Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.
The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.
Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and severe viral disease in cloven-hoofed animals, characterized by fever, formation of vesicles and erosions in the mouth, on the tongue, lips, teats, and feet, causing significant economic losses in agriculture and livestock farming.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.
A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.
A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.
A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
A viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by MORBILLIVIRUS. It may be acute, subacute, or chronic with the major lesions characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the entire digestive tract. The disease was declared successfully eradicated worldwide in 2010.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
'Housing, Animal' refers to the physical structure or environment designed and constructed to provide shelter, protection, and specific living conditions for various domestic or captive animals, meeting their biological and behavioral needs while ensuring their welfare and well-being.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
The consumption of edible substances.
Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Artiodactyla is an order of mammals characterized by an even number of digits (two or four) on each foot, hooves as terminal appendages, and a specialized stomach for fermentative digestion, which includes taxonomic families such as Suidae, Cervidae, Bovidae, and Camelidae among others.
A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.
Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.
Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A cattle disease of uncertain cause, probably an allergic reaction.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas. (1/57984)

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea. (2/57984)

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar.  (+info)

Phagocytic acitivity of bovine leukocytes during pregnancy. (3/57984)

The phagocytic competence, measured as the total number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per mm3 which phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus, strain 321, in vitro, was determined in eight cows during complete pregnancies. Such leukocytes are referred to as "Active PMN'S". There was a gradual decline in the number of these cells from conception to a minimum between the 16th and 20th weeks of pregnancy, followed by a steady increase to the cessation of lactation when a marked drop occurred, after which there was an increase to a maximun during the second week prepartum. From this maximum there was a rapid decrease to an absolute minimum during the first week after parturition. From the second week postpartum there was a gradual increase to conception. The correlation coefficient (r) of number of active PMN'S with time before conception was -0.474 )p-0.01). There were significant differences (p=0.01) in numbers of active PMNS Among the eight cows. It was found that the cows fell into two groups, one whose members had, overall, significantly more active PMNs (p=0.001) than those in the second group. The between cow differences may have been due to 1) age, since the cows with the highest numbers of circulating active PMNs were younger than those in the other group of 2) the combined stress of pregnancy and lactation, as those cows which were both pregnant and milking had the lowest numbers of active PMNs.  (+info)

The indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of antibodies in cattle naturally infected mycoplasmas. (4/57984)

Stable mycoplasma antigens for the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) were prepared employing glutaraldehyde treated sheep erythrocytes sensitized with Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium antigens. Employing these antigens mycoplasma antibodies were detected in sera from cattle which had mastitic symptoms due to natural infection with either M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. A total of 200 cows from four herds were examined at varying intervals for the presence of M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and for the detection of antibody using growth inhibition and IHA tests. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 37 animals. Growth inhibiting antibody was detected from 56 of the 200 animals. In the IHA tests, antibody titer greater than or equal to 1:80 were detected in 148 animals, 76 of these having antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:160, while sera of 116 normal control animals had no growth inhibiting antibody and none had IHA antibody titers greater than 1:40. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the milk of three of 26 animals in a fifth herd during an outbreak of mastitis. Growth inhibiting antibodies were demonstrated in the sera of ten of the 26 animals. However, the IHA test detected antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:160 in 13 animals and of 1:80 in one of the 26 animals. To determine the specificity of the IHA tests, M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens were reacted with rabbit hyperimmune typing sera produced against 12 species of bovine mycoplasmatales. Homologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of 1:1280 and 1:2560 against M. agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium respectively, whereas heterologous antisera showed IHA antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:20. Also eight type-specific bovine antisera were reacted with M agalactiae subsp. bovis and M. bovigenitalium antigens in homologous and heterologous tests. Homoogous reactions showed IHA antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:320, whereas heterologous reactions showed IHA titers of less than or equal to 1:20. This IHA test promises to be useful for the detection of bovine mycoplasma antibodies in sera from cattle infected with M. agalactiae subsp. bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Thes test is sensitive, reproducible and specific and the technique is relatively simple and rapid. The antigens were stable for at least seven months.  (+info)

Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: comparison of serological and immunological responses using pili fractions of Moraxella bovis. (5/57984)

The effect of vaccinating cattle and mice on the development of keratoconjunctivitis was studied. Cattle were vaccinated with whole cells, disrupted cells and pili fractions of three strains of Moraxella bovis. Mice were vaccinated with pili fractions of three strains. The resistance of all vaccinated animals was challenged with virulent cultures of M. bovis. In an attempt to correlate the response seen after vaccination and challenge with a pili fraction of M. bovis, vaccinated cattle and mice were grouped on the basis of signs of disease manifested and compared on the basis of serological responses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by a gel diffusion precipitin test. A greater number of the sera of resistant cattle had antibodies to the homologous pili antigen than those of vaccinated nonresistant cattle. Cattle vaccinated with disrupted cells were not resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to infectious bovine kerato-conjuctivitis and their sera lacked antibodies against the pili antigens. Vaccinated mice were more resistant to challenge exposure by homologous than heterologous cultures. A greater number of the sera of resistant mice had antibodies to pili antigens than nonresistant mice.  (+info)

Lead and mercury residues in kidney and liver of Canadian slaughter animals. (6/57984)

Liver and kidney samples were collected from Canadian slaughter animals during the winter of 1973-1974. A total of 256 samples were analyzed for lead. Mean lead levels of 1.02 ppm in poultry liver, 1.04 ppm in bovine liver, 1.02 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.73 ppm in pork liver and 0.85 ppm in pork kidney were found. A total of 265 samples were analyzed for mercury. Mean mercury levels of 0.003 ppm in poultry liver, 0.007 ppm in bovine liver, 0.008 ppm in bovine kidney, 0.001 ppm in pork liver and 0.013 ppm in pork kidney were found. All levels detected were below the Canadian official tolerance of 2 ppm for lead and administrative tolerance of 0.5 ppm for mercury.  (+info)

Bovine mastitis in Ontario due to Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis. (7/57984)

Bovine mastitis caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis was first diagnosed in 16 of 55 cows in an Ontario herd in Feburary 1972. A total of 182 of 598 (30.4%) cows from 33 of 64 (51.5%) farms in widely separated areas of the province were culturally positive. Herd incidence varied from 15 to 40% with one closed herd having an incidence of 61%. Four herds were investigated culturally and serologically by the growth inhibition test for 15 months. In the acute phase the organism was present in the milk in extremely high numbers and could still be isolated from a few cows after eight to 12 months. The sera from 89.5% of the animals with clinical mycoplasma mastitis produced a zone of surface "film" and/or colony inhibition and some cows remained positive for six to 12 months. The disease was experimentally reproduced with a pure culture of the organism isolated from the milk of a cow from one of the herds.  (+info)

Some leptospira agglutinins detected in domestic animals in British Columbia. (8/57984)

During a period of six years 7,555 bovine sera, 421 canine sera, 251 porcine sera and 135 equine sera were tested for agglutinins to Leptospira interrogans serotypes canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, pomona and sejroe. The bovine sera reacted predominantly with hardjo and/or sejroe at a rate of 15% compared to 3.5% with pomona. Breeding or abortion problems were associated with pomona but not with sejroe/hardjo agglutinins. The canine sera reacted to canicola (9.9%y and icterohemorrhagiae (5.4%), tcted predominantly with canicola (8.9%) and icterohemorrhagiae (8.1%).  (+info)

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis. It primarily affects cattle but can also spread to other mammals including humans, causing a similar disease known as zoonotic tuberculosis. The infection in animals typically occurs through inhalation of infectious droplets or ingestion of contaminated feed and water.

In cattle, the disease often affects the respiratory system, leading to symptoms such as chronic coughing, weight loss, and difficulty breathing. However, it can also affect other organs, including the intestines, lymph nodes, and mammary glands. Diagnosis of BTB typically involves a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and epidemiological data.

Control measures for BTB include regular testing and culling of infected animals, movement restrictions, and vaccination of susceptible populations. In many countries, BTB is a notifiable disease, meaning that cases must be reported to the authorities. Proper cooking and pasteurization of dairy products can help prevent transmission to humans.

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding and raising animals for agricultural purposes, such as for the production of meat, milk, eggs, or fiber. It involves providing proper care for the animals, including feeding, housing, health care, and breeding management. The goal of animal husbandry is to maintain healthy and productive animals while also being mindful of environmental sustainability and animal welfare.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

In medical terms, "breeding" is not a term that is commonly used. It is more frequently used in the context of animal husbandry to refer to the process of mating animals in order to produce offspring with specific desired traits or characteristics. In human medicine, the term is not typically applied to people and instead, related concepts such as reproduction, conception, or pregnancy are used.

Bovine trypanosomiasis, also known as Nagana, is a parasitic disease that affects cattle and other animals. It is caused by various species of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma, which are transmitted through the bite of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.).

The disease is characterized by fever, anemia, weight loss, decreased milk production, abortion in pregnant animals, and eventually death if left untreated. The parasites invade the bloodstream and lymphatic system, causing damage to various organs and tissues.

Bovine trypanosomiasis is a major constraint to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa, where it affects millions of animals and causes significant economic losses to farmers and pastoralists. Control measures include the use of trypanocidal drugs, insecticide-treated cattle, and the reduction or elimination of tsetse fly populations through various methods such as trapping and habitat modification.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

"Rhipicephalus" is a genus of ticks that are commonly found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Europe, and Asia. These ticks are known to parasitize various mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can transmit a variety of diseases to their hosts. Some species of Rhipicephalus ticks are capable of transmitting serious diseases to humans, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and African tick-bite fever. These ticks are usually found in grassy or wooded areas, and can be carried by animals such as cattle, sheep, and deer. They are typically reddish-brown in color and have a hard, shield-shaped body. Proper identification and prevention measures are important for avoiding tick bites and reducing the risk of tick-borne diseases.

An abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered and processed for human consumption. It is also known as a slaughterhouse. The term "abattoir" comes from the French word "abattre," which means "to take down" or "slaughter." In an abattoir, animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and chickens are killed and then butchered into smaller pieces of meat that can be sold to consumers.

Abattoirs must follow strict regulations to ensure the humane treatment of animals and the safety of the meat products they produce. These regulations cover various aspects of the slaughtering and processing process, including animal handling, stunning, bleeding, evisceration, and inspection. The goal of these regulations is to minimize the risk of contamination and ensure that the meat is safe for human consumption.

It's important to note that while abattoirs play an essential role in providing a reliable source of protein for humans, they can also be controversial due to concerns about animal welfare and the environmental impact of large-scale animal agriculture.

Brucellosis, bovine is a bacterial infection caused by Brucella abortus that primarily affects cattle. It can also spread to other animals and humans through direct contact with infected animals or ingestion of contaminated food or drink. In animals, it causes abortion, reduced milk production, and weight loss. In humans, it can cause fever, sweats, headaches, joint pain, and weakness. Human infections are rare in countries where milk is pasteurized and proper sanitation measures are in place. It is also known as undulant fever or Malta fever.

The rumen is the largest compartment of the stomach in ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. It is a specialized fermentation chamber where microbes break down tough plant material into nutrients that the animal can absorb and use for energy and growth. The rumen contains billions of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which help to break down cellulose and other complex carbohydrates in the plant material through fermentation.

