Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
An isoquinoline derivative that prevents dopamine reuptake into synaptosomes. The maleate was formerly used in the treatment of depression. It was withdrawn worldwide in 1986 due to the risk of acute hemolytic anemia with intravascular hemolysis resulting from its use. In some cases, renal failure also developed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p266)
A pharmacologic congener of serotonin that contracts smooth muscle and has actions similar to those of tricyclic antidepressants. It has been proposed as an oxytocic.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A benzocycloheptapyridoisoquinolinol that has been used as an antipsychotic, especially in schizophrenia.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
A personality disorder manifested by a profound defect in the ability to form social relationships, no desire for social involvement, and an indifference to praise or criticism.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
A phenylethylamine derivative that acts as a calcium antagonist showing hemodynamic effects in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.

Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems. (1/891)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

Effect of psychotropic drugs on caudate spindle in cats. (2/891)

To ascertain whether neuroleptics act on the caudate nucleus itself, the effects of these compounds as well as other centrally acting drugs were examined in relation to caudate spindle and EEG arousal responses (sciatic nerve stimulation) in gallamine-immobilized cats. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle at a dose which had no effect on the EEG arousal response. On the other hand, clozapine and a higher dose of chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle, but depressed the arousal response. High frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve suppressed the caudate spindle. Pentobarbital, biperiden and diazepam, while depressing the arousal response, caused an enhancement of the caudate spindle. Imipramine at a low dose had no effect on either response, whereas at a high dose this drug enhanced the caudate spindle with concomitant depression of the arousal response. From these results, it may be concluded that the enhancing action on the caudate spindle induced by haloperidol and a low dose of chlorpromazine is due to an increase in susceptibility of the caudate nucleus itself. In addition, it is suggested that depression of the activating system is involved in an appearance of the caudate spindle.  (+info)

N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain. (3/891)

Morbidity and mortality from head trauma is highest among children. No animal model mimicking traumatic brain injury in children has yet been established, and the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration after traumatic injury to the developing brain are not understood. In infant rats subjected to percussion head trauma, two types of brain damage could be characterized. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hr and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hr and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus and striatum. Secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate and dizocilpine protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage. 2-Sulfo-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone, a free radical scavenger, did not affect primary excitotoxic damage but mitigated apoptotic damage. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determine neuropathologic outcome after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Whereas free radical scavengers may prove useful in therapy of head trauma in children, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists should be avoided because of their propensity to increase severity of apoptotic damage.  (+info)

Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage. (4/891)

The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22/1000 and of HMD 4-44/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the incidence of IVH in babies weighing 1001-1500 g was three times as great as that reported in the 1658 British Perinatal Mortality Survey. Most IVH deaths were in babies with HMD, but the higher frequency of IVH was not associated with any prolongation of survival time of babies who died with HMD as compared with the 1958 survey. IVH was seen frequently at gestations of up to 36 weeks in babies with HMD but was rare above 30 weeks' gestation in babies without HMD. This indicated that factors associated with HMD must cause most cases of IVH seen at gestations above 30 weeks. Comparison of clinical details in infants with HMD who died with or without IVH (at gestations of 30-37 weeks) showed no significant differences between the groups other than a high incidence of fits and greater use of alkali therapy in the babies with IVH. During the 12 hours when most alkali therapy was given, babies dying with IVD received a mean total alkali dosage of 10-21 mmol/kg and those dying without IVH 6-34 mmol/kg (P less than 0-001). There was no difference in severity of hypoxia or of metabolic acidosis between the 2 groups. Babies who died with HMD and germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) without IVH had received significantly more alkali than those who died with HMD alone, whereas survivors of severe respiratory distress syndrome had received lower alkali doses than other groups. It is suggested that the greatly increased death rate from IVH in babies with HMD indicates some alteration of management of HMD (since 1958) as a causative factor. Liberal use of hypertonic alkali solutions is the common factor which distinguishes babies dying with GLH and IVH from other groups of babies with HMD. Although the causal nature of this association remains unproved, it seems justifiable to lrge caution in alkali usage.  (+info)

Clozapine preferentially increases dopamine release in the rhesus monkey prefrontal cortex compared with the caudate nucleus. (5/891)

Despite substantial differences between species in the organization and elaboration of the cortical dopamine innervation, little is known about the pharmacological response of cortical or striatal sites to antipsychotic medications in nonhuman primates. To examine this issue, rhesus monkeys were chronically implanted with guide cannulae directed at the principal sulcus, medial prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, and caudate nucleus. Alterations in dopamine release in these discrete brain regions were measured in response to administration of clozapine or haloperidol. Clozapine produced significant and long-lasting increases in dopamine release in the principal sulcus, and to a lesser extent, in the caudate nucleus. Haloperidol did not produce a consistent effect on dopamine release in the principal sulcus, although it increased dopamine release in the caudate. Clozapine's preferential augmentation of dopamine release in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex supports the idea that clozapine exerts its therapeutic effects in part by increasing cortical dopamine neurotransmission.  (+info)

Memory guided saccade deficit after caudate nucleus lesion. (6/891)

The role of the caudate nucleus in ocular motor control is not well determined in humans. Eye movements were recorded from a 45 year old man with infarctions involving bilaterally the body of the caudate nucleus, with a greater extent on the left side. The patient exhibited a pattern of eye movement abnormalities in which a delay dependent decrease of accuracy of memory guided saccades predominated. By contrast, memory guided pointing was normal. It is concluded that the body of the caudate nucleus participates in a spatial short term memory network devoted to eye movements.  (+info)

Sequential bilateral transplantation in Parkinson's disease: effects of the second graft. (7/891)

Five parkinsonian patients who had received implants of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue unilaterally in the striatum 10-56 months earlier were grafted with tissue from four to eight donors into the putamen (four patients) or the putamen plus the caudate nucleus (one patient) on the other side, and were followed for 18-24 months. After 12-18 months, PET showed a mean 85% increase in 6-L-[18F]fluorodopa uptake in the putamen with the second graft, whereas there was no significant further change in the previously transplanted putamen. Two patients exhibited marked additional improvements after their second graft: 'on-off' fluctuations virtually disappeared, movement speed increased, and L-dopa could be withdrawn in one patient and reduced by 70% in the other. The improvement in one patient was moderate. Two patients with atypical features, who responded poorly to the first graft, worsened following the second transplantation. These findings indicate that sequential transplantation in patients does not compromise the survival and function of either the first or the second graft. Moreover, putamen grafts that restore fluorodopa uptake to normal levels can give improvements of major therapeutic value.  (+info)

Massive subependymal hemorrhage caused by an occult vascular malformation--two case reports. (8/891)

Two patients presented with massive subependymal hemorrhage caused by vascular anomalies occult to angiography, computed tomography (CT) scanning, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A 47-year-old male initially presented with a headache and became comatose 3 weeks later. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a massive hematoma in the right caudate head projecting into the lateral ventricle. A 60-year-old male sustained heaviness of his left extremities 8 days prior to admission and his condition gradually deteriorated. Neuroimaging revealed a right thalamic hematoma adjacent to the lateral ventricle. Cerebral angiography, CT, and MR imaging failed to detect any vascular anomaly. The hematomas increased in size gradually and were surgically explored. The histological diagnosis was arteriovenous malformation for the first case and cavernous angioma for the second case that had ruptured repeatedly. These cases were unique in the unusual location in the subependyma, and diagnostic neuroimaging modalities could not disclose the vascular anomalies, and the hematomas enlarged progressively to become critically symptomatic. Surgical intervention is mandatory for mass reduction and correct diagnosis of such lesions, with favorable outcome as long as the surgery is not delayed until too late.  (+info)

