AD, FTLD, and ...
Bold signal trends in the ventral caudate nucleus. The essential role of the ventral caudate nucleus in reward-based behavioral ... Figure 3A shows that the activity of the caudate nucleus significantly correlated with LRI and SR. The caudate activity was ... In the caudate nucleus, the correlation with LRI was stronger in the ventral region and the correlation with SR was confined to ... 3D) were in good agreement with the three-dimensional shapes of the caudate nucleus head and body, as well as the globus ...
4B) in scans 4, 5, 6, and 8 (Table 2). The increase in caudate nucleus activity in the seventh scan (x = 10; y =-4; z = 20; t ... Instead, sustained activity was found in the caudate nucleus of the nonspatial strategy group on scans 3 (x = 8; y = 14; z = 12 ... The fact that a decrease in activation of the caudate nucleus was observed with the change in pattern of rewarded arms (trial 7 ... Thus, with practice, activity in the caudate nucleus emerged in this group and was sustained until the end of the experiment (i ...
... and caudate nucleus (p=0.006). Ex vivo MRI showed decreased signal intensity in the putamen and caudate nucleus in all ... Conclusions This study demonstrates increased diffuse iron accumulation in the putamen and caudate nucleus in patients with the ... 7 T MRI reveals diffuse iron deposition in putamen and caudate nucleus in CADASIL ... 7 T MRI reveals diffuse iron deposition in putamen and caudate nucleus in CADASIL ...
Partial purification of the D2 dopamine receptor from bovine caudate nucleus. RICHARD A. WILLIAMSON, SIMON WORRALL, PAUL L. ... Partial purification of the D2 dopamine receptor from bovine caudate nucleus Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Partial purification of the D2 dopamine receptor from bovine caudate nucleus ... Partial purification of the D2 dopamine receptor from bovine caudate nucleus ...
of the caudate nucleus is abnormal in women with fibromyalgia. (FM).. METHODS. Resting-state rCBF in the hemithalami and left. ... caudate nucleus was significantly lower in women with FM than. in normal controls (P = 0.01, P = 0.003, P = 0.01, and P =. 0.02 ... and right heads of the caudate nucleus of 10 untreated women. with FM and 7 normal control women was measured by [Tc-HMPAO]. ... Abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamus & the caudate nucleus are associated with low pain threshold ...
Effect of acute and chronic fluoxetine on extracellular dopamine levels in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens of rat. ... 7/23/1996 • Effect of acute and chronic fluoxetine on extracellular dopamine levels in the caudate-putamen and nucleus ... 7/23/1996 • Effect of acute and chronic fluoxetine on extracellular dopamine levels in the caudate-putamen and nucleus ... Posted in Breaking News - Our Most Recent Serotonin Nightmares., Scientific Studies and tagged caudate-putamen, chronic ...
Presynaptic modulation of the release of dopamine from the rabbit caudate nucleus: differences between electrical stimulation, ... Presynaptic modulation of the release of dopamine from the rabbit caudate nucleus: differences between electrical stimulation, ... Presynaptic modulation of the release of dopamine from the rabbit caudate nucleus: differences between electrical stimulation, ... Presynaptic modulation of the release of dopamine from the rabbit caudate nucleus: differences between electrical stimulation, ...
... the caudate nucleus. We conducted a volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in congenitally and late blind individuals, as ... Finally, consistent with previously published reports, the volume of the caudate nucleus was found to be negatively correlated ... blind suggests that visual deprivation may still have an effect on the developmental changes that occur in the caudate nucleus. ... Moreover, contrary to what was expected, no significant correlation was found between caudate volume and performance in a ...
Glucose metabolism in the caudate nuclei of patients with eating disorders, measured by PET ... Krieg, J.-C., Holthoff, V., Schreiber, W., Pirke, K. M., & Herholz, K. (1991). Glucose metabolism in the caudate nuclei of ... Glucose metabolism in the caudate nuclei of patients with eating disorders, measured by PET ...
Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the caudate nucleus is safe and effective for patients with severe tinnitus for whom ... Caudate Nucleus Defective? Cheung added that this "fits in with the narrative" that the caudate may be defective in patients ... The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the corpus striatum, a component of the basal ganglia. The caudate is ... After a patient underwent DBS for essential tremor in which the lead was placed at a location traversing the caudate nucleus, ...
