Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
A pharmacologic congener of serotonin that contracts smooth muscle and has actions similar to those of tricyclic antidepressants. It has been proposed as an oxytocic.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A benzocycloheptapyridoisoquinolinol that has been used as an antipsychotic, especially in schizophrenia.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A personality disorder manifested by a profound defect in the ability to form social relationships, no desire for social involvement, and an indifference to praise or criticism.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
A phenylethylamine derivative that acts as a calcium antagonist showing hemodynamic effects in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (1/891)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Effect of psychotropic drugs on caudate spindle in cats. (2/891)

To ascertain whether neuroleptics act on the caudate nucleus itself, the effects of these compounds as well as other centrally acting drugs were examined in relation to caudate spindle and EEG arousal responses (sciatic nerve stimulation) in gallamine-immobilized cats. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle at a dose which had no effect on the EEG arousal response. On the other hand, clozapine and a higher dose of chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle, but depressed the arousal response. High frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve suppressed the caudate spindle. Pentobarbital, biperiden and diazepam, while depressing the arousal response, caused an enhancement of the caudate spindle. Imipramine at a low dose had no effect on either response, whereas at a high dose this drug enhanced the caudate spindle with concomitant depression of the arousal response. From these results, it may be concluded that the enhancing action on the caudate spindle induced by haloperidol and a low dose of chlorpromazine is due to an increase in susceptibility of the caudate nucleus itself. In addition, it is suggested that depression of the activating system is involved in an appearance of the caudate spindle.  (+info)

N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain. (3/891)

Morbidity and mortality from head trauma is highest among children. No animal model mimicking traumatic brain injury in children has yet been established, and the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration after traumatic injury to the developing brain are not understood. In infant rats subjected to percussion head trauma, two types of brain damage could be characterized. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hr and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hr and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus and striatum. Secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate and dizocilpine protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage. 2-Sulfo-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone, a free radical scavenger, did not affect primary excitotoxic damage but mitigated apoptotic damage. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determine neuropathologic outcome after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Whereas free radical scavengers may prove useful in therapy of head trauma in children, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists should be avoided because of their propensity to increase severity of apoptotic damage.  (+info)

Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage. (4/891)

The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22/1000 and of HMD 4-44/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the incidence of IVH in babies weighing 1001-1500 g was three times as great as that reported in the 1658 British Perinatal Mortality Survey. Most IVH deaths were in babies with HMD, but the higher frequency of IVH was not associated with any prolongation of survival time of babies who died with HMD as compared with the 1958 survey. IVH was seen frequently at gestations of up to 36 weeks in babies with HMD but was rare above 30 weeks' gestation in babies without HMD. This indicated that factors associated with HMD must cause most cases of IVH seen at gestations above 30 weeks. Comparison of clinical details in infants with HMD who died with or without IVH (at gestations of 30-37 weeks) showed no significant differences between the groups other than a high incidence of fits and greater use of alkali therapy in the babies with IVH. During the 12 hours when most alkali therapy was given, babies dying with IVD received a mean total alkali dosage of 10-21 mmol/kg and those dying without IVH 6-34 mmol/kg (P less than 0-001). There was no difference in severity of hypoxia or of metabolic acidosis between the 2 groups. Babies who died with HMD and germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) without IVH had received significantly more alkali than those who died with HMD alone, whereas survivors of severe respiratory distress syndrome had received lower alkali doses than other groups. It is suggested that the greatly increased death rate from IVH in babies with HMD indicates some alteration of management of HMD (since 1958) as a causative factor. Liberal use of hypertonic alkali solutions is the common factor which distinguishes babies dying with GLH and IVH from other groups of babies with HMD. Although the causal nature of this association remains unproved, it seems justifiable to lrge caution in alkali usage.  (+info)

Clozapine preferentially increases dopamine release in the rhesus monkey prefrontal cortex compared with the caudate nucleus. (5/891)

Despite substantial differences between species in the organization and elaboration of the cortical dopamine innervation, little is known about the pharmacological response of cortical or striatal sites to antipsychotic medications in nonhuman primates. To examine this issue, rhesus monkeys were chronically implanted with guide cannulae directed at the principal sulcus, medial prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, and caudate nucleus. Alterations in dopamine release in these discrete brain regions were measured in response to administration of clozapine or haloperidol. Clozapine produced significant and long-lasting increases in dopamine release in the principal sulcus, and to a lesser extent, in the caudate nucleus. Haloperidol did not produce a consistent effect on dopamine release in the principal sulcus, although it increased dopamine release in the caudate. Clozapine's preferential augmentation of dopamine release in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex supports the idea that clozapine exerts its therapeutic effects in part by increasing cortical dopamine neurotransmission.  (+info)

Memory guided saccade deficit after caudate nucleus lesion. (6/891)

The role of the caudate nucleus in ocular motor control is not well determined in humans. Eye movements were recorded from a 45 year old man with infarctions involving bilaterally the body of the caudate nucleus, with a greater extent on the left side. The patient exhibited a pattern of eye movement abnormalities in which a delay dependent decrease of accuracy of memory guided saccades predominated. By contrast, memory guided pointing was normal. It is concluded that the body of the caudate nucleus participates in a spatial short term memory network devoted to eye movements.  (+info)

Sequential bilateral transplantation in Parkinson's disease: effects of the second graft. (7/891)

Five parkinsonian patients who had received implants of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue unilaterally in the striatum 10-56 months earlier were grafted with tissue from four to eight donors into the putamen (four patients) or the putamen plus the caudate nucleus (one patient) on the other side, and were followed for 18-24 months. After 12-18 months, PET showed a mean 85% increase in 6-L-[18F]fluorodopa uptake in the putamen with the second graft, whereas there was no significant further change in the previously transplanted putamen. Two patients exhibited marked additional improvements after their second graft: 'on-off' fluctuations virtually disappeared, movement speed increased, and L-dopa could be withdrawn in one patient and reduced by 70% in the other. The improvement in one patient was moderate. Two patients with atypical features, who responded poorly to the first graft, worsened following the second transplantation. These findings indicate that sequential transplantation in patients does not compromise the survival and function of either the first or the second graft. Moreover, putamen grafts that restore fluorodopa uptake to normal levels can give improvements of major therapeutic value.  (+info)

Massive subependymal hemorrhage caused by an occult vascular malformation--two case reports. (8/891)

Two patients presented with massive subependymal hemorrhage caused by vascular anomalies occult to angiography, computed tomography (CT) scanning, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A 47-year-old male initially presented with a headache and became comatose 3 weeks later. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a massive hematoma in the right caudate head projecting into the lateral ventricle. A 60-year-old male sustained heaviness of his left extremities 8 days prior to admission and his condition gradually deteriorated. Neuroimaging revealed a right thalamic hematoma adjacent to the lateral ventricle. Cerebral angiography, CT, and MR imaging failed to detect any vascular anomaly. The hematomas increased in size gradually and were surgically explored. The histological diagnosis was arteriovenous malformation for the first case and cavernous angioma for the second case that had ruptured repeatedly. These cases were unique in the unusual location in the subependyma, and diagnostic neuroimaging modalities could not disclose the vascular anomalies, and the hematomas enlarged progressively to become critically symptomatic. Surgical intervention is mandatory for mass reduction and correct diagnosis of such lesions, with favorable outcome as long as the surgery is not delayed until too late.  (+info)

We have demonstrated that volume of the head and body of the caudate nucleus differs significantly and substantially (ranging from 93% to 75% of control caudate volumes) in subtypes of FTLD. We also found that caudate nucleus volume was correlated with cognition measured via MMSE score, with lower volume correlating with poorer cognition. This finding complements previous meta-analyses showing functional and structural change in the caudate within subtypes of FTLD as well as in cortical regions.1. Krishnamoorthy30 has postulated that increase in volume of brain structures associated with emotion, such as the amygdala, may reflect either a predilection for emotional reactivity or plasticity and growth of the structure due to hyperactivity. The corollary is that neurodegenerative processes may result in atrophy and underactivity of the structure. Therefore, the caudate may be reduced in volume due to underactivity and/or degeneration as part of the FTLD process. That smaller caudate nucleus volume ...
Define caudate nucleus. caudate nucleus synonyms, caudate nucleus pronunciation, caudate nucleus translation, English dictionary definition of caudate nucleus. n. A basal ganglion located in the lateral ventricle of the brain that has a curved, taillike extension and functions in motor control. Noun 1.
The cat caudate nucleus has been reported to possess a rich and fairly even distribution of nerve endings, containing both dopamine- and cholecystokinin-like peptides. In this study, the effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) on basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus previously labeled with [3H]dopamine was examined. Evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus was Ca2+ dependent and abolished by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that it reflects action potential-induced [3H]dopamine release. In the presence of bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, the sulfated but not the unsulfated form of CCK-8 inhibited both basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus at very low concentrations. CCK-8 sulfate was efficient in causing this effect in concentrations down to 10(-14) M, and the maximum effect was obtained with 10(-11) M. In contrast, without bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, no inhibitory effect of CCK-8 ...
The caudate nucleus is one of three basic structures that make up the basal ganglia. Along with the putamen and globus pallidus, as well in conjunction with the thalamus and two related structures (the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus), the caudate nucleus constitutes a system that is responsible largely for voluntary movement. While this system has long been associated with motor processes due primarily to the basal ganglias role in Parkinsons disease, there is mounting evidence that the structures that make up the basal ganglia-the caudate nucleus included-play important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well. Organizationally, the interplay between the basal ganglia and various regions in the brain is best described as a series of cortico-striatal loops, in which the striatum receives axons from the cortex (along with the putamen, the caudate nuclei are the main input regions for the basal ganglia), processes the information, then relays this back to distinct cortical ...
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Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio (CC/IT) is used in assessing patients with neurodegenerative diseases that affect the caudate nuclei. It is best known for assessing individuals with suspected Huntingtons disease but is in no way...
To test the hypothesis that craving for alcohol in the alcohol-dependent individual is mediated by a limbic circuit involving the caudate nuclei, regional cerebral blood flow was measured with [99mTc]HMPAO SPECT during control and craving conditions in 9 alcohol-dependent subjects. In all subjects, blood flow in the head of the right caudate nucleus increased during the craving condition, and these blood flow increases were strongly correlated with the experimentally induced increases in craving for alcohol. These new findings suggest a functional role for the limbic striatum in the mediation of craving and impaired control over alcohol consumption.