We have demonstrated that volume of the head and body of the caudate nucleus differs significantly and substantially (ranging from 93% to 75% of control caudate volumes) in subtypes of FTLD. We also found that caudate nucleus volume was correlated with cognition measured via MMSE score, with lower volume correlating with poorer cognition. This finding complements previous meta-analyses showing functional and structural change in the caudate within subtypes of FTLD as well as in cortical regions.1. Krishnamoorthy30 has postulated that increase in volume of brain structures associated with emotion, such as the amygdala, may reflect either a predilection for emotional reactivity or plasticity and growth of the structure due to hyperactivity. The corollary is that neurodegenerative processes may result in atrophy and underactivity of the structure. Therefore, the caudate may be reduced in volume due to underactivity and/or degeneration as part of the FTLD process. That smaller caudate nucleus volume ...
Define caudate nucleus. caudate nucleus synonyms, caudate nucleus pronunciation, caudate nucleus translation, English dictionary definition of caudate nucleus. n. A basal ganglion located in the lateral ventricle of the brain that has a curved, taillike extension and functions in motor control. Noun 1.
The cat caudate nucleus has been reported to possess a rich and fairly even distribution of nerve endings, containing both dopamine- and cholecystokinin-like peptides. In this study, the effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) on basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus previously labeled with [3H]dopamine was examined. Evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus was Ca2+ dependent and abolished by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that it reflects action potential-induced [3H]dopamine release. In the presence of bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, the sulfated but not the unsulfated form of CCK-8 inhibited both basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus at very low concentrations. CCK-8 sulfate was efficient in causing this effect in concentrations down to 10(-14) M, and the maximum effect was obtained with 10(-11) M. In contrast, without bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, no inhibitory effect of CCK-8 ...
The caudate nucleus is one of three basic structures that make up the basal ganglia. Along with the putamen and globus pallidus, as well in conjunction with the thalamus and two related structures (the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus), the caudate nucleus constitutes a system that is responsible largely for voluntary movement. While this system has long been associated with motor processes due primarily to the basal ganglias role in Parkinsons disease, there is mounting evidence that the structures that make up the basal ganglia-the caudate nucleus included-play important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well. Organizationally, the interplay between the basal ganglia and various regions in the brain is best described as a series of cortico-striatal loops, in which the striatum receives axons from the cortex (along with the putamen, the caudate nuclei are the main input regions for the basal ganglia), processes the information, then relays this back to distinct cortical ...
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Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio (CC/IT) is used in assessing patients with neurodegenerative diseases that affect the caudate nuclei. It is best known for assessing individuals with suspected Huntingtons disease but is in no way...
To test the hypothesis that craving for alcohol in the alcohol-dependent individual is mediated by a limbic circuit involving the caudate nuclei, regional cerebral blood flow was measured with [99mTc]HMPAO SPECT during control and craving conditions in 9 alcohol-dependent subjects. In all subjects, blood flow in the head of the right caudate nucleus increased during the craving condition, and these blood flow increases were strongly correlated with the experimentally induced increases in craving for alcohol. These new findings suggest a functional role for the limbic striatum in the mediation of craving and impaired control over alcohol consumption.
Love. Brain imaging has to be interpreted with some degree of care; the relationship between brain and mind is only beginning to emerge. With that caution, some interesting results. The madly in love infatuation phase doesnt actually seem to involve the emotional brain. Instead, it heavily involves the motivation and reward areas of the brain (dopamine heaven). Its only later, as a relationship matures, that the regions of the brain associated with emotion become more involved. (Personal note: This supports a belief Ive long held, Im sure in common with many readers, that the strongest long-term relationships start off as gradually-deepening friendships.) Said another way, the wild infatuation phase has much more in common with powerful drives like hunger and thirst than with the complexities and satisfactions of love in the long term. An aside to gratify a certain segment of the SBAA membership, the same regions activated when madly in love - the right caudate nucleus and the right ...
By Luke Davies. Follow Luke on Twitter.. A recent article in the New York Times has advocated extending the notion of personhood, and the rights associated with that status, to dogs. Gregory Burns, the author of the article, argued for this position on the basis of the structural and functional similarity between the caudate nucleus of dogs and humans. The caudate nucleus, Burns tells us, is that part of the brain responsible for our feeling of anticipation of things we enjoy. More than this, the activity of the caudate nucleus is so consistent in MRI scans that he claims we may be able to use our monitoring of its activity to predict our tastes for certain things (he lists music, food and beauty). Importantly for Burns, activity in the caudate increased in dogs in response to positive stimulus: a gesture signaling food, or the appearance of the owner. The tentative conclusion to these findings is that the MRI images signal the possibility of canine emotion. Burns makes clear that without the ...
Neuroscience research articles are provided.. What is neuroscience? Neuroscience is the scientific study of nervous systems. Neuroscience can involve research from many branches of science including those involving neurology, brain science, neurobiology, psychology, computer science, artificial intelligence, statistics, prosthetics, neuroimaging, engineering, medicine, physics, mathematics, pharmacology, electrophysiology, biology, robotics and technology. ...
Contemporary associative theory distinguishes between habitual S-R associations and a combination of S-O, O-R, and R-O associations thought to mediate goal-directed performance (Balleine and Ostlund, 2007). In this study, we used multivariate pattern analysis to assess whether dissociable regions of the human brain encode these distinct associative structures. Unlike previous work in humans, contrasting qualitatively different experimental conditions designed to encourage different action-selection strategies, or comparing largely parameter-driven value signals generated by RL algorithms, our approach sought to identify a neural implementation of the associative content of goal-directed versus habitual behavioral control. We found evidence for stimulus-elicited response representations but no outcome representations, indicative of habits, in the DLS (posterior putamen). Conversely, in the vmPFC, dlPFC, and anterior caudate nucleus, both response and outcome representations were present, ...
By comparison with these reports our results demonstrate a different pattern of hyperechogenic lesions in Huntingtons disease, primarily affecting the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra. Considering different basal ganglia regions, hyperechogenic lesions of the substantia nigra were detectable in Huntingtons disease half as often as reported previously in Parkinsons disease.9 The rate of hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus was similar in Huntingtons disease and dystonia. Nevertheless, we found a considerably high signal intensity in most patients showing caudate nucleus hyperechogenic lesions, possibly pointing towards the predominant localisation of neuronal loss, whereas hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus in dystonia were described as mild. The precise morphological and pathological interpretation of basal ganglia hyperechogenicity demonstrated by TCS is still speculative. The fact that in the present study hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus were ...
There is still considerable controversy regarding the influence of blood viscosity upon CBF. We have measured CBF with microspheres in 23 cats. Autoregulation was disturbed in the left caudate nucleus by microsurgical occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Induced hypertension or hypotension was used and i.v. mannitol (1 g/kg) administered. In all cats blood viscosity decreased an average of 16% at 15 minutes and, in 16 cats, increased 10% at 75 minutes post-mannitol. CBF in the right caudate was 79 +/- 6 ml/100g/min, in the left 38 +/- 6 (p less than 0.001). Only minor changes of CBF occurred in areas with presumed normal autoregulation, including the right caudate, in conjunction with pressure or viscosity changes. In the left caudate CBF decreased 21% with hypotension and 18% with higher viscosity, more than on the right (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.2, respectively). CBF increased in the left caudate 56% with hypertension and 47% with lower viscosity, again much more than on the ...
Methods 25 NOTCH3 mutation carriers and 18 healthy controls were examined using high-resolution T2*-weighted imaging on a 7 T whole body MRI scanner. Susceptibility-weighted MRI scans were analysed for areas of signal loss and increased phase shift. Phase shift measurements in deep grey nuclei, cortex and subcortical white matter were compared between mutation carriers and controls. For confirmation, ex vivo brain specimens from another three patients with CADASIL were analysed for iron deposition using ex vivo MRI combined with iron histochemistry.. ...
Huntingtons disease (HD) pathology is well understood at a histological level but a comprehensive molecular analysis of the effect of the disease in the human brain has not previously been available. To elucidate the molecular phenotype of HD on a genome-wide scale, we compared mRNA profiles from 44 human HD brains with those from 36 unaffected controls using microarray analysis. Four brain regions were analyzed: caudate nucleus, cerebellum, prefrontal association cortex [Brodmanns area 9 (BA9)] and motor cortex [Brodmanns area 4 (BA4)]. The greatest number and magnitude of differentially expressed mRNAs were detected in the caudate nucleus, followed by motor cortex, then cerebellum. Thus, the molecular phenotype of HD generally parallels established neuropathology. Surprisingly, no mRNA changes were detected in prefrontal association cortex, thereby revealing subtleties of pathology not previously disclosed by histological methods. To establish that the observed changes were not simply the ...
People are not born with this mental illness. Rather, they inherit the genetic predisposition to developing it. People can inherit a tendency for psychosis but not specific forms of schizophrenia.[5] Rather than thinking of the root of psychiatric disabilities as only set genes that cannot be changed, the cause should be viewed as activated genes which lead to certain neural circuits that subsequently produce symptoms. Treatments can be helpful and effective by modifying these neural circuits and strengthening brain functioning.. Baxter et al. (1992) proved that psychotherapy affects brain functioning. Clients with obsessive-compulsive disorder have metabolic disturbances in the caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia of their brains, which is proven through PET scans. However, behavioral treatment of exposure and response-prevention treatment normalize the functioning of peoples caudate nucleus.[6]. While this example is not specific to schizophrenia, it is relevant by proving that treatments ...
