Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used in musculoskeletal and joint disorders and administered by mouth and topically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p16)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.
Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.

Bound forms of Ca taken up by the synaptic plasma membrane. (1/762)

Temperature dependent Ca-binding by the synaptic plasma membrane was increased in the presence of ATP and Mg++. Apparent Km for ATP was about 2.8 X 10(-5) M and optimal concentration of Mg++ was 2 mM in the presence of 2 mM ATP. After preincubation with nonradioactive Ca++, ATP and Mg++ to attain a steady state, addition of 45Ca resulted in remarkable labelling of the membrane, indicating rapid turnover of most of the membrane bound Ca. The presence of oxalate (60 mM) greatly increased Ca up-take on prolonged incubation. The Ca uptake in presence and absence of oxalate had similar substrate specificity and was similarly influenced by various monovalent cations. Furthermore, activities for Ca-uptake in the presence and absence of oxalate could not be separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of the synaptic plasma membrane fraction. Accordingly, it was considered that Ca++ in the medium was taken up by surface of the membrane, ATP- and temperature-dependently and then transferred into a cavity where the Ca-oxalate complex is formed.  (+info)

Selectivity and permeation in calcium release channel of cardiac muscle: alkali metal ions. (2/762)

Current was measured from single open channels of the calcium release channel (CRC) of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (over the range +/-180 mV) in pure and mixed solutions (e.g., biionic conditions) of the alkali metal ions Li+, K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, ranging in concentration from 25 mM to 2 M. The current-voltage (I-V) relations were analyzed by an extension of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) formulation of electrodiffusion, which includes local chemical interaction described by an offset in chemical potential, which likely reflects the difference in dehydration/solvation/rehydration energies in the entry/exit steps of permeation. The theory fits all of the data with few adjustable parameters: the diffusion coefficient of each ion species, the average effective charge distribution on the wall of the pore, and an offset in chemical potential for lithium and sodium ions. In particular, the theory explains the discrepancy between "selectivities" defined by conductance sequence and "selectivities" determined by the permeability ratios (i.e., reversal potentials) in biionic conditions. The extended PNP formulation seems to offer a successful combined treatment of selectivity and permeation. Conductance selectivity in this channel arises mostly from friction: different species of ions have different diffusion coefficients in the channel. Permeability selectivity of an ion is determined by its electrochemical potential gradient and local chemical interaction with the channel. Neither selectivity (in CRC) seems to involve different electrostatic interaction of different ions with the channel protein, even though the ions have widely varying diameters.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (3/762)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

Ion binding and permeation through the lepidopteran amino acid transporter KAAT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (4/762)

1. The transient and steady-state currents induced by voltage jumps in Xenopus oocytes expressing the lepidopteran amino acid co-transporter KAAT1 have been investigated by two-electrode voltage clamp. 2. KAAT1-expressing oocytes exhibited membrane currents larger than controls even in the absence of amino acid substrate (uncoupled current). The selectivity order of this uncoupled current was Li+ > Na+ approximately Rb+ approximately K+ > Cs+; in contrast, the permeability order in non-injected oocytes was Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+. 3. KAAT1-expressing oocytes gave rise to 'pre-steady-state currents' in the absence of amino acid. The characteristics of the charge movement differed according to the bathing ion: the curves in K+ were strongly shifted (> 100 mV) towards more negative potentials compared with those in Na+, while in tetramethylammonium (TMA+) no charge movement was detected. 4. The charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship in Na+ could be fitted by a Boltzmann equation having V of -69 +/- 1 mV and slope factor of 26 +/- 1 mV; lowering the Na+ concentrations shifted the Q-V relationship to more negative potentials; the curves could be described by a generalized Hill equation with a coefficient of 1.6, suggesting two binding sites. The maximal movable charge (Qmax) in Na+, 3 days after injection, was in the range 2.5-10 nC. 5. Addition of the transported substrate leucine increased the steady-state carrier current, the increase being larger in high K+ compared with high Na+ solution; in these conditions the charge movement disappeared. 6. Applying Eyring rate theory, the energy profile of the transporter in the absence of organic substrate included a very high external energy barrier (25.8 RT units) followed by a rather deep well (1.8 RT units).  (+info)

A single point mutation in the pore region of the epithelial Na+ channel changes ion selectivity by modifying molecular sieving. (5/762)

The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) belongs to a new class of channel proteins called the ENaC/DEG superfamily involved in epithelial Na+ transport, mechanotransduction, and neurotransmission. The role of ENaC in Na+ homeostasis and in the control of blood pressure has been demonstrated recently by the identification of mutations in ENaC beta and gamma subunits causing hypertension. The function of ENaC in Na+ reabsorption depends critically on its ability to discriminate between Na+ and other ions like K+ or Ca2+. ENaC is virtually impermeant to K+ ions, and the molecular basis for its high ionic selectivity is largely unknown. We have identified a conserved Ser residue in the second transmembrane domain of the ENaC alpha subunit (alphaS589), which when mutated allows larger ions such as K+, Rb+, Cs+, and divalent cations to pass through the channel. The relative ion permeability of each of the alphaS589 mutants is related inversely to the ionic radius of the permeant ion, indicating that alphaS589 mutations increase the molecular cutoff of the channel by modifying the pore geometry at the selectivity filter. Proper geometry of the pore is required to tightly accommodate Na+ and Li+ ions and to exclude larger cations. We provide evidence that ENaC discriminates between cations mainly on the basis of their size and the energy of dehydration.  (+info)

Effect of cations on purine.purine.pyrimidine triple helix formation in mixed-valence salt solutions. (6/762)

The effect of various monovalent, divalent and oligovalent cations on the reaction of triplex formation by GT and AG motif triplex-forming oligonucleotides, designed to bind to biologically relevant polypurine-polypyrimidine sequences occurring in the promoters of the murine Ki-ras and human bcr genes, has been investigated by means of electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA) and DNase I footprinting experiments. We found that in the presence of 10 mm MgCl2 the triple helices were progressively destabilized by adding increasing amounts of NaCl, from 20 to 140 mm, to the solution. We also observed that, while the total monovalent-ion concentration was constant at 100 mm, the exchange of sodium with potassium, but not lithium, results in a further destabilization of the triple helices, due to self-association equilibria involving the G-rich triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Potassium was found to destabilize triplex DNA even when the triple helices are preformed in the absence of K+. However, footprinting experiments also showed that the inhibitory effect of K+ on triplex DNA is partially compensated for by millimolar amounts of divalent transition metal ions such as Mn2+ and Ni2+, which upon coordinating to N7 of guanine are expected to enhance hydrogen-bond formation between the target and the third strand, and to reduce the assembly in quadruple structures of G-rich triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Triplex enhancement in the presence of potassium was also observed, but to a lesser extent, when spermine was added to the reaction mixture. Here, the ion effect on triplex DNA is rationalized in terms of competition among the different valence cations to bind to triplex DNA, and differential cation stabilization of unusual quadruplex structures formed by the triplex-forming oligonucleotides.  (+info)

Analysis of calcium-induced calcium release in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles using models derived from single-channel data. (7/762)

The planar lipid bilayer and vesicle release experiments are two alternative approaches used to study the function of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) channel at the subcellular level. In this work, we combine models of gating (Zahradnikova and Zahradnik, Biophys. J. 71 (1996) 2996-3012) and permeation (Tinker et al., J. Gen. Physiol. 100 (1992) 495-517) of the cardiac RyR channel to simulate calcium release experiments on sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. The resulting model and real experimental data agreed well within the experimental scatter, confirming indistinguishable properties of the RyRC in the vesicle preparation and in the planar lipid bilayer. The previously observed differences in calcium dependencies of the release and the gating processes can be explained by binding of calcium within the RyRC conducting pore. A novel method of analysis of calcium dependence of calcium release was developed and tested. Three gating models of the RyRC, showing, respectively, an increase, no change, and a decrease in calcium sensitivity over time, were compared. The described method of analysis enabled determination of temporal changes in calcium sensitivity, giving potential for detection of the adaptation/inactivation phenomena of the RyRC in both vesicle and in situ release experiments.  (+info)