The rumen is characterized by its large size, muscular walls, and the presence of a thick mat of partially digested food and microbes called the rumen mat or cud. The animal regurgitates the rumen contents periodically to chew it again, which helps to break down the plant material further and mix it with saliva, creating a more favorable environment for fermentation.

The rumen plays an essential role in the digestion and nutrition of ruminant animals, allowing them to thrive on a diet of low-quality plant material that would be difficult for other animals to digest.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "buffaloes." The term generally refers to large, hoofed mammals that are native to Africa and Asia. In English language slang, the term "buffalo" is sometimes used to describe a lie or exaggeration, but this usage is not related to the medical field. If you have more context about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide a more specific answer.

Theileriasis is a disease caused by the intracellular parasitic protozoa of the genus Theileria, which primarily infects and affects the erythrocytes (red blood cells) and lymphocytes (white blood cells) of various animals, including domestic and wild ruminants. This disease is mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks.

Infection with Theileria parasites can lead to a wide range of clinical signs in affected animals, depending on the specific Theileria species involved and the immune status of the host. Some common symptoms include fever, anemia, weakness, weight loss, lymphadenopathy (swelling of the lymph nodes), jaundice, and abortion in pregnant animals.

Two major Theileria species that cause significant economic losses in livestock are:

1. Theileria parva: This species is responsible for East Coast fever in cattle, which is a severe and often fatal disease endemic to Eastern and Southern Africa.
2. Theileria annulata: This species causes Tropical theileriosis or Mediterranean coast fever in cattle and buffaloes, primarily found in regions around the Mediterranean basin, Middle East, and Asia.

Preventive measures for theileriasis include tick control, use of live vaccines, and management practices that reduce exposure to infected ticks. Treatment options are limited but may involve chemotherapeutic agents such as buparvaquone or parvaquone, which can help control parasitemia (parasite multiplication in the blood) and alleviate clinical signs. However, these treatments do not provide complete immunity against reinfection.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 is a serotype of the bacterium E. coli that is associated with foodborne illness. This strain is pathogenic and produces Shiga toxins, which can cause severe damage to the lining of the small intestine and potentially lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea and kidney failure. E. coli O157 is often transmitted through contaminated food, particularly undercooked ground beef, as well as raw or unpasteurized dairy products, fruits, and vegetables. It can also be spread through contact with infected individuals or animals, especially in settings like farms, petting zoos, and swimming pools. Proper food handling, cooking, and hygiene practices are crucial to preventing E. coli O157 infections.

Plant poisoning is a form of poisoning that occurs when someone ingests, inhales, or comes into contact with any part of a plant that contains toxic substances. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type and amount of plant consumed or exposed to, as well as the individual's age, health status, and sensitivity to the toxin.

Symptoms of plant poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, skin rashes, seizures, or in severe cases, even death. Some common plants that can cause poisoning include poison ivy, poison oak, foxglove, oleander, and hemlock, among many others.

If you suspect plant poisoning, it is important to seek medical attention immediately and bring a sample of the plant or information about its identity if possible. This will help healthcare providers diagnose and treat the poisoning more effectively.

Neospora is a genus of intracellular parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The most common species that affects animals is Neospora caninum, which is known to cause serious disease in cattle and dogs. It can also infect other warm-blooded animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and deer.

Neosporosis, the infection caused by Neospora, primarily affects the nervous system and muscles of the host animal. In cattle, it is a major cause of abortion, stillbirths, and neurological disorders. The parasite can be transmitted through the placenta from an infected mother to her offspring (congenital transmission), or through the ingestion of contaminated feed or water (horizontal transmission).

Neospora is a significant economic concern for the livestock industry, particularly in dairy and beef cattle operations. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for neosporosis in animals, so prevention efforts focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to reduce the spread of the parasite.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as "mad cow disease," is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects cattle. It is caused by prions, which are misfolded proteins that can cause other proteins in the brain to also misfold and accumulate, leading to brain damage and degeneration. The disease is named for the sponge-like appearance of the brain tissue that results from this degenerative process.

BSE is a zoonotic disease, which means that it can be transmitted from animals to humans. In humans, BSE is known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and is caused by consuming contaminated beef products. The symptoms of vCJD include rapidly progressing dementia, neurological symptoms such as muscle spasms and difficulty coordinating movements, and physical deterioration leading to death.

It's important to note that the use of certain growth promoters in cattle feed and the practice of feeding cattle meat and bone meal have been banned in many countries in order to prevent the spread of BSE. Additionally, strict controls on the inspection and testing of beef products have been implemented to ensure their safety.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

Mustelidae is not a medical term, but a biological term referring to a family of mammals that includes weasels, badgers, otters, ferrets, and wolverines. These animals are characterized by their elongated bodies, short legs, and specialized scent glands used for marking territory and communication. While the study of these animals is not typically within the scope of medical science, understanding the biology and behavior of various species can have implications for public health, conservation efforts, and ecological research.

Bacterial shedding refers to the release or discharge of bacteria from an infected individual into their environment. This can occur through various routes, such as respiratory droplets when coughing or sneezing, or through fecal matter. The bacteria can then potentially spread to other individuals, causing infection and disease. It's important to note that not all bacteria that are shed cause illness, and some people may be colonized with certain bacteria without showing symptoms. However, in healthcare settings, bacterial shedding is a concern for the transmission of harmful pathogens, particularly in vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised patients.

A "tick infestation" is not a formal medical term, but it generally refers to a situation where an individual has a large number of ticks (Ixodida: Acarina) on their body or in their living environment. Ticks are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles.

An infestation can occur in various settings, including homes, gardens, parks, and forests. People who spend time in these areas, especially those with pets or who engage in outdoor activities like camping, hiking, or hunting, are at a higher risk of tick encounters.

Tick infestations can lead to several health concerns, as ticks can transmit various diseases, such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis, among others. It is essential to take preventive measures to avoid tick bites and promptly remove any attached ticks to reduce the risk of infection.

If you suspect a tick infestation in your living environment or on your body, consult a healthcare professional or a pest control expert for proper assessment and guidance on how to proceed.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

I. Definition:

An abortion in a veterinary context refers to the intentional or unintentional termination of pregnancy in a non-human animal before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus. This can occur spontaneously (known as a miscarriage) or be induced through medical intervention (induced abortion).

II. Common Causes:

Spontaneous abortions may result from genetic defects, hormonal imbalances, infections, exposure to toxins, trauma, or other maternal health issues. Induced abortions are typically performed for population control, humane reasons (such as preventing the birth of a severely deformed or non-viable fetus), or when the pregnancy poses a risk to the mother's health.

III. Methods:

Veterinarians may use various methods to induce abortion depending on the species, stage of gestation, and reason for the procedure. These can include administering drugs that stimulate uterine contractions (such as prostaglandins), physically removing the fetus through surgery (dilation and curettage or hysterectomy), or using techniques specific to certain animal species (e.g., intrauterine infusion of hypertonic saline in equids).

IV. Ethical Considerations:

The ethics surrounding veterinary abortions are complex and multifaceted, often involving considerations related to animal welfare, conservation, population management, and human-animal relationships. Veterinarians must weigh these factors carefully when deciding whether to perform an abortion and which method to use. In some cases, legal regulations may also influence the decision-making process.

V. Conclusion:

Abortion in veterinary medicine is a medical intervention that can be used to address various clinical scenarios, ranging from unintentional pregnancy loss to deliberate termination of pregnancy for humane or population control reasons. Ethical considerations play a significant role in the decision-making process surrounding veterinary abortions, and veterinarians must carefully evaluate each situation on a case-by-case basis.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and buffalo. The virus can also infect wild animals like deer and antelope. FMD is not a direct threat to human health but may have significant economic impacts due to restrictions on trade and movement of infected animals.

The disease is characterized by fever, blister-like sores (vesicles) in the mouth, on the tongue, lips, gums, teats, and between the hooves. The vesicles can rupture, causing painful erosions that make it difficult for affected animals to eat, drink, or walk. In severe cases, FMD can lead to death, particularly among young animals.

The causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease is the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which belongs to the Picornaviridae family and Aphthovirus genus. There are seven serotypes of FMDV: O, A, C, Asia 1, and South African Territories (SAT) 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes.

Prevention and control measures for foot-and-mouth disease include vaccination, quarantine, movement restrictions, disinfection, and culling of infected animals in severe outbreaks. Rapid detection and response are crucial to prevent the spread of FMD within and between countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.

"Mycobacterium bovis" is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae. It is the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle and other animals, and can also cause tuberculosis in humans, particularly in those who come into contact with infected animals or consume unpasteurized dairy products from infected cows. The bacteria are resistant to many common disinfectants and survive for long periods in a dormant state, making them difficult to eradicate from the environment. "Mycobacterium bovis" is closely related to "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," the bacterium that causes tuberculosis in humans, and both species share many genetic and biochemical characteristics.

Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC), also known as "Shipping Fever" or "Pneumonic Complex," is a significant respiratory disease in cattle, particularly affecting feedlot calves and animals undergoing transportation or commingling. It is a multifactorial disease, meaning that it results from the interaction of several factors, including:

1. Infectious agents: Viruses (such as bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus-3, and bovine viral diarrhea virus) and bacteria (like Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis).
2. Environmental factors: Poor ventilation, dust, ammonia, and other air quality issues in confined spaces can contribute to the development of BRDC.
3. Stressors: Weaning, transportation, commingling, castration, and other management practices can cause stress and weaken the animal's immune system, making them more susceptible to BRDC.
4. Host factors: Age, genetics, nutritional status, and existing health conditions may also play a role in an animal's vulnerability to BRDC.

The clinical signs of BRDC can vary but often include coughing, nasal discharge, difficulty breathing, fever, lethargy, and reduced appetite. In severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia and even death. Prevention strategies typically involve vaccination programs, management practices that minimize stress, maintaining good air quality, and prompt treatment of sick animals.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

Coccidiosis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Eimeria genus, which typically affects the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. The infection occurs when a person or animal ingests oocysts (the infective stage of the parasite) through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with infected feces.

In humans, coccidiosis is most commonly found in children living in poor sanitary conditions and in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy. The infection can cause watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it may lead to dehydration, weight loss, and even death in individuals with compromised immune systems.

In animals, particularly in poultry, swine, and ruminants, coccidiosis can cause significant economic losses due to decreased growth rates, poor feed conversion, and increased mortality. Preventive measures include improving sanitation, reducing overcrowding, and administering anticoccidial drugs or vaccines.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a slow-developing, persistent virus infection that primarily affects cattle. It is caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which is part of the retrovirus family. The term "enzootic" refers to an animal disease that is constantly present in a particular geographic area or population.

EBL is typically characterized by the development of malignant lymphosarcoma, a type of cancer affecting the lymphoid system, in mature animals. Infected animals may not show any clinical signs for several years, and some never develop the disease. However, when clinical symptoms do appear, they can include weight loss, decreased milk production, enlarged lymph nodes, difficulty swallowing, and paralysis.