The effect of posttraining intracerebral injections of the indirect dopamine (DA) agonist d-amphetamine, the direct D2 agonist LY 171555, and the direct D1 agonist SKF-38393 on the acquisition of two 8-arm radial maze tasks were examined. On a win-stay task, a light cue signaled the location of food …
In the absence of visual input, the question arises as to how complex spatial abilities develop and how the brain adapts to the absence of this modality. As such, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between visual status and an important brain structure with a well established role in spatial cognition and navigation, the caudate nucleus. We conducted a volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in congenitally and late blind individuals, as well as in matched sighted control subjects ...
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Laura Igual, Joan Carles Soliva, Antonio Hernandez-Vela, Sergio Escalera, Xavier Jimenez, Oscar Vilarroya and Petia Radeva (2011), A Fully-Automatic Caudate Nucleus Segmentation of Brain MRI: Application in Volumetric Analysis of Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2011, 10:105 doi:10.1186/1475-925X-10-105, ISSN: 1475-925X, Published: 5 December 2011 ...
The performances of 12 patients with Parkinsons disease (PD), 16 with Huntingtons disease (HD), and young and old healthy controls were assessed on a number of tests of verbal and nonverbal declarative memory, on a test of nonmotor conditional associative learning (words and colors), and on a number of reaction time (RT) tasks. The RT tasks consisted of cued simple and choice reactions. The relationship between the precue and the imperative stimulus in the S1-S2 paradigm was nonarbitrary in the first series and arbitrary in the second series. The series with arbitrary S1-S2 associations was repeated across two successive blocks of trials. The rationale of the study was to investigate the function of the basal ganglia complex loop, and it was postulated that HD patients would show greater deficits because of greater involvement of the caudate nucleus. The patients with HD had the slowest RTs. Across the two blocks with arbitrary S1-S2 associations, the patients with HD but not PD nevertheless ...
Every exposure to caffeine can produce cerebral stimulant effects. This is especially true in the areas that control locomotor activity (eg, caudate nucleus) and structures involved in the sleep-wake ... more
WebTemp -свободно распространяемая программа для отображения аппаратной составляющей компьютера. Предоставляет человеку подробную информацию о следующих данных, например, температура CPU, материнской памяти и видеокарты, скорость вентилятора, загрузка CPU и ОЗУ и много другой информации.
ASPERGERS SYNDROME LESSON. Directions:. Print the Aspergers Syndrome reading comprehension passage and questions (see below).. Students should read the passage silently, then answer the questions. Teachers may also use the text as part of a classroom lesson plan.. Lesson Excerpt. Aspergers Syndrome is a disorder in which people have extreme difficulty with social interaction. There is much more to it than just being shy around other people. This disorder is severe to the point that it causes major problems socially, at work, and in other areas of life. Many cases of Aspergers Syndrome go undetected. It was not even recognized as a disorder until 1994.. There are many symptoms of Aspergers Syndrome. A person may have difficulty using nonverbal gestures like eye contact, facial expression, and body posture. There may be difficulty in developing relationships with peers. A person may not seek to enjoy things with other people. He/she may be socially or emotionally unresponsive.. People with ...
Every year I read several manuscripts written by mothers about having a child with Aspergers syndrome. The quality of manuscripts varies considerably. As soon as I started to read Living Your Best Life with Aspergers syndrome I knew it was going to be one of my favourite biographies. I was entranced by Karras descriptions of her sons intellectual abilities, his perspective on life and sense of humour. The anecdotes illustrate aspects of Aspergers syndrome perfectly. Professionals will have the Ah ha! moment, as the descriptions of events and conversations are consistent with the theoretical models of Aspergers syndrome. Both parents and professionals need to read this book, and then other children with Aspergers syndrome will indeed live a better life - Professor Tony ...
Find Aspergers Syndrome Therapists, Psychologists and Aspergers Syndrome Counseling in Plainview, Nassau County, New York, get help for Aspergers Syndrome in Plainview.
advice on what/how to tell your child.. As parents/teachers of children with Aspergers Syndrome we are expected to source all this information on our own. And so begins the Aspergers Syndrome journey - endless hours spent trawling the Internet; reading every book in your local library and filing every piece of information relevant to Aspergers Syndrome in your head for future reference. Only when youve upskilled and become enormously knowledgeable about Aspergers Syndrome can you finally match up the characteristics of AS with how those characteristics present in your child/student. Once the initial shock and disbelief settles, then you begin negotiating with your childs school (or parents of the child) over the best support strategies and accommodations to implement to give the AS child the greatest chance of success. This process usually takes somewhere between 10 and 18 months after diagnosis to complete. Were so busy upskilling ourselves as ourselves as parents/teachers during this ...
We describe an atypical neuropatholgical phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 64-year-old man presenting with a 5-month history of rapidly progressive dementia, comprising behavioral disturbances, memory complaints, disorientation and language alterations. MRI showed diffuse atrophy and hyperintensities in parietal, occipital, temporal and frontal cortices and left caudate nucleus on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. No typical EEG alterations were observed. Repeated 14-3-3 assay was positive after a first negative test. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes with small cortical foci of large confluent vacuoles and relatively well-preserved cerebellar cortex. The most striking feature was the presence of abundant Kuru-type plaques in both cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter. Sparse Kuru-type plaques were also seen in cerebellum, although only in white matter. Immunohistochemistry showed, in addition to unicentric plaques, diffuse ...
Tony Attwoods website is a guide for parents, professionals and people with Aspergers Syndrome and their partners.In this site you will find issues related to Aspergers Syndrome, resources, resource papers Tony has authored, related topics and Tonys presentation schedule.
The goal of this study was to determine if regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)in the left and right hemithalami or the left and right heads of the cau
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder of childhood characterized by motor and vocal tics. Patients with TS have decreased volume of the striatum (a region of the basal ganglia composed by caudate and putamen), and the decrease in caudate volume in childhood is inversely correlated with the severity of symptoms in adulthood. We have shown a large decrease in density of three classes of striatal interneurons in the striatum of TS: Parvalbumin+-GABAergic; NOS+/NPY+/SST+-GABAergic; and cholinergic (Kalanithi et al, 2005; Kataoka et al, 2010). Transcriptome analysis revealed a corresponding decreased expression of 308 genes encompassing genes related to these three classes of interneuron and inhibitory neurotransmission in general, as well as an up-regulation of 822 genes representing inflammatory response- and immune system-related genes (Lennington et al., 2014). Current studies in the lab aim to analyze genetic and epigenetic differences in the striatum and cortex as a whole and ...
The zone in which the posterior limb of the internal capsule reaches the cortex is an especially interesting point. Since the posterior limb is a perfectly flat sheet in the model in a plane exactly parallel to the median sagittal plane, it reaches the cortex in the upper third of the central convolutions. Thus in a transverse section the posterior limb corresponds to the lateral border of the tail of the caudate nucleus, and the fibres first medullated are projected straight to the cortex in a sagittal plane parallel to the median sagittal plane and exactly midway between the edge of the lateral ventricle and the surface of the island of Reil. In the adult brain the plane of the primitive posterior limb of the internal capsule can be demonstrated by making a sagittal section along the lateral border of the caudate nucleus to the point where it curves around into the roof of the lateral ventricle. In all of the models there is a curious band labeled no. 37 on the cortical radiation at the ...
Conner, T. S., DeYoung, C. G., & Silvia, P. J. (2018). Everyday creative activity as a path to flourishing. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 31, 181-189. [PDF]. Kaufman, S. B., Quilty, L. C., Grazioplene, R. G., Hirsh, J. B., Gray, J. R., Peterson, J. B., & DeYoung, C. G. (2016). Openness to Experience and Intellect differentially predict creative achievement in the arts and sciences. Journal of Personality, 84, 248-258. [PDF]. Grazioplene, R. G., Ryman, S., Gray, J. R., Rustichini, A., Jung, R. E., & DeYoung, C. G. (2015). Subcortical intelligence: Caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults. Human Brain Mapping, 36, 1407-1416. [PDF]. DeYoung, C. G. (2015). Openness/Intellect: A dimension of personality reflecting cognitive exploration. In R. J. Larsen & M. L. Cooper (Eds.), The APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume 3: Personality Processes and Individual Differences. [PDF]. DeYoung, C. G., Quilty, L. C., Peterson, J. B., & Gray, J. R. (2014). Openness to Experience, ...
To Be Me: Understanding What Its Like to Have Aspergers Syndromeby Rebecca Etlinger; illustrated by Mark TomassiTen-year-old David is a regular kid except for one thing: He has Aspergers Syndrome.Written from Davids point of view, this charming book uses playful illustrations and kid-friendly text to tell young rea
My 33-year-old son, who had ADHD as a child, is now showing symptoms of Aspergers syndrome. What kind of support is out there for him?
Aspergers syndrome (AS) is one of the pervasive developmental disorders-a group of neurodevelopmental conditions of early onset characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and by restricted interest and behaviors. This chapter provides an overview of the historical and research background of AS leading to current debates; the changing nature of this discussion given the transformative changes in autism research in general in the past decade; the unchanging nature of these individuals needs whether or not the term survives new updates in psychiatric classification; and suggestions for a future more likely to clarify old questions while raising new and more scientifically helpful ones. To anchor this discussion in clinical realities, an overview of clinical features, treatment, and support services is also provided.
Crystals have beneficial effects on the aura and energy fields of humans. They can help to energise and rejuvenate cells in the body and provide deep healing to the mind, spirit and soul. This makes crystals excellent for children and adults with autism and aspergers syndrome.
Students with Aspergers syndrome are invited to join this group to meet new friends in a nonjudgmental setting andd share their experiences, successes, and struggles. NOTE: The final meeting for both groups is Friday, April 25.
USA Today has uncovered a 2008 Pentagon report that claims Russian President Vladimir Putin has exhibited symptoms of Aspergers syndrome.
In last nights episode of Parenthood, Adam was approached twice by other parents who heard that Max had been diagnosed with Aspergers syndrome. First Hank,