Functional characterization of the Betaine/gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter BGT-1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (8/762)

Betaine is an osmolyte accumulated in cells during osmotic cell shrinkage. The canine transporter mediating cellular accumulation of the osmolyte betaine and the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (BGT-1) was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analyzed by two-electrode voltage clamp and tracer flux studies. Exposure of oocytes expressing BGT-1 to betaine or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) depolarized the cell membrane in the current clamp mode and induced an inward current under voltage clamp conditions. At 1 mM substrate the induced currents decreased in the following order: betaine = GABA > diaminobutyric acid = beta-alanine > proline = quinidine > dimethylglycine > glycine > sarcosine. Both the Vmax and Km of GABA- and betaine-induced currents were voltage-dependent, and GABA- and betaine-induced currents and radioactive tracer uptake were strictly Na+-dependent but only partially dependent on the presence of Cl-. The apparent affinity of GABA decreased with decreasing Na+ concentrations. The Km of Na+ also depended on the GABA and Cl- concentration. A decrease of the Cl- concentration reduced the apparent affinity for Na+ and GABA, and a decrease of the Na+ concentration reduced the apparent affinity for Cl- and GABA. A comparison of 22Na+-, 36Cl--, and 14C-labeled GABA and 14C-labeled betaine fluxes and GABA- and betaine-induced currents yielded a coupling ratio of Na+/Cl-/organic substrate of 3:1:1 or 3:2:1. Based on the data, a transport model of ordered binding is proposed in which GABA binds first, Na+ second, and Cl- third. In conclusion, BGT-1 displays significant functional differences from the other members of the GABA transporter family.  (+info)