Love. Brain imaging has to be interpreted with some degree of care; the relationship between brain and mind is only beginning to emerge. With that caution, some interesting results. The madly in love infatuation phase doesnt actually seem to involve the emotional brain. Instead, it heavily involves the motivation and reward areas of the brain (dopamine heaven). Its only later, as a relationship matures, that the regions of the brain associated with emotion become more involved. (Personal note: This supports a belief Ive long held, Im sure in common with many readers, that the strongest long-term relationships start off as gradually-deepening friendships.) Said another way, the wild infatuation phase has much more in common with powerful drives like hunger and thirst than with the complexities and satisfactions of love in the long term. An aside to gratify a certain segment of the SBAA membership, the same regions activated when madly in love - the right caudate nucleus and the right ...
By Luke Davies. Follow Luke on Twitter.. A recent article in the New York Times has advocated extending the notion of personhood, and the rights associated with that status, to dogs. Gregory Burns, the author of the article, argued for this position on the basis of the structural and functional similarity between the caudate nucleus of dogs and humans. The caudate nucleus, Burns tells us, is that part of the brain responsible for our feeling of anticipation of things we enjoy. More than this, the activity of the caudate nucleus is so consistent in MRI scans that he claims we may be able to use our monitoring of its activity to predict our tastes for certain things (he lists music, food and beauty). Importantly for Burns, activity in the caudate increased in dogs in response to positive stimulus: a gesture signaling food, or the appearance of the owner. The tentative conclusion to these findings is that the MRI images signal the possibility of canine emotion. Burns makes clear that without the ...
Neuroscience research articles are provided.. What is neuroscience? Neuroscience is the scientific study of nervous systems. Neuroscience can involve research from many branches of science including those involving neurology, brain science, neurobiology, psychology, computer science, artificial intelligence, statistics, prosthetics, neuroimaging, engineering, medicine, physics, mathematics, pharmacology, electrophysiology, biology, robotics and technology. ...
Contemporary associative theory distinguishes between habitual S-R associations and a combination of S-O, O-R, and R-O associations thought to mediate goal-directed performance (Balleine and Ostlund, 2007). In this study, we used multivariate pattern analysis to assess whether dissociable regions of the human brain encode these distinct associative structures. Unlike previous work in humans, contrasting qualitatively different experimental conditions designed to encourage different action-selection strategies, or comparing largely parameter-driven value signals generated by RL algorithms, our approach sought to identify a neural implementation of the associative content of goal-directed versus habitual behavioral control. We found evidence for stimulus-elicited response representations but no outcome representations, indicative of habits, in the DLS (posterior putamen). Conversely, in the vmPFC, dlPFC, and anterior caudate nucleus, both response and outcome representations were present, ...
By comparison with these reports our results demonstrate a different pattern of hyperechogenic lesions in Huntingtons disease, primarily affecting the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra. Considering different basal ganglia regions, hyperechogenic lesions of the substantia nigra were detectable in Huntingtons disease half as often as reported previously in Parkinsons disease.9 The rate of hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus was similar in Huntingtons disease and dystonia. Nevertheless, we found a considerably high signal intensity in most patients showing caudate nucleus hyperechogenic lesions, possibly pointing towards the predominant localisation of neuronal loss, whereas hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus in dystonia were described as mild. The precise morphological and pathological interpretation of basal ganglia hyperechogenicity demonstrated by TCS is still speculative. The fact that in the present study hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus were ...
There is still considerable controversy regarding the influence of blood viscosity upon CBF. We have measured CBF with microspheres in 23 cats. Autoregulation was disturbed in the left caudate nucleus by microsurgical occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Induced hypertension or hypotension was used and i.v. mannitol (1 g/kg) administered. In all cats blood viscosity decreased an average of 16% at 15 minutes and, in 16 cats, increased 10% at 75 minutes post-mannitol. CBF in the right caudate was 79 +/- 6 ml/100g/min, in the left 38 +/- 6 (p less than 0.001). Only minor changes of CBF occurred in areas with presumed normal autoregulation, including the right caudate, in conjunction with pressure or viscosity changes. In the left caudate CBF decreased 21% with hypotension and 18% with higher viscosity, more than on the right (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.2, respectively). CBF increased in the left caudate 56% with hypertension and 47% with lower viscosity, again much more than on the ...
Methods 25 NOTCH3 mutation carriers and 18 healthy controls were examined using high-resolution T2*-weighted imaging on a 7 T whole body MRI scanner. Susceptibility-weighted MRI scans were analysed for areas of signal loss and increased phase shift. Phase shift measurements in deep grey nuclei, cortex and subcortical white matter were compared between mutation carriers and controls. For confirmation, ex vivo brain specimens from another three patients with CADASIL were analysed for iron deposition using ex vivo MRI combined with iron histochemistry.. ...
Huntingtons disease (HD) pathology is well understood at a histological level but a comprehensive molecular analysis of the effect of the disease in the human brain has not previously been available. To elucidate the molecular phenotype of HD on a genome-wide scale, we compared mRNA profiles from 44 human HD brains with those from 36 unaffected controls using microarray analysis. Four brain regions were analyzed: caudate nucleus, cerebellum, prefrontal association cortex [Brodmanns area 9 (BA9)] and motor cortex [Brodmanns area 4 (BA4)]. The greatest number and magnitude of differentially expressed mRNAs were detected in the caudate nucleus, followed by motor cortex, then cerebellum. Thus, the molecular phenotype of HD generally parallels established neuropathology. Surprisingly, no mRNA changes were detected in prefrontal association cortex, thereby revealing subtleties of pathology not previously disclosed by histological methods. To establish that the observed changes were not simply the ...
People are not born with this mental illness. Rather, they inherit the genetic predisposition to developing it. People can inherit a tendency for psychosis but not specific forms of schizophrenia.[5] Rather than thinking of the root of psychiatric disabilities as only set genes that cannot be changed, the cause should be viewed as activated genes which lead to certain neural circuits that subsequently produce symptoms. Treatments can be helpful and effective by modifying these neural circuits and strengthening brain functioning.. Baxter et al. (1992) proved that psychotherapy affects brain functioning. Clients with obsessive-compulsive disorder have metabolic disturbances in the caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia of their brains, which is proven through PET scans. However, behavioral treatment of exposure and response-prevention treatment normalize the functioning of peoples caudate nucleus.[6]. While this example is not specific to schizophrenia, it is relevant by proving that treatments ...
The effect of posttraining intracerebral injections of the indirect dopamine (DA) agonist d-amphetamine, the direct D2 agonist LY 171555, and the direct D1 agonist SKF-38393 on the acquisition of two 8-arm radial maze tasks were examined. On a win-stay task, a light cue signaled the location of food …
In the absence of visual input, the question arises as to how complex spatial abilities develop and how the brain adapts to the absence of this modality. As such, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between visual status and an important brain structure with a well established role in spatial cognition and navigation, the caudate nucleus. We conducted a volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in congenitally and late blind individuals, as well as in matched sighted control subjects ...
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Laura Igual, Joan Carles Soliva, Antonio Hernandez-Vela, Sergio Escalera, Xavier Jimenez, Oscar Vilarroya and Petia Radeva (2011), A Fully-Automatic Caudate Nucleus Segmentation of Brain MRI: Application in Volumetric Analysis of Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2011, 10:105 doi:10.1186/1475-925X-10-105, ISSN: 1475-925X, Published: 5 December 2011 ...
The performances of 12 patients with Parkinsons disease (PD), 16 with Huntingtons disease (HD), and young and old healthy controls were assessed on a number of tests of verbal and nonverbal declarative memory, on a test of nonmotor conditional associative learning (words and colors), and on a number of reaction time (RT) tasks. The RT tasks consisted of cued simple and choice reactions. The relationship between the precue and the imperative stimulus in the S1-S2 paradigm was nonarbitrary in the first series and arbitrary in the second series. The series with arbitrary S1-S2 associations was repeated across two successive blocks of trials. The rationale of the study was to investigate the function of the basal ganglia complex loop, and it was postulated that HD patients would show greater deficits because of greater involvement of the caudate nucleus. The patients with HD had the slowest RTs. Across the two blocks with arbitrary S1-S2 associations, the patients with HD but not PD nevertheless ...
Every exposure to caffeine can produce cerebral stimulant effects. This is especially true in the areas that control locomotor activity (eg, caudate nucleus) and structures involved in the sleep-wake ... more
WebTemp -свободно распространяемая программа для отображения аппаратной составляющей компьютера. Предоставляет человеку подробную информацию о следующих данных, например, температура CPU, материнской памяти и видеокарты, скорость вентилятора, загрузка CPU и ОЗУ и много другой информации.
ASPERGERS SYNDROME LESSON. Directions:. Print the Aspergers Syndrome reading comprehension passage and questions (see below).. Students should read the passage silently, then answer the questions. Teachers may also use the text as part of a classroom lesson plan.. Lesson Excerpt. Aspergers Syndrome is a disorder in which people have extreme difficulty with social interaction. There is much more to it than just being shy around other people. This disorder is severe to the point that it causes major problems socially, at work, and in other areas of life. Many cases of Aspergers Syndrome go undetected. It was not even recognized as a disorder until 1994.. There are many symptoms of Aspergers Syndrome. A person may have difficulty using nonverbal gestures like eye contact, facial expression, and body posture. There may be difficulty in developing relationships with peers. A person may not seek to enjoy things with other people. He/she may be socially or emotionally unresponsive.. People with ...
Every year I read several manuscripts written by mothers about having a child with Aspergers syndrome. The quality of manuscripts varies considerably. As soon as I started to read Living Your Best Life with Aspergers syndrome I knew it was going to be one of my favourite biographies. I was entranced by Karras descriptions of her sons intellectual abilities, his perspective on life and sense of humour. The anecdotes illustrate aspects of Aspergers syndrome perfectly. Professionals will have the Ah ha! moment, as the descriptions of events and conversations are consistent with the theoretical models of Aspergers syndrome. Both parents and professionals need to read this book, and then other children with Aspergers syndrome will indeed live a better life - Professor Tony ...
Find Aspergers Syndrome Therapists, Psychologists and Aspergers Syndrome Counseling in Plainview, Nassau County, New York, get help for Aspergers Syndrome in Plainview.
advice on what/how to tell your child.. As parents/teachers of children with Aspergers Syndrome we are expected to source all this information on our own. And so begins the Aspergers Syndrome journey - endless hours spent trawling the Internet; reading every book in your local library and filing every piece of information relevant to Aspergers Syndrome in your head for future reference. Only when youve upskilled and become enormously knowledgeable about Aspergers Syndrome can you finally match up the characteristics of AS with how those characteristics present in your child/student. Once the initial shock and disbelief settles, then you begin negotiating with your childs school (or parents of the child) over the best support strategies and accommodations to implement to give the AS child the greatest chance of success. This process usually takes somewhere between 10 and 18 months after diagnosis to complete. Were so busy upskilling ourselves as ourselves as parents/teachers during this ...