Comedian D. L. Hughley explains on Oprahs Where Are They Now that his son has aspergers syndrome and how he was worried for him
Sherlock Holmes, Aspergers syndrome, BBC Sherlock, high functioning sociopath, antisocial, Benedict Cumberbatch, Aspie aspergers. High intelligence Aspergian.
It is well-known that social influences affect consumption decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with social influence with regard to a common consumer good: music. Our study population was adolescents, age 12-17. Music is a common purchase in this age group, and it is widely believed that adolescent behavior is influenced by perceptions of popularity in their reference group. Using 15-s clips of songs from MySpace.com, we obtained behavioral measures of preferences and neurobiological responses to the songs. The data were gathered with, and without, the overall popularity of the song revealed. Song popularity had a significant effect on the participants likability ratings of the songs. fMRI results showed a strong correlation between the participants rating and activity in the caudate nucleus, a region previously implicated in reward-driven actions. The tendency to change ones evaluation of a song was positively ...
i am a self diagnosed Aspie. I am becoming a psycologist because my interest is schizophrenia, I cant make eye contact, I have terrible social skills and it all makes me feel so outcasted. I am in the...
Your Asperger Child: The Reasons Behind the Behavior You need to understand what your child or teenager is thinking, how he interprets what is going on, and how his deficits cause problems before you can begin any intervention strategy. Do not ru ...
My 6 year old son has exhibited some questionable behaviour. Some info on him: At 6 years old (almost 7) he has had only a handful of dry nights. Most nights he wets the bed at least twice, sometimes u...
British singing sensation Susan Boyle has stepped forward to admit that a Scottish specialist diagnosed her with Aspergers syndrome last yeara realization that has led her to become more at ease with herself and hopeful that others will show h
Robbys feet left the ground. The little guy balanced himself over the front edge of a cavernous toy box and dug through the contents. I remember his blue corduroy overalls as his head went lower and his feet went higher. But I remember what he said even more clearly. Hey! I see something down there. […]. ...
Jeffrey does not have ADHD. Jeffrey has Aspergers Syndrome. Weve suspected it for quite some time, so the diagnosis comes as zero surprise. Any questions? Ill be explaining more later.
I noticed /usr/share/webmin/status/monitor.pl 35% but very seldom. 3 I was not able to reproduce the situation when webmin uses a lot of cpu if the webmin page is closed. You can check the video in the first post ...
Some in the newsroom hope so, and many believe so, and even think they know who his replacement might be-but only Rupert Murdoch knows for sure.
See the experimental case study D.L.A published by Dennis in 1976.) It is associated with lesions in the left caudate nucleus. ... the head of the caudate nucleus, or both. Examples These errors can be semantic, in which the meaning of the word is related to ...
Caudate nucleus and thalamus volumes were unaffected by the intervention. These theoretically important findings indicate that ...
Along with the caudate nucleus it forms the dorsal striatum. The caudate and putamen contain the same types of neurons and ... The other nuclei of the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) can be seen as well. Putamen Putamen Putamen along ... When a cell body of a neuron (in the putamen or caudate nuclei) fires an action potential, dopamine is released from the ... Since projections from the putamen and caudate nuclei modulate the dendrites of the substantia nigra, the dopamine influences ...
This was including the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the fundus. The Vogt-Vogt syndrome is an extrapyramidal disturbance ... She distinguished from back to front the lemnical radiation and a particular nucleus, in front of it the cerebellar ( ... prelemniscal) radiation with another nucleus and more anteriorly the "lenticular" radiation. This system still describes the ...
2012). "Developing intuition: Neural correlates of cognitive-skill learning in caudate nucleus". Journal of Neuroscience 28: ...
Reward Dependence correlated with decreased grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus. A separate but similar line of research ... to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. All of these circuits heavily rely on neurotransmitters and their precursors, ...
2012). "Developing intuition: Neural correlates of cognitive-skill learning in caudate nucleus". Journal of Neuroscience. 32 ( ...
The researchers found interictally decreased cerebral blood flow in the posterior parts of the bilateral caudate nucleus. ... "Perfusion abnormality of the caudate nucleus in patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis". European Journal of ...
The subcortical areas receiving projections are the amygdala, caudate nucleus and hippocampus. It is unknown if there are ... Cells in the V1 are part of layer 6, which different from cells that go to the lateral geniculate nucleus; these cells use ... Bayer, S.A.; Altman, J. (January 1991). "Development of the endopiriform nucleus and the claustrum in the rat brain". ... More specifically, electrophysiological studies show extensive connections to thalamic nuclei and the basal ganglia, while ...
"Progressive hemifacial atrophy with agenesis of the head of the caudate nucleus". Journal of Medical Genetics. 31 (12): 969-71 ...
The striatum is made up of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus. The lentiform nucleus is made up of the larger ... The nucleus accumbens is made up of the nucleus accumbens core and the nucleus accumbens shell, which differ by neural ... The dorsal striatum consists of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. A white matter, nerve tract (the internal capsule) in the ... The dorsal striatum is composed of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. Staining can differentiate the striatum into two ...
"Habitual action video game playing is associated with caudate nucleus-dependent navigational strategies". Proceedings of the ... deep cerebellar nuclei - the dentate nuclei, globose nucleus, emboliform nucleus, and fastigial nucleus), and brainstem (the ... substantia nigra, red nucleus, olivary nuclei, and cranial nerve nuclei). Grey matter in the spinal cord is known as the grey ... globus pallidus and nucleus accumbens; as well as the septal nuclei), cerebellum ( ...
The caudate nucleus is primarily associated with procedural memory, in particular habit formation, and is, therefore, ... Both the temporal lobe and the caudate nucleus were found to be enlarged. The hippocampus, located in the medial temporal lobe ...
Rodríguez Delgado had implanted a stimoceiver in the caudate nucleus of a fighting bull. He could stop the animal mid-way that ... The region of the brain Rodríguez Delgado stimulated when he pressed the hand-held transmitter was the caudate nucleus. This ... region was chosen to be stimulated because the caudate nucleus is involved in controlling voluntary movements. Rodríguez ...
Post-mortem studies show a marked reduction in the caudate nucleus of the striatum; frontal temporal gyri are narrowed with ...
Projections from the caudate nucleus to the superior colliculus also modulate saccadic eye movement. Altered patterns of pars ... The substantia nigra, along with four other nuclei, is part of the basal ganglia. It is the largest nucleus in the midbrain, ... The subthalamic nucleus gives excitatory input that modulates the rate of firing of these spontaneous action potentials. ... However, lesion of the subthalamic nucleus leads to only a 20% decrease in pars reticulata firing rate, suggesting that the ...
Other connections include the claustrum, the dorsolateral caudate nucleus, putamen, and the zona incerta. It also has links ... including the ventral lateral nucleus, the central and anterior nuclei of the intralaminar nuclear group, and the lateral ... Below the cerebral cortex, the precuneus is connected with the dorsalmost nuclei of the thalamus, ... caudate and Broca's region". NeuroImage. 32 (4): 1850-64. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.326.8669. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.05.002. PMID ...
"Spontaneous blink rates correlate with dopamine levels in the caudate nucleus of MPTP-treated monkeys". Experimental Neurology ... of the globus pallidus of the lenticular nucleus-a body of nerve cells between the base and outer surface of the brain. ...
"Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder have increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in the caudate nuclei". International ...
The prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus, and subthalamic nucleus are known to regulate inhibitory control cognition. Inhibitory ... Functional neuroimaging in humans demonstrates activation of the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus (part of the striatum) ... The subthalamic nucleus appears to play a critical role in preventing such impulsive or premature responding (Frank 2006). ... or nucleus accumbens; Chapter 15). ... In conditions in which prepotent responses tend to dominate behavior, such as in drug ...
The caudate nucleus is the portion of the basal ganglia that helps control voluntary movement. Damage to this area can also ... The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei that connects to several other areas of the brain. Due to the diverse nuclei that ... imaging reveals abnormalities in the putamen contralateral to the movements as well as the globus pallidus and caudate nucleus ... The subthalamic nucleus essentially provides the excitement needed to drive the globus pallidus. Injury to this area or its ...
... the caudate nucleus and the putamen. In rodents, the internal capsule is poorly developed such that the caudate and putamen are ... The caudate nucleus and putamen receive excitatory information from all areas of the cerebral cortex. These glutamatergic ... The projections from dopamine D1 receptors containing medium spiny neurons in the caudate nucleus and putamen synapse onto ... The projections from dopamine D2 receptors containing medium spiny neurons in the caudate nucleus and putamen synapse onto ...
The caudate nucleus, is a region of the brain that is highly responsive to dopamine. The caudate nucleus is another component ... Research has suggested that the role of the caudate nucleus is to anticipate the possibility and reward of exploratory behavior ... The nucleus accumbens is a formation of neurons and is important in reward pathway activation. As previously mentioned, the ... In addition, the sensation pleasure of "liking" can occur when opioids are released by nucleus accumbens. This helps someone ...
Other than caudate nucleus, protein C20orf27 expression measure ranks at the top 25% among 100 proteins in pons, fetal brain, ... Microarray-assessed tissue expression pattern suggests caudate nucleus has the highest expression of protein C20orf27. ... This protein is expected to be found in cytosol and nucleus, but not in nuclei. Additional computational analysis predicts that ...
Calcifications in the caudate, dentate nuclei, putamen and thalami are also common. Occasionally calcifications begin or ... The most commonly affected region of the brain is the lenticular nucleus and in particular the internal globus pallidus. ...
Avicenna also discovered the cerebellar vermis, which he simply called the vermis, and the caudate nucleus. Both terms are ...
The DRD1 gene expresses primarily in the caudate putamen in humans, and in the caudate putamen, the nucleus accumbens and the ... Expression of D1 receptor mRNA is highest in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Lower levels of ... Northern blot and in situ hybridization show that the mRNA expression of DRD1 is highest in the dorsal striatum (caudate and ... They play a role in addiction by facilitating the gene expression changes that occur in the nucleus accumbens during addiction ...