Two mechanisms of passive Ca2+ transport, Na+-Ca2+ exchange and Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange, were studied using highly-purified dog heart sarcolemmal vesicles. About 80% of the Ca2+ accumulated by Na+-Ca2+ exchange or Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange could be released as free Ca2+, while up to 20% was probably bound. Na+-Ca2+ exchange was simultaneous, coupled countertransport of Na+ and Ca2+. The movement of anions during Na+-Ca2+ exchange did not limit the initial rate of Na+-Ca2+ exchange. Na+-Ca2+ exchange was electrogenic, with a reversal potential of about -105 mV. The apparent flux ratio of Na+-Ca2+ exchange was 4 Na+:1 Ca2+. Coupled cation countertransport by the Na+-Ca2+ exchange mechanism required a monovalent cation gradient with the following sequence of ion activation: Na+ much greater than Li+ greater than Cs+ greater than K+ greater than Rb+. In contrast to Na+-Ca2+ exchange, Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange did not require a monovalent cation gradient, but required the presence of Ca2+ plus a monovalent cation on both sides
Date Published: March 22, 2018 Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Author(s): Paolo Bollella, Yuya Hibino, Kenji Kano, Lo Gorton, Riccarda Antiochia. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-0991-0 Abstract We report on the influence of pH and monovalent/divalent cations on the catalytic current response, internal electron transfer (IET), and structure of fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) by using amperometry, spectrophotometry, and circular dichroism (CD).…
Gramicidins bactericidal activity is a result of increasing the permeability of the bacterial cell wall allowing inorganic monovalent cations (e.g. H+) to travel through unrestricted, thereby destroying the ion gradient between the cytoplasm and the extracellular environment. That gramicidin D functions as a channel was demonstrated by Hladky and Haydon, who investigated the unit conductance channel. In general, gramicidin channels are ideally selective for monovalent cations and the single-channel conductances for the alkali cations are ranked in the same order as the aqueous mobilities of these ions. Divalent cations like Ca-2+ block the channel by binding near the mouth of the channel. So it is basically impermeable to divalent cations. It also excludes anions. Cl- in particular is excluded from the channel because its hydration shell is thermodynamically stronger than that of most monovalent cations. The channel is permeable to most monovalent cations, which move through the channel in ...
In aqueous solutions, an elongated, negatively charged DNA chain can quickly change its conformation into a compacted globule in the presence of positively charged molecules, or cations. This well-known process, called DNA compaction, is a highly potential method for gene therapy and delivery. Experimental c
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We showed that both Ca2+ and Mg2+ exhibit anomalous mole-fraction effects at normal physiological pH. The apparent affinity of TRPM7 is 47.1 μM for Ca2+ and 5.4 μM for Mg2+, similar to the previously reported Ca2+ (20 μM, at −120 mV) (Fomina et al., 2000) and Mg2+ affinity (3 μM, at −120 mV) to native MIC/MagNuM channels (Kerschbaum et al., 2003). Under normal physiological Ca2+ (2 mM) and Mg2+ (0.7-1.1 mM) concentrations (Konrad et al., 2004), we showed that monovalent cations contribute to the inward currents of TRPM7 (Fig. 3), and the contribution of monovalent currents becomes more pronounced under acidic conditions (pH 4.0, Fig. 4).. Several lines of evidence shown in the present study indicate that external protons increase TRPM7 inward currents by competing with divalent cations for binding sites in the TRPM7 pore, thereby enhancing monovalent cation permeability. First, there was a concentration-dependent increase in monovalent cation conductance and reversal potential for Na+, ...
mode, was anticipated by work with more intensively These additional catalytic modes, which will be detailed studied Tet proteins and was confirmed by Yamaguchi et further below, have in common the use of cationic al. (1995) and Guffanti and Krulwich (1995). Modes II and substrates with single net charge, but the cytoplasmic III, the Monovalent cation/H+ Antiport and Monovalent substrates range from a Tc- -Me2+ complex that has regions cation or Tc- -Me2+/K+ Antiport (the Net K+ Uptake Mode), with highly non-polar features to highly hydrated respectively, were unanticipated, although Ives and Bott monovalent cations. The substrate diversity of Tet(L) and (1990) speculated that tetL was likely to have a Tc-unrelated Tet(K) opens up some of the same questions that are function of physiological significance. Chromosomally central to function of those MDRs whose substrates encoded Tet(L) from Bacillus subtilis was identified as a encompass diverse structures and both non-polar and polar possible ...
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: NCTC8325; locus tag: SAOUHSC_00632; symbol: mnhG2; product: monovalent cation/H+ antiporter subunit G
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: COL; locus tag: SACOL0951 (SACOL_RS04875); symbol: mnhE; product: monovalent cation/H+ antiporter subunit E
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Among the most critical factors for geological CO2 storage site screening, selection and operation is effective simulation of multiphase flow and transport. Relative permeability is probably the greatest source of potential uncertainty in multiphase flow simulation, second only to intrinsic permeability heterogeneity. The specific relative permeability relationship assigned greatly impacts forecasts of CO2 trapping mechanisms, phase behavior, and long-term plume movement. A primary goal of this study is to evaluate the impacts and implications on CO2-EOR model forecasts of different methods of assigning relative permeability relationships.. We applied a novel approach to assigning relative permeability relationships in numerical models. In previous research, most models assign relative permeability functions on the basis of geologic formation or rock type. In this study, we assign and calibrate relative permeability by hydrostratigraphic units, extending the seminal work of Maxey (1964) to ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Assessment of three phase relative permeability and hysteresis models for simulation of water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in water-wet and mixed-wet systems. AU - Shahrokhi, Omid. AU - Fatemi, Seyyed Mobeen. AU - Sohrabi, Mehran. AU - Ireland, Shaun. AU - Ahmed, Kamran. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Obtaining reliable relative permeability (kr) values and their variations is difficult particularly in processes involving three-phase flow and flow reversal (e.g. WAG injection) which results in kr hysteresis. The current approach in the industry is to use a three-phase kr correlation (e.g., Stone I, Stone II, Baker) in conjunction with a kr hysteresis model (e.g., Killough, WAG- Hysteresis). However, these models have been mostly developed based on water-wet systems and have rarely been benchmarked against experimental measurements. In this paper, we present the results of an extensive assessment of different three-phase relative permeability models available in the most ...
NAD+ synthetase catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Magnesium divalent cations, potassium and ammonium monovalent cations are necessary for NAD+ synthetase activity. NAD+ synt
A further investigation of a chromatographic system allowing determination of hydrogen ions is reported. For this purpose an octadecylsilica column dynamically modified with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or lithium dodecylsulfate (LDS) was used as stationary phase and a slightly acidified electrolyte (usually KCl)-SDS solution was used as the eluent. The concentration of SDS, KCl and the acidity of the eluent affected the structure of aggregates formed by the molecules of dodecylsulfate at the surface of the stationary phase. These aggregates of dodecylsulfate were found to be responsible for the appearance of a chromatographic peak attributed to the presence of H3O+ ions in a sample. Other cations in the sample could be separated in the same manner, permitting the simultaneous separation of monovalent cations from H3O+. The detection limit for H3O+ ions was 2.25·10−6 M using an eluent comprising 0.3 mM LDS, 50.0 mM KCl and 0.10 mM H2SO4. The proposed method is shown to be applicable for the ...
The directed movement of inorganic cations with a valency of one into, out of, within or between cells. Inorganic cations are atoms or small molecules with a positive charge which do not contain carbon in covalent linkage ...
The directed movement of inorganic cations with a valency of one into, out of, within or between cells. Inorganic cations are atoms or small molecules with a positive charge which do not contain carbon in covalent linkage ...
View Notes - 0243Pb45anp2-09 from CHEM orgo at NYU. + + Both cations (these are NOT resonance forms - they are two separate cations) are captured - two steps please - to give the two final products.
A method of treating a subterranean formation including providing a well bore that includes a filter cake on at least a portion of the well bore and contacting at least a portion of the filter cake with a filter cake degradation fluid comprising a relative permeability modifier. The method also includes allowing the relative permeability modifier to retain at least a portion of the filter cake degradation fluid in the well bore for a time sufficient to contact the filtercake and allowing the filter cake to degrade.
Article: Teamwork allows people to discuss their work together, and as a result, to grow professionally. To be successful, the teacher and para-educator must view themselves as a team and partners in the educational process ...
1776. Somme des cations échangeables (S) : Somme des cations métalliques échangeables exprimée en milliéquivalents-grammes pour 100 grammes de complexe absorbant ...