The virus is primarily spread through contact with infected blood or other bodily fluids, such as during castration, dehorning, or veterinary procedures. It can also be transmitted from an infected mother to her calf through colostrum and milk. EBL has been reported in many countries worldwide, but control and eradication programs have significantly reduced its prevalence in some regions, including the United States and Western Europe.

It is important to note that enzootic bovine leukosis should not be confused with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as "mad cow disease," which is a completely different and unrelated condition affecting cattle.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Bison" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to large, hoofed mammals that are part of the Bovidae family, which also includes cattle, buffalo, and antelope. The two most commonly known species of bison are the American bison (Bison bison) and the European bison, or wisent (Bison bonasus). These animals are native to North America and Europe, respectively, and have distinctive features such as a large head, humped back, and shaggy coat. They once roamed in great herds but were hunted to near extinction in the late 19th century. Conservation efforts have helped bring their populations back from the brink, although they still face threats from habitat loss and disease.

Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease (BVD-MD) is a complex of diseases caused by the Bovine Virus Diarrhea virus (BVDV) and is a significant problem in the global cattle industry. The disease can manifest in various forms, from mild respiratory or reproductive issues to severe, life-threatening conditions such as mucosal disease.

Mucosal disease is the most acute form of BVD-MD and occurs when an animal that has been persistently infected (PI) with a specific strain of BVDV develops a secondary infection with a cytopathic biotype of the virus. PI animals are those that were infected in utero with BVDV before they developed immune competence, resulting in them shedding large amounts of the virus throughout their lives.

The secondary infection with the cytopathic biotype of BVDV causes extensive damage to the animal's lymphoid tissues and gastrointestinal tract, leading to severe clinical signs such as:

1. Profuse diarrhea
2. High fever (up to 41°C or 105.8°F)
3. Ulcerative lesions in the mouth, esophagus, and intestines
4. Severe dehydration
5. Depression and loss of appetite
6. Weight loss
7. Weakness
8. Increased respiratory rate
9. Swelling of the head, neck, and brisket
10. Death within 2-3 weeks after the onset of clinical signs

Morbidity and mortality rates in BVD-MD outbreaks can be high, causing significant economic losses for farmers due to decreased production, increased veterinary costs, and animal deaths. Prevention strategies include vaccination programs, biosecurity measures, and testing for PI animals to remove them from the herd.

Digestion is the complex process of breaking down food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. This process involves both mechanical and chemical actions that occur in the digestive system, which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and accessory organs such as the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder.

The different stages of digestion are:

1. Ingestion: This is the first step in digestion, where food is taken into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves physically breaking down food into smaller pieces through chewing, churning, and mixing with digestive enzymes.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves breaking down food molecules into simpler forms using various enzymes and chemicals produced by the digestive system.
4. Absorption: Once the food is broken down into simple molecules, they are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream and transported to different parts of the body.
5. Elimination: The undigested material that remains after absorption is moved through the large intestine and eliminated from the body as feces.

The process of digestion is essential for maintaining good health, as it provides the necessary nutrients and energy required for various bodily functions.

Ruminants are a category of hooved mammals that are known for their unique digestive system, which involves a process called rumination. This group includes animals such as cattle, deer, sheep, goats, and giraffes, among others. The digestive system of ruminants consists of a specialized stomach with multiple compartments (the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum).

Ruminants primarily consume plant-based diets, which are high in cellulose, a complex carbohydrate that is difficult for many animals to digest. In the rumen, microbes break down the cellulose into simpler compounds, producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) that serve as a major energy source for ruminants. The animal then regurgitates the partially digested plant material (known as cud), chews it further to mix it with saliva and additional microbes, and swallows it again for further digestion in the rumen. This process of rumination allows ruminants to efficiently extract nutrients from their fibrous diets.

Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) in the northeastern and upper midwestern United States and western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus) in the western United States.

The bacterium infects and reproduces within certain white blood cells, leading to symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and chills that typically appear within 1-2 weeks after a tick bite. Other possible symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, and a rash (although a rash is uncommon).

Anaplasmosis can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against the bacterium or the DNA of the organism itself. It is usually treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline, which are most effective when started early in the course of the disease.

Preventing tick bites is the best way to avoid anaplasmosis and other tick-borne diseases. This can be done by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors. If a tick is found, it should be removed promptly using fine-tipped tweezers, grasping the tick as close to the skin as possible and pulling straight upwards with steady pressure.

"Manure" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it is commonly referred to in agriculture and horticulture. Manure is defined as organic matter, such as animal feces and urine, that is used as a fertilizer to enrich and amend the soil. It is often rich in nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which are essential for plant growth. While manure can be beneficial for agriculture and gardening, it can also pose risks to human health if not handled properly due to the potential presence of pathogens and other harmful substances.

Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that infects cattle and causes enzootic bovine leukosis, a neoplastic disease characterized by the proliferation of malignant B-lymphocytes. The virus primarily targets the animal's immune system, leading to a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukopenia) and an increased susceptibility to other infections.

The virus is transmitted horizontally through close contact with infected animals or vertically from mother to offspring via infected milk or colostrum. The majority of BLV-infected cattle remain asymptomatic carriers, but a small percentage develop clinical signs such as lymphoma, weight loss, and decreased milk production.

BLV is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and both viruses belong to the Retroviridae family, genus Deltaretrovirus. However, it's important to note that BLV does not cause leukemia or any other neoplastic diseases in humans.

Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant or young child to a new source of nutrition, such as solid foods, while simultaneously decreasing their dependence on breast milk or formula. This process can begin when the child is developmentally ready, typically around 6 months of age, and involves offering them small amounts of pureed or mashed foods to start, then gradually introducing more textured and varied foods as they become comfortable with the new diet. The weaning process should be done slowly and under the guidance of a healthcare provider to ensure that the child's nutritional needs are being met and to avoid any potential digestive issues.

'Babesia bovis' is a species of intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite that causes bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever or redwater fever, in cattle. The parasite is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks, primarily from the genus Boophilus (e.g., Boophilus microplus).

The life cycle of 'Babesia bovis' involves two main stages: the sporozoite stage and the merozoite stage. Sporozoites are injected into the host's bloodstream during tick feeding and invade erythrocytes (red blood cells), where they transform into trophozoites. The trophozoites multiply asexually, forming new infective stages called merozoites. These merozoites are released from the infected erythrocytes and invade other red blood cells, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical signs of bovine babesiosis caused by 'Babesia bovis' include fever, anemia, icterus (jaundice), hemoglobinuria (the presence of hemoglobin in the urine), and occasionally neurologic symptoms due to the parasite's ability to invade and damage blood vessels in the brain. The disease can be severe or fatal, particularly in naïve animals or those exposed to high parasitemia levels.

Prevention and control strategies for bovine babesiosis include tick control measures, such as acaricides and environmental management, as well as vaccination using attenuated or recombinant vaccine candidates. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal drugs, such as imidocarb dipropionate or diminazene accurate, to reduce parasitemia and alleviate clinical signs.

Trypanosoma congolense is a species of protozoan parasite that belongs to the genus Trypanosoma. It is the primary causative agent of African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT), also known as Nagana, which affects both wild and domestic animals in sub-Saharan Africa.

The life cycle of T. congolense involves two main hosts: the tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) and a mammalian host, such as cattle, sheep, goats, or wild animals. The parasite is transmitted to the mammalian host through the bite of an infected tsetse fly. Once inside the host's body, T. congolense multiplies in various bodily fluids, including blood, lymph, and cerebrospinal fluid, causing a range of symptoms such as fever, anemia, weight loss, and weakness.

In severe cases, AAT can lead to death, particularly in young or debilitated animals. The disease has significant economic impacts on agriculture and livestock production in affected regions, making it a major public health concern.

Bluetongue is a viral disease that primarily affects sheep and some species of cattle, goats, and wild ruminants. The disease is named for the bluish discoloration of the tongue that can occur in severe cases. It is transmitted by midges (Culicoides spp.) and occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical regions around the world.

The symptoms of Bluetongue include fever, salivation, difficulty breathing, swelling of the head and neck, and lameness. In severe cases, it can cause death. The disease is not contagious between animals and cannot be spread through contact or ingestion of contaminated feed or water.

There are several different serotypes of Bluetongue virus, and immunity to one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes. Vaccination is available for some serotypes in certain regions, but it may not be effective against all serotypes. Control measures typically focus on reducing exposure to midges through the use of insect repellents, screens, and other barriers.

'Brucella abortus' is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus that is the causative agent of brucellosis, also known as Bang's disease in cattle. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans, and is typically acquired through contact with infected animal tissues or bodily fluids, consumption of contaminated food or drink, or inhalation of infectious aerosols.

In cattle, 'Brucella abortus' infection can cause abortion, stillbirths, and reduced fertility. In humans, it can cause a systemic illness characterized by fever, sweats, malaise, headache, and muscle and joint pain. If left untreated, brucellosis can lead to serious complications such as endocarditis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and neurological symptoms.

Prevention measures include vaccination of cattle, pasteurization of dairy products, and implementation of strict hygiene practices in occupational settings where exposure to infected animals or their tissues is possible. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline and rifampin, and may require hospitalization in severe cases.

Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is a viral disease that primarily affects cattle, but can also infect other ruminants such as sheep and goats. The disease is caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae and genus Pestivirus.

There are two biotypes of BVDV, type 1 and type 2, which can be further divided into various subtypes based on their genetic makeup. The virus can cause a range of clinical signs in infected animals, depending on the age and immune status of the animal, as well as the strain of the virus.

Acute infection with BVDV can cause fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, nasal discharge, and diarrhea, which can be severe and life-threatening in young calves. In addition, BVDV can cause reproductive problems such as abortion, stillbirth, and the birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. PI animals are those that were infected with BVDV in utero and have the virus continuously present in their bloodstream and other tissues throughout their lives. These animals serve as a source of infection for other cattle and can spread the virus to naive herds.

BVDV is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, such as saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. The virus can also be spread indirectly through contaminated feed, water, and equipment. Prevention and control measures for BVDV include biosecurity practices, vaccination, and testing to identify and remove PI animals from herds.

I apologize for any confusion, but "livestock" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is an agricultural term that refers to animals that are kept or raised on a farm or ranch for commercial purposes, such as the production of food, fiber, or labor. Examples of livestock include cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, and horses. I hope this clarifies any confusion. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help.

"Theileria" is a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoans belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. These parasites are primarily transmitted by ticks and infect various species of mammals, including cattle, sheep, and humans. Theileria species are known to cause significant economic losses in the livestock industry due to the diseases they cause, which can result in severe anemia, fever, and even death in infected animals.

Theileria parasites have a complex life cycle that involves two hosts: the tick vector and the mammalian host. The parasites infect and multiply within the tick's salivary glands and are transmitted to the mammalian host during feeding. Once inside the host, the parasites invade and multiply within the host's white blood cells, causing a variety of clinical symptoms depending on the species of Theileria involved.

One of the most well-known species of Theileria is Theileria parva, which causes East Coast fever in cattle. This disease is highly fatal and can result in mortality rates of up to 90% in infected animals if left untreated. Other notable species include Theileria annulata, which causes Tropical Theileriosis in cattle, and Theileria lestoquardi, which infects sheep and goats.