... the caudate nucleus and subthalamic nucleus also have a role in mediating inhibitory control. Cognitive control is impaired in ... Functional neuroimaging in humans demonstrates activation of the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus (part of the striatum) ... The subthalamic nucleus appears to play a critical role in preventing such impulsive or premature responding (Frank 2006). ... or nucleus accumbens; Chapter 15). ... In conditions in which prepotent responses tend to dominate behavior, such as in drug ...
Specifically, the caudate nucleus is particularly affected by early environmental factors and its volume correlates with IQ. In ... This study also found that the extent to which the caudate volume size related selectively to verbal IQ was much greater in ... 2008). "The effect of early human diet on caudate volumes and IQ". Pediatric Research. 63 (3): 308-14. doi:10.1203/PDR. ... it was found that the high-nutrient group had significantly larger caudate volumes and scored significantly higher on verbal IQ ...
August 1987). "[3H]GBR-12935 binding to the dopamine transporter is decreased in the caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease". ...
... a GPCR expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen.[25] Cannabidiol has also been shown to act as a 5-HT1A receptor agonist.[ ...
... caudate nucleus, insula, bilateral fusiform regions, parahippocampal gyrus, right angular gyrus, occipital cortex, and ... while vasopressin in the ventral pallidum and oxytocin in the nucleus accumbens and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus ... ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens).[10] Trace amines (e.g., phenethylamine and tyramine) play a critical role in ... in the nucleus accumbens and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the ventral pallidum ... The activities of central oxytocin and ...
... and caudate nucleus.[106][107][108] Based on the complex nature of religious experience, it is likely that they are mediated by ...
... caudate, and putamen, but not the medial preoptic nucleus. Next, the induction of c-Fos, a downstream (repressed) target of ... A large body of literature has demonstrated that such ΔFosB induction in D1-type [nucleus accumbens] neurons increases an ... Increased expression of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens MSNs is a potential mechanism of aversion produced by drug ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is one brain structure that has been implicated in the psychological component of drug dependence ...
Strengthening of the caudate has been shown in meditators as well as yogis. The increased connectedness of the caudate has ... thalamic nuclei, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum region in the brain. These parts of the brain are connected with attention ... In addition, both meditation and yoga have been found to have impacts on the brain, specifically the caudate.[108] ... Strengthening of the caudate has been found in avid meditators and yogis.[107] ...
... such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia.[23][24][25] ... stimulants act not only on working memory function, but also on general levels of arousal and, within the nucleus accumbens, ... Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... Dopamine acts in the nucleus accumbens to attach motivational significance to stimuli associated with reward.. ...
For example, mGluR4 is located only in the brain, in locations such as the thalamus, hypothalamus and caudate nucleus. All ... "Characterization of modulatory effects of postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors on calcium currents in rat nucleus ...
The hippocampus, the insula and the caudate activate when rats crave sugar, which are the same areas that become active when ... can activate opioid receptors in the ventral tegmental area and thereby stimulate cells that release dopamine in the nucleus ...
... in which the striate nuclei have a marble-like appearance caused by altered myelination in the putamen, caudate, and thalamus ( ... there are bilateral hyperdensities restricted to the thalamus). This results from acute total asphyxia in the basal nucleus of ...
... or apraxia Caudate nucleus - Contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral conjugate gaze paresis, or confusion Brain stem - ...
... which is located above the caudate nucleus, in the floor of the lateral ventricle, and caudothalamic groove. The germinal ...
... the nucleus, the habenular nuclei, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. Gonadectomy is used to treat aggressive behavior of ...
The direction of complex movement is based from the substantia nigra to the putamen and caudate nucleus, which then relay ...
An associative input goes to the caudate nucleus and possibly to the nucleus accumbens. There are two different components of ... The dorsal striatum contains the caudate nucleus and the putamen, and the ventral striatum contains the nucleus accumbens and ... They turn round the medial border of the subthalamic nucleus, enter the H2 field above the subthalamic nucleus, then cross the ... It also gives output to other areas including the pedunculopontine nucleus and to the area behind the red nucleus. The ...
... and STN and anterior pre-SMA to the caudate nucleus, with the caudate showing significant hemispheric asymmetry. Penfield and ...
MRI of the brain - often shows high signal intensity in the caudate nucleus and putamen bilaterally on T2-weighted images. In ... Varying degree of symmetric T2 hyperintense signal changes in the basal ganglia (i.e., caudate and putamen), and to a lesser ...
Where it is speculated the Caudate nucleus is unable to properly regulate the transmission of information regarding worrying ... Central nucleus of the amygdala serves as the major output nucleus of the amygdala and participates in receiving and processing ... Other areas include: amygdala, prefrontal cortex affect; amygdala and nucleus accumbens, (stimulus salience), nucleus accumbens ... Nucleus accumbens part of the pleasure center, is a collection of neurons and forms the main part of the ventral striatum. It ...
It is shorter than the caudate nucleus and does not extend as far forward. It is lateral to the caudate nucleus and thalamus, ... or lenticular nucleus, comprises the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. With the caudate nucleus, it ... Its anterior end is continuous with the lower part of the head of the caudate nucleus and with the anterior perforated ... In a coronal section through the middle of the lentiform nucleus, two medullary laminae are seen dividing it into three parts. ...
The caudate nucleus has not been associated with self-reference before, however, Fossati and colleagues found activity while ...
... marking a line of separation between the thalamus and the caudate nucleus as seen upon gross dissection of the ventricles of ... "A role for the CRF-containing pathway from central nucleus of the amygdala to bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the stress ... This nucleus is known to project inhibitory fibers to the lateral hypothalamus and participate in the control of feeding in ... Chung W, De Vries G, Swaab D (2002). "Sexual differentiation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in humans may extend ...
It was found to be an antagonist at the putative new cannabinoid receptor, GPR55, a GPCR expressed in the caudate nucleus and ...
... along the lateral border of the caudate nucleus, and on the medial aspect of the corona radiata; its fibers radiate in a fan- ...
... sheath carotid sinus carotid siphon carpus cartilage caruncle catheter cauda cauda equina caudal caudate caudate nucleus cava ... notochord nuchal ligament nucleus nucleus accumbens nucleus ambiguus nucleus fastigius nucleus of Luys nucleus pulposus nucleus ... soleus solitary nucleus solitary tract somatic somatic motor nuclei somite spasm spasticity specific sensory nucleus of ... lateral cuneate nucleus lateral dorsal nucleus of thalamus lateral fissure lateral funiculus lateral geniculate body or nucleus ...
... caudate), ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle), amygdala, bed nucleus stria terminalis, claustrum, ... spinal trigeminal nucleus, parabrachial nucleus, and solitary nucleus. Based on receptor binding studies, three variants of the ... Zan GY, Wang Q, Wang YJ, Liu Y, Hang A, Shu XH, Liu JG (September 2015). "Antagonism of κ opioid receptor in the nucleus ... One area of the brain most strongly associated with addiction is the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and striatum while other ...
... and caudate nuclei. Interference effects in the Stroop and Simon tasks activate similar brain regions at similar time ...
The caudate nuclei are located near the center of the brain, sitting astride the thalamus. There is a caudate nucleus within ... Therefore, the caudate nucleus has been suggested to play a role in human sleep cycles. The caudate nucleus has been implicated ... Caudate nucleus Caudate nucleus Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view, horizontal section, deep dissection ... The amygdala sends direct projections to the caudate nucleus. Both the amygdala and the caudate nucleus have direct and ...
Each of the brains hemispheres contains a caudate nucleus. Located near the thalamus, they control functions including ... What is the caudate nucleus and what does it do?. The caudate nucleus is a pair of brain structures that make up part of the ... One caudate nucleus is located deep inside each of the brains two hemispheres, near the thalamus. The nuclei feature a wide ... Lesions in the caudate nucleus can also result in abulia, also known as apathy or lack of will. Abulia is thought to be linked ...
Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the caudate nucleus is safe and effective for patients with severe tinnitus for whom ... Caudate Nucleus Defective? Cheung added that this "fits in with the narrative" that the caudate may be defective in patients ... The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the corpus striatum, a component of the basal ganglia. The caudate is ... After a patient underwent DBS for essential tremor in which the lead was placed at a location traversing the caudate nucleus, ...
Dopamine release in the nonhuman primate caudate and putamen depends upon site of stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus. In: ... Dopamine release in the nonhuman primate caudate and putamen depends upon site of stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus. / Min ... Dopamine release in the nonhuman primate caudate and putamen depends upon site of stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus. ... Dopamine release in the nonhuman primate caudate and putamen depends upon site of stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus. ...
"Metabolic fate of caudate nucleus dopamine",. abstract = "The rate of formation of DM in the guinea pig caudate nucleus was ... Spano, Piero F. ; Neff, Norton H. / Metabolic fate of caudate nucleus dopamine. In: Brain Research. 1972 ; Vol. 42, No. 1. pp. ... N2 - The rate of formation of DM in the guinea pig caudate nucleus was estimated from the rate of conversion of radioactive ... AB - The rate of formation of DM in the guinea pig caudate nucleus was estimated from the rate of conversion of radioactive ...
These first-in-human findings provide insight into the functional anatomy of caudate nucleus subdivisions and may inform future ... Compared to the caudate head, the caudate body has stronger functional connectivity to the auditory cortex. ... electrode placement in the caudate nucleus as part of a phase I clinical trial were analyzed for tinnitus modulation in ... 4 positioned at the body and 1 at the head of the caudate nucleus in normalized Montreal Neurological Institute space. The ...
PrP antibodies F89/160.1.5 and F99/97.6.1. E-H) Caudate nucleus. E) Raccoon 2 shows moderate diffuse spongiform change. H&E ... C) Raccoon 2 shows very mild PrPSc immunoreactivity in the DMNV and no immunoreactivity in neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus. ... A) Raccoon 2 shows no spongiform change in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV) (above dashed line) or ... hypoglossal nucleus (below dashed line). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. B) Raccoon 9 shows mild to moderate spongiform ...