Pure-silica ZSM-12 is synthesized in the presence and absence of alkali metal ions; addition of alkali metal ions at constant hydroxide ion concentration increases the crystallization rate of ZSM-12, and it is suggested that alkali metal ions participate in both the nucleation and crystal growth processes. ...
The next part of the work moved towards describing the modelling methods attempted for modifying the relative permeability which is the main focus of the research and the success achieved through applying the unique flexible restart with Relative Permeability to Water (KRW) reduction method. This method was used with multiple reduction sensitivities on both a single well and at full field scale. The relative permeability to water was reduced by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% in the single well modification case. An additional sensitivity of 60% reduction was also modelled on the full field case. The change to KRW was applied in the perforation zones of each well. Overall, the oil ultimate recovery (EUR) is improved in all the wells and across all the reduction scenarios. There was an immediate change in terms of the oil rate increasing and water rate and water cut decreasing. The oil rates were increased by 2% to 51% in the first 3 months post treatment for the 10% to 60% modifications respectively. The ...
Fig. 5. Proton-activated currents associated with AtMHX expression in vacuolar giant patches. (A) Patch from a vacuole of a transformed cell. Currents are activated by switching from a pH 7.7 solution to a pH 5.7 solution and back to pH 7.7. N-methyl-glucamine (NMG) is the only monovalent cation in solution. The pipette solution (pH 7.0; cytoplasmic membrane side) contains 2 mM Mg2 and 2 mM Ca2 ; the bath solution contains 0.5 mM Mg2 . (B) Typical current records for the same protocol in a vacuolar patch from a non-transformed cell. (C) Current-voltage relations for the proton-activated current in Figure 5A (2-1), whereby records were subtracted just before (1) and after (2) application of the pH 5.7 solution. In addition, the current- voltage relation is given for the reverse current observed on removing protons, whereby the subtracted records were obtained just after returning to pH 7.7 (3) and 30 s later when the current had decayed (4). (D) Current-voltage relation of the 10 times smaller current
He catalytic activity; replacement of HEPES/KOH buffer with TRIS/HCl abolished the enzymatic activity unless a monovalent cation was present (Figure 3C). Among
Three phase Relative Permeability is one of the topic in which we provide homework and assignment help. Assignmenthelp.net provides email based assignment help, honmework help, online tutoring in all subjects.
Synonyms for Cations, divalent in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cations, divalent. 1 synonym for divalent: bivalent. What are synonyms for Cations, divalent?
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View Notes - unk9scheme[1](2) from CHM 2045L at University of Florida. Instruction for unknown 9A/9B The author is not responsible for the scheme! Possible ions: 1. Cations: Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+,
Maximum efficiency of cation hydrolysis will be shown by? a) \(\sf Al^{+3}\) b) \(\sf Tl^{+3}\) c) \(\sf Tl^{+1}\) d) \(\sf Ga^{+3}\)The answer i...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of connexin hemichannels by monovalent cations. AU - Srinivas, Miduturu. AU - Calderon, D. Paola. AU - Kronengold, Jack. AU - Verselis, Vytautas. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - Opening of connexin hemichannels in the plasma membrane is highly regulated. Generally, depolarization and reduced extracellular Ca2+ promote hemichannel opening. Here we show that hemichannels formed of Cx50, a principal lens connexin, exhibit a novel form of regulation characterized by extraordinary sensitivity to extracellular monovalent cations. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with K+, while maintaining extracellular Ca2+ constant, resulted in ,10-fold potentiation of Cx50 hemichannel currents, which reversed upon returning to Na+. External Cs+, Rb+, NH4+, but not Li +, choline, or TEA, exhibited a similar effect. The magnitude of potentiation of Cx50 hemichannel currents depended on the concentration of extracellular Ca2+, progressively decreasing as external Ca 2+ was reduced. The primary ...
permeability curve shape. Other methods for estimation of relative permeability curves include derivation from simulation history-matching, and production data analysis. Both of these methods will yield pseudo relative permeability curves whose shapes could be affected by several dynamic CBM reservoir and operating characteristics.. The purpose of the current work is to perform a systematic investigation of the controls on CBM relative permeability curve shape, including non-static fracture permeability and porosity, multi-layer effects and transient flow. To derive the relative permeability curves, effective permeability to gas and water are obtained from flow equations using a modified version of the approach described by Clarkson et al. (2007). Simulated cases are analyzed so that derived and input curves may be compared allowing for investigation of CBM reservoir properties on curve-shape. One set of relative permeability curves that were input into the simulator were derived from pore-scale ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Comparative analysis of the performance of two-phase relative permeability models in reservoir engineering calculations. AU - Siddiqui, Shameem. AU - Ertekin, Turgay. AU - Hicks, P. J.. PY - 1993/12/1. Y1 - 1993/12/1. N2 - A comparison of ten two-phase relative permeability models is conducted using experimental, semi-analytical and numerical approaches. Relative permeabilities from the models are compared with data obtained from 12 steady-state experimental runs on Berea and Brown sandstones using different combinations of three white mineral oils and 2% CaCl2 brine. Relative permeability data from four of the experimental runs are used to predict the displacement performance under Buckley-Leverett conditions and the results are compared against those predicted by the models. Finally, waterflooding performances predicted by the models are analyzed at three different viscosity ratios using a two-dimensional, two-phase numerical reservoir simulator. The model results are compared ...
Relative permeability is one of the key parameters governing fluid flow through porous media. Determination of relative permeability is traditionally conducted in the laboratory using either recombined reservoir oil or laboratory oil at simulated reservoir conditions, or simply at laboratory conditions. This is because it is expensive to sample representative uncontaminated reservoir fluids and extremely difficult to cut reservoir cores without altering their surface properties. Restoring rock properties to their original reservoir conditions has been a technical challenge to the industry. Upscaling laboratory special core-analysis data to reservoir scale is also a concern. Consequently, the industry has been researching new methods to extract relative permeability in situ, including the utilization of specially designed permanent downhole electric resistivity array, pressure and flow rate measurements. In this study, a different approach was taken. A semi-analytical model, developed to infer ...
Summary The complex physics of multiphase flow in porous media are usually modeled at the field scale using Darcy-type formulations. The key descriptors of such models are the relative permeabilities to each of the flowing phases. It is well known t
Wolf, R., Dommröse, A. - M., & Grützmacher, H. - F. (1988). Destabilized carbenium ions: secondary and tertiary [alpha]-carbomethoxybenzyl cations. Organic Mass Spectrometry, 23(1), 26-32. doi:10.1002/oms. ...
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TRPV6 / ECAC2, 0.1 ml. FUNCTION: Calcium selective cation channel probably involved in Ca(2+) uptake in various tissues, including Ca(2+) reabsorption in intestine.
வேதியியலில் உப்பு (salt) என்பது ஒரு காடியும், காரமும் சேர்ந்து வேதியியல் வினைப்படும் பொழுது நடுமை அடைகையில் உருவாகும் பொருள். உப்புகள் மின்ம முனைப்படும் சேர்மங்கள் ஆகும். உப்புகளில் நேர்மின்மம் கொண்ட நேர்முனையி அல்லது கேட்டயான் (cation) பகுதியும், எதிர்மின்மம் கொண்ட எதிர்முனையி அல்லது ஆனையான் (anion) பகுதியும் கொண்ட ஆனால் மொத்தமாக மின்மம் ஏதுமற்ற, மின்மநடுநிலை கொண்ட ஒரு பொருள். ...
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1]. This can lead to many different forms of wettability. The wettability of a system can range from strongly water wet to strongly oil wet. When the rock has equal preference for both oil and water, the system has neutral or intermediate wettability. Fractional wettability is a condition when different areas of the core have different wetting preferences. There is also a special case of fractional wettability, called mixed wettability, where the small pores are water wet and the large pores are oil wet.. There are two methods of evaluating the relative permeability of each phase: steady state and unsteady state. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, however most researchers say that the unsteady state method should not be used. The experimental procedure to evaluate relative permeability of two-phase flow is easy, so a lot of relative permeability data were collected. However, for three-phase flow, the procedure is quite complicated so not many experiments were carried out. ...