We describe an atypical neuropatholgical phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 64-year-old man presenting with a 5-month history of rapidly progressive dementia, comprising behavioral disturbances, memory complaints, disorientation and language alterations. MRI showed diffuse atrophy and hyperintensities in parietal, occipital, temporal and frontal cortices and left caudate nucleus on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. No typical EEG alterations were observed. Repeated 14-3-3 assay was positive after a first negative test. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes with small cortical foci of large confluent vacuoles and relatively well-preserved cerebellar cortex. The most striking feature was the presence of abundant Kuru-type plaques in both cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter. Sparse Kuru-type plaques were also seen in cerebellum, although only in white matter. Immunohistochemistry showed, in addition to unicentric plaques, diffuse ...
Tony Attwoods website is a guide for parents, professionals and people with Aspergers Syndrome and their partners.In this site you will find issues related to Aspergers Syndrome, resources, resource papers Tony has authored, related topics and Tonys presentation schedule.
The goal of this study was to determine if regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)in the left and right hemithalami or the left and right heads of the cau
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder of childhood characterized by motor and vocal tics. Patients with TS have decreased volume of the striatum (a region of the basal ganglia composed by caudate and putamen), and the decrease in caudate volume in childhood is inversely correlated with the severity of symptoms in adulthood. We have shown a large decrease in density of three classes of striatal interneurons in the striatum of TS: Parvalbumin+-GABAergic; NOS+/NPY+/SST+-GABAergic; and cholinergic (Kalanithi et al, 2005; Kataoka et al, 2010). Transcriptome analysis revealed a corresponding decreased expression of 308 genes encompassing genes related to these three classes of interneuron and inhibitory neurotransmission in general, as well as an up-regulation of 822 genes representing inflammatory response- and immune system-related genes (Lennington et al., 2014). Current studies in the lab aim to analyze genetic and epigenetic differences in the striatum and cortex as a whole and ...
The zone in which the posterior limb of the internal capsule reaches the cortex is an especially interesting point. Since the posterior limb is a perfectly flat sheet in the model in a plane exactly parallel to the median sagittal plane, it reaches the cortex in the upper third of the central convolutions. Thus in a transverse section the posterior limb corresponds to the lateral border of the tail of the caudate nucleus, and the fibres first medullated are projected straight to the cortex in a sagittal plane parallel to the median sagittal plane and exactly midway between the edge of the lateral ventricle and the surface of the island of Reil. In the adult brain the plane of the primitive posterior limb of the internal capsule can be demonstrated by making a sagittal section along the lateral border of the caudate nucleus to the point where it curves around into the roof of the lateral ventricle. In all of the models there is a curious band labeled no. 37 on the cortical radiation at the ...
Conner, T. S., DeYoung, C. G., & Silvia, P. J. (2018). Everyday creative activity as a path to flourishing. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 31, 181-189. [PDF]. Kaufman, S. B., Quilty, L. C., Grazioplene, R. G., Hirsh, J. B., Gray, J. R., Peterson, J. B., & DeYoung, C. G. (2016). Openness to Experience and Intellect differentially predict creative achievement in the arts and sciences. Journal of Personality, 84, 248-258. [PDF]. Grazioplene, R. G., Ryman, S., Gray, J. R., Rustichini, A., Jung, R. E., & DeYoung, C. G. (2015). Subcortical intelligence: Caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults. Human Brain Mapping, 36, 1407-1416. [PDF]. DeYoung, C. G. (2015). Openness/Intellect: A dimension of personality reflecting cognitive exploration. In R. J. Larsen & M. L. Cooper (Eds.), The APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 3: Personality Processes and Individual Differences. [PDF]. DeYoung, C. G., Quilty, L. C., Peterson, J. B., & Gray, J. R. (2014). Openness to Experience, ...
To Be Me: Understanding What Its Like to Have Aspergers Syndromeby Rebecca Etlinger; illustrated by Mark TomassiTen-year-old David is a regular kid except for one thing: He has Aspergers Syndrome.Written from Davids point of view, this charming book uses playful illustrations and kid-friendly text to tell young rea
My 33-year-old son, who had ADHD as a child, is now showing symptoms of Aspergers syndrome. What kind of support is out there for him?
Aspergers syndrome (AS) is one of the pervasive developmental disorders-a group of neurodevelopmental conditions of early onset characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and by restricted interest and behaviors. This chapter provides an overview of the historical and research background of AS leading to current debates; the changing nature of this discussion given the transformative changes in autism research in general in the past decade; the unchanging nature of these individuals needs whether or not the term survives new updates in psychiatric classification; and suggestions for a future more likely to clarify old questions while raising new and more scientifically helpful ones. To anchor this discussion in clinical realities, an overview of clinical features, treatment, and support services is also provided.
Crystals have beneficial effects on the aura and energy fields of humans. They can help to energise and rejuvenate cells in the body and provide deep healing to the mind, spirit and soul. This makes crystals excellent for children and adults with autism and aspergers syndrome.
Students with Aspergers syndrome are invited to join this group to meet new friends in a nonjudgmental setting andd share their experiences, successes, and struggles. NOTE: The final meeting for both groups is Friday, April 25.
USA Today has uncovered a 2008 Pentagon report that claims Russian President Vladimir Putin has exhibited symptoms of Aspergers syndrome.
In last nights episode of Parenthood, Adam was approached twice by other parents who heard that Max had been diagnosed with Aspergers syndrome. First Hank,
Comedian D. L. Hughley explains on Oprahs Where Are They Now that his son has aspergers syndrome and how he was worried for him
Sherlock Holmes, Aspergers syndrome, BBC Sherlock, high functioning sociopath, antisocial, Benedict Cumberbatch, Aspie aspergers. High intelligence Aspergian.
It is well-known that social influences affect consumption decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with social influence with regard to a common consumer good: music. Our study population was adolescents, age 12-17. Music is a common purchase in this age group, and it is widely believed that adolescent behavior is influenced by perceptions of popularity in their reference group. Using 15-s clips of songs from MySpace.com, we obtained behavioral measures of preferences and neurobiological responses to the songs. The data were gathered with, and without, the overall popularity of the song revealed. Song popularity had a significant effect on the participants likability ratings of the songs. fMRI results showed a strong correlation between the participants rating and activity in the caudate nucleus, a region previously implicated in reward-driven actions. The tendency to change ones evaluation of a song was positively ...
i am a self diagnosed Aspie. I am becoming a psycologist because my interest is schizophrenia, I cant make eye contact, I have terrible social skills and it all makes me feel so outcasted. I am in the...
Your Asperger Child: The Reasons Behind the Behavior You need to understand what your child or teenager is thinking, how he interprets what is going on, and how his deficits cause problems before you can begin any intervention strategy. Do not ru ...
My 6 year old son has exhibited some questionable behaviour. Some info on him: At 6 years old (almost 7) he has had only a handful of dry nights. Most nights he wets the bed at least twice, sometimes u...
British singing sensation Susan Boyle has stepped forward to admit that a Scottish specialist diagnosed her with Aspergers syndrome last yeara realization that has led her to become more at ease with herself and hopeful that others will show h
Robbys feet left the ground. The little guy balanced himself over the front edge of a cavernous toy box and dug through the contents. I remember his blue corduroy overalls as his head went lower and his feet went higher. But I remember what he said even more clearly. Hey! I see something down there. […]. ...
Jeffrey does not have ADHD. Jeffrey has Aspergers Syndrome. Weve suspected it for quite some time, so the diagnosis comes as zero surprise. Any questions? Ill be explaining more later.
Some in the newsroom hope so, and many believe so, and even think they know who his replacement might be-but only Rupert Murdoch knows for sure.
See the experimental case study D.L.A published by Dennis in 1976.) It is associated with lesions in the left caudate nucleus. ... the head of the caudate nucleus, or both. Examples These errors can be semantic, in which the meaning of the word is related to ...
Caudate nucleus and thalamus volumes were unaffected by the intervention. These theoretically important findings indicate that ...
Along with the caudate nucleus it forms the dorsal striatum. The caudate and putamen contain the same types of neurons and ... The other nuclei of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) can be seen as well. Putamen Putamen Putamen along ... When a cell body of a neuron (in the putamen or caudate nuclei) fires an action potential, dopamine is released from the ... Since projections from the putamen and caudate nuclei modulate the dendrites of the substantia nigra, the dopamine influences ...
This was including the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the fundus. The Vogt-Vogt syndrome is an extrapyramidal disturbance ... She distinguished from back to front the lemnical radiation and a particular nucleus, in front of it the cerebellar ( ... prelemniscal) radiation with another nucleus and more anteriorly the "lenticular" radiation. This system still describes the ...
Evidence indicates that the left caudate nucleus-a centrally located brain feature that is near the thalamus and the basal ... 2012). "Structural plasticity of the left caudate nucleus in bimodal bilinguals". Cortex. 48 (9): 1197-1206. doi:10.1016/j. ...
2012). "Developing intuition: Neural correlates of cognitive-skill learning in caudate nucleus". Journal of Neuroscience 28: ...
Reward Dependence correlated with decreased grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus. A separate but similar line of research ... to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. All of these circuits heavily rely on neurotransmitters and their precursors, ...
The researchers found interictally decreased cerebral blood flow in the posterior parts of the bilateral caudate nucleus. ... "Perfusion abnormality of the caudate nucleus in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis". European Journal of ...
The subcortical areas receiving projections are the amygdala, caudate nucleus and hippocampus. It is unknown if there are ... Cells in the V1 are part of layer 6, which different from cells that go to the lateral geniculate nucleus; these cells use ... Bayer, S.A.; Altman, J. (January 1991). "Development of the endopiriform nucleus and the claustrum in the rat brain". ... More specifically, electrophysiological studies show extensive connections to thalamic nuclei and the basal ganglia, while ...
Calcifications in the caudate, dentate nuclei, putamen and thalami are also common. Occasionally calcifications begin or ... The most commonly affected region of the brain is the lenticular nucleus and in particular the internal globus pallidus. ...
"Progressive hemifacial atrophy with agenesis of the head of the caudate nucleus". Journal of Medical Genetics. 31 (12): 969-71 ...
The striatum is made up of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus. The lentiform nucleus is made up of the larger ... The nucleus accumbens is made up of the nucleus accumbens core and the nucleus accumbens shell, which differ by neural ... The dorsal striatum consists of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. A white matter, nerve tract (the internal capsule) in the ... The dorsal striatum is composed of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. Staining can differentiate the striatum into two ...
"Habitual action video game playing is associated with caudate nucleus-dependent navigational strategies". Proceedings of the ... nucleus accumbens; septal nuclei), cerebellar (deep cerebellar nuclei - dentate nucleus, globose nucleus, emboliform nucleus, ... fastigial nucleus), brainstem (substantia nigra, red nucleus, olivary nuclei, cranial nerve nuclei). Grey matter in the spinal ...