Role of mid-dorsal caudate nucleus in maintenance of body weight in rats on administration of foods with different caloric ... Role of mid-dorsal caudate nucleus in maintenance of body weight in rats on administration of foods with different caloric ... These observations were compared before and after bilateral destruction of mid-dorsal caudate nucleus. The food intake before ...
Lesions most frequent in caudate nuclei; present in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brain stem. Lesions rare in cord. ...
1: caudate nucleus; 2: putamen; 3: globus pallidus; 4: thalamus; dotted line: white matter in between the basal ganglia ...
Head CT and MRI scans showed abnormalities of the thalami, basal ganglia, and right caudate nucleus. A battery of laboratory ...
The caudate nucleus from examples of Alzheimers disease (mean age 68, range 51-77 yr) had a mean wet weight and total protein ... The caudate nucleus from examples of Alzheimers disease (mean age 68, range 51-77 yr) had a mean wet weight and total protein ... Neurotransmitter dysfunction and atrophy of the caudate nucleus in Alzheimers disease. Pearce BR., Palmer AM., Bowen DM., ... Adult, Aged, Alzheimer Disease, Atrophy, Caudate Nucleus, Choline O-Acetyltransferase, Dopamine, Female, Glutamates, Humans, ...
Caudate Nucleus / pathology * Dendrites / drug effects * Dopamine / pharmacology* * Nerve Degeneration* * Neurons / drug ...
SPECT shows decreased blood flow in the right and left caudate nuclei and thalami. ...
This defect leads to the eventual death of these cells, particularly in areas of the brain called the caudate nucleus and ...
Casp6 immunopositive AD-related pathologies are present in the hippocampus of HD and AD brains, but not in the caudate nucleus ... 5a-c). By contrast, no immunoreactivity was detected in the striatal caudate nucleus, the main brain area pathologically ... NeuN staining was analyzed by quantifying the number of NeuN positive nuclei with the Image J software. Two parameters were ... Proteolysis of mutant huntingtin produces an exon 1 fragment that accumulates as an aggregated protein in neuronal nuclei in ...
Systems of fibers related to head of caudate nucleus and putamen. The lentiform nucleus has been scraped away anteriorly and ... Systems of fibers related to head of caudate nucleus and putamen. Image #12-7. KEYWORDS: Brain, Telencephalon. ... Line along which ependymal lining of ventricle is reflected onto head of caudate nucleus ... various bands of fibers which pass beneath it and the head of the caudate nucleus displayed. The temporal lobe has been cut ...
Packard, M. G., Hirsh, R, and White, N. M. (1989). Differential effects of fornix and caudate nucleus lesions on two radial ... Packard, M. G., and McGaugh, J. L. (1992). Double dissociation of fornix and caudate nucleus lesions on acquisition of two ... Packard, M. G., Cahill, L., and McGaugh, J. L. (1994). Amygdala modulation of hippocampal-dependent and caudate nucleus- ... The interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum receives converging CS-US information, and this deep cerebellar nuclei plays a ...
Caudate Nucleus. 1. 2012. 405. 0.200. Why? Personality. 1. 2020. 527. 0.160. Why? ...
Caudate Nucleus. *Cavernous Malformations. *Cavernous Sinus Disorders. *Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs). *Cell and Tissue ...
nucleus. Biological Process: • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • transcription. • ... caudate nucleus development. • putamen development. RNA expression pattern More reference expression data ... "Incomplete and Inaccurate Vocal Imitation after Knockdown of FoxP2 in Songbird Basal Ganglia Nucleus Area X". PLoS Biology 5 ( ...
caudate nucleus: part of the basal ganglia involved with voluntary control of movement. ... nucleus (nucleus pulposus): soft gel-like center of an intervertebral disc.. numbness: a lack of sensation or the inability to ... subthalamic nucleus (STN): a group of cells below the thalamus that is linked to the basal ganglia. ... globus pallidus interna (GPI): nuclei in the brain that regulate muscle tone; part of the basal ganglia. ...
Anwander, A.; Knösche, T. R.; Axer, H.; Kotz, S. A.: Mapping the intrinsic structure of the caudate nucleus. In 40th Annual ...
Caudate nuclei. V. Symptoms and Signs *Stage 1 : Acute Bilirubin Encephalopathy. *Moro Reflex diminished ...
... caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), SMA and lingual gyrus (regions largely associated with the reward system) correlated ... 2015) also support the notion that the striatum, particularly the right dorsal striatum, composed of the caudate nucleus and ... Habitual action video game playing is associated with caudate nucleus- dependent navigational strategies. Proc. R. Soc. London ... Activation decreases in the OFC and caudate appeared in the absence of an expected reward. However, it does not seem that ...
A CT scan of the head revealed evidence of caudate nucleus atrophy. Brain MRI revealed evidence of caudate atrophy (Figure). ...
1991) The dopamine transporter is absent in parkinsonian putamen and reduced in caudate nucleus. J Neurochem 56:192-198. ... 1977) The cortical projections of the mediodorsal nucleus and adjacent thalamic nuclei in the rat. J Comp Neurol 171:157-192. ... 1984) Ultrastructural localization of tyrosine hydroxylase in rat nucleus accumbens. J Comp Neurol 227:92-103. ... 1992) Microheterogeneity of dopamine transporters in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens. Brain Res 584:266-271. ...
... and the caudate nucleus (Geurts et al. Reference Geurts, Huys, den Ouden and Cools2013 a), raising the possibility that a lack ... Nucleus Accumbens Cholinergic Interneurons Oppose Cue-Motivated Behavior. Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 86, Issue. 5, p. 388. ...
AN: amygdaloid nucleus; Cing: cingulate gyrus; CN: caudate nucleus; Forn: fornix; IC: internal capsule; InsC: insular cortex; ... CN: caudate nucleus; CoCa: corpus callosum. CruS: cruciate sulcus; OB: olfactory bulb; PraeCG: praecruciate gyrus; ProG: ... 3 and 12) to investigate septal nuclei, fornical body, rostral commissure and basal nuclei. Depending on the size of the brain ... Most of the vagal nerve nuclei and related parasympathetic nuclei are preserved by gathering a transversely oriented slab of ...
  • anatomically, it is separated by a large white matter tract, the internal capsule, so it is sometimes also referred to as two structures: the medial dorsal striatum (the caudate) and the lateral dorsal striatum (the putamen). (wikipedia.org)
  • The SNc is located in the midbrain and contains cell projections to the caudate and putamen, utilizing the neurotransmitter dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that STN DBS-evoked dopamine release depends on the precise location of the stimulation site in the STN and the site of recording in the caudate and putamen. (elsevier.com)
  • This defect leads to the eventual death of these cells, particularly in areas of the brain called the caudate nucleus and putamen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Postmortem studies reveal diffuse atrophy of the caudate and putamen. (medscape.com)
  • Lesion sites … included the caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus. (iospress.com)
  • Who discovered increased dopamine receptor activity in the caudate nucleus putamen? (proprofs.com)
  • It is made up of the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and substantial nigra. (jeopardylabs.com)
  • A protective pattern was observed, with U-shaped temperature dependence in delayed cell death in periventricular white matter, caudate nucleus, putamen, hippocampus, and thalamus. (elsevier.com)
  • hippocampus (orange), amygdala (pink), putamen (magenta), caudate nucleus (purple), and nucleus accumbens (green). (nih.gov)
  • The cerebellum, caudate nucleus, putamen, and motor cortex all assist in encoding and recalling procedural memory. (betterhelp.com)
  • A 2017 study found that these volume differences affected several areas of the brain, including the accumbens nucleus, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, amygdala, putamen, and amygdala. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We have validated the method by examining peptidergic mass profiles of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and caudate putamen hypothalamic regions. (nel.edu)
  • within the caudate-putamen. (scirp.org)
  • A 3D terrain model of the subthalamic area encircling the STN was built to clarify its anatomical relations with the putamen, globus pallidus internus, globus pallidus externus, internal capsule, caudate nucleus laterally, substantia nigra inferiorly, zona incerta superiorly, and red nucleus medially. (thejns.org)
  • Their findings, reported Wednesday in the journal Nature , identify five novel genetic variants that appear to influence the size of two structures in the brain's basal ganglia - the putamen and caudate nucleus - that help govern the initiation and control of learned movement. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Every other day during conditioning, rats received infusions of sulpiride (0-0.4 μg) into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) or caudate-putamen. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings suggest that D2-1ike receptors in the NAc and anterior medial caudate-putamen are involved in cocaineinduced locomotion, but not cocaine-conditioned place preference. (elsevier.com)
  • In mice, repeated cocaine exposure increased synaptic Zn concentrations in the caudate putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). (drugabuse.gov)
  • In this study, magnetic resonance imaging was employed with the Multiple Automatically Generated Templates (MAGeT) brain segmentation algorithm to determine volumes of the thalamic subdivisions, the striatum (caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens), and the globus pallidus in 62 patients with schizophrenia, 38 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) [4 of whom (10.5%) subsequently developed schizophrenia], and 61 healthy subjects. (elsevier.com)
  • Es wird in Paläostriatum und Neostriatum unterteilt und besteht aus dem Nucleus caudatus , dem Putamen und dem Nucleus accumbens . (de-academic.com)
  • Nucleus caudatus und Putamen liegen in der frühen Embryonalentwicklung zusammen und werden dann durch das Durchwachsen der Capsula interna , der längsten Projektionsbahn des ZNS, getrennt. (de-academic.com)
  • Ventral sind Nucleus caudatus und Putamen durch den Nucleus accumbens verbunden. (de-academic.com)
  • The striatum consists of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. (wanderingsolace.com)
  • The striatum (purple) consists of the caudate nucleus (smaller top structures), putamen (larger lateral structures), and nucleus accumbens (not shown). (wanderingsolace.com)
  • Imaging techniques shows ventricular enlargement, atrophy of caudate, putamen and nucleus accumbens. (ubrf.org)
  • Brain DWI showed high-intensity signals in the cortex, caudate nucleus, and putamen. (e-agmr.org)
  • Anatomically, the basal ganglia constitute a complex circuitry that includes neurons of the caudate nucleus, putamen, subthalamic nucleus (STN) globus pallidus, and substantia nigra (SN). (pediagenosis.com)
  • Divided by the internal medullary lamina into an external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments, the globus pallidus borders laterally with the putamen, dorsomedially with the internal capsule and optic tract and ventrally with the substantia innominata, which, in turn, contains three major functional anatomic systems: the ventral striatopallidal system, the extended amygdala, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert. (pediagenosis.com)
  • The caudate nucleus is separated from the lentiform nucleus by the anterior limb of the internal capsule, but the separation is incomplete because the head of the caudate nucleus and the putamen are connected, especially anteroinferiorly, by bands of gray matter traversing the white matter of the anterior limb. (pediagenosis.com)
  • The caudate nuclei are located near the center of the brain, sitting astride the thalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • One caudate nucleus is located deep inside each of the brain's two hemispheres, near the thalamus. (healthline.com)