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Prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins cluster separately but probably function with the same polarity by similar mechanisms. These proteins are secondary carriers which utilize the pmf and function by H antiport (for metal efflux). One member, CzcD of Bacillus subtilis, has been shown to exchange the divalent cation (Zn2+ or Cd2+ ) for two monovalent cations (K+ and H+ ) in an electroneutral process energized by the transmembrane pH gradient (Guffanti et al., 2002). Another, ZitB of E. coli (TC #2.A.4.1.4), has been reconstituted in proteoliposomes and studied kinetically (Chao and Fu, 2004a). It appears to function by simple Me2+:H antiport with a 1:1 stoichiometry.. Montanini et al (2007) have conducted phylogenetic analysis of CDF family members. Their analysis revealed three major and two minor phylogenetic groups. They suggest that the three major groups segregated according to metal ion specificity: (1) Mn2+ , (2) Fe2+ and Zn2+ as well as other metal ions, and (3) Zn2+ plus other metals, but ...
1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? C7H16 + ____ O2 - , ____ CO2 + ____ H2O a) 21 b) 24 c) 18 d) 27 2. An atom has an atomic number of 7 and a mass number of 14. How many electrons will it have in its valence level: a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) 5 3. Calculate the molar concentration of the solution produced by dissolving 11g of K2SO4 in 125 cm3 of water (atomic masses are: K=39; S=32; O=16) a) 0.05 M b) 0.5 M c) 0.25 M d) 0.025 M 4. Select a group of acids according to Brönsted concept: a) CH3COO-, HCl, H2O, HCO3- b) HCl, H2O, NH4+, HS- c) H2SO4, Cl-, H3O+, CH3NH2 d) H2CO3, CH3NH2, H3O+, HCl 5. The bond between sulfur and chlorine would be: a) not formed b) ionic c) polar covalent d) nonpolar covalent 6. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does monovalent cation of 31H have? a) 1, 2, 0 b) 2, 1, 3 c) 3, 2, 1 d) 1, 2, 3 7. As you move up and to the right on the periodic table: a) atomic radius increases and electronegativity increases ...
Read interesting answers and in fact write your own answer to the question which element ionic radius is smaller than its atomic radius?
In the present study we report the synthesis, crystal structure and Raman spectroscopy studies of Na1-xKxPb4(VO4)(3) orthovanaclates solid solutions (0 ,= x ,= 1). Rielveld refinements showed that this solid solution is continuous adopting P6(3)/m (no. 176) space group. Some of Pb(II) cations are located in the (6 h) sites. The ninefold coordination sites (4f) are equally occupied by the other lead cations and the K+ and Na+ monovalent ions. The structure can be described as built up from [VO4](3-) tetrahedral and Ph2+ of sixfold coordination cavities (6 h positions), which delimit void hexagonal tunnels running along [0 0 1]. These tunnels are connected by cations of mixed sites (4f) half occupied by Pb(II) and half by Na+/K+ mixed cations. The existence of this type of lacunar apatite seems to be conditioned by the presence of lone pair cations Pb(II). Raman spectra of all the compositions are similar and show some linear shifts in band positions as a function of the composition toward high ...
The D-Series family of proprietary thin-film nanofiltration membrane elements is characterized by an approximate molecular weight cut-off of 150-300 Dalton for uncharged organic molecules. Divalent and multivalent anions are preferentially rejected by the membrane while monovalent ion rejection is dependent upon feed concentration and composition. Since monovalent ions pass through the membrane, they do not contribute to the osmotic pressure, thus enabling D-Series nanofiltration membrane systems to operate at feed pressures below those of RO systems. Among other applications DK High Rejection NF Elements are used for dye removal/concentration, sodium chloride diafiltration and metals recovery.. Product Type ...
KrwHonarpourCarbInterWet - Honarpour correlation for predicting water relative permeability in intermediately wet limestone and dolomite.
Determination of cations in beverages - Food and Beverage - Beverage by Lumex Instruments Group. The method enables fast determination of inorganic cations ...
Polarizability is the inclination of electrons to be distorted in an anion. Polarizing power is the ability of a cation to distort electrons of an anion. The size of cations are pretty small in comparison to the size of anions, since the radii of cations are small, their nucleus has enough pulling energy to pull onto (or distort) the electrons of an anion, and an anions size is bigger and their electrons are farther from the nucleus and the nucleus cannot hold onto the electrons that are further away from it. I think of it as, polarizability = anions, polarizing power = cations ...
Every ionic bond will result in the formation of an anion and a cation. The anion is the atom which receives the electron (usually the nonmetal with a large EN) and the cation is the atom which donates the electron (usually the metal with a low EN). Because of this, we can say that as EN increases going right across the periodic table, so does the likelihood of the element forming an anion when in an ionic bond. Vice versa, we can say that as EN decreases going left across the periodic table, so does the likelihood of an element forming a cation when in an ionic bond ...
تبذل الصناعة النفطية جهودا كبيرة لتحسين انتاج النفط في ظل عدم استقرار أسعاره. حقن الماء الذكي يوفر فرصة للحصول على كمية إضافية من النفط بعمليات قليلة التكلفة. يمكن الحصول على نسب إضافية من النفط تتراوح بين الصفر إلى 30 % عن طريق تعديل الملوحة أو تغيير مدى محدد من الأيونات عند حقن الماء المالح في التجارب المعملية. هذه التغييرات في النسبة الإضافية المتحصل عليها مرتبطة بنقص فهم آليات عمل حقن الماء الذكي مما يؤثر على تفسير النتائج المعملية و نتائج نماذج المحاكاة. تهدف هذه الدراسة للنظر عن قرب لهذه الظاهرة المتناقضة عن طريق تأكيد فوائد تطبيق الحقن المتتابع ...
Using Periodic Properties to Identify Group 2A Cations and Group 7A Anions Objectives The objectives of this lab are as follows: To observe the solubility properties of various ionic compounds containing
Calixarene-Based Molecules for Cation Recognition. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Müller, A., Krickemeyer, E., Bögge, H., Schmidtmann, M., Botar, B., & Talismanova, M. O. (2003). Drawing small cations into highly charged porous nanocontainers reveals Water assembly and related interaction problems. ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, 42(18), 2085-2090. doi:10.1002/anie. ...
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ADP can be replaced by GDP, ATP and GTP, to a limited extent. Divalent cations are necessary for activity, with Mg2+ followed by Co2+ being the most effective ...
CPA superfamily Sodium-Proton antiporter Monovalent cation:Proton antiporter-1 Monovalent cation:Proton antiporter-3 ... The Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-2 (CPA2) Family (TC# 2.A.37) is a moderately large family of transporters belonging to ... Portal: Biology As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.37 The Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-2 (CPA2) Family ... The identification of these proteins as members of the CPA2 family reveals that monovalent cation transport is required for ...
Sodium-Proton antiporter Monovalent Cation (K+ or Na+):Proton Antiporter-1 Monovalent Cation (K+ or Na+):Proton Antiporter-2 ... The Monovalent Cation (K+ or Na+):Proton Antiporter-3 (CPA3) Family (TC# 2.A.63) is a member of the Na+ transporting Mrp ... Portal: Biology As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.63 The Monovalent Cation (K+ or Na+):Proton Antiporter-3 ( ... "2.A.63 The Monovalent Cation (K+ or Na+):Proton Antiporter-3 (CPA3) Family". Transporter Classification Databse. Retrieved 2016 ...
Sodium-proton antiporter Monovalent cation:Proton antiporter-2 Monovalent cation:Proton antiporter-3 Transporter Classification ... The Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-1 (CPA1) Family (TC# 2.A.36) is a large family of proteins derived from Gram-positive ... An R, Chen QJ, Chai MF, Lu PL, Su Z, Qin ZX, Chen J, Wang XC (February 2007). "AtNHX8, a member of the monovalent cation: ... Portal: Biology As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.36 The Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-1 (CPA1) Family ...
Philippaert K, Kerselaers S, Voets T, Vennekens R (April 2018). "2+-Activated Monovalent Cation-Selective Channels". SLAS ... Ketoconazole has been found to inhibit the activity of the cation channel TRPM5. When administered orally, ketoconazole is best ...
It forms a cation-selective ion channel activated by light absorption. It transports both monovalent and divalent cations. It ... A transient increase in hydration of transmembrane α-helices with a t(1/2) = 60 μs tallies with the onset of cation permeation ... The observed proton transfer reactions and the protein conformational changes relate to the gating of the cation channel. ... November 2003). "Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel". Proceedings of the National ...
Rosolovskii (1975). "Reaction of nitrates of monovalent cations with BCl3". Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR ...
Rosolovskii (1975). "Reaction of nitrates of monovalent cations with BCl3". Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR ... It has formula [B(NO3)4]−. It can form salts with large cations such as tetramethylammonium nitratoborate, or ...
Channel activity is initiated by a rise in the intracellular calcium, and the channel permeates monovalent cations as K+ and ... Philippaert K, Kerselaers S, Voets T, Vennekens R (January 2018). "2+-Activated Monovalent Cation-Selective Channels". SLAS ... Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5), also known as long transient receptor potential ... Liu D, Zhang Z, Liman ER (May 2005). "Extracellular acid block and acid-enhanced inactivation of the Ca2+-activated cation ...
Multivalent cations are more efficient flocculants than monovalent cations: AlCl3 > CaCl2 > NaCl. The electrical charges ... In the synthesis of titania (titanium dioxide) nanoparticles, peptization involves adsorption of quaternary ammonium cation on ...
Metal cations that bind RNA can be monovalent, divalent or trivalent. Potassium (K+) is a common monovalent ion that binds RNA ... In the early stages, RNA forms secondary structures stabilized through the binding of monovalent cations, divalent cations and ... the A-A platform motif binds preferentially to monovalent cations. In many of these motifs, absence of the monovalent or ... The G-quartet typically binds monovalent cations such as potassium, while other bases can bind numerous other ligands such as ...