The diagnosis of Theileria infections typically involves the examination of blood smears or other clinical samples using microscopy, as well as molecular techniques such as PCR to identify the specific species of parasite involved. Treatment options for Theileria infections include the use of antiprotozoal drugs such as buparvaquone and halofuginone, as well as supportive care such as fluid therapy and blood transfusions in severe cases. Preventive measures include the use of tick control strategies such as acaricides and vaccination.

Rinderpest is a highly contagious viral disease that primarily affects cattle and buffalo, although it can also infect other species such as sheep, goats, and deer. The virus responsible for rinderpest is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, which includes measles in humans and canine distemper in dogs.

The term "Rinderpest" comes from the German word "Rind," meaning cattle, and "Pest," meaning plague or pestilence. Historically, rinderpest has had devastating effects on livestock populations, causing significant economic losses and threatening food security in many parts of the world.

The disease is characterized by fever, oral lesions, diarrhea, and rapid weight loss, often leading to death within a week of infection. Transmission typically occurs through direct contact with infected animals or their secretions, such as nasal discharge, saliva, or feces. The virus can also be spread via contaminated feed, water, and fomites (inanimate objects).

In 2011, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations declared rinderpest eradicated, making it the first viral disease to be eliminated through human efforts. This achievement was largely due to extensive vaccination campaigns, improved surveillance, and strict quarantine measures. However, maintaining vigilance against potential re-emergence remains crucial, as the virus still exists in some laboratory collections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

I apologize for any confusion, but "deer" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of hooved mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Inbreeding in animals refers to the mating of closely related individuals, such as siblings or offspring of siblings, over multiple generations. An inbred strain is a population of animals produced by this repeated mating of close relatives, which results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain.

Inbreeding can lead to an increase in homozygosity, where identical alleles are present at corresponding loci on both chromosomes. This can result in the expression of recessive traits, some of which may be deleterious or even lethal. However, inbred strains also have advantages, such as reduced genetic variability, which makes them useful for scientific research.

Inbred strains are commonly used in biomedical research, including genetics, immunology, and behavioral studies. They provide a consistent and controlled genetic background, allowing researchers to study the effects of specific genes or environmental factors with greater precision. Additionally, inbred strains can be crossed with other strains to create hybrid populations, which can be used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) and identify genes associated with complex traits.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Housing, Animal" is not a standard term in medical terminology. Medical terminology typically relates to the human body, diseases, treatments, and healthcare practices. "Housing, Animal" would be more related to veterinary medicine or animal care fields, which pertain to the accommodation and environment provided for animals. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

"Mannheimia haemolytica" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found as part of the normal flora in the upper respiratory tract of cattle and other ruminants. However, under certain conditions such as stress, viral infection, or sudden changes in temperature or humidity, the bacteria can multiply rapidly and cause a severe respiratory disease known as shipping fever or pneumonic pasteurellosis.

The bacterium is named "haemolytica" because it produces a toxin that causes hemolysis, or the breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the characteristic clear zones around colonies grown on blood agar plates. The bacteria can also cause other symptoms such as fever, coughing, difficulty breathing, and depression.

"Mannheimia haemolytica" is a significant pathogen in the cattle industry, causing substantial economic losses due to mortality, reduced growth rates, and decreased milk production. Prevention and control measures include good management practices, vaccination, and prompt treatment of infected animals with antibiotics.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium E. coli, which can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific strain and site of infection. The majority of E. coli strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, some strains, particularly those that produce Shiga toxins, can cause severe illness.

E. coli infections can occur through various routes, including contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, or direct contact with animals or their environments. Common symptoms of E. coli infections include diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur, which may lead to kidney failure and other long-term health problems.

Preventing E. coli infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meats thoroughly, avoiding cross-contamination of food during preparation, washing fruits and vegetables before eating, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and juices. Prompt medical attention is necessary if symptoms of an E. coli infection are suspected to prevent potential complications.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

Animal Identification Systems refer to methods and technologies used for identifying individual animals, typically for the purposes of animal health monitoring, traceability in food production, and conservation efforts. These systems can include various forms of physical tags, electronic identification devices, and data management software. Common examples include ear tags, radio-frequency identification (RFID) transponders, and tattooing or branding. The goal of animal identification systems is to enable accurate tracking and monitoring of animals throughout their lifecycle, which can help prevent the spread of disease, ensure food safety, and support research and conservation efforts.

Cereals, in a medical context, are not specifically defined. However, cereals are generally understood to be grasses of the family Poaceae that are cultivated for the edible components of their grain (the seed of the grass). The term "cereal" is derived from Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture and harvest.

The most widely consumed cereals include:

1. Wheat
2. Rice
3. Corn (Maize)
4. Barley
5. Oats
6. Millet
7. Sorghum
8. Rye

Cereals are a significant part of the human diet, providing energy in the form of carbohydrates, as well as protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. They can be consumed in various forms, such as whole grains, flour, flakes, or puffed cereals. Some people may have allergies or intolerances to specific cereals, like celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that requires a gluten-free diet (wheat, barley, and rye contain gluten).

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Silage is not typically considered a medical term. It is an agricultural term that refers to fermented, moist green fodder (such as grasses, clover, or corn) that are stored in a silo and used as animal feed. However, if contaminated with harmful bacteria like Listeria or mold, it can cause foodborne illness in animals and potentially in humans who consume the contaminated silage or products made from contaminated animals.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Anaplasma is a genus of intracellular bacteria that infect and parasitize the white blood cells of various animals, including humans. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. The most common species that infect humans are Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma platys.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a tick-borne disease characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and leukopenia. It infects granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, and can cause severe complications such as respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and even death in some cases.

Anaplasma platys causes canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, a disease that affects dogs and is characterized by recurring low platelet counts. It infects platelets, another type of blood cell involved in clotting, and can cause bleeding disorders in affected animals.

Diagnosis of Anaplasma infections typically involves the detection of antibodies against the bacteria or the direct identification of the organism through molecular methods such as PCR. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics such as doxycycline, which is effective against both species of Anaplasma. Prevention measures include avoiding tick-infested areas and using insect repellents and protective clothing to reduce the risk of tick bites.

The abomasum is the fourth and final stomach chamber in ruminant animals, such as cows, sheep, and goats. It is often referred to as the "true" stomach because its structure and function are most similar to the stomachs of non-ruminant animals, including humans.

In the abomasum, gastric juices containing hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes are secreted, which help to break down proteins and fats in the ingested feed. The abomasum also serves as a site for nutrient absorption and further mechanical breakdown of food particles before they enter the small intestine.

The term "abomasum" is derived from Latin, where "ab-" means "away from," and "omassum" refers to the "stomach." This name reflects its location away from the other three stomach chambers in ruminants.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Festuca" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as fescue grasses. These grasses are often used in lawns, pastures, and meadows. If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, I would be happy to help if I can!

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medical science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and injuries in non-human animals. The profession of veterinary medicine is dedicated to the care, health, and welfare of animals, as well as to the promotion of human health through animal research and public health advancements. Veterinarians employ a variety of diagnostic methods including clinical examination, radiography, laboratory testing, and ultrasound imaging. They use a range of treatments, including medication, surgery, and dietary management. In addition, veterinarians may also advise on preventative healthcare measures such as vaccination schedules and parasite control programs.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Goat diseases" refers to illnesses that affect goats specifically. It does not mean diseases that are caused by goats or related to them in some way. Here are some examples of goat diseases:

1. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects goats, causing arthritis, pneumonia, and sometimes encephalitis.
2. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A bacterial disease that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes of goats.
3. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by mycoplasma bacteria.
4. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.
5. Pasteurellosis: A bacterial disease that can cause pneumonia, septicemia, and other infections in goats.
6. Salmonellosis: A bacterial disease caused by Salmonella bacteria, which can cause diarrhea, fever, and septicemia in goats.
7. Soremouth (Orf): A viral disease that causes sores and scabs around the mouth and nose of goats.

These are just a few examples of diseases that can affect goats. If you have any specific questions about goat health or diseases, I would recommend consulting with a veterinarian who specializes in small ruminants.

Artiodactyla is an order of mammals that includes even-toed ungulates, or hooved animals, with an odd number of toes. This group includes animals such as pigs, peccaries, hippos, camels, deer, giraffes, antelopes, and ruminants like cattle, sheep, and goats. The primary identifying feature of Artiodactyls is the presence of a pair of weight-bearing toes located in the middle of the foot, with the other toes being either reduced or absent. This arrangement provides stability and adaptability for these animals to thrive in various habitats worldwide.

"Theileria parva" is a species of intracellular parasitic protozoa that causes East Coast fever in cattle. It is a member of the genus Theileria and family Theileriidae within the phylum Apicomplexa. This parasite infects and reproduces within bovine lymphocytes, leading to the destruction of host cells and the development of clinical signs such as high fever, lymphadenopathy, anemia, and respiratory distress. Transmission occurs through the bite of infected ticks, primarily of the genus Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The disease is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and poses a significant threat to the livestock industry in endemic areas.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

A quantitative trait is a phenotypic characteristic that can be measured and displays continuous variation, meaning it can take on any value within a range. Examples include height, blood pressure, or biochemical measurements like cholesterol levels. These traits are usually influenced by the combined effects of multiple genes (polygenic inheritance) as well as environmental factors.

Heritability, in the context of genetics, refers to the proportion of variation in a trait that can be attributed to genetic differences among individuals in a population. It is estimated using statistical methods and ranges from 0 to 1, with higher values indicating a greater contribution of genetics to the observed phenotypic variance.

Therefore, a heritable quantitative trait would be a phenotype that shows continuous variation, influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors, and for which a significant portion of the observed variation can be attributed to genetic differences among individuals in a population.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

Babesiosis is a disease caused by microscopic parasites of the genus Babesia that infect red blood cells. It is typically transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). The incubation period for babesiosis can range from one to several weeks, and symptoms may include fever, chills, headache, body aches, fatigue, and nausea or vomiting. In severe cases, babesiosis can cause hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Babesiosis is most common in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but it has been reported in other parts of the world as well. It is treated with antibiotics and, in severe cases, may require hospitalization and supportive care.

Bovine mastitis is a common inflammatory condition that affects the mammary gland (udder) of dairy cows. It's primarily caused by bacterial infections, with Escherichia coli (E. coli), Streptococcus spp., and Staphylococcus aureus being some of the most common pathogens involved. The infection can lead to varying degrees of inflammation, which might result in decreased milk production, changes in milk composition, and, if left untreated, potentially severe systemic illness in the cow.

The clinical signs of bovine mastitis may include:
- Redness and heat in the affected quarter (or quarters) of the udder
- Swelling and pain upon palpation
- Decreased milk production or changes in milk appearance (such as flakes, clots, or watery consistency)
- Systemic signs like fever, loss of appetite, and depression in severe cases

Mastitis can be classified into two main types: clinical mastitis, which is characterized by visible signs of inflammation, and subclinical mastitis, where the infection might not present with obvious external symptoms but could still lead to decreased milk quality and production.