The caudate nucleus is primarily associated with procedural memory, in particular habit formation, and is, therefore, ... Both the temporal lobe and the caudate nucleus were found to be enlarged. The hippocampus, located in the medial temporal lobe ...
Rodríguez Delgado had implanted a stimoceiver in the caudate nucleus of a fighting bull. He could stop the animal mid-way that ... The region of the brain Rodríguez Delgado stimulated when he pressed the hand-held transmitter was the caudate nucleus. This ... region was chosen to be stimulated because the caudate nucleus is involved in controlling voluntary movements. Rodríguez ...
Post-mortem studies show a marked reduction in the caudate nucleus of the striatum; frontal temporal gyri are narrowed with ...
Projections from the caudate nucleus to the superior colliculus also modulate saccadic eye movement. Altered patterns of pars ... The substantia nigra, along with four other nuclei, is part of the basal ganglia. It is the largest nucleus in the midbrain, ... The subthalamic nucleus gives excitatory input that modulates the rate of firing of these spontaneous action potentials. ... However, lesion of the subthalamic nucleus leads to only a 20% decrease in pars reticulata firing rate, suggesting that the ...
Other connections include the claustrum, the dorsolateral caudate nucleus, putamen, and the zona incerta. It also has links ... including the ventral lateral nucleus, the central and anterior nuclei of the intralaminar nuclear group, and the lateral ... Below the cerebral cortex, the precuneus is connected with the dorsalmost nuclei of the thalamus, ... caudate and Broca's region". NeuroImage. 32 (4): 1850-64. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.326.8669. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.05.002. PMID ...
"Spontaneous blink rates correlate with dopamine levels in the caudate nucleus of MPTP-treated monkeys". Experimental Neurology ... of the globus pallidus of the lenticular nucleus-a body of nerve cells between the base and outer surface of the brain. ...
"Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder have increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in the caudate nuclei". International ...
The prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, and subthalamic nucleus are known to regulate inhibitory control cognition. Inhibitory ... Functional neuroimaging in humans demonstrates activation of the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus (part of the striatum) ... The subthalamic nucleus appears to play a critical role in preventing such impulsive or premature responding (Frank 2006). ... or nucleus accumbens; Chapter 15). ... In conditions in which prepotent responses tend to dominate behavior, such as in drug ...
The caudate nucleus is the portion of the basal ganglia that helps control voluntary movement. Damage to this area can also ... The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei that connects to several other areas of the brain. Due to the diverse nuclei that ... imaging reveals abnormalities in the putamen contralateral to the movements as well as the globus pallidus and caudate nucleus ... The subthalamic nucleus essentially provides the excitement needed to drive the globus pallidus. Injury to this area or its ...
... the caudate nucleus and the putamen. In rodents, the internal capsule is poorly developed such that the caudate and putamen are ... The caudate nucleus and putamen receive excitatory information from all areas of the cerebral cortex. These glutamatergic ... The projections from dopamine D1 receptor containing medium spiny neurons in the caudate nucleus and putamen synapse onto ... The projections from dopamine D2 receptor containing medium spiny neurons in the caudate nucleus and putamen synapse onto ...
The caudate nucleus, is a region of the brain that is highly responsive to dopamine. The caudate nucleus is another component ... Research has suggested the role of the caudate nucleus anticipates the possibility of and is in anticipation of reward of ... The nucleus accumbens is a formation of neurons and is important in reward pathway activation. As previously mentioned, the ... In addition, the sensation pleasure of "liking" can occur when opioids are released by nucleus accumbens. This helps someone ...
Other than caudate nucleus, protein C20orf27 expression measure ranks at the top 25% among 100 proteins in pons, fetal brain, ... Microarray-assessed tissue expression pattern suggests caudate nucleus has the highest expression of protein C20orf27. ... This protein is expected to be found in cytosol and nucleus, but not in nuclei. Additional computational analysis predicts that ...
... passes upward through the inner segments of the lentiform nucleus and supplies the lentiform nucleus, caudate nucleus, and ... ascends through the outer segment of the lentiform nucleus and supplies the caudate nucleus. More modern texts divide the ... The name of these arteries is derived from some of the structures they supply, namely the lentiform nucleus and the striatum. ...
Avicenna also discovered the cerebellar vermis, which he simply called the vermis, and the caudate nucleus. Both terms are ...
The DRD1 gene expresses primarily in the caudate putamen in humans, and in the caudate putamen, the nucleus accumbens and the ... Expression of D1 receptor mRNA is highest in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Lower levels of ... Northern blot and in situ hybridization show that the mRNA expression of DRD1 is highest in the dorsal striatum (caudate and ... They play a role in addiction by facilitating the gene expression changes that occur in the nucleus accumbens during addiction ...
Specifically, the caudate nucleus is particularly affected by early environmental factors and its volume correlates with IQ. In ... This study also found that the extent to which the caudate volume size related selectively to verbal IQ was much greater in ... 2008). "The effect of early human diet on caudate volumes and IQ". Pediatric Research. 63 (3): 308-14. doi:10.1203/PDR. ... it was found that the high-nutrient group had significantly larger caudate volumes and scored significantly higher on verbal IQ ...
August 1987). "[3H]GBR-12935 binding to the dopamine transporter is decreased in the caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease". ...
... or apraxia Caudate nucleus - Contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral conjugate gaze paresis, or confusion Brain stem - ...
This involves the ventral caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen, bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, superior frontal and middle gyri ... On the other hand, when anticipating loss, the central and basal nuclei of amygdala, right posterior insula extending into the ... Although adolescents rejected the same proportion of trials as adults, adolescents displayed greater caudate and frontal pole ... with the connections between amygdala nuclei and the striatum controlling the avoidance of aversive events. There are ...
caudate nucleus development. · putamen development. · cerebral cortex development. · growth. · vocal learning. · camera-type ...
The striatum, in red, includes the caudate nucleus (top), the putamen (right), and, when including the term 'corpus' striatum, ... Kontopoulos E, Parvin JD, Feany MB (October 2006). "Alpha-synuclein acts in the nucleus to inhibit histone acetylation and ... valproic acid had a neuroprotective effect by preventing translocation of alpha-synuclein into cell nuclei.[24]. Vorinostat. In ... are likely causing cellular toxicity after they are spliced out of the c9orf72 mRNA transcripts and accumulate in the nuclei of ...
Kuczenski R, Segal DS, Cho AK, Melega W (February 1995). "Hippocampus norepinephrine, caudate dopamine and serotonin, and ... within the nucleus accumbens, improve the saliency of tasks. Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious ... and the caudate-putamen (McCann et al., 1998, 2008; Sekine et al., 2003; Volkow et al., 2001a, 2001c). The density of serotonin ... "Caffeine Induces Dopamine and Glutamate Release in the Shell of the Nucleus Accumbens". Journal of Neuroscience. 22 (15): 6321 ...
... the caudate nucleus and subthalamic nucleus also have a role in mediating inhibitory control.[2][7] ... Functional neuroimaging in humans demonstrates activation of the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus (part of the striatum) ... The subthalamic nucleus appears to play a critical role in preventing such impulsive or premature responding (Frank 2006).. ... role of the subthalamic nucleus". J. Neurosci. 26 (9): 2424-33. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4682-05.2006. PMID 16510720.. ...
Regional decreases in the left hypothalamus, left inferior parietal lobe, right lentiform nucleus and right caudate have also ...
"Limbic and cortical information processing in the nucleus accumbens". Trends in Neurosciences. 31 (11): 552-8. doi:10.1016/j. ...
A pancreatic islet from a mouse in a typical position, close to a blood vessel; insulin in red, nuclei in blue. ...
... subcortical nuclei such as the caudate, putamen and thalamus, and hippocampal subfields such as the combined dentate gyrus/CA3 ... When the RF field is removed, the nuclei go back to their original states, and the energy they emit is measured with a coil to ... Some regions just a few millimeters in size, such as the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, which relays visual ... MRI brain scans use a strong, permanent, static magnetic field to align nuclei in the brain region being studied. Another ...
Rodríguez Delgado had implanted a stimoceiver in the caudate nucleus of a fighting bull. He could stop the animal mid-way that ... This region was chosen to be stimulated because the caudate nucleus is involved in controlling voluntary movements.[2] ... The region of the brain Rodríguez Delgado stimulated when he pressed the hand-held transmitter was the caudate nucleus. ...
It is bounded medially by the front part of the septum pellucidum, and laterally by the head of the caudate nucleus. Its apex ... Its roof is formed chiefly by the inferior surface of the tapetum of the corpus callosum, but the tail of the caudate nucleus ... and curves around the front of the caudate nucleus. Its floor is formed by the upper surface of the reflected portion of the ... the tail of the caudate nucleus joins the putamen. Its floor presents the following parts: the hippocampus, the fimbria ...
The tail (cauda) of the caudate nucleus forms the upper portion of the lateral edge, but it is not large enough to cover the ... Between the inferior horn and the main body of the ventricle is the Putamen, which emerges from the head of the Caudate Nucleus ... Immediately below the tail of the caudate nucleus, the next portion of the lateral edge is formed by the comparatively narrow ... The remaining boundary - that facing interior to the ventricle curvature - comprises the posterior edge of the caudate nucleus ...
基底核的結構,在兩張腦的切面中展示。藍色:尾狀核(Caudate nucleus)、核殼(英語:putamen);綠色:蒼白球(英語:globus pallidus);紅色:丘腦下核(英語:subthalamic nucleus);黑色:黑質( ... nuclei(英語:List of thalamic nuclei). *paired: AN(英語:Anterior nuclei of thalamus) ... VP(英語:Ventral posterior nucleus)/VPM(英語:Ventral posteromedial nucleus)/VPL(英語:Ventral posterolateral nucleus) ... 腦包含了若干
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... The medial globus pallidus acts to tonically inhibit the ventral lateral nucleus and ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. ... The medial globus pallidus (or internal globus pallidus, GPi) is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the other being ... Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ...
In addition to these outputs, the OFC also projects to the striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and ... to be part of the orbitofrontal segment of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop such as the caudate nucleus, ... It is defined as the part of the prefrontal cortex that receives projections from the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, ... The OFC also receives input from the medial dorsal nucleus, insular cortex, entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, hypothalamus ...
"Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder have increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in the caudate nuclei". The International ... Another PET study reported increased altanserin binding in the caudate nuclei in obsessive compulsive disorder patients ... "Evidence that 5-HT2A receptors in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus mediate neuroendocrine responses to (-)DOI". The ...