These channels are permeable to the monovalent cations K+ and Na+. There are 4 members of this family, all of which form ... These channels are primarily permeable to monovalent cations such as K+ and Na+. They are also permeable to Ca2+, though it ... Proton channels Voltage-gated proton channels Non-selective cation channels: These non-selectively allow many types of cations ... Cation channels of sperm: This small family of channels, normally referred to as Catsper channels, is related to the two-pore ...
2005). "Monovalent cation conductance in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing hCAT-3". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1668 (2): 234-9. ...
IV Activation of uridine diphospho-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase by monovalent cations". J. Biol. Chem. 248 (14): ...
Lin ECC; Magasanik B (1960). "The activation of glycerol dehydrogenase from Aerobacter aerogenes by monovalent cations". J. ... Lin ECC; Magasanik B (1960). "The activation of glycerol dehydrogenase from Aerobacter aerogenes by monovalent cations". J. ... Research into the structure of B. stearothermophilus shows that the active site contains a divalent cation-zinc ion, Zn2+. This ...
In this monovalent cation, the chloride spontaneously dissociates. This pathway is called the SN1cB mechanism. The Eigen- ...
The TRP-ML1 protein (Mucolipin-1) has been shown to be a lysosomal monovalent cation channel that undergoes inactivating ... "TRP-ML1 is a lysosomal monovalent cation channel that undergoes proteolytic cleavage". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 ... The Polycystin Cation Channel (PCC) Family (TC# 1.A.5) consists of several transporters ranging in size from 500 to over 4000 ... Polycystin-L has been shown to be a cation (Na+, K+ and Ca2+) channel that is activated by Ca2+, while polycystin-2 has been ...
The most important cations for the action potential are sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+). Both of these are monovalent cations ... ISBN 978-0-12-664661-0. Hodgkin AL, Keynes RD (1955). "Active transport of cations in giant axons from Sepia and Loligo". J. ... Action potentials can also involve calcium (Ca2+), which is a divalent cation that carries a double positive charge. The ... Being an anion, the chloride terms are treated differently from the cation terms; the intracellular concentration is in the ...
The generalized transport reaction is: Monovalent cations or Ca2+ (out) ⇌ monovalent cations or Ca2+ (in) The pharmacology of a ... P2X receptor channels transport small monovalent cations, although some also transport Ca2+. Evidence from early molecular ... The ATP-gated P2X receptor cation channel family (TC# 1.A.7), or simply P2X receptor family, consists of cation-permeable ... The entry of cations leads to the depolarization of the cell membrane and the activation of various Ca2+-sensitive ...
For molecules with multiple stable monovalent cations, multiple Rydberg series may exist. Because of the complexity of ...
Gräfe, U.; Reinhardt, G.; Miosga, N. (1989). "Monovalent cation specificity of passive transport mediated by laidlomycin and 26 ... Pinkerton, Mary; Steinrauf, L. K. (14 May 1970). "Molecular structure of monovalent metal cation complexes of monensin". ... Ionophores selective for cations and anions have found many applications in analysis. These compounds have also shown to have ... An example of a carrier ionophore is valinomycin, a molecule that transports a single potassium cation. Carrier ionophores may ...
... A is an ionophore related to the crown ethers with a preference to form complexes with monovalent cations such as: Li+ ... Pinkerton, M.; Steinrauf, L. K. (1970). "Molecular structure of monovalent metal cation complexes of monensin". J. Mol. Biol. ... Monensin A is able to transport these cations across lipid membranes of cells in an electroneutral (i.e. non-depolarizing) ... The antibacterial properties of monensin and its derivatives are a result of their ability to transport metal cations through ...
The charge density of multivalent cations is also higher than for monovalent ions. On the other hand, achieving high ionic ...
Roche TE, Reed LJ (August 1974). "Monovalent cation requirement for ADP inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase". ...
... where X is a monovalent cation such as sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, or thalliumI, or a compound cation such as ... In some cases, solid solutions of alums with different monovalent and trivalent cations may occur. In addition to the alums, ... Typical recipes involve combining aluminium sulfate and the sulfate monovalent cation. The aluminium sulfate is usually ... The possible combinations of univalent cation, trivalent cation, and anion depends on the sizes of the ions. A Tutton salt is a ...
Divalent cations may also substitute for the monovalent cation K+ in the A site. Charge balance may be achieved in three ways. ... Firstly by replacing two monovalent cations by one divalent cation, and leaving an A site vacancy, as in plumbogummite, Pb2+Al3 ...
... provided a sufficiently high concentration of monovalent cation is present to permit the RNA to fold. This discovery suggested ... but can be dispensed with at higher concentrations of monovalent cations. The reaction thus likely involves abstraction of the ... hairpin and VS ribozymes are catalytically proficient in monovalent cations alone" (PDF). Chem Biol. 5 (10): 587-595. doi: ...
... hairpin and VS ribozymes are catalytically proficient in monovalent cations alone" (PDF). Chemistry & Biology. 5 (10): 587-595 ... In the laboratory, a functional interaction between the two domains is promoted by the addition of cations, whose positive ...
Monovalent cations have been shown to activate IMPDH enzymes and may serve to stabilize the conformation of the active-site ... Xiang B, Taylor JC, Markham GD (January 1996). "Monovalent cation activation and kinetic mechanism of inosine 5'-monophosphate ...
Trapped Tetrahedral Reaction Intermediates and Activation by Monovalent Cations". ACS Catalysis. 8 (3): 1973-1989. doi:10.1021/ ...
As a channel, it conducts calcium and monovalent cations to depolarize cells and increase intracellular calcium. As a kinase, ... Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7, also known as TRPM7, is a human gene encoding a protein of ... "Entrez Gene: TRPM7 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7". Runnels LW, Yue L, Clapham DE (May 2002 ...
... polycystin cation channels, glutamate-gated ion channels, calcium-dependent chloride channels, monovalent cation:proton ...
... 's ability to incorporate monovalent metallic cations (Me+) makes it useful as a sequestering agent for certain ... The therapy exploits the compound's ion-exchange properties and high affinity for certain "soft" metal cations. It is on the ... allowing it to be hydrated to various degrees as water molecules are incorporated into the structure to occupy cation vacancies ...
While these subunits create a ligand-gated ion channel that is especially permeable to calcium and monovalent cations the ...
Essentially these arise when the cation:uranium ratio is different from 2:1 (monovalent cations) or 1:1 (divalent cations). ... For example, with the cation K+, compounds with K:U ratios of 2, 1 and 0.5 were found, corresponding to empirical formulas ... where M represents a cation. The uranium atom in uranates(VI) has two short collinear U-O bonds and either four or six more ... Charge-balance constrains the number of oxygen atoms to be equal to half the sum of charges of the cations and uranyl groups. ...
The solid consists of layers of monovalent lithium cations (Li+ ) that lie between extended anionic sheets of cobalt and oxygen ...
Unlike its heavier congeners, it is not known to form a simple B3+ or hydrated [B(H2O)4]3+ cation. The small size of the boron ... Such compounds include astatides (XAt), astatates (XAtO3), and monovalent interhalogen compounds. Restrepo et al. reported that ... It is not known to form a cation. Silicon can form alloys with metals such as iron and copper. It shows fewer tendencies to ... Whether or not germanium forms a cation is unclear, aside from the reported existence of the Ge2+ ion in a few esoteric ...
The monovalent lithium ion Li+ competes with other ions such as sodium (immediately below lithium on the periodic table), which ... lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation. Because of this, lithium is a good conductor of ... like lithium is also a monovalent alkali metal. Lithium also competes with bivalent magnesium ions, whose ionic radius (86 pm) ...
Binding of suxamethonium to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor results in opening of the receptor's monovalent cation channel ...
An ion triplet may be formed from one cation and two anions or from one anion and two cations. Higher aggregates, such as a ... Other monovalent anions that have been studied include nitrate, nitrite and azide. Ion pairs of monatomic anions, such as ... This energy decreases with the size of the cation, making ion pairing occur to a greater extent with the larger cations. The ... ion-pair Cation outer-sphere complex Contact ion-pair Cation inner-sphere complex Ion pairs are formed when a cation and anion ...
... and monovalent cations, typically potassium (K) ions[better source needed] The reaction is commonly carried out in a volume of ... solution providing a suitable chemical environment for optimum activity and stability of the DNA polymerase bivalent cations, ...
When chelated to cations, oxalate adopts the planar, D2h conformation. However, in the structure of Cs2C2O4 the O-C-C-O ... loss of a single proton results in the monovalent hydrogenoxalate anion HC 2O− 4. A salt with this anion is sometimes called an ...
In the case of halonium ions this involves reduction from a trivalent halonium to a monovalent halide coupled with the release ... In the vast majority of cases, reactions that involve leaving group activation generate a cation in a separate step, before ... cations leaving from a dicationic substrate are also known. A species' ability to serve as a leaving group depends on its ...