Prevention and control measures for bovine mastitis include good milking practices, maintaining a clean and dry environment for the cows, practicing proper udder hygiene, administering antibiotics or other treatments as necessary, and regularly monitoring milk for signs of infection through somatic cell count testing.

Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a species-specific virus that belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, and genus Varicellovirus. This virus is the causative agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), which is a significant respiratory disease in cattle. The infection can also lead to reproductive issues, including abortions, stillbirths, and inflammation of the genital tract (infectious pustular vulvovaginitis) in cows and infertility in bulls.

The virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact with infected animals, their respiratory secretions, or contaminated objects. Once an animal is infected, BoHV-1 establishes a lifelong latency in the nervous system, from where it can periodically reactivate and shed the virus, even without showing any clinical signs. This makes eradication of the virus challenging in cattle populations.

Vaccines are available to control IBR, but they may not prevent infection or shedding entirely. Therefore, ongoing management practices, such as biosecurity measures and surveillance programs, are essential to minimize the impact of this disease on cattle health and productivity.

'Anaplasma marginale' is a gram-negative bacterium that infects red blood cells in various species of animals, including cattle. It is the causative agent of Anaplasmosis, which is a tick-borne disease that can lead to severe anemia, abortion, and even death in infected animals. The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected ticks or through contaminated blood transfusions, needles, or surgical instruments.

The bacterium has a unique life cycle, where it infects and replicates within the red blood cells, causing them to rupture and release more bacteria into the bloodstream. This results in the characteristic symptoms of Anaplasmosis, such as fever, weakness, icterus (yellowing of the mucous membranes), and anemia.

Diagnosis of Anaplasmosis can be confirmed through various laboratory tests, including blood smears, PCR assays, and serological tests. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics such as tetracyclines, which can help to reduce the severity of symptoms and clear the infection. Preventive measures include the control of tick populations, the use of protective clothing and insect repellents, and the implementation of strict biosecurity protocols in veterinary practices and farms.

Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are a type of fatty acid that have a low molecular weight and are known for their ability to evaporate at room temperature. They are produced in the body during the breakdown of carbohydrates and proteins in the absence of oxygen, such as in the digestive tract by certain bacteria.

The most common volatile fatty acids include acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. These compounds have various roles in the body, including providing energy to cells in the intestines, modulating immune function, and regulating the growth of certain bacteria. They are also used as precursors for the synthesis of other molecules, such as cholesterol and bile acids.

In addition to their role in the body, volatile fatty acids are also important in the food industry, where they are used as flavorings and preservatives. They are produced naturally during fermentation and aging processes, and are responsible for the distinctive flavors of foods such as yogurt, cheese, and wine.

Pasteurellosis, pneumonic is a specific form of pasteurellosis that is caused by the bacterium *Pasteurella multocida* and primarily affects the respiratory system. It is characterized by inflammation and infection of the lungs (pneumonia) and can result in symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, chest pain, fever, and decreased appetite.

This condition often occurs as a secondary infection in animals with underlying respiratory diseases, and it can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected animals, such as through bites, scratches, or inhalation of respiratory secretions. Pneumonic pasteurellosis is more likely to occur in people who have weakened immune systems due to other health conditions.

Prompt medical treatment with antibiotics is necessary to prevent complications and improve outcomes. The prognosis for pneumonic pasteurellosis depends on the severity of the infection, the patient's overall health, and how quickly they receive appropriate medical care.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hoof and Claw" is not a medical term or condition. The term "hoof" refers to the hard covering on the toes of animals such as horses, cows, and other ungulates, while "claw" refers to the sharp nail-like structure found on the toes of animals such as cats, dogs, and birds.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Least-Squares Analysis is not a medical term, but rather a statistical method that is used in various fields including medicine. It is a way to find the best fit line or curve for a set of data points by minimizing the sum of the squared distances between the observed data points and the fitted line or curve. This method is often used in medical research to analyze data, such as fitting a regression line to a set of data points to make predictions or identify trends. The goal is to find the line or curve that most closely represents the pattern of the data, which can help researchers understand relationships between variables and make more informed decisions based on their analysis.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

Pasteurella infections are diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Pasteurella, with P. multocida being the most common species responsible for infections in humans. These bacteria are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts of animals, particularly domestic pets such as cats and dogs.

Humans can acquire Pasteurella infections through animal bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated animal secretions like saliva. The infection can manifest in various forms, including:

1. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are the most common types of Pasteurella infections, often presenting as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections after an animal bite or scratch.
2. Respiratory tract infections: Pasteurella bacteria can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory tract infections, especially in individuals with underlying lung diseases or weakened immune systems.
3. Ocular infections: Pasteurella bacteria can infect the eye, causing conditions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, or endophthalmitis, particularly after an animal scratch to the eye or face.
4. Septicemia: In rare cases, Pasteurella bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause septicemia, a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.
5. Other infections: Pasteurella bacteria have also been known to cause joint infections (septic arthritis), bone infections (osteomyelitis), and central nervous system infections (meningitis or brain abscesses) in some cases.

Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing Pasteurella infections, as they can progress rapidly and lead to severe complications, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an infectious agent that causes Bluetongue disease, a non-contagious viral disease affecting sheep and other ruminants. It is a member of the Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family. The virus is transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species and can infect various animals such as sheep, cattle, goats, and wild ruminants.

The virus has a double-stranded RNA genome and consists of ten segments that encode seven structural and four non-structural proteins. The clinical signs of Bluetongue disease in sheep include fever, salivation, swelling of the head and neck, nasal discharge, and respiratory distress, which can be severe or fatal. In contrast, cattle usually show milder symptoms or are asymptomatic, although they can serve as reservoirs for the virus.

Bluetongue virus is an important veterinary pathogen that has a significant economic impact on the global sheep industry. The disease is prevalent in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, but has also spread to temperate areas due to climate change and the movement of infected animals. Prevention and control measures include vaccination, insect control, and restricting the movement of infected animals.

In the context of medical definitions, "transportation" typically refers to the movement of patients from one location to another. This can include the transfer of patients between healthcare facilities (such as from a hospital to a long-term care facility), between departments within a healthcare facility (such as from the emergency department to an inpatient unit), or to and from medical appointments.

Transportation may also refer to the movement of medical equipment, supplies, or specimens between locations. In this context, transportation ensures that necessary items are delivered to the right place at the right time, which is critical for providing high-quality patient care.

It's important to note that safe and timely transportation is essential for ensuring positive patient outcomes, reducing the risk of adverse events, and improving overall healthcare efficiency.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Monensin is a type of antibiotic known as a polyether ionophore, which is used primarily in the veterinary field for the prevention and treatment of coccidiosis, a parasitic disease caused by protozoa in animals. It works by selectively increasing the permeability of cell membranes to sodium ions, leading to disruption of the ion balance within the cells of the parasite and ultimately causing its death.

In addition to its use as an animal antibiotic, monensin has also been studied for its potential effects on human health, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels and improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. However, it is not currently approved for use in humans due to concerns about toxicity and potential side effects.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Artificial insemination (AI) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterus for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This procedure can be performed using sperm from a partner or a donor. It is often used when there are issues with male fertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or in cases where natural conception is not possible due to various medical reasons.

There are two types of artificial insemination: intracervical insemination (ICI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). ICI involves placing the sperm directly into the cervix, while IUI involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, including the cause of infertility and the preferences of the individuals involved.

Artificial insemination is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that can be performed in a doctor's office or clinic. It may be combined with fertility drugs to increase the chances of pregnancy. The success rate of artificial insemination varies depending on several factors, including the age and fertility of the individuals involved, the cause of infertility, and the type of procedure used.

Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia of Cattle, also known as "enzootic pneumonia" or "shipping fever," is a respiratory disease in cattle caused by a variety of bacterial and viral pathogens. The term "atypical" refers to the fact that this form of pneumonia does not present with typical symptoms such as consolidation and purulent exudate, but rather with interstitial inflammation and diffuse alveolar damage.

The disease is often associated with stressors such as transportation, commingling, or weather changes, which can lead to a suppressed immune response in the animal and make it more susceptible to infection. Common bacterial pathogens involved include Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni, while viral pathogens such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and parainfluenza type 3 (PI-3) can also contribute to the disease.

Clinical signs of atypical interstitial pneumonia in cattle may include depression, decreased appetite, increased respiratory rate and effort, coughing, nasal discharge, and fever. Diagnosis is typically made based on clinical signs, history, and laboratory testing such as serology, PCR, or culture. Treatment usually involves the use of antibiotics to target bacterial pathogens, as well as supportive care such as anti-inflammatory drugs and fluid therapy. Prevention strategies include vaccination, good biosecurity practices, and reducing stressors that can predispose animals to infection.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

Dystocia is a medical term used to describe difficult or abnormal labor or delivery in animals, including humans. It refers to a situation where the natural process of childbirth is hindered or obstructed, making it difficult for the fetus to pass through the birth canal. This condition can be caused by various factors such as the size and position of the fetus, maternal pelvic size or shape, hormonal imbalances, or other medical conditions that affect the mother's ability to give birth.

Dystocia can lead to serious complications for both the mother and the fetus if not treated promptly and appropriately. Prolonged labor can result in fetal distress, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), or even death. In addition, maternal injuries such as uterine rupture, cervical trauma, or infection can occur during a difficult delivery.

The treatment for dystocia depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, manual assistance or manipulation of the fetus may be sufficient to facilitate delivery. However, in more severe cases, medical intervention such as cesarean section (C-section) may be necessary to ensure the safety of both the mother and the fetus.

It is important for pregnant individuals to receive regular prenatal care from a qualified healthcare provider to monitor their pregnancy and identify any potential risk factors for dystocia or other complications. Prompt medical attention should be sought if any signs of difficult labor or delivery are observed.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

I believe there may be a slight confusion in your question. The "meat-packing industry" is not a term that has a medical definition, as it pertains to the industrial process and business practice of slaughtering animals, processing their carcasses into edible meats, and packaging them for distribution and sale to consumers.

However, if you are interested in occupational health or workplace safety aspects related to this industry, there are numerous medical and epidemiological studies that discuss the potential health risks and hazards faced by workers in meat-packing plants, such as exposure to infectious diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, and chemical hazards.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Aphthovirus. It is the causative agent of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), a highly contagious and severe viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and buffalo. The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, as well as through aerosolized particles in the air. FMDV has seven distinct serotypes (O, A, C, Asia 1, and South African Territories [SAT] 1, 2, and 3), and infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes. The virus primarily targets the animal's epithelial tissues, causing lesions and blisters in and around the mouth, feet, and mammary glands. FMD is not a direct threat to human health but poses significant economic consequences for the global livestock industry due to its high infectivity and morbidity rates.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is not a medical organization or entity, so it does not provide medical definitions. However, I can give you some information about what the USDA is and what it does.

The USDA is a federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food. It was established in 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln and is headed by the Secretary of Agriculture, who is a member of the President's cabinet.