Asher, I. M.; Aghajanian, G. K. (1974). "6-hydroxydopamine lesions of olfactory tubercles and caudate nuclei: Effect on ... First, it is considered to be part of the basal forebrain, the nucleus accumbens, and the amygdaloid nuclei because of its ... These cells also project into the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen, thus linking the olfactory tubercle with the pallidum. ... These cells clusters, called the islands of calleja, are innervated by dopaminergic projections from the nucleus accumbens and ...
Conversi D, Bonito-Oliva A, Orsini C, Colelli V, Cabib S (Januari 2008). "DeltaFosB accumulation in ventro-medial caudate ... "The influence of DeltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens on natural reward-related behavior". The Journal of Neuroscience : the ... "Cocaine experience controls bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens". J. Neurosci. 27 (30): 7921-8. doi: ... "Methylphenidate-induced dendritic spine formation and DeltaFosB expression in nucleus accumbens". Proceedings of the National ...
... hypothalamus and caudate nucleus/putamen. These transcripts are also detected in fetal liver and thymus.[8][7][9] ...
The posterior cingulate cortex receives a great part of its afferent axons from the superficial nucleus (or nucleus superior- ... the caudate and putamen were found to be smaller in volume in a longitudinal study of people with schizophrenia.[21] While the ... The anterior cingulate cortex receives primarily its afferent axons from the intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei (see ... A retrograde tracing experiment on macaque monkeys revealed that the ventral anterior nucleus (VA) and the ventral lateral ...
... the volume of the caudate nucleus, and the volumes of the parietal and temporal lobes.[3] ...
... a GPCR expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen.[18] Cannabidiol has also been shown to act as a 5-HT1A receptor agonist.[ ...
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... Thalamic interneurons process sensory information and signal different regions of the thalamic nuclei. These nuclei extend to ... can be found only in principal sensory and motor relay nuclei, and in the pulvinar as well the asintralaminar nuclei. The PIR ... auditory input in the medial geniculate nucleus, and somatosensory input in the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. ...
Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... The GPi acts to tonically inhibit the ventral lateral nucleus and ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. As these two nuclei ... The GABAergic neurons send their axons to the ventral anterior nucleus (VA) and the ventral lateral nucleus (VL) in the dorsal ... Dentate nucleus in Lateral hemisphere/pontocerebellum → SCP → Dentatothalamic tract → Thalamus (VL) → Motor cortex ...
The extrapyramidal subcortical nuclei include the substantia nigra, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, red nucleus ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... The medial vestibulospinal tract originates in the medial vestibular nucleus or Schwalbe's nucleus.[2] The Schwalbe's nucleus ... nucleus in the pons.[2] The Deiters' nucleus extends from pontomedullary junction to the level of abducens nerve nucleus in the ...
Acute caudate vascular lesions[edit]. It is well documented that the caudate nucleus is involved in degenerative diseases of ... Most of the cases where abulia was present were when the patients had a left caudate infarct that extended into the putamen as ... The loop continues to connect to the ventral pallidum, which connects to the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. This ... In a case study of 32 acute caudate stroke patients, 48% were found to be experiencing abulia. ...
Figure 11:TPP stimulation of KGDHC activity in four cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and caudate nucleus of controls and ... Each hemisphere contains a caudate nucleus and is divided into four sections, the frontal, parietal, temporal, and the ... amygdala and caudate nucleus) was measured by monitoring the formation of NADH (Figure 9) in the presence and absence of the ... amygdala and caudate nucleus). This result was explained by stabilization of α-KGDHC through TPP, which further supported by a ...
The caudate nuclei are located near the center of the brain, sitting astride the thalamus. There is a caudate nucleus within ... Therefore, the caudate nucleus has been suggested to play a role in human sleep cycles. The caudate nucleus has been implicated ... Caudate nucleus Caudate nucleus Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view, horizontal section, deep dissection ... The amygdala sends direct projections to the caudate nucleus. Both the amygdala and the caudate nucleus have direct and ...
caudate nucleus synonyms, caudate nucleus pronunciation, caudate nucleus translation, English dictionary definition of caudate ... nucleus. n. A basal ganglion located in the lateral ventricle of the brain that has a curved, taillike extension and functions ... Related to caudate nucleus: lentiform nucleus, putamen, internal capsule caudate nucleus. n.. A basal ganglion located in the ... Caudate nucleus - definition of caudate nucleus by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/caudate+nucleus ...
caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus synonyms, caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus pronunciation, caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus ... English dictionary definition of caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus. n. pl. nu·cle·i or nu·cle·us·es 1. A central or essential ... part around which other parts are gathered or grouped; a core: the nucleus of a city. 2. ... Caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus - definition of caudate nucleus, nucleus caudatus by The Free Dictionary https://www. ...
The presence of significant relationships between (a) VO2max and caudate nucleus volume and (b) caudate nucleus volume and ... caudate nucleus (. 𝑟. (. 1. 5. 0. ). =. 0. .. 0. 6. 2. , 𝑃. =. 0. .. 4. 4. 6. ), putamen (r(150) = 0.131, 𝑃. =. 0. .. 1. 0. 6. ... associated with volume of the caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens in late adulthood and that the size of the caudate nucleus ... and caudate nucleus (. 𝑟. (. 1. 5. 1. ). =. 0. .. 1. 8. 6. , 𝑃. =. 0. .. 0. 2. 2. ). In both cases, individuals with higher ...
Nagy, A., Eördegh, G., Norita, M., Benedek, G. (2003) Visual receptive field properties of neurons in the caudate nucleus. Eur ... Pouderoux, C., Freton, E. (1979) Patterns of unit responses to visual stimuli in the cat caudate nucleus under chloralose ... Modality Distribution of Sensory Neurons in the Feline Caudate Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra. ... little is known concerning the sensory functions of the caudate nucleus (CN) and the substantia nigra (SN). In the present ...
What is tail of caudate nucleus? Meaning of tail of caudate nucleus medical term. What does tail of caudate nucleus mean? ... Looking for online definition of tail of caudate nucleus in the Medical Dictionary? tail of caudate nucleus explanation free. ... tail of caudate nucleus. tail of cau·date nu·cle·us. [TA] the elongated posterior extension of the caudate nucleus that ... Tail of caudate nucleus , definition of tail of caudate nucleus by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Similarly, the affinity of [3H]paroxetine binding in the frontal cortex and caudate nucleus was not different. By contrast, the ... 3H]paroxetine binding is altered in the hippocampus but not the frontal cortex or caudate nucleus from subjects with ... and caudate nucleus from subjects who had or had not had schizophrenia was measured. The density of [3H]paroxetine binding to ...
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on the hippocampus and caudate nucleus during navigation while taking ... These findings suggest that the aging process involves a shift from using the hippocampus toward the caudate nucleus during ... Decreased functional magnetic resonance imaging activity in the hippocampus in favor of the caudate nucleus in older adults ... navigation in a virtual maze relies on spatial or response strategies known to depend on the hippocampus and caudate nucleus, ...
Between-Group Comparisons of Caudate Nucleus Volume. MANCOVA was conducted to assess the volume of the caudate nucleus (right ... Within the PNFA group, there was hemispheric asymmetry of caudate nucleus volume, with the right caudate nucleus volume ... Within controls, there was hemispheric asymmetry of caudate nucleus volume with the right caudate nucleus volume significantly ... the caudate nucleus. Caudate nucleus volume is correlated with cognition as assessed by MMSE scores across AD, FTLD, and ...
Bold signal trends in the ventral caudate nucleus. The essential role of the ventral caudate nucleus in reward-based behavioral ... Figure 3A shows that the activity of the caudate nucleus significantly correlated with LRI and SR. The caudate activity was ... In the caudate nucleus, the correlation with LRI was stronger in the ventral region and the correlation with SR was confined to ... 3D) were in good agreement with the three-dimensional shapes of the caudate nucleus head and body, as well as the globus ...
4B) in scans 4, 5, 6, and 8 (Table 2). The increase in caudate nucleus activity in the seventh scan (x = 10; y =-4; z = 20; t ... Instead, sustained activity was found in the caudate nucleus of the nonspatial strategy group on scans 3 (x = 8; y = 14; z = 12 ... The fact that a decrease in activation of the caudate nucleus was observed with the change in pattern of rewarded arms (trial 7 ... Thus, with practice, activity in the caudate nucleus emerged in this group and was sustained until the end of the experiment (i ...
... ... The results demonstrate a double dissociation of hippocampus and caudate nucleus memory functions and show that posttraining ... injection of both D1 and D2 agonists modulate the memory processes subserved by both hippocampus and caudate nucleus. ...
We determined caudate nuclei volumes, through manual tracing, on a subgroup of the LADIS study (n=66) from four centres with ... Executive dysfunction correlates with caudate nucleus atrophy in patients with white matter changes on MRI: a subset of LADIS ... Frontostriatal (or frontosubcortical) brain circuits may serve many of these functions, with the caudate nuclei playing a role ... Severity of WMC did not relate to caudate volume. Smaller caudate volumes were significantly associated with poorer executive ...
Partial purification of the D2 dopamine receptor from bovine caudate nucleus. RICHARD A. WILLIAMSON, SIMON WORRALL, PAUL L. ... Partial purification of the D2 dopamine receptor from bovine caudate nucleus Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Partial purification of the D2 dopamine receptor from bovine caudate nucleus ... Partial purification of the D2 dopamine receptor from bovine caudate nucleus ...
of the caudate nucleus is abnormal in women with fibromyalgia. (FM).. METHODS. Resting-state rCBF in the hemithalami and left. ... caudate nucleus was significantly lower in women with FM than. in normal controls (P = 0.01, P = 0.003, P = 0.01, and P =. 0.02 ... and right heads of the caudate nucleus of 10 untreated women. with FM and 7 normal control women was measured by [Tc-HMPAO]. ... Abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamus & the caudate nucleus are associated with low pain threshold ...
The Role of Dopaminergic Systems in Opioid Receptor Desensitization in Nucleus Accumbens and Caudate Putamen of Rat After ... The Role of Dopaminergic Systems in Opioid Receptor Desensitization in Nucleus Accumbens and Caudate Putamen of Rat After ... The Role of Dopaminergic Systems in Opioid Receptor Desensitization in Nucleus Accumbens and Caudate Putamen of Rat After ... The Role of Dopaminergic Systems in Opioid Receptor Desensitization in Nucleus Accumbens and Caudate Putamen of Rat After ...
Effect of acute and chronic fluoxetine on extracellular dopamine levels in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens of rat. ... 7/23/1996 • Effect of acute and chronic fluoxetine on extracellular dopamine levels in the caudate-putamen and nucleus ... 7/23/1996 • Effect of acute and chronic fluoxetine on extracellular dopamine levels in the caudate-putamen and nucleus ... Posted in Breaking News - Our Most Recent Serotonin Nightmares., Scientific Studies and tagged caudate-putamen, chronic ...