... the lower their activation was in the caudate nucleus. Thus, people that drank the most diet soda had the least activity in the ... caudate nucleus, and orbitofrontal cortex) and release dopamine, a neurotransmitter commonly associated with reward and ... Amygdala artificial sweetener atomic bomb Bone Brainstem brain waves Caloric restriction carbon dating caudate nucleus chewing ... elicit a significant response from several brain regions of the taste-reward system including the midbrain and caudate nucleus ...
Nucleus Function , Caudate & Subthalamic Nucleus. Cellular nucleus membrane associated with double membrane cells found in ... Caudate Nucleus Function. Each of the cerebral hemispheres contains a caudate nucleus, and both are centrally located and close ... The caudate nucleus plays an important role in brain science, in particular in the storage and processing of memories. It acts ... Each nucleus has a broadhead that narrows in the body and the thin tail. As a whole, each nucleus is curved and often resembles ...
The caudate nuclei are located near the center of the brain, sitting astride the thalamus. There is a caudate nucleus within ... The amygdala sends direct projections to the caudate nucleus. Both the amygdala and the caudate nucleus have direct and ... The authors used MR images to compare the relative volumes of the caudate nuclei (as the caudate is a bilateral structure), and ... These results indicate that the caudate nucleus could be involved in coding a motor response. With this in mind, the caudate ...
In males, we saw responses in the amygdala but not the nucleus accumbens - similar to the pattern reported in humans listening ... In males, we saw responses in the amygdala but not the nucleus accumbens - similar to the pattern reported in humans listening ... Caudate nucleus. Many investigators have reported caudate responses in humans listening to pleasurable music (Blood and Zatorre ... We sampled from within the avian homologues of the nAc, caudate nucleus, Hp, medial amygdala, and VTA. We also sampled within ...
head, Lateral ventricle (central part), Postcentral sulcus, Thalamus, Occipital bone and lambdoid suture, Caudate nucleus (head ... Nee, Lateral ventricle (central part), Postcentral sulcus, Thalamus, Occipital bone and lambdoid suture, Caudate nucleus (head ... brain2, Lateral ventricle (central part), Postcentral sulcus, Thalamus, Occipital bone and lambdoid suture, Caudate nucleus ( ... Lateral ventricle (central part), Postcentral sulcus, Thalamus, Occipital bone and lambdoid suture, Caudate nucleus (head), ...
  • This means that a coronal (on a plane parallel to the face) section that cuts through the tail will also cross the body and head of the caudate nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is bounded medially by the front part of the septum pellucidum , and laterally by the head of the caudate nucleus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Its anterior end is continuous with the lower part of the head of the caudate nucleus and with the anterior perforated substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with BBGD have bilateral necrosis in the head of the caudate nucleus and in the putamen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data obtained from this research suggests that three brain areas are involved with OCD: the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the head of the caudate nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity in the caudate nucleus was demonstrated to be greater during tasks featuring spatial and motoric memory demands than those that involved nonspatial tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that activity in the caudate nucleus was correlated with short-term reward and, furthermore, paralleled the magnitude of a subject's behavioral change during learning. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, we confirmed that this parallelism between learning and activity in the caudate nucleus is robustly maintained even when we vary task difficulty by controlling the probability. (jneurosci.org)
  • A more appropriate classification of motor nuclei and tracts would be by their functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A two-pronged approach of neuroimaging (including PET and fMRI) and anatomical studies expose a strong relationship between the caudate and cortical areas associated with executive functioning: "non-invasive measures of anatomical and functional connectivity in humans demonstrate a clear link between the caudate and executive frontal areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus accumbens is often described as one part of a cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its association with damage to the caudate, this movement demonstrates the inhibitory nature of the caudate nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase shift measurements in deep grey nuclei, cortex and subcortical white matter were compared between mutation carriers and controls. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, 3 weeks after BDNF infusion in animals with a cocaine self-administration history, suppressed basal levels of glutamate are normalized and a cocaine prime-induced increase in extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens is prevented. (nih.gov)
  • In the absence of Gbx2, early-born striatal cholinergic precursors display abnormal neurite outgrowth and increased complexity, and abnormally contribute to the medial part of the caudate-putamen, whereas late-born striatal cholinergic interneurons are mostly missing. (nih.gov)
  • Using immunocytochemical labeling, c-Fos expression in different subregions (shell vs core at the rostral, middle, and caudal levels) of the nucleus accumbens was examined in female hamsters that had varying amounts of sexual experience. (jneurosci.org)
  • Previous sexual experience increased c-Fos labeling in the rostral and caudal levels but not in the middle levels of the nucleus accumbens. (jneurosci.org)