  • Experts think that communication skills are controlled mostly by the caudate nucleus and the thalamus. (healthline.com)
  • In situ hybridization in rat brain revealed high levels of mRNA in all neuronal systems (such as the cerebral cortex, the thalamus, and the caudate nucleus) previously associated with H 3 receptor function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • thalamic nucleus and ventrolateral thalamus [9]. (scirp.org)
  • Relative to the comparison subjects, the methamphetamine abusers tested after protracted abstinence had lower metabolism in the striatum (most accentuated in the caudate and nucleus accumbens) but not in the thalamus. (erowid.org)
  • Other studies, however, have shown that collicular stimulation activates the intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus. (springermedizin.de)
  • There are many brain regions the have been shown to be related to OCD, including the OFC, striatum, anterior cingulate, thalamus, and caudate nucleus (Saxena & Rauch, 2000). (tufts.edu)
  • The volume of gray matter (a type of brain tissue) in several areas of the brain (the hippocampus, thalamus, and caudate nucleus), as well as speed and accuracy while completing the test, were compared between the treatment and control groups. (yoganatomy.com)
  • Researchers then compared those in the yoga treatment group with those in the control group and looked for any differences in brain structure, specifically measured as difference in gray matter (a type of brain tissue) and volume of the hippocampus, thalamus, or the caudate nucleus, which are three different regions found in the brain. (yoganatomy.com)
  • The basal nuclei is a collection of subcortical gray matter surrounding the thalamus deep within the brain. (wanderingsolace.com)
  • The internal pallidum forms one of two major basal nuclei output structures and projects mainly to the thalamus (intralaminar, ventral anterior, and medial dorsal relay nuclei). (wanderingsolace.com)
  • The output of the basal ganglia is directed at the motor thalamus (and from there to the frontal cortex) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). (pediagenosis.com)
  • The ansa lenticularis sweeps ventromedially around the internal capsule, joining the lenticular fasciculus to form the thalamic fasciculus, which, in turn, projects to different thalamic nuclei, especially the ventral anterior (VA), ventral lateral (VL), centromedian, and parafascicular intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus. (pediagenosis.com)
  • By 10 weeks, there was evidence of partial recovery in some brain regions (e.g., hippocampus, caudate nucleus, frontal cortex). (erowid.org)
  • We discovered that person knowledge about yea-sayers modulated several brain regions, including caudate nucleus, DLPFC, hippocampus, etc. (lse.ac.uk)
  • 2015. Dissociable contributions of the prefrontal cortex to hippocampus- and caudate nucleus-dependent virtual navigation strategies. . (mcgill.ca)
  • The MBAT group showed increases in the emotional centers of the brain including the left insula which helps us to perceive our emotions, the amygdala which helps us experience stress, the hippocampus that regulates stress responses, and the caudate nucleus that is part of our brain's reward system. (newswise.com)
  • As an application, we analyze two brain structures, the caudate nucleus and the hippocampus, and compare the results obtained to shape analysis using a sampled point representation. (harvard.edu)
  • Our results show that the SWC representation indicates new areas of significance preserved under the FDR correction for both the left caudate nucleus and left hippocampus. (harvard.edu)
  • The dendritic branches of medium spiny neurons are packed with small spines receiving thousands of synaptic inputs from the neocortex, thalamic intralaminar nuclei, amygdala, and hippocampus, with up to 20,000 inputs per medium spiny neuron (Houk, 2007). (wanderingsolace.com)
  • The caudate is highly innervated by dopaminergic neurons that originate from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another brain structure called the substantia nigra releases dopamine that projects to the caudate nucleus. (healthline.com)
  • The substantia nigra, which controls movement, is connected to the caudate nucleus and is also part of the basal ganglia. (healthline.com)
  • Welders had shorter MRI T1 relaxation times than controls in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra, caudate nucleus, and the anterior prefrontal lobe. (cdc.gov)
  • In welders, lower relaxation times in the caudate nucleus and substantia nigra were associated with lower neuropsychological test performance on tests of verbal fluency (Fruit Naming), verbal learning, memory, and perseveration (WHO-UCLA AVLT). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the dopamine D-2 receptor-mediated inhibition from the substantia nigre of the caudate nucleus neuron receiving input from the cerebral cortex. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the second study, it was demonstrated that dopamine derived from substantia nigre acts on D-2 receptors located on the nerve terminals from the cerebral cortex, thereby inhibiting the neuronal transmission from cerebral cortex to the caudate nucleus neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Sasa M: 'Dopamine Dー2 receptorーmediated inhibition from substantia nigra of caudate nucleus neurons activated by cortical stimulation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Das ventrale Striatum wird mit dem Nucleus basalis und der zentromedialer Amygdala auch als Substantia innominata zusammengefasst. (de-academic.com)
  • Based on their macroscopic appearance (Groenewegen, 2003), the four distinct basal nuclei structures are the striatum, pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus. (wanderingsolace.com)
  • Selective impairment of spatial working memory in subjects with Parkinson's disease and the knowledge of the disease's impact on the amount of dopamine supplied to the striatum have linked the caudate nucleus to spatial and nonspatial mnemonic processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Does the caudate nucleus release dopamine? (healthline.com)
  • Neff, Norton H. / Metabolic fate of caudate nucleus dopamine . (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The persistent decreases in striatal metabolism in methamphetamine abusers could reflect long-lasting changes in dopamine cell activity, and decreases in the nucleus accumbens could account for the persistence of amotivation and anhedonia in detoxified methamphetamine abusers. (erowid.org)
  • These nuclei are densely connected structural network hubs as revealed by diffusion-weighted imaging tractography and establish interrelations with the acetylcholine nicotinic receptor as well as dopamine and serotonin transporters systems. (researchsquare.com)
  • Here we examine the effects of chronic voluntary ethanol self-administration on dopamine neurotransmission and the ability of KORs to regulate dopamine release in the dorsolateral caudate (DLC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. (elsevier.com)
  • Romantic love activates in the caudate nucleus through dopamine. (counselingrx.com)
  • It increases dopamine, male masturbator especially in the caudate nucleus, a part of the reward system. (bahamarentacar.com)
  • The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the corpus striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia in the human brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1978). In the striatum or nucleus accumbens, the bulk of studies showed that DA, either iontophoretically applied or synaptically released by stimulation of the VTA, suppressed synaptically evoked glutamatergic inputs (e.g. from the hippocampal or amygdala to the nucleus accumbens) or glutamate evoked excitation (Reader et al. (scholarpedia.org)
  • n. the lower of the two grey nuclei of the corpus striatum. (yahoo.com)
  • n. the lower of the two gray nuclei of the corpus striatum. (yahoo.com)
  • n. the upper of the two grey nuclei of the corpus striatum in the cerebrum of the brain. (yahoo.com)
  • n. the upper of the two gray nuclei of the corpus striatum in the cerebrum of the brain. (yahoo.com)
  • The opposing influences of the superior colliculus on Pf and POm are significant, because both these thalamic nuclei innervate the striatum, which is involved in behavioral selection. (springermedizin.de)
  • Thalamic volume (particularly the medial dorsal and ventral lateral nuclei) was smaller in the schizophrenia group than the ARMS and control groups, while there were no differences for the striatum and globus pallidus. (elsevier.com)
  • 1) The basal nuclei is grouped into an input stucture (striatum), intermediary structures (external pallidum, pars compacta, and subthalamic nucleus), and output structures (internal pallidum and pars reticulata). (wanderingsolace.com)
  • Coronal basal nuclei view (closer to the face) showing the striatum and pallidum. (wanderingsolace.com)
  • Activity in the caudate nucleus was demonstrated to be greater during tasks featuring spatial and motoric memory demands than those that involved nonspatial tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2020). Spatiotemporal dissociation of fMRI activity in the caudate nucleus underlies human de novo motor skill learning. (healthline.com)
  • The caudate is also one of the brain structures which compose the reward system and functions as part of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. (wikipedia.org)
  • The caudate nucleus is a pair of brain structures that make up part of the basal ganglia. (healthline.com)
  • The basal ganglia, particularly the caudate nucleus and the inferior prefrontal cortex, are implicated in the pathogenesis of TS. (medscape.com)
  • These first-in-human findings provide insight into the functional anatomy of caudate nucleus subdivisions and may inform future target selection in a basal ganglia-centric neuromodulation approach to treat medically refractory tinnitus. (pacific.edu)
  • CT head showed a left middle cerebral artery infarct involving the left basal ganglia and head of the left caudate (Figure 1). (deepdyve.com)
  • DOI 10.7759/cureus.21978 FIGURE 1: CT of the head showing acute infarct involving the left basal ganglia and head of the left caudate (12/2018) Electrocardiogram (EKG) and Holter monitor showed normal sinus rhythm with no atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmias. (deepdyve.com)
  • The basal nuclei is often written off as an "ancient motor system" that has been replaced by the neocortex. (wanderingsolace.com)
  • While this may be partially true, it undermines the current primary and essential role of the basal nuclei in neocortical data processing. (wanderingsolace.com)
  • Based on axonal projections, medium spiny neurons are of two types - striatonigral neurons, projecting directly to the basal nuclei output structures (internal pallidum and pars reticulata) and striatopallidal neurons, projecting to the external pallidum (Kreitzer and Malenka, 2008). (wanderingsolace.com)
  • The pars reticulata, along with the internal pallidum, is a major basal nuclei output structure and contains GABA. (wanderingsolace.com)
  • Coronal basal nuclei view (closer to the back of the head) showing the SN and subthalamic nucleus. (wanderingsolace.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for medically refractory Parkinson's disease. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for medically refractory Parkinson{\textquoteright}s disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Despite the extensive use of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a deep brain stimulation (DBS) target, unveiling the extensive functional connectivity of the nucleus, relating its structural connectivity to the stimulation-induced adverse effects, and thus optimizing the STN targeting still remain challenging. (thejns.org)
  • The subthalamic nucleus is a compact homogenous group of neurons with sparsely spiny dendrites (Rafols and Fox, 1976). (wanderingsolace.com)