Presynaptic modulation of the release of dopamine from the rabbit caudate nucleus: differences between electrical stimulation, ... Presynaptic modulation of the release of dopamine from the rabbit caudate nucleus: differences between electrical stimulation, ... Presynaptic modulation of the release of dopamine from the rabbit caudate nucleus: differences between electrical stimulation, ... Presynaptic modulation of the release of dopamine from the rabbit caudate nucleus: differences between electrical stimulation, ...
... in the caudate nucleus in schizophrenia with manual, semi-automated and automated approaches. The .. ... we considered the caudate nucleus as the ROI and investigated the fMRI hemodynamic response in the caudate nucleus in ... A Manual, Semi-Automated and Automated ROI Study of fMRI Hemodynamic Response in the Caudate Nucleus Jing Zhang1*, Erin A ... The caudate nucleus is a sub-cortical region in the striatum that plays an important role in voluntary movement control, memory ...
... the caudate nucleus. We conducted a volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in congenitally and late blind individuals, as ... Finally, consistent with previously published reports, the volume of the caudate nucleus was found to be negatively correlated ... blind suggests that visual deprivation may still have an effect on the developmental changes that occur in the caudate nucleus. ... Moreover, contrary to what was expected, no significant correlation was found between caudate volume and performance in a ...
Glucose metabolism in the caudate nuclei of patients with eating disorders, measured by PET ... Krieg, J.-C., Holthoff, V., Schreiber, W., Pirke, K. M., & Herholz, K. (1991). Glucose metabolism in the caudate nuclei of ... Glucose metabolism in the caudate nuclei of patients with eating disorders, measured by PET ...
Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the caudate nucleus is safe and effective for patients with severe tinnitus for whom ... Caudate Nucleus Defective? Cheung added that this "fits in with the narrative" that the caudate may be defective in patients ... The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the corpus striatum, a component of the basal ganglia. The caudate is ... After a patient underwent DBS for essential tremor in which the lead was placed at a location traversing the caudate nucleus, ...
The caudate nucleus is a nucleus located within the basal ganglia of the brains of many animal species. The caudate, originally ... The caudate nuclei are located near the center of the brain, sitting astride the thalamus. There is a caudate nucleus within ... of the caudate nucleus. The caudate nucleus is related anatomically to a number of other structures. It is separated from the ... caudate nucleus, putamen), lentiform nucleus (putamen, globus pallidus), claustrum, extreme capsule, amygdala, nucleus ...
... the lower their activation was in the caudate nucleus. Thus, people that drank the most diet soda had the least activity in the ... caudate nucleus, and orbitofrontal cortex) and release dopamine, a neurotransmitter commonly associated with reward and ... Amygdala artificial sweetener atomic bomb Bone Brainstem brain waves Caloric restriction carbon dating caudate nucleus chewing ... elicit a significant response from several brain regions of the taste-reward system including the midbrain and caudate nucleus ...
The medial centromedian nucleus and lateral parafascicular nucleus projected to CDt while the medial parafascicular nucleus ... The medial centromedian nucleus and lateral parafascicular nucleus projected to CDt while the medial parafascicular nucleus ... The inferior pulvinar and lateral dorsal nuclei projected to CDt. The ventral anterior and medial dorsal nuclei projected to ... we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque ...
The caudate nuclei are located near the center of the brain, sitting astride the thalamus. There is a caudate nucleus within ... The amygdala sends direct projections to the caudate nucleus. Both the amygdala and the caudate nucleus have direct and ... The authors used MR images to compare the relative volumes of the caudate nuclei (as the caudate is a bilateral structure), and ... These results indicate that the caudate nucleus could be involved in coding a motor response. With this in mind, the caudate ...
In males, we saw responses in the amygdala but not the nucleus accumbens - similar to the pattern reported in humans listening ... In males, we saw responses in the amygdala but not the nucleus accumbens - similar to the pattern reported in humans listening ... Caudate nucleus. Many investigators have reported caudate responses in humans listening to pleasurable music (Blood and Zatorre ... We sampled from within the avian homologues of the nAc, caudate nucleus, Hp, medial amygdala, and VTA. We also sampled within ...
Subcortical structures • caudate nucleus • putamen • pallidum • hippocampus • amygdala • accumbens 6 12 18 24 30 1000 1500 2000 ... lentiform nucleus. P: putamen. FP: frontal pole. PCG: posterior cingulate gyrus. SPL: superior parietal lobule. One-back task, ...
We found both, caudate nucleus and the hippocampus to be activated by perceptual prediction errors. The hippocampal responses ... In sum, we established that the midbrain dopaminergic system, the hippocampus, and the caudate nucleus were to different ... The present fMRI study used an action-observation paradigm to investigate the contributions of the hippocampus, caudate nucleus ... Caudate nucleus Is the Subject Area "Caudate nucleus" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
head, Lateral ventricle (central part), Postcentral sulcus, Thalamus, Occipital bone and lambdoid suture, Caudate nucleus (head ... Nee, Lateral ventricle (central part), Postcentral sulcus, Thalamus, Occipital bone and lambdoid suture, Caudate nucleus (head ... brain2, Lateral ventricle (central part), Postcentral sulcus, Thalamus, Occipital bone and lambdoid suture, Caudate nucleus ( ... Lateral ventricle (central part), Postcentral sulcus, Thalamus, Occipital bone and lambdoid suture, Caudate nucleus (head), ...
  • anatomically, it is separated by a large white matter tract, the internal capsule, so it is sometimes also referred to as two structures: the medial dorsal striatum (the caudate) and the lateral dorsal striatum (the putamen). (wikipedia.org)
  • The SNc is located in the midbrain and contains cell projections to the caudate and putamen, utilizing the neurotransmitter dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the volume of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus positively correlated with Task Switching accuracy. (hindawi.com)
  • The striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) serves as an entry point for afferent information from the periphery, as well as for afferents and efferents for functionally segregated regions of the cortex. (ajnr.org)
  • Compared with healthy controls, mutation carriers had significantly higher phase shift in the putamen (p=0.0002) and caudate nucleus (p=0.006). (bmj.com)
  • Ex vivo MRI showed decreased signal intensity in the putamen and caudate nucleus in all specimens. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions This study demonstrates increased diffuse iron accumulation in the putamen and caudate nucleus in patients with the small vessel disease CADASIL. (bmj.com)
  • Morphine treatment of rats (60-70 mg/kg/day, 7 days) reduced δ opioid receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity in caudate putamen without any change in regulation by μ receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Effect of acute and chronic fluoxetine on extracellular dopamine levels in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens of rat. (drugawareness.org)
  • However, acutely administered fluoxetine (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to elevate extracellular levels of DA, or its metabolites in the NAc or caudate-putamen (CP). (drugawareness.org)
  • Scientific Studies and tagged caudate-putamen , chronic fluoxetine , nucleus accumbens . (drugawareness.org)
  • It is separated from the lenticular nucleus (made up of the globus pallidus and the putamen ) by the anterior limb of the internal capsule . (wikia.org)
  • Together the caudate and putamen form the dorsal striatum . (wikia.org)
  • Along with the putamen and globus pallidus, as well in conjunction with the thalamus and two related structures (the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus), the caudate nucleus constitutes a system that is responsible largely for voluntary movement. (fmritools.com)
  • Organizationally, the interplay between the basal ganglia and various regions in the brain is best described as a series of cortico-striatal loops, in which the striatum receives axons from the cortex (along with the putamen, the caudate nuclei are the main input regions for the basal ganglia), processes the information, then relays this back to distinct cortical regions (hence the name cortico-striatal ). (fmritools.com)
  • Together with the putamen, the caudate forms the dorsal striatum or striate nucleus. (fmritools.com)
  • A limbic nucleus that sits at the ventral head of the striatum, contiguous with the caudate and putamen and adjacent to the olfactory tubercle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With its interconnected neighbor, the putamen, the caudate forms a single functional nucleus called the striatum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many motor effects of opiates acting at μ-opioid receptors are thought to reflect functional interactions with dopaminergic inputs to the caudate- putamen nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • We examined the cellular and subcellular bases for this interaction in the rat caudate-putamen nucleus by dual immunocytochemical labelling for μ-opioid receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker mainly for dopamine in this region. (elsevier.com)
  • Pickel, V. M. / Ultrastructural immunocytochemical localization of μ-opioid receptors in dendritic targets of dopaminergic terminals in the rat caudate-putamen nucleus . (elsevier.com)
  • We investigated the effects of p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), a serotonin (5-HT) depletor, on the neurochemical processes in nuclei raphe dorsalis (NRD) and caudatus putamen (NCP) paralleling physostigmine-induced tremor in rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Mehta, H, Thomas, B & Mohanakumar, KP 2001, ' Effects of p-chlorophenylalanine on striatal acetylcholinesterase activity and on biogenic amine levels in nuclei raphe and caudate-putamen during physostigmine-induced tremor in rats ', Neuroscience Letters , vol. 299, no. 1-2, pp. 105-108. (elsevier.com)
  • The putamen and globus pallidus together form the lenticular (lentiform) nucleus. (hawaii.edu)
  • The caudate-putamen index, which is calculated using a formula based on the difference in the uptakes in the caudate and putamen divided by the caudate uptake, is lower in patients with MSA than in patients with Parkinson disease. (medscape.com)
  • We measured the volumes of the caudate nucleus (head), the putamen, and the globus pallidus on MR images of 53 healthy adults whose ages at baseline ranged between 20 and 77 years. (ajnr.org)
  • On both measurement occasions, the volume of the neostriatal nuclei (caudate and putamen) but not of the globus pallidus correlated negatively with age. (ajnr.org)
  • The average annual shrinkage rate was 0.83% in the caudate nucleus, 0.73% in the putamen, and 0.51% in the globus pallidus. (ajnr.org)
  • The striatal nuclei-caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus-play a critical role in the planning, execution, and control of movement ( 1 ) and in acquisition of motor sequences ( 2 ). (ajnr.org)
  • Cross-sectional studies of humans ( 3 ) and other primates ( 4 ) indicate that old age is associated with reduced volumes of the neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), whereas age differences in the volume of paleostriatum (globus pallidus) are significantly smaller ( 5 , 6 ). (ajnr.org)
  • The extent of age-related differences in the volume of some striatal nuclei may vary between the sexes ( 6 ), and shrinkage of the putamen may mediate age deficits in skill acquisition ( 7 ). (ajnr.org)
  • This deprivation effect was associated with an increase in electrically evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine from superfused nucleus accumbens slices, whereas the evoked [ 3 H]dopamine release from caudate putamen slices remained unchanged. (vumc.nl)
  • In slices of the caudate putamen, but not in nucleus accumbens slices, postsynaptic dopemine D 1 receptor-stimulated cyclic AMP production was also enhanced. (vumc.nl)
  • These data show for the first time that unrestricted free-choice ethanol consumption in rats is associated with a longterm increase in dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen. (vumc.nl)
  • the tail of the caudate nucleus joins the putamen. (wikipedia.org)
  • External/Lateral Segment GPe Internal/Medial Segment GPi *Lentiform/Lenticular Nucleus: Putamen and Globus Pallidus *Corpus Striatum: Caudate Nucleus/Putamen/Globus Pallidus Substantia Nigra -pars compacta DOPAMINERGIC - dorsal SNc - pars reticulate GABAergic - ventral SNr Subthalamic Nucleus Nucleus Accumbens - ventral StriatumDOPAMINERGIC Blood Supply: Anertior Cerebral Middle Cerebral Posterior Communicating SYNAPTIC CIRCUITS/ NEUROTRANSMITTERS 1. (scribd.com)