The USDA has several key missions, including:

* Promoting agricultural trade and production
* Ensuring the safety of the food supply
* Providing nutrition assistance to vulnerable populations
* Protecting natural resources and the environment
* Promoting rural development and economic stability

In terms of food and nutrition, the USDA plays an important role in setting dietary guidelines for Americans, establishing standards for school meals and other federal food programs, and regulating the safety of meat, poultry, and egg products. The agency also conducts research on agricultural and food-related topics and provides education and outreach to farmers, ranchers, and consumers.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a species of coronavirus that infects cattle and other animals such as yaks, deer, and occasionally humans. It is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae.

BCoV primarily causes respiratory and enteric diseases in cattle, resulting in symptoms such as pneumonia, coughing, diarrhea, and decreased appetite. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, contaminated food, water, or fomites.

In humans, BCoV infection is rare but has been associated with respiratory illnesses in people working closely with cattle, such as farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The symptoms of human BCoV infection are similar to those caused by other coronaviruses, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath.

Prevention measures for BCoV include good hygiene practices, wearing personal protective equipment when working with cattle, and vaccination of animals against the virus. There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine available for human BCoV infection.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Thus one may refer to "three cattle" or "some cattle", but not "one cattle". "One head of cattle" is a valid though ... Cattle raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. Within the beef cattle industry in parts of the United States, the ... When cattle are stressed other cattle can tell by the chemicals released in their urine. Cattle are very gregarious and even ... Such designation of cattle CAFOs is according to cattle type (mature dairy cows, veal calves or other) and cattle numbers, but ...
... there are 25-33 million feed cattle moving through custom and commercial cattle feed yards annually. The monthly USDA "Cattle ... Grain-fed cattle have more internal fat (i.e., marbling) which results in a more tender meat than forage-fed cattle of a ... Because much of the land is better suited for cattle grazing than crop growing, it raises 40 percent of the cattle in Canada- ... A percentage of the cattle have been raised in other western provinces or in the northwestern United States. These cattle are ...
The Bali cattle are one of the few species of true cattle that did not descend from the extinct aurochs. Their domestication ... The cattle are also very susceptible to Jembrana disease, which was first described in the cattle in 1964. The population of ... The Bali cattle (Bos domesticus), also known as Balinese cattle, domestic banteng or Bali banteng, are a domesticated species ... Mechanization and urbanization are making the cattle redundant as draft animals, however. Meat from young Bali cattle is noted ...
... at IMDb Cattle Empire at the TCM Movie Database Cattle Empire at AllMovie Cattle Empire at the American Film ... As the most experienced cattle man in the area, he is the only one who can drive the townsfolks and his cattle to Fort Sumter, ... while committing to get Garth's cattle to Fort Sumter first. He departs the town on the cattle drive with Ralph, his wife, many ... The town is on the verge of economic collapse, and the sale of the cattle will save the town. Cord is a skilled cattleman and ...
Siri is a breed of cattle originating from Sikkim, Darjeeling and Bhutan and are of the Zebu family of cattle. They are often ... Strong legs and feet make the cattle useful for ploughing fields. The cattle can survive in the mountains very well, owing to ... Cattle breeds originating in Bhutan, All stub articles, Cattle stubs). ... They are normally large compared to other types of cattle. They have horns which are sharp and long, if not cut. The position ...
The Cattle Cabin is a one-room log cabin that was built in the Sierra Nevada by Hale D. Tharp and two partners in 1890, in ... Cattle Cabin is located in the Giant Forest of giant redwoods (Sequoiadendron giganteum), and is associated with Tharp's Log as ... Media related to Cattle Cabin at Wikimedia Commons National Park Service - "Challenge of the Big Trees", Caucasian Settlers ... "Cattle Cabin". List of Classified Structures. National Park Service. 2008-12-08. Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. ...
... (Russian: Калмыцкая, Kalmytskaya) is a breed of beef cattle of the former Soviet Union, now found in the Russian ... The head is small, with a long face and short horns.: 83 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kalmyk (cattle). Barbara ... Breed data sheet: Kalmytskaya / Russian Federation (Cattle). Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and ... Cattle breeds, Commons category link from Wikidata, Agriculture in Russia, Agriculture in Mongolia, Agriculture in Kazakhstan, ...
More importantly he needs Billy and Fuzzy to work on his cattle ranch in New Mexico which is facing cattle rustling and the ... Cattle Stampede at IMDb Cattle Stampede is available for free viewing and download at the Internet Archive v t e (Articles with ... Cattle Stampede is a 1943 American Producers Releasing Corporation Western film of the "Billy the Kid" series directed by Sam ... Cattle Stampede (1943) The Renegade (1943) Blazing Frontier (1943) Devil Riders (1943) Frontier Outlaws (1944) Valley of ...
German Black Pied Cattle, Bestuzhev, Tagil, Red Steppe, and local cattle. Its coat colourations are red, red and white, or roan ... Cattle breeds originating in Russia, All stub articles, Cattle stubs). ... The Kurgan (or Kurganskaya) cattle breed originates in south-western Siberia and is a composite of Shorthorn, Simmental, ...
The cattle egret is a popular bird with cattle ranchers for its perceived role as a biocontrol of cattle parasites such as ... Cattle egret egg Adult feeding a nestling in Apenheul zoo Juvenile on Maui (note black bill) The cattle egret feeds on a wide ... The cattle egret engages in low levels of brood parasitism, and a few instances have been reported of cattle egret eggs being ... In 2008, cattle egrets were also reported as having moved into Ireland for the first time. This trend has continued and cattle ...
Indian cattle breeds with Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cattle traits from developed countries, and banning[citation needed] the ... Cattle breeds originating in India, Animal husbandry in Andhra Pradesh, All stub articles, Cattle stubs). ... Punganur dwarf cattle which originated from the Chitoor District of Andhra Pradesh in southern India is among the world's ... The remaining Punganur cattle are being reared mainly on the Livestock Research Station, Palamaner, Chittoor district, attached ...
Cattle breeds, Extinct cattle breeds, All stub articles, Cattle stubs, Italy stubs). ... It belonged to the Podolic group of cattle, and was a dual-purpose breed, kept both for meat and for draught use. The breed was ... The Abruzzese or Podolica abruzzese di montagna is an extinct breed of domestic cattle from the Abruzzo region of southern ...
List of cattle breeds "Bargur cattle: status, characteristics and performance". The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 79 (7): ... The cattle are usually moderate and compact in build and have brown skin with white patches, though full white and brown ... Bargur (Tamil: பர்கூர் / Kannada: ಬರಗೂರು/Malayalam:ബർഗൂർ പശു) is a breed of cattle native to the Bargur forest hills in ... Nivsarkar, A.E.; Vij, P.K.; Tantia, M.S. (2000). Animal Genetic Resources of India: Cattle and Buffalo. New Delhi: Directorate ...
All of these cattle belonged to the "blond and red" branch of cattle. Limousin breeders fiercely opposed the merger and the ... Cattle excluded from Full French certification include those imported into France, cattle that are polled (in French sans corne ... cattle breeds reported that Limousin cattle were the most efficient and fastest of all breeds at converting feed into saleable ... in which they wanted their cattle to be registered. Pureblood cattle have higher business value than Purebreds because they are ...
... at IMDb Cattle Hill at Rotten Tomatoes Cattle Hill at Filmfront (in Norwegian) (Articles with short description, ... Cattle Hill at the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC). Retrieved 17 November 2021. Cattle Hill at Box Office Mojo, an ... Cattle Hill (Norwegian: KuToppen) is a 2018 Norwegian animated comedy film directed by Lise I. Osvoll from a script by Anne ... A sequel, titled Christmas at Cattle Hill (Jul på KuToppen) was released on 6 November 2020. List of Norwegian films of the ...
This was the beginning of the end of purebred Glan cattle. The crossing in of Gelbvieh, Danish Red cattle and Angeln cattle was ... Glan cattle are a traditional cattle breed particularly found in the Rhineland-Palatinate region of Germany. At one time they ... By 1762 the import of Swiss cattle had already begun; this was the beginning of Glan cattle breeding. In Donnersberg and Glan, ... two different cattle breeds developed: the light, dairy "Glan cattle" and the heavy draught "Donnersberg cattle". In the 19th ...
The cattle were reportedly widely popular in Bihar during the days of the English East India Company. List of cattle breeds " ... Characteristics and performance of Bachaur cattle in the Gangetic plains of North Bihar "Breeds of Livestock - Bachaur Cattle ... Bachaur is a breed of cattle native to India. The districts of Madhubani, Darbhanga and Sitamarhi in north Bihar i.e. Mithila ... The animals are compact and small in size, and exhibit close similarity with Haryanvi cattle. The bulls are used for medium ...
... may refer to: Cattle Creek (New South Wales), a partly perennial stream of the Hunter River catchment Cattle Creek ... a locality Cattle Creek Station, part of Wave Hill Station, Northern Territory Cattle Creek, Colorado, a census-designated ... South Carolina This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Cattle Creek. If an internal link led you here ... Queensland (North Burnett Region), a locality Cattle Creek, Queensland (Toowoomba Region), ...
... so cattle raisers from the surrounding area drove their cattle to Champaign to ship them to the Chicago market. The Cattle Bank ... one cattle baron imported cattle infected with hoof-and-mouth disease, and as a result of the outbreak, the cattle industry ... The Cattle Bank is a historic bank building located at 102 E. University Ave. in Champaign, Illinois. Built in 1858, it is the ... The Cattle Bank building has been the home of the Champaign County History Museum since 2001. Founded in 1972 and open for ...
The Ankole is a breed or group of breeds of African cattle, belonging to the broad Sanga cattle grouping of African breeds.: ... cattle). Marleen Felius (1995). Cattle Breeds: An Encyclopedia. Doetinchem, Netherlands: Misset. ISBN 9789054390176. Valerie ... J. E. O. Rege (1999). The state of African cattle genetic resources. I. Classification framework and identification of ... it is not clear if or how these are related to the royal herd of Inyambo cattle reportedly confiscated and auctioned off in ...
Cows measures 1.15 m (3 ft 9 in) and 280 kg (620 lb), the bulls 1.20 m (3 ft 11 in) and 350 kg (770 lb). Cattle in Corsica were ... The Corse or Corsicana is a French breed of cattle indigenous to the island of Corsica.: 159 : 275 The Corse is the traditional ... Marleen Felius (1995). Cattle Breeds: An Encyclopedia. Doetinchem, Netherlands: Misset. ISBN 9789054390176. Race bovine CORSE ( ... Breed data sheet: Corse / France (Cattle). Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture ...
Cattle breeds, Cattle breeds originating in India, Animal husbandry in Maharashtra). ... The Deoni is an Indian breed of draught cattle. It is named after the taluk of Deoni in the Latur district of Maharashtra state ... G. Singh, G.K. Gaur, A.E. Nivsarkar, G.R. Patil, K.R. Mitkari (2002). Deoni cattle breed of India. A study on population ... "Deoni cattle". Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Government of Karnataka. Retrieved 15 May 2015.[ ...
There may also have been some influence from Dutch cattle in the 18th century.: 4 During that century large numbers of cattle ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guernsey cattle. The American Guernsey Association English Guernsey Cattle Society The ... 192 Some cattle evacuated from Alderney during the Second World War were merged into the breed. Exports of cattle and semen ... Cattle breeds originating in the Channel Islands, Conservation Priority Breeds of the Livestock Conservancy, Dairy cattle ...