  • While non-managers wasted brainpower on thinking through the task with several areas of their cerebral cortex, the managers (so to speak) downsized their neurological expenditure by outsourcing the work to their caudate nucleus, an area responsible for applying a simple but effective rule. (discovermagazine.com)
  • A cerebral CT showed an acute intracerebral haemorrhage involving the right caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus with mild midline shift and intraventricular extension. (bmj.com)
  • Estimulación cerebral profunda, lesiones por HIFU (high intensity focused ultrasound) y fisiopatología de los ganglios basales en la enfermedad de Parkinson. (unav.edu)
  • In the acute stage, signal hyperintensity was evident in the occipital and parietal regions of the cerebral cortex and in both rostral caudate nuclei. (avmi.net)
  • Bilateral caudate nucleus and cerebellar calcifications have been determined in computed cerebral topographies of our cases. (dpu.edu.tr)
  • C) Raccoon 2 shows very mild PrP Sc immunoreactivity in the DMNV and no immunoreactivity in neurons of the hypoglossal nucleus. (cdc.gov)
  • Publications] Kawabata A: 'Inhibition by enkephalin of medial vestibular nucleus neurons responding to horizontal pendular rotation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This circuitry includes an unconditioned stimulus pathway in which the dorsal accessory olive projects through the inferior cerebellar penduncle and a conditioned stimulus pathway involving mossy-fiber projections to the cerebellum via the pontine nuclei. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum receives converging CS-US information, and this deep cerebellar nuclei plays a critical role in both the acquisition and expression of the classically conditioned eyeblink response. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Neurotransmitter dysfunction and atrophy of the caudate nucleus in Alzheimer's disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Computed tomography shows atrophy of the caudate nucleus. (usmlemcq.com)
  • The head and body of the caudate nucleus form part of the floor of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The caudate nucleus and the lateral this or that. (webofstories.com)
  • In contrast, prejudiced attitudes of outgroup negativity were associated with caudate and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex. (eur.nl)
  • In the schizophrenia group, the reduction of thalamic ventral lateral nucleus volume was significantly associated with lower BACS score. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuropsychiatric impairment accounted for connectivity in the caudate-dorsal anterior cingulate and caudate-right dorsolateral prefrontal-right inferior parietal circuits, while caudate-medial prefrontal connectivity reflected a unique effect of both neuropsychiatric and cognitive impairment," explained the authors. (ajmc.com)
  • The LDA identified two areas (the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus) that allowed group classification with 72.2% accuracy. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Bartho P, Freund TF, Acsady L (2002) Selective GABAergic innervation of thalamic nuclei from zona incerta. (springermedizin.de)
  • In view of data indicating that thalamostriatal projections from Pf and other intralaminar nuclei increase the sensitivity of the indirect pathway to corticostriatal inputs (Ding et al. (springermedizin.de)
  • Here, 24 OCD patients were included in a long-term follow-up study to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation in the anterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). (nature.com)
  • Lotze] found that professional writers relied on a region of the brain that did not light up as much in the scanner when amateurs wrote-the left caudate nucleus, a tadpole-shaped structure (cauda means "tail" in Latin) in the midbrain that is associated with expertise in musicians and professional athletes. (nathanbransford.com)
  • An ICH model was generated by injecting 50 ml autologous tail artery blood stereotactically into the right caudate nucleus of 30 rats, which were randomly divided into five ICH groups. (neurologyindia.com)
  • Similarly, five Sham control groups were generated by inserting the needle to the right caudate nucleus of rats. (neurologyindia.com)
  • Through brain scan, researchers managed to observe the activity within the brain's caudate nucleus. (hitmansystem.com)
  • Stimulating the brain's caudate nucleus generates a negative outlook that clouds decision-making. (mit.edu)
  • Our investigations revealed the involvement of the pulvinar, the superior colliculi, the head of caudate nuclei, and a cluster of brainstem nuclei relevant for both networks. (researchsquare.com)
  • The lentiform nucleus has been scraped away anteriorly and various bands of fibers which pass beneath it and the head of the caudate nucleus displayed. (stanford.edu)
  • Following the application of cocaine to the caudate nucleus and the resulting lesions produced, a "leaping or forward movement" was observed in monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lesions in the caudate nucleus can also result in abulia, also known as apathy or lack of will. (healthline.com)
  • The lack of impairment of performance of unconditioned eyeblink behavior following lesions of the interpositus nucleus provides critical evidence of a selective role for this nucleus in learned or conditioned eyeblink behavior. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Science Magazine article goes on to catalog benefits that can be seen in brain scans: fMRI images of the pre-frontal cortex, increased concentrations of the neurotransmitter GABA, and "greater functional connectivity between the caudate nucleus and a number of cortical regions responsible for effective cognitive function. (opednews.com)
  • He describes 'Brain Lock', or the neural circuits that become 'locked' in the 'on' position (the orbito-frontal cortex, the caudate nucleus, and the anterior cingulate gyrus) in patients with OCD. (oepf.org)
  • Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the caudate nucleus appears safe and effective for patients with severe refractory tinnitus, early research suggests. (medscape.com)
  • METHODS Six awake study participants who underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode placement in the caudate nucleus as part of a phase I clinical trial were analyzed for tinnitus modulation in response to acute stimulation at 20 locations. (pacific.edu)
  • B. Aouizerate , Deep brain stimulation of the ventral caudate nucleus in the treatment of obsessive? (inserm.fr)
  • B. Bewernick , Nucleus Accumbens Deep Brain Stimulation Decreases Ratings of Depression and Anxiety in Treatment-Resistant Depression , Biological Psychiatry , vol. 67 , issue. (inserm.fr)
  • A two-pronged approach of neuroimaging (including PET and fMRI) and anatomical studies expose a strong relationship between the caudate and cortical areas associated with executive functioning: "non-invasive measures of anatomical and functional connectivity in humans demonstrate a clear link between the caudate and executive frontal areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurobiology of TS is currently accepted to involve the likely disinhibition in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical loops, with an overly active caudate nucleus. (medscape.com)
  • Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that both types of antigens were localized in the cytoplasm and/or nuclei of neuron-like cells in lesion areas of RE brains. (hhv-6foundation.org)
  • These observations were compared before and after bilateral destruction of mid-dorsal caudate nucleus. (who.int)
  • Striatal dysfunction, mainly of the caudate nucleus, leads to inefficient thalamic gating, resulting in hyperactivity within the orbitofrontal cortex (intrusive thoughts) and the anterior cingulate cortex (non-specific anxiety). (nih.gov)
  • Participants underwent stereotactically guided functional neurosurgery to implant DBS leads into both caudate nuclei. (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to define caudate nucleus locations responsive to intraoperative direct electrical stimulation for tinnitus loudness modulation and relate those locations to functional connectivity maps between caudate nucleus subdivisions and auditory cortex. (pacific.edu)
  • Compared to the caudate head, the body subdivision had stronger functional connectivity to the auditory cortex on fMRI (p (pacific.edu)
  • They have a U01 grant from the NIDCD to study the use of DBS in the caudate nucleus in patients with severe, medically refractory tinnitus. (ucsf.edu)
  • details] Amino acid concentrations in hypothalamic and caudate nuclei during microwave-induced thermal stress: analysis by microdialysis [med. (emf-portal.org)
  • The superior colliculus activates the zona incerta (ZI), which sends GABAergic projections to the posteromedial (POm) thalamic nucleus. (springermedizin.de)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Alloway KD, Smith JB, Watson GDR (2014) Thalamostriatal projections from the medial posterior and parafascicular nuclei have distinct topographic and physiologic properties. (springermedizin.de)
  • The latter nucleus, with its cholinergic and γ - aminobutyric acid (GABA - ergic) projections, playsan important role in disorders of memory and the treatment of dementias. (pediagenosis.com)
  • The caudate nucleus integrates spatial information with motor behavior formulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, behavioral studies provide another layer to the argument: recent studies suggest that the caudate is fundamental to goal-directed action, that is, "the selection of behavior based on the changing values of goals and a knowledge of which actions lead to what outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The caudate nucleus is a part of the brain that is important in controlling movement and some aspects of behavior. (nsdtrc-usa.org)
  • D. Shin , High frequency stimulation or elevated K+ depresses neuronal activity in the rat entopeduncular nucleus , Neuroscience , vol. 149 , issue. (inserm.fr)
  • At follow-up, both INI inhibition of hedonic value signals in the nucleus accumbens and peripheral insulin sensitivity improved with weight loss. (elifesciences.org)
  • Description: Inhibition of currents via native Ca v 3.3 currents in rat reticular thalamic nucleus. (guidetomalariapharmacology.org)
  • 2019). Clinical implications of early caudate dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. (healthline.com)
  • We found that Zn concentrations in postmortem brain (caudate) tissue from humans who died of cocaine overdose were significantly lower than in control subjects. (drugabuse.gov)
  • While the caudate nucleus has long been associated with motor processes due to its role in Parkinson's disease,[clarification needed] it plays important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well, including procedural learning, associative learning and inhibitory control of action, among other functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its association with damage to the caudate, this movement demonstrates the inhibitory nature of the caudate nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2019 study found that nearly half of people in the early stages of Parkinson's disease have signs of neurodegeneration in the caudate nucleus. (healthline.com)
  • The remaining 15 electrical stimulation interrogations of the caudate head failed to reduce tinnitus loudness. (pacific.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS Acute tinnitus loudness reduction was more readily achieved by electrical stimulation of the caudate nucleus body. (pacific.edu)
  • A. Benabid , Long-term suppression of tremor by chronic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus , The Lancet , vol. 337 , issue. (inserm.fr)
  • Mastering the 3D anatomy of the STN region should be the fundamental goal to achieve ideal surgical results, due to the deep-seated and obscure position of the nucleus, variable shape and relatively small size, oblique orientation, and extensive structural connectivity. (thejns.org)
  • In findings from the CA, the researchers found evidence that the caudate nucleus is a major hub in the network that underlies the interface of these symptom domains. (ajmc.com)