  • Other signal abnormalities and atrophy in the putamen, globus pallidus, or caudate can point to genetic-metabolic diseases, including disorders of mitochondrial and organic acid metabolism. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cranial magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the patient showed bilateral symmetric hyperintensity in the caudate nucleus and putamen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thirty-three months after CO poisoning, the patient was asymptomatic and MRI revealed atrophy in caudate nucleus and putamen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The dorsal (top part) is divided into the caudate nucleus and the putamen. (forbes.com)
  • The caudate nuclei are located near the center of the brain, sitting astride the thalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, the alcoholics showed a smaller area of mCPP-induced activation in the thalamus compared with the healthy volunteers, almost no activation in the orbital cortices, and no activation in the head of the caudate nucleus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 , 3 Using diffusion tensor tractography, Leh et al 2 demonstrated the extensive nature of caudate nucleus connections with the prefrontal cortex, inferior and middle temporal gyrus, frontal eye fields, cerebellum, and thalamus. (ajnr.org)
  • It has been theorized that the caudate nucleus may be dysfunctional in persons with Obsessive compulsive disorder , in that it may perhaps be unable to properly regulate the transmission of information regarding worrying events or ideas between the thalamus and the Orbitofrontal cortex . (wikia.org)
  • If this is true, it probably appears because the nucleus is unable to control the transmission of anxiety and pulses between the thalamus and the orbitofrontal cortex, which changes the impact of this information on actions and decisions. (knowledgist9.com)
  • Within the thalamus, different nuclei projected to either CDh or CDt. (frontiersin.org)
  • In fMRI, for the higher level, activations were found in the ventroanterior portion of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the head of the caudate nucleus (CN), and the ventral anterior nucleus (VA) in the thalamus. (mpg.de)
  • Conversely, for the lower level, activations were located in the posterior region of the PFC, the body of the CN, and the medial dorsal nucleus (MD) in the thalamus. (mpg.de)
  • Input to the BG is sent to the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and is conveyed to the thalamus and cortex through the output nuclei: the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. (physiology.org)
  • Indirect Pathway: Thalamus is inhibited and movement is inhibited Striatum( GABA& Enkephalin)GPe (GABA) subthalamic Nucleus (glutamate) GPe, GPi& SNr (GABA)ThalamusPremotor & SMA 4. (scribd.com)
  • Motor Nuclei of the Thalamus 2. (scribd.com)
  • The thalamus is a sensory relay area made up of smaller masses of grey matter nuclei, each with different functions. (brainscape.com)
  • Figure 4-7 The biology of obsessive-compulsive disorder Brain structures that have been linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder include the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala, and cingulate cortex. (coursehero.com)
  • The caudate is highly innervated by dopaminergic neurons that originate from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite extensive analysis of the motor functions of the basal ganglia and the fact that multisensory information processing appears critical for the execution of their behavioral action, little is known concerning the sensory functions of the caudate nucleus (CN) and the substantia nigra (SN). (springer.com)
  • Chéramy, A., Nieoullon, A., and Glowinski, J., 1977c, In vivo changes in dopamine release in the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra of the cat induced by nigral application of various drugs including GABAergic agonists and antagonists, in: "Interactions among putative neurotransmitters in the brain" CS. (springer.com)
  • Chéramy, A., Nieoullon A., and Glowinski, J., 1977d, Stimulating effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on dopamine release from the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra of the cat. (springer.com)
  • The main characteristic features of Parkinson's disease are insufficient formation and activity of dopamine, due to the death of neurons in certain nuclei of the basal ganglia, especially in the substantia nigra. (hpathy.com)
  • Decreased dopaminergic activity in the striatal nuclei and substantia nigra causes increased output through cholinergic and dopaminergic fibers of the caudate nucleus which results in tremor and rigidity (cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, putman, and globus pallidus internal segment -thalamic pathway direct) in the early stage of Parkinson's disease. (hpathy.com)
  • The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the corpus striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selective impairment of spatial working memory in subjects with Parkinson's disease and the knowledge of the disease's impact on the amount of dopamine supplied to the striatum have linked the caudate nucleus to spatial and nonspatial mnemonic processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to loss of afferent or efferent inputs from cortical atrophy, there may be resultant reduction in the volume of the striatum and, in particular, the caudate nucleus. (ajnr.org)
  • The caudate nucleus is a sub-cortical region in the striatum that plays an important role in voluntary movement control, memory and learning. (omicsonline.org)
  • This system consists of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its dopaminergic projections to several regions of the forebrain, for example the nucleus accumbens (nAc) in the ventral striatum. (frontiersin.org)
  • The nucleus accumbens is part of the ventral striatum nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although cross-sectional estimates suggested preservation of some striatal nuclei, longitudinal shrinkage of the whole striatum was evident even in a selected group of healthy adults. (ajnr.org)
  • mean age = 13), showed decreased activity during expected value processing in a widespread network commonly associated with reinforcement expectancies representation, including the striatum (especially the caudate), the orbitofrontal cortex, and medial temporal structures including the hippocampus and insula. (cambridge.org)
  • The regions implicated include the following: the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, amygdala, and caudate or lentiform nucleus. (ajnr.org)
  • Neurons within the midbrain then go on to innervate various brain centers that participate in the food reward response (i.e. amygdala, caudate nucleus, and orbitofrontal cortex) and release dopamine, a neurotransmitter commonly associated with reward and pleasure. (wordpress.com)
  • In males, we saw responses in the amygdala but not the nucleus accumbens - similar to the pattern reported in humans listening to unpleasant music. (frontiersin.org)
  • Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), hippocampus, amygdala, and caudate nucleus volumes were measured from T1-weighted MRI. (northwestern.edu)
  • Conclusions: Reported ELS is associated with smaller ACC and caudate volumes, but not the hippocampal or amygdala volumes. (northwestern.edu)
  • 05) showed that the right caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger than the left in controls and PNFA. (ajnr.org)
  • A neuroimaging study with positron emission tomography found that the right caudate nucleus had the largest change in glucose metabolism after patients had been treated with paroxetine . (wikia.org)
  • ead of the right caudate nucleus (Rao, et al. (psu.edu)
  • Neuroimaging study reveals teens with more gray matter in the caudate nucleus and left cerebellum were at increased risk of problem alcohol use over time. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Further deterioration of dopaminergic fibers in the subatantia nigra, caudate nucleus, putman, sub thalamic nucleus and globus pallidus are responsible for bradykinesia in the later stages of Parkinson's disease. (hpathy.com)
  • There is some indirect evidence [7] , that caudate may perform this regulatory role by measuring the general activity of cerebral cortex and controlling the threshold potential . (wikia.org)
  • In Huntington's Chorea, there are widespread degeneration changes with cell loss and reactive gliosis mainly in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and caudate nucleus. (smashwords.com)
  • Separates the caudate nucleus and cerebral cortex. (anatomyatlases.org)
  • Thus, in patients with WMC, a surrogate of small vessel disease, caudate atrophy relates to the dysexecutive syndrome, supporting the role of caudate as an important part of the frontostriatal circuit. (nih.gov)
  • 3. CT scan or MRI may show selective atrophy of the caudate nucleus helping to differentiate Huntingdon's Chorea from other causes such as dementia. (smashwords.com)
  • The caudate nucleus is highly innervated by dopamine neurons . (wikia.org)
  • By placing electrodes on the scalp and creating a low level electrical current directly above the caudate, he believes he will be able to stimulate the damaged neurons in the area and get them firing again. (parkinson.ca)
  • Activity in the caudate nucleus was demonstrated to be greater during tasks featuring spatial and motoric memory demands than those that involved nonspatial tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • fMRI results showed that, as a group, young adults had significant activity in the hippocampus as opposed to older adults who instead had significant activity in the caudate nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • We found that activity in the caudate nucleus was correlated with short-term reward and, furthermore, paralleled the magnitude of a subject's behavioral change during learning. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, we confirmed that this parallelism between learning and activity in the caudate nucleus is robustly maintained even when we vary task difficulty by controlling the probability. (jneurosci.org)
  • The anterior thalamic nucleus is the only thalamic nucleus that is directly part of the limbic circuitry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The anterior thalamic nucleus sends axons to medial cerebral cortices: the cingulate gyrus, the anterior limbic area, and the parahippocampal gyrus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The GPe constantly inhibits the Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN) , this inhibition is released when the GPe itself gets inhibited, so here too we have a disinhibition. (forbes.com)
  • However, navigation in a virtual maze relies on spatial or response strategies known to depend on the hippocampus and caudate nucleus, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on the hippocampus and caudate nucleus during navigation while taking into account individual navigational strategies. (nih.gov)
  • The results demonstrate a double dissociation of hippocampus and caudate nucleus memory functions and show that posttraining injection of both D1 and D2 agonists modulate the memory processes subserved by both hippocampus and caudate nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Across the groups, there was a positive partial correlation between the left caudate nucleus volume and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores ( r = 0.393, n = 76, P = .001) with higher left caudate volumes associated with higher MMSE scores. (ajnr.org)
  • Right and left caudate nucleus volumes were smaller in depressed patients compared with controls. (elsevier.com)
  • Further distributions of ischemic stroke were: left caudate nucleus, left posterior inferior cerebellar artery, left external capsule, left middle cerebral artery, and acute ischemic supratentorial spots. (medscape.com)
  • The caudate is also one of the brain structures which compose the reward system and functions as part of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since it causes death from respiratory failure when given parenterally, detailed investigations of its actions have so far been confined to isolated, perfused structures such as the superior cervical ganglion, while its effects on brain centres, like the caudate nucleus, which have the ability to synthesize acetylcholine at a high rate, have not been analysed. (harvard.edu)
  • Spatial cognition and the ability to properly navigate in one's environment are believed to result from the contribution of several subcortical structures such as the hippocampus (HC) and the caudate nucleus (CN). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The caudate nucleus is related anatomically to a number of other structures. (wikia.org)
  • While this system has long been associated with motor processes due primarily to the basal ganglia's role in Parkinson's disease, there is mounting evidence that the structures that make up the basal ganglia-the caudate nucleus included-play important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well. (fmritools.com)