It has a tin-based perovskite structure (ASnX3), where 'A' is a 1+ cation and 'X' is a monovalent halogen anion. The ... Increasing the size of the organic cation of the perovskite (but not making it so large that a layered structure forms) has the ... "Robust Tin-Based Perovskite Solar Cells with Hybrid Organic Cations to Attain Efficiency Approaching 10%" Adv. Mat. 1804835 ( ...
... where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium. Aluminium sulfate may be made by adding aluminium hydroxide, Al( ...
PIH has now been demonstrated in natrolites containing Li, K, Rb and Ag as monovalent cations as well as in large-pore zeolites ...
"Effects of inotropic and arrhythmogenic digoxin doses and of digoxin-specific antibody on myocardial monovalent cation ...
The reverse holds for cation-exchange membranes. The so-called heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes have low cost and a thicker ... Homogeneous membrane surfaces can be modified to alter the membrane permselectivity to protons, monovalent ions, and divalent ... Important examples of ion-exchange membranes include the proton-exchange membranes, that transport H+ cations, and the anion ... When applied in an electrodialysis desalination process, anion- and cation-exchange membranes are typically arranged in an ...
Layers of monovalent sodium cations (Na+ ) alternate with two-dimensional anionic sheets of cobalt and oxygen atoms. Each ... sodium cations exit the structure and the cobalt formally approaches the Co4+ state. For x above 0.5, the sodium ions adopt ...
The cation-carrier effect is characterized by surfactin's ability to drive monovalent and divalent cations through an organic ... Attachment of a cation to causes the complex to cross the bilipidic layer undergoing a flip-flop. The headgroup aligns itself ... The cation is then delivered into the intracellular medium. The pore-forming (ion channel) effect is characterized by the ... The two acidic residues aspartate and glutamate form a "claw" of sorts which easily stabilizes divalent cations. Calcium ions ...
... where M represents a monovalent cation and An is either uranium, neptunium, or plutonium. Since 1967, when neptunium(VII) was ... The coordination chemistry of neptunium(V) has been extensively researched due to the presence of cation-cation interactions in ... The divalent ligands are more strongly complexing than the monovalent ones. NpO+ 2 can also form the complex ions [NpO+ 2M3+ ... complexes with monovalent inorganic ligands is F− > H 2PO− 4 > SCN− > NO− 3 > Cl− > ClO− 4; the order for divalent inorganic ...
This tetramer, [Cp*Al]4, consists of an Al4 tetrahedron, and the Cp* rings are ŋ5-coordinated to the aluminium(I) cation such ... 4 than monovalent Cp* compounds of In(I) and Tl(I). Additional characterization that has been performed include Raman ... serves as the first ever documented example of a room temperature stable monovalent aluminium compound. In its isolated form, ...
... sub-family of perovskite materials with general formula ABX3 where A is a monovalent cation, B is a divalent cation, and X is a ... The potassium atoms are located between these columns; each K+ cation is surrounded by nine chlorine atoms. The mineral is ...
Calcium channel selectivity for divalent and monovalent cations. Voltage and concentration dependence of single channel current ...
"The missing crystal structures of fluorosulfates of monovalent cations: M(I)SO3F, M=Na, Rb and Tl". Journal of Fluorine ... The fluorosulfate ion has a low propensity to form complexes with metal cations. Since fluorine is similar in size to oxygen, ...
I cations present are monovalent) or brittle micas ( if > 50% I cations present are divalent). Ephesite with monovalent cations ... Ephesite, a mica structure, arises from the stacking of T-O-T layers along the c-axis direction connected by I-cations where T, ... Depending on the interlayer cation, the micas are subdivided into true micas (if 50% ... of Na prove to be a true mica and with 2.5 octahedral cations are trioctahedral. Ephesite is classified as an uncommon true non ...
If this convention is used, then the values are in the same range as monovalent ions, e.g. 59.5 S cm2 mol−1 for 1/2 Ca2+ and ... For the cation: λ + = t + ⋅ Λ 0 ν + {\displaystyle \lambda ^{+}=t_{+}\cdot {\frac {\Lambda _{0}}{\nu ^{+}}}} and for the anion ... Similar regularities are found for two electrolytes with a common anion and two cations. The molar ionic conductivity of each ... where 1 equivalent is the quantity of ions that have the same amount of electric charge as 1 mol of a monovalent ion: 1/2 mol ...
Determination of monovalent cations by ion chromatography with ion-selective electrode detection. In: Analytical Chemistry. ... Determination of monovalent cations by ion chromatography with ion-selective electrode detection. / Suzuki, Koji; Aruga, ... Suzuki K, Aruga H, Shirai T. Determination of monovalent cations by ion chromatography with ion-selective electrode detection. ... Suzuki, K, Aruga, H & Shirai, T 1983, Determination of monovalent cations by ion chromatography with ion-selective electrode ...
Influence of monovalent cations on aminoacylation of transfer RNA. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 1976 Mar; 13(1 ...
GO:0015672: monovalent inorganic cation transport (Biological process). The directed movement of inorganic cations with a ... Inorganic cations are atoms or small molecules with a positive charge which do not contain carbon in covalent linkage. [GOC:ai ...
pH and monovalent cations regulate cytosolic free Ca2+ in E. coli. BBA - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1778(6), pp. 1415-1422 ... pH and monovalent cations regulate cytosolic free Ca2+ in E. coli. BBA - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1778(6), pp. 1415-1422 ...
Ppz1 plays a key role in monovalent cation homeostasis, and it was demonstrated long ago that the deletion of PPZ1 results in ... Ariño, J.; Ramos, J.; Sychrova, H. Monovalent cation transporters at the plasma membrane in yeasts. Yeast 2019, 36, 177-193. [ ... Therefore, we must conclude that the overexpression of Ppz1 does alter monovalent cation homeostasis in a way that involves the ... This suggests the existence of additional targets that are important for monovalent cation homeostasis and are affected by high ...
cellular cation homeostasis. 557. cellular monovalent inorganic cation homeostasis. 118. regulation of cellular pH. 88. ...
Dynamic model of monovalent-divalent cation exchange in polyelectrolyte gels. Physical Review Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 3. ( ... Effect of monovalent-divalent cation exchange on the swelling of polyacrylate hydrogels in physiological salt solutions. ... Effects of mono- and divalent cations on the structure and thermodynamic properties of polyelectrolyte gels. Soft Matter 22: ... Molecular simulation of the swelling of polyelectrolyte gels by monovalent and divalent counterions. J Chem Phys 129(15):154902 ...
Riedel, T., Schmalzing, G., and Markwardt, F. (2007). Influence of extracellular monovalent cations on pore and gating ... induce activation of a nonselective monophasic conductance allowing monovalent (Na+, K+) and divalent (Ca2+) cation influx and ... P2X7 receptors can form a large nonselective pore allowing the passage of organic cations and molecules of up to 900 Da and the ... a nonselective ligand-gated cation channel expressed at the cell surface of various cell types and activated by extracellular ...
Neither intracellular content of monovalent cations nor gene expression profile was affected by 96-h incubation of HUVEC with 1 ... Based on these results, for the measurement of intracellular content of monovalent cations and transcriptomic changes we ... K+-ATPase and led to dissipation of the transmembrane gradient of monovalent cations. Importantly, the affinity for the ... plays a key role in the maintenance of electrochemical gradients of monovalent cations across the plasma membrane (high ...
... this channel is regulated by Ca2+ and is permeable to both divalent and monovalent cations. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ ... influx through plasma membrane channels opens these cation channels in the vesicles and causes a quick H+ loss from the ...
alkali metal cation (CHEBI:29103 ). *monovalent inorganic cation (CHEBI:29103 ). *monoatomic monocation (CHEBI:29103 ) ... It is mainly replaced inside or outside the cells by another cation, sodium (Na+). The movement of potassium into or out of the ... Potassium (K+) is a positively charged electrolyte, cation, which is present throughout the body in both intracellular and ...
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity. Specific Function. Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4- ...
The RBC membrane is hyperpermeable to monovalent cations (sodium and potassium); movement of divalent cations and anions is ...
2.A.36 - The Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-1 (CPA1) Family. 2.A.37 - The Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-2 (CPA2) ... 2.A.63 - The Monovalent Cation (K+ or Na+):Proton Antiporter-3 (CPA3) Family. 3.D.1 - The H+ or Na+-translocating NADH ... 2.A.4 - The Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) Family. 2.A.19 - The Ca2+:Cation Antiporter (CaCA) Family. 2.A.103 - The ... 2.A.25 - The Alanine or Glycine:Cation Symporter (AGCS) Family. 2.A.26 - The Branched Chain Amino Acid:Cation Symporter (LIVCS ...
Human transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 8 (TRPM8) ... Permeable for monovalent cations sodium, potassium, and cesium and divalent cation calcium. Temperature sensing is tightly ... Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of sensations such as coolness, by being activated by ... Lenti ORF particles, TRPM8 (Myc-DDK tagged) - Human transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 8 (TRPM8 ...