... (Icelandic: íslenskur nautgripur [ˈistlɛnskʏr ˈnœytˌkrɪːpʏr̥]) are a breed of cattle native to Iceland. Cattle ... and Nordland Cattle. No cattle are permitted to be imported into Iceland, so they have been protected by strict disease- ... it would be more cost-effective to replace Icelandic cattle with Swedish cattle, as the latter produce more milk at a lower ... Icelandic cattle have been genetically isolated for centuries, but are most closely related to a breed in Norway called ...
... are a breed of zebu cattle found in the Achham region of Nepal. Achham cattle are a small breed less than 1 meter ... Cattle breeds originating in Nepal, Sudurpashchim Province, All stub articles, Cattle stubs). ... Achhami cattle (Bos indicus) are in the list of unique flora/fauna of Nepal. They are suitable for hill conditions and low ... Institutional Strengthening and Awareness Raising for Sustainable Conservation of Critically Endangered Achhami Cattle. p. 26. ...
... are closely related to the Afar cattle; this is a result of historical cattle raiding by the Raya people. The Raya ... The long-horned Raya cattle are a breed of cattle common in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. The Raya cattle have red and black ... Afar cattle Ethiopia has been at a crossroads for cattle immigration to Africa due to proximity to the geographical entry of ... Hence, the breed reproduction is much better for the agro-pastoral Raya breeds than for the generalist Arado cattle breed of ...
"Cattle Raiders". Catalog.afi.com. Retrieved February 18, 2019. Cattle Raiders at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short ... "Cattle Raiders (1938) - Overview". TCM.com. Retrieved February 18, 2019. Hal Erickson. "Cattle Raiders (1938) - Sam Nelson". ... Cattle Raiders is a 1938 American Western film directed by Sam Nelson and written by Joseph F. Poland and Ed Earl Repp. The ...
... , also known as Black Canadienne, French Canadienne, and Black Jersey, are the only breed of dairy cattle ... Canadienne Cattle Breeders Association The Association for the Development of the Canadienne Cattle Breed in Charlevoix Animals ... It is believed that Canadienne cattle come from the same general ancestry as Guernsey, Jersey and Kerry cattle. They developed ... Dairy cattle breeds, Cattle breeds originating in Canada, Conservation Priority Breeds of the Livestock Conservancy). ...
List of breeds of cattle "Dangi cattle". Oklahoma state University. Retrieved 16 May 2015. "Indian Cow Breed - Dangi". Gou ... Exhibition To Boost Dangi Cattle Breed - Video (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Cattle ... Dangi (Marathi:डांगी) is an indigenous cattle breed of India. It originated in the hilly tracts of Dangs comprising the Nasik ...
The Alatau cattle (also Ala Tau) are a breed of cattle of, Kazakh SSR (USSR), named after the Alatau (Turkic "Motley Mountain"[ ... Cattle breeds originating in Kazakhstan, All stub articles, Cattle stubs). ... Ala Tau cattle are used for beef and dairy production. http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ah759e/AH759E08.htm v t e (Articles with ...
Thus one may refer to "three cattle" or "some cattle", but not "one cattle". "One head of cattle" is a valid though ... Cattle raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. Within the beef cattle industry in parts of the United States, the ... When cattle are stressed other cattle can tell by the chemicals released in their urine. Cattle are very gregarious and even ... Such designation of cattle CAFOs is according to cattle type (mature dairy cows, veal calves or other) and cattle numbers, but ...
Information for veterinarians about vaccination of cattle against brucellosis. ... Other vaccines, such as Brucella abortus S19 for cattle and B. melitensis Rev-1 for sheep and goats, can also cause infection ... Brucella abortus is a bacterium that causes brucellosis in cattle.. B. abortus RB51 is a strain of this bacterium developed ... Veterinarians and other medical staff performing immunizations in cattle should be aware of the risks and what to do when an ...
ARS Home » Plains Area » Clay Center, Nebraska » U.S. Meat Animal Research Center » WGS » Species mapped to cattle ... 1 - Species mapped to cattle 2 - Banteng 3 - Bison 4 - Bongo 5 - Buffalo, Cape 6 - Buffalo, water 7 - Bushbuck 8 - Caribou 9 - ... 10x WGS of Cetartiodactyla Species Mapped to Cattle. *Integrated Genome Viewer (IGV) links to data*, BioProject PRJNA325061 ...
The internet of things is set to transform cattle farmers lives with a calving sensor that could hugely improve calf survival ... The internet of things is set to transform cattle farmers lives with technology that could hugely improve calf survival rates ... Calving sensor is good moos for cattle farmers 14 December 2018 • 10:00am ...
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On Cattle Mutilations. 11-22-3. Hi Jeff - I know the following faxed report I received from the RCMP looks like one of the ... Cattle Mute Update - In December -2001 This information from CBC Radio September 2001 I have been in contact with CBC Radio ... The first I will tackle is a mute in the Lumby, British Columbia area, the second will be a cattle mute in the Quesnel, British ... She mentioned that (name deleted by HBCC UFO) owns the cattle and that he mentioned his son had been up to the pasture on ...
This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to ... Methane emissions from cattle J Anim Sci. 1995 Aug;73(8):2483-92. doi: 10.2527/1995.7382483x. ... This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to ... Manipulation of these factors can reduce methane emissions from cattle. Many techniques exist to quantify methane emissions ...
Catastrophic wildfires destroying homes, cattle and livelihoods. By Jason Allen Updated on: February 29, 2024 / 10:22 PM CST. ... FRITCH - Catastrophic wildfires rip across the Texas panhandle are threatening to destroy more homes, cattle and livelihoods as ... The fire has destroyed homes, killed cattle, and taken a heavy toll on the community. ...
Kazakhstan has suspended cattle imports from Russia amid concerns over an anthrax outbreak in northwestern Siberia. ... Kazakhstan has suspended cattle imports from Russia amid concerns over an anthrax outbreak in northwestern Siberia. ...
Shop Art.com for the best selection of Cattle wall art online. Low price guarantee, fast shipping & easy returns, and custom ... Cattle in a Field, with Travellers in a Wagon on a Track Beyond and a Church Tower in the…. Paulus Potter. Giclee Print. 18 x ... Cattle Graze Along the Rocky Mountain Front near Choteau, Montana, USA. Chuck Haney. Photographic Print. 12 x 9,Multiple ... Close up portrait of Scottish Highland cattle on a farm. Mark Gemmell. Photographic Print. 16 x 16,Multiple Sizes ...
Following this meeting Cooper began to specialise in paintings of cattle and sheep. He returned to London in 1831, exhibiting ... Following this meeting Cooper began to specialise in paintings of cattle and sheep. He returned to London in 1831, exhibiting ...
Vegan Jerky Hand-Delivered to Oregon Cattle-Ranching Militia. Share Post Share ... The militant cattle ranchers currently occupying Malheur National Wildlife Refuge have appealed for snacks, and PETA answered ... "These ranchers may have a beef with the feds, but their water use and the cattles production of methane mean that the world ...
... where I saw Brahma cattle, Hereford cattle and Shorthorn cattle in various grades, and their herd of Florida cattle bought last ... Waddell started to working cattle on the Texas ranges in 1875, and has been in the cattle business for himself since 1881. ... You have no very long drives for your cattle when shipping them, and in the matter of winter help to your cattle it will cost ... True, we saw lots of cattle, more than I supposed existed in the entire State, but the opportunity before the cattle men is to ...
Learn about Ivermectin Injection for Cattle and Swine including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and ... Ivermectin Injection for Cattle and Swine. This page contains information on Ivermectin Injection for Cattle and Swine for ... Ivermectin Injection for Cattle and Swine Indications. Cattle: Ivermectin Injection is indicated for the effective treatment ... When To Treat Cattle With Grubs. Ivermectin effectively controls all stages of cattle grubs. However, proper timing of ...
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In other western states like Wyoming, the collision of the visions of land use between cattle barons and grangers erupted into ...
New test detects early stage of wasting disease in cattle. Date:. March 20, 2017. Source:. National Institute for Mathematical ... paratuberculosis infection and disease progression in cattle using experimental data. Scientific Reports, 2017; 7: 44765 DOI: ... "New test detects early stage of wasting disease in cattle." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. releases. /. 2017. /. 03. / ... New test detects early stage of wasting disease in cattle. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 14, 2024 from www.sciencedaily.com. / ...
Cattle population hardly changed. This year, the cattle population has declined by 17 thousand (0.4 percent) year-on-year. The ... Other cattle (mainly beef)) (2011 = 100). Dairy cattle including young bovines (2011 = 100). Poultry (2011 = 100). ... Other cattle (mainly beef)) (2011 = 100). Dairy cattle including young bovines (2011 = 100). Poultry (2011 = 100). ... The cattle herd was virtually unchanged at 3.8 million head. The dairy goat herd grew slightly to 482 thousand while the sheep ...
A certification standard for sustainable cattle ranching can be key in mitigating one of the major drivers of deforestation in ... Home » In the Field » Our Journey to More Sustainable Cattle Ranching. Article. Our Journey to More Sustainable Cattle Ranching ... Cattle ranching in particular is a major driver of deforestation in the Amazon Basin and beyond-in fact, it is responsible for ... That said, the cattle sector will remain an important focus for the organization as part of its wider vision and commitment to ...
30 June 1998 Potato skins as cattle feed Question WE have been offered the chance to feed our cattle potato skins from a ... or if it is killed in the cattle gut. Are these potato skins of any nutritional value; and would they be of any use as cattle ... THE potato skins may be nutritious, and eelworms would be killed off by the steaming or in the gut of the cattle. But the ... WE have been offered the chance to feed our cattle potato skins from a commercial processing plant. These potatoes have been ...
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Read the latest Cattle Knowledge Centre entries at Farming UK ... Whenever you move cattle, you must follow the conditions of the ... 3 October 2014 , Cattle , 6727 views. Pre-movement and post-movement testing of cattle in Great Britain. Guidance for cattle ... including dairy cattle) on it; number of badgers killed on land within 1 km of cattle (including dairy cattle); and number ... 13 August 2012 , Cattle , 7228 views. Rabobank Beef Quarterly Q3 2012. The North American cattle situation will be driven by ...
Nigel Cattle is an editor, known for Trollied. ...
... the first collection in a series featuring the comic animal characters from the world of Cattle Capers(tm).. The Magicians ...
Beef merchants in Kerala on Monday revived their protest against checks and attacks on vehicles carrying cattle from other ... Livestock trade between Tamil Nadu and Kerala has been hit since mid-June after the attacks on cattle trucks, allegedly by ... Kerala Beef Merchants Association (KBMA) vice-president K M Ummer said transport of cattle from other states, too, has stopped ... While the movement of cattle trucks into Kerala was stopped on Monday, players in the branded and organised sectors continued ...
Harvest Public Medias Grant Gerlock (@ggerlock) talked with cattle producers in Nebraska to hear about how the trade agreement ... Nebraska Cattle Ranchers Await Trump Action On NAFTA. 04:23. ...
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  • Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • We generated phylogenetic trees for dsb , Ehrlichia minasensis is a new pathogenic bacterial spe- flaB , and 16S rRNA genes and Trp36 protein using cies that infects cattle, and Borrelia theileri causes bovine the maximum-likelihood estimation method. (cdc.gov)
  • Guidance for cattle keepers on pre-movement and post-movement testing of cattle in England, Scotland and Wales to control the spread of bovine TB. (farminguk.com)
  • [ 1 ] Included are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or "mad cow disease") in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in mule deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep. (medscape.com)
  • vCJD occurs after ingestion of beef from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also called mad cow disease. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Other vaccines, such as Brucella abortus S19 for cattle and B. melitensis Rev-1 for sheep and goats, can also cause infection in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Following this meeting Cooper began to specialise in paintings of cattle and sheep. (liverpoolmuseums.org.uk)