  • The last major stops for love signals in the brain are the caudate nuclei, a pair of structures on either side of the head, each about the size of a shrimp. (psychcentral.com)
  • 1998). The explicit system dominates the learning of verbalizable, rule-based category structures and is mediated by frontal brain areas such as the anterior cingulate, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and head of the caudate nucleus. (psu.edu)
  • The implicit system, which uses procedural learning, dominates the learning of non-verbalizable, information-integration category structures, and is mediated by the tail of the caudate nucleus and a dopamine-mediated reward signal. (psu.edu)
  • Another line of research has linked obsessive-compulsive disorder to abnormal functioning by specific regions of the brain, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex ( just above each eye) and the caudate nuclei (structures located within the brain region known as the basal ganglia). (coursehero.com)
  • A review of neuroimaging studies, anatomical studies of caudate connectivity, and behavioral studies reveals a role for the caudate in executive functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results may be the first demonstration of diminished caudate nucleus volumes in depression and suggest a role for the caudate nucleus in the pathogenesis of major depression. (elsevier.com)
  • Due to its association with damage to the caudate, this movement demonstrates the inhibitory nature of the caudate nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohol damage to the caudate of a developing brain can result in problems with attention. (duke.edu)
  • People with OCD had increased regional grey matter volumes in bilateral lenticular nuclei, extending to the caudate nuclei, as well as decreased volumes in bilateral dorsal medial frontal/anterior cingulate gyri. (cambridge.org)
  • Evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus was Ca2+ dependent and abolished by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that it reflects action potential-induced [3H]dopamine release. (jneurosci.org)
  • The activations related to true statements involved the left inferior parietal cortex and the caudate nucleus bilaterally. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3H]paroxetine binding is altered in the hippocampus but not the frontal cortex or caudate nucleus from subjects with schizophrenia. (nih.gov)
  • 3H]Paroxetine binding to particulate membrane from tissue, obtained at autopsy, from the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and caudate nucleus from subjects who had or had not had schizophrenia was measured. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, the affinity of [3H]paroxetine binding in the frontal cortex and caudate nucleus was not different. (nih.gov)
  • Phase shift measurements in deep grey nuclei, cortex and subcortical white matter were compared between mutation carriers and controls. (bmj.com)
  • and _______ are major output nuclei to the cortex from the basal ganglia. (studystack.com)
  • But during electrostimulation, there was significantly stronger activation than during thermal stimulation in the caudate nucleus bilaterally and in the contralateral posterior insula. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • Presynaptic modulation of the release of dopamine from the rabbit caudate nucleus: differences between electrical stimulation, amphetamine and tyramine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • There is a caudate nucleus within each hemisphere of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, they do not know whether problems with the caudate nucleus or any other brain area cause OCD. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Experiments with rats suggest that transplants of tissue from the adrenal medulla to the caudate nucleus in the brain may be able to block such damage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In particular, said Sowell, a structure in the brain called the caudate nucleus , which is important for learning and memory, motor control, and punishment and reward, was one of the regions that was more reduced by methamphetamine than alcohol exposure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Manual volume measurement of the head and body of the caudate, excluding the tail, was conducted on T1-weighted brain MR imaging scans, using a published protocol, by a single analyst blinded to the diagnosis. (ajnr.org)
  • Frontostriatal (or frontosubcortical) brain circuits may serve many of these functions, with the caudate nuclei playing a role in convergence of cognitive functions. (nih.gov)
  • Similar results were obtained in nucleus accumbens, which suggests a role for D 2 receptor desensitization in the adaptive response of this brain region to chronic morphine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As such, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between visual status and an important brain structure with a well established role in spatial cognition and navigation, the caudate nucleus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the caudate nucleus appears safe and effective for patients with severe refractory tinnitus, early research suggests. (medscape.com)
  • These MRI brain scans suggest that the ventral tegmental floods the caudate with dopamine when falling in love. (wikia.org)
  • The caudate nucleus plays an important role in brain science, in particular in the storage and processing of memories. (knowledgist9.com)
  • Some brain specialists suspect that the nucleus may play a role in the development of the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). (knowledgist9.com)
  • The hypothalamic nucleus is a small, oval part of the hypothalamus in the brain, made of gray matter. (knowledgist9.com)
  • Beheshti hopes to change those outcomes by applying tDCS to the caudate region of the brain, a region his colleagues have shown to be responsible for cognitive performance among people with Parkinson's. (parkinson.ca)
  • The caudate region of the brain signals the context in which sensory evidence is evaluated, helping animals to adapt their behavior to changing conditions. (elifesciences.org)
  • Thrill signals that start in the lower brain are processed in the nucleus accumbens via not just dopamine but also serotonin and, importantly, oxytocin. (psychcentral.com)
  • We examined age-related differences and longitudinal changes in the volume of the striatal nuclei, compared longitudinal measures of changes with their cross-sectional estimates, and addressed the question of differential aging of the basal ganglia. (ajnr.org)
  • in the fourth, a short (1-year) follow-up of all three striatal nuclei was conducted ( 11 ). (ajnr.org)
  • What are the major output nuclei of the basal ganglia? (studystack.com)
  • Here we examine whether cardiorespiratory fitness correlates with the volume of the subcortical nuclei that make up the basal ganglia and whether this relationship predicts cognitive flexibility in older adults. (hindawi.com)
  • The inferior pulvinar and lateral dorsal nuclei projected to CDt. (frontiersin.org)
  • We determined caudate nuclei volumes, through manual tracing, on a subgroup of the LADIS study (n=66) from four centres with baseline and 3-year follow-up MRI scans. (nih.gov)
  • Smaller caudate volumes were significantly associated with poorer executive functioning at baseline and at 3 years, but were not associated with scores of memory or speed of processing. (nih.gov)
  • We used serial axial high-field magnetic resonance images and an unbiased stereological technique to estimate the volumes of the caudate nuclei in 50 patients who met DSM-III criteria for major depression (23 men, 48.3 ± 17 years old) in comparison with 50 age- and gender-matched normal controls free of major neurological and psychiatric disorders. (elsevier.com)
  • Depressed patients had smaller caudate nucleus volumes (5.2±1.6 cm 3 ) compared with controls (6.2±1.7 cm 3 ). (elsevier.com)
  • Age was negatively correlated with caudate nucleus volumes in depressed patients as well as in controls. (elsevier.com)
  • Caudate nucleus volumes in depressed patients were inversely correlated with the bicaudate and bifrontal indices. (elsevier.com)
  • The ventral anterior and medial dorsal nuclei projected to CDh. (frontiersin.org)
  • A two-pronged approach of neuroimaging (including PET and fMRI) and anatomical studies expose a strong relationship between the caudate and cortical areas associated with executive functioning: "non-invasive measures of anatomical and functional connectivity in humans demonstrate a clear link between the caudate and executive frontal areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abnormal fMRI hemodynamic response in the caudate in the patient group may suggest functional deficits in the frontal-striatal-thalamic circuit in schizophrenia. (omicsonline.org)
  • The anterior horn of lateral ventricle or frontal horn , passes forward and to the side, with a slight inclination downward, from the interventricular foramen into the frontal lobe , and curves around the front of the caudate nucleus . (wikipedia.org)
  • This nucleus receives axons from the mammillary body via the mammillothalamic tract, from the hippocampus via the fornix, and from cholinergic nuclei in the basal forebrain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, the effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) on basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus previously labeled with [3H]dopamine was examined. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the presence of bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, the sulfated but not the unsulfated form of CCK-8 inhibited both basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus at very low concentrations. (jneurosci.org)
  • Decreased functional magnetic resonance imaging activity in the hippocampus in favor of the caudate nucleus in older adults tested in a virtual nav. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we developed a new stochastic decision task that satisfies all of these prerequisites and demonstrate that the activity of the caudate nucleus parallels the behavioral change during learning as well as the amount of short-term reward by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (jneurosci.org)
  • Participants underwent stereotactically guided functional neurosurgery to implant DBS leads into both caudate nuclei. (medscape.com)
  • Hypothalamic nucleus affects motor control, and can also play a role in psychological processes. (knowledgist9.com)
  • Studies indicate that hypothalamic nucleus may be associated with problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or addictive behavior. (knowledgist9.com)
  • A hypothalamic nucleus in the ventral wall of the third ventricle near the pituitary stalk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 14 mo after initial symptoms: bilateral T2 hyperintensities in the thalamic pulvinar nuclei and, to a lesser extent, in the caudate and lentiform nuclei. (cdc.gov)
  • The caudate head receives its blood supply from the lenticulostriate artery while the tail of the caudate receives its blood supply from the anterior choroidal artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that a coronal (on a plane parallel to the face) section that cuts through the tail will also cross the body and head of the caudate nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that a coronal (on the same plane as the face ) section that cuts through the tail will also cross the body (or head) of the caudate nucleus. (wikia.org)
  • Each nucleus has a broadhead that narrows in the body and the thin tail. (knowledgist9.com)
  • To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. (frontiersin.org)
  • the caudate head (CDh) encodes flexible values of visual objects based on short-term memories, while the caudate tail (CDt) encodes stable values of visual objects based on long-term memories. (frontiersin.org)
  • After a patient underwent DBS for essential tremor in which the lead was placed at a location traversing the caudate nucleus, she recovered not only from the tremor but also from her tinnitus. (medscape.com)
  • Compared with controls, reduced activations in the caudate nucleus in schizophrenia have been reported by a number of fMRI studies in tasks such as prepulse inhibition startle, working memory and learning [ 4 , 12 , 15 , 16 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Synapses in the nucleus accumbens use dopamine as their neurotransmitter. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Increasing the activity of these synapses (i.e., increasing the level of dopamine in the nucleus) leads to a rewarding or pleasurable sensation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • GABA plays a major role in information processing in the GPe since roughly 80% of all synapses within this nucleus are GABAergic ( Kita 2007 ). (physiology.org)
  • Frontostriatal circuits involving the caudate nucleus have been implicated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). (ajnr.org)
  • Volume of the head and body of the caudate nucleus differs in subtypes of FTLD, due to differential frontostriatal dysfunction in subtypes being reflected in structural change in the caudate, and is correlated with cognition. (ajnr.org)