  • E granulosus is an infection caused by tapeworms found in dogs and livestock such as sheep, pigs, goats, and cattle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the early 1980s, because of relaxed regulations for processing animal by-products, contaminated tissue, probably from sheep infected with scrapie or cattle infected with BSE, introduced the scrapie prion protein (PrP Sc ) into cattle feed. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cattle are commonly raised as livestock for meat (beef or veal, see beef cattle), for milk (see dairy cattle), and for hides, which are used to make leather. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cattle are the main source of greenhouse gas emissions from livestock, and are responsible for around 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a fully mapped genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cattle originally meant movable personal property, especially livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property (the land, which also included wild or small free-roaming animals such as chickens-they were sold as part of the land). (wikipedia.org)
  • Paul Robinson from the livestock section in Kamloops requested a copy of the cattle mutilation file. (rense.com)
  • Trust Jeffers Livestock for all your cattle supply needs. (jefferspet.com)
  • Livestock trade between Tamil Nadu and Kerala has been hit since mid-June after the attacks on cattle trucks, allegedly by Sangh-affiliated outfits with a proclaimed stance against cow slaughter. (deccanherald.com)
  • SAO PAULO: The Brazilian livestock sector is now authorized to export live cattle for slaughter and fattening to Oman. (arabnews.com)
  • Requests for authentic information as to the advantages and possibilities of Florida for the growing of live stock, and in particular of beef cattle, have been coming of late, and in constantly increasing numbers, from all parts of the country. (gutenberg.org)
  • Feeder steers made up 80.7 percent of cattle imports with spayed heifers adding another 19.0 percent of total imports. (farmprogress.com)
  • According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), there are approximately 1.5 billion cattle in the world as of 2018. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zebus (also called indicine cattle) are found primarily in India and tropical areas of Asia, America, and Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, we show that the indicine ancestry of African cattle , although most closely related to so-far sampled North Indian indicine breeds, has a small amount of additional genetic affinity to Southeast Asian indicine breeds. (bvsalud.org)
  • B. abortus RB51 is a strain of this bacterium developed specifically for immunization of cattle against brucellosis to allow serological differentiation between naturally infected and vaccinated animals. (cdc.gov)
  • The results from the papers show that there is a higher reliance on cereals and cattle in the Late Neolithic-Early Bronze Age than in previous periods, which is visible both in stable isotope results and the frequency of dental caries. (lu.se)
  • Whenever you move cattle, you must follow the conditions of the general licence for the movement of cattle. (farminguk.com)
  • While the movement of cattle trucks into Kerala was stopped on Monday, players in the branded and organised sectors continued to supply beef. (deccanherald.com)
  • However, cattle cannot be successfully hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then followed a four days' careful trip over the properties and herd of the Kissimmee Island Cattle Company, where I saw Brahma cattle, Hereford cattle and Shorthorn cattle in various grades, and their herd of Florida cattle bought last year. (gutenberg.org)
  • Sanga cattle are found primarily in sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we infer the source of admixture in the earliest domestic cattle in Africa , African taurine . (bvsalud.org)
  • The cattle herd was virtually unchanged at 3.8 million head. (cbs.nl)
  • This page contains information on Ivermectin Injection for Cattle and Swine for veterinary use . (drugs.com)
  • A Parasiticide for the Treatment and Control of Internal and External Parasites of Cattle and Swine. (drugs.com)
  • Ivermectin (ivermectin) is an injectable parasiticide for cattle and swine. (drugs.com)
  • The BSE epidemic came under control after a massive slaughter of cattle and after changes in the rendering procedures, which drastically reduced contamination of meat by nervous system tissue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Last year, cattle imports from Mexico increased 43 percent over 2022. (farmprogress.com)
  • Imports of Mexican cattle in 2022 were the lowest since 2008. (farmprogress.com)
  • In 2022, over 103,000 head of cattle were exported to Mexico, the highest total since 2002. (farmprogress.com)
  • Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other closely related species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cattle producers, processors, and buyers can use it to help meet market expectations for responsible beef and leather. (rainforest-alliance.org)
  • Harvest Public Media's Grant Gerlock ( @ggerlock ) talked with cattle producers in Nebraska to hear about how the trade agreement affects their business. (wbur.org)
  • They were later reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with the aurochs, zebu, and taurine cattle as subspecies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybrids such as the beefalo breed can even occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, it should be noted that the U.S. does export some live cattle to Mexico, mostly breeding animals. (farmprogress.com)
  • Taurine cattle are found primarily in Europe and temperate areas of Asia, the Americas, and Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 10,500 years ago, taurine cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 wild aurochs progenitors in central Anatolia, the Levant and Western Iran. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aurochs is ancestral to both zebu and taurine cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybrid individuals and even breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu (such as the sanga cattle (Bos taurus africanus x Bos indicus), but also between one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos - yaks (the dzo or yattle), banteng, and gaur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hybrid origin of some types may not be obvious - for example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only taurine-type cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of taurine cattle, zebu, and yak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite widespread exposure, relatively few people who ate meat from affected cattle developed vCJD. (msdmanuals.com)
  • That said, the cattle sector will remain an important focus for the organization as part of its wider vision and commitment to drive sustainable transformation of landscapes, agriculture, and forestry. (rainforest-alliance.org)
  • This program can help drive more sustainable land-use patterns, production systems, and socioeconomic outcomes in landscapes with significant cattle production. (rainforest-alliance.org)
  • and deer in Canada and later in cattle and Rhipi- We performed phylogenetic analyses of 3 sequences cephalus microplus ticks from Brazil ( 2 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Cattle. (who.int)
  • Figure 1 also shows the annual imports of Mexican cattle as a percent of the U.S. calf crop. (farmprogress.com)
  • Imports of Mexican cattle have averaged 3.2 percent of the U.S. calf crop for the past 25 years, ranging from 1.9 to 4.3 percent. (farmprogress.com)
  • Based on mathematical modeling of the BSE epidemic, estimates suggest that 1-3 million cattle may have been infected with the BSE agent in the United Kingdom. (medscape.com)
  • As a further validation, we repeated the analysis using an independent set of samples from a strain of pure-bred cattle and verified these proteins by Western blot analysis. (lu.se)
  • Present-day African cattle retain a unique genetic profile composed of a mixture of the Bos taurus and B. indicus populations introduced into the continent at different time periods. (bvsalud.org)
  • The militant cattle ranchers currently occupying Malheur National Wildlife Refuge have appealed for snacks , and PETA answered the call with a hand-delivered package of vegan jerky that contains more protein than beef does . (peta.org)
  • ON209405-7), 6 se- cattle manifest signs that include fever, lethargy, quences for Trp36 protein (inferred from GenBank depression, and anorexia ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Here we present a study aimed at evaluating if a correlation exists between the treatment with GPAs and alterations in the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) protein pattern obtained from the biceps brachii skeletal muscle from mixed-bred cattle. (lu.se)
  • This year, the cattle population has declined by 17 thousand (0.4 percent) year-on-year. (cbs.nl)
  • Maintain optimal cattle health year-round with Jeffers Livestock's heating & cooling solutions. (jefferspet.com)
  • To our knowledge, E . minasen- sequences clustered with E. minasensis dsb sequences sis or B. theileri infections have not been reported in from Brazil, Australia, and Colombia (Figure, panel cattle from Colombia. (cdc.gov)
  • Many factors influence methane emissions from cattle and include the following: level of feed intake, type of carbohydrate in the diet, feed processing, addition of lipids or ionophores to the diet, and alterations in the ruminal microflora. (nih.gov)
  • Use of these techniques and knowledge of the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle. (nih.gov)
  • The Rainforest Alliance is also working to make cattle production systems and supply chains more sustainable through two collaborative global initiatives to strengthen incentives, government policy, and accountability for sustainable practice. (rainforest-alliance.org)
  • Mexico's extensive range resources have provided the country with a comparative advantage in feeder cattle production for many years. (farmprogress.com)
  • The North American cattle situation will be driven by tight supplies, with a production imbalance occuring between North America and the Southern Hemisphere. (farminguk.com)
  • On December 30, the USDA announced new rules banning all downer cattle from the chain of human food production and other measures. (medscape.com)
  • The term replaced earlier Old English feoh 'cattle, property', which survives today as fee (cf. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight years after its launch, our cattle program has only half a dozen certified operations in Brazil and Colombia. (rainforest-alliance.org)
  • One of the oldest components of U.S. beef industry trade with Mexico has been the importation of live cattle. (farmprogress.com)
  • Imports of Mexican cattle have averaged over 1 million head annually for the last 40 years. (farmprogress.com)
  • For the past 25 years, an average of 43,000 head have been exported annually, making cattle exports about 4.3 percent of the level of cattle imports from Mexico. (farmprogress.com)
  • In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rabobank Global Cattle Price Index has risen by 6% since June, driven by lower-than-expected beef supply in the main exporting countries and strong Asian demand. (farminguk.com)
  • Below is the RCMP's Investigation report into the cattle mutilation which took place in Falkland, British Columbia, Canada in September, 2001. (rense.com)
  • El control de las enfermedades de los animales en las Américas, 1977 : documentos de la X Reuni'on Interamericana, a nivel ministerial, sobre el Control de la Fiebre Aftosa y Otras Zoonosis, Washington, D.C., 14-17 de marzo de 1977. (who.int)
  • Several of them have been engaged for many years in the growing and marketing of cattle on a very large scale in Texas, and have recently made a prolonged and close study of Florida conditions. (gutenberg.org)
  • Then over the Indian Prairie country, the Osceola prairie country, including Halpatioka Flats, the marsh country of Okeechobee, with an unusually good opportunity for seeing the cattle scattered over the open range and to observe conditions on the open range. (gutenberg.org)
  • The fraudulent treatment of cattle with growth promoting agents (GPAs) is a matter of great concern for the European Union (EU) authorities and consumers. (lu.se)
  • Ivermectin Injection is formulated to deliver the recommended dose level of 200 mcg ivermectin/kilogram of body weight in cattle when given subcutaneously at the rate of 1 mL/110 lb (50 kg). (drugs.com)
  • Landscape-level and community approaches-strategies that we forged and have employed with documented success for decades-are particularly well-suited to addressing the challenges associated with cattle ranching, which reach beyond the scope of a single farm. (rainforest-alliance.org)