Release of colloidal particles in natural porous media by monovalent and divalent cations Grolimund D, Borkovec M JOURNAL OF ...
Permeable for monovalent cations sodium, potassium, and cesium and divalent cation calcium. Temperature sensing is tightly ... Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel, Subfamily M, Member 8 (TRPM8)). Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel ... transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8) Antibodies. transient receptor potential cation ... transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (Trpm8) Antibodies. transient receptor potential cation ...
It is an alkali ion carrier with affinity for cations and preference for K+ over other monovalent and divalent cations. ...
Belongs to the monovalent cation:proton antiporter 1 (CPA1) transporter (TC 2.A.36) family. ... Involved in the effusion of Golgi luminal H(+) in exchange for cytosolic cations. Involved in organelle ion homeostasis by ...
Abnormalities of red cell membrane cation permeability are seen in several hereditary disorders. These dominantly inherited ... Monovalent cation leaks in human red cells caused by single amino-acid substitutions in the transport domain of the band 3 ... The monovalent cation leak in overhydrated stomatocytic red blood cells results from amino acid substitutions in the Rh- ... Shmukler BE, Rivera A, Vandorpe DH, Alves J, Bonfanti U, Paltrinieri S. Cation-leak stomatocytosis in Standard Schnauzers does ...
Theory and simulations for RNA folding in mixtures of monovalent and divalent cations Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Theory and simulations for RNA folding in mixtures of monovalent and divalent cations Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Monovalent ions modulate the flux through multiple folding pathways of an RNA pseudoknot Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
It can be noticed that the bivalent cations have stronger influence on the fluorescence than the monovalent ones. The values of ... and metal cations (M) provided that the sum of the concentration of the sensor and the cation is constant, i.e. c L + c M = C. ... It was found that previously constructed fluorescent cation indicators are more sensitive to the presence of bivalent cations ... Zn2+ than to monovalent cations such as Li+ and Na+. Additionally, the binding constants estimated from the concentration ...
... the 2 fast receptors is that the AMPA/kainate receptor opens channels that primarily allow the passage of monovalent cations ( ... ie, sodium and potassium), whereas the NMDA type is coupled to channels that also allow passage of divalent cations (ie, ...
... but only for smectites with monovalent interlayer cations. From the variety of different measurements the conclusion of the ... After the steam treatment, turbidity measurements, methylene-blue sorption, water adsorption, and cation exchange capacity (CEC ... Effect of extensive drying on the cation exchange capacity of bentonites Clay Minerals ...
Capacitive deionization (CDI) integrated with monovalent cation selective membrane for producing divalent cation-rich solution ... Effect of Brine Water on Discharge of Cations in Membrane Capacitive Deionization and Its Implications on Nitrogen Recovery ...
1986) L-channels for Ca2+ over monovalent cations appears to involve intrapore binding of Ca2+ with high affinity (Dang and ... Calcium channel selectivity for divalent and monovalent cations. Voltage and concentration dependence of single channel current ... Calcium channel selectivity for divalent and monovalent cations. Voltage and concentration dependence of single channel current ... conducted small inward currents carried by Ca2+ and large outward currents carried by monovalent cations. The mutant skeletal L ...
  • Na + ,K + -ATPase, a heterodimer consisting of catalytic α- and regulatory β-subunits, plays a key role in the maintenance of electrochemical gradients of monovalent cations across the plasma membrane (high intracellular potassium, [K + ] i versus low intracellular sodium, [Na + ] i ) in all types of nucleated animal cells studied so far. (nature.com)
  • Potassium (K+) is a positively charged electrolyte, cation, which is present throughout the body in both intracellular and extracellular fluids. (hmdb.ca)
  • Human skin is permselective for the small, monovalent cations sodium and potassium but not for nickel and chromium. (cdc.gov)
  • Permeable for monovalent cations sodium, potassium, and cesium and divalent cation calcium. (antibodies-online.com)
  • It also includes temperature corrections for monovalent ions (sodium, potassium, Tris), magnesium ions and commonly used denaturing agents such as formamide and DMSO. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Potassium (Okay+) is a key monovalent cation crucial for a number of points of cell development and survival. (immpact-international.org)
  • Therefore, trivalent cations similar to ferric ion (iron dextran) are extra disruptive than divalent cations corresponding to calcium or magnesium ions, that are more disruptive than monovalent cations corresponding to sodium or potassium. (yhwh.com)
  • The permeability ratio of Cl(-) relative to Na(+) (P(Cl)/P(Na)) was about 0.14, confirming that these channels are mainly permeable to cations. (garvan.org.au)
  • They are permeable to small monovalent cations, some having significant divalent or anion permeability. (nanion.de)
  • The relative permeability of these rOCNC1 channels to monovalent alkali cations and organic cations was determined from measurements of the changes in reversal potential upon replacing sodium in the bathing solution with different test cations. (garvan.org.au)
  • They show varying permeability to a range of monovalent and divalent cations. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Abnormalities of red cell membrane cation permeability are seen in several hereditary disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Any disturbances in membrane cation permeability alter cellular hydration and can cause numerous effects, including hemolysis. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, the primary abnormality in DHSt is a change in the relative membrane permeability to K + . Efflux of K + is increased 2- to 4-fold and results in cation depletion, with decreased intracellular osmolality and water loss. (medscape.com)
  • By transporting Na + and K + ions across the cell membrane, red cells can adjust the intracellular concentration of these cations and regulate intracellular hydration. (medscape.com)
  • The directed movement of inorganic cations with a valency of one into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Inorganic cations are atoms or small molecules with a positive charge which do not contain carbon in covalent linkage. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Fluorescent dye 2-[(2-Hydroxyethyl)-(1,3-diphenyl-1 H -pyrazolo[3,4- b ]quinolin-6-ylmethyl)-amino]ethanol (LL1) was examined for its efficiency in the detection of small inorganic cations (lithium, sodium, barium, calcium, magnesium, cadmium, lead and zinc). (springer.com)
  • This compound acts as a fluorescent sensor suitable for detection of small inorganic cations (lithium, sodium, barium, calcium, magnesium, cadmium, lead and zinc) in strongly polar solvent (acetonitrile). (springer.com)
  • This process can be retarded upon complexation of the receptor moiety by inorganic cations. (springer.com)
  • These are the molecular compounds that fluorescence emission can be strongly affected by the presence of inorganic cations. (springer.com)
  • Differences in CEC values between untreated and treated samples were observed, but only for smectites with monovalent interlayer cations. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • In swelling clay minerals, such as montmorillonite, cations in the interlayer space also neutralize part of the negative charge. (usgs.gov)
  • Cs + )), B is a divalent metal cation (usually Pb 2+ ), and X is a halogen anion (Cl − , Br − , I − ). Particularly, the photoluminescence (PL) properties of metal halide perovskites have garnered much attention due to the recent rapid development of perovskite nanocrystals. (nsf.gov)
  • In these salts X = NO 2 and M = one atomic proportion of a monovalent metal, or the equivalent quantity of a divalent metal. (yourdictionary.com)
  • plicons showed 100% sequence iden- monovalent vaccine: recommendations of In January 2009, eight individu- tity with Y. pestis reference sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • We report a cross-sectional, descriptive survey in 4 provinces of Afghanistan to assess the rate of adverse events among health care staff immunized with A/H1N1 monovalent vaccine 4 weeks after vaccination. (who.int)
  • Infants under 12 months of age should receive a dose of monovalent (single antigen) measles vaccine before departure. (yourdictionary.com)
  • If monovalent vaccine is not available, no specific contraindication exists to giving MMR to infants six to eleven months of age. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Infants who receive the monovalent measles vaccine or MMR before their first birthday are vulnerable to all three diseases and should be revaccinated with two doses of MMR. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Guizouarn H, Martial S, Gabillat N, Borgese F. Point mutations involved in red cell stomatocytosis convert the electroneutral anion exchanger 1 to a nonselective cation conductance. (medscape.com)
  • In comparison with concentration gradients that drive diffusion in free (uncharged) pore water, the gradient for a cation is magnified in the double layer, whereas the gradient for an anion is diminished, and the gradient for a neutral species remains the same. (usgs.gov)
  • [ 7 ] At low temperatures, the defective anion channel appears to allow a significant cation leak, and autohemolysis may be seen in vitro at 4ºC. (medscape.com)
  • Four pedigrees of the cation-leaky hereditary stomatocytosis class presenting with pseudohyperkalaemia. (medscape.com)
  • At the other end of the spectrum, net loss of cations and water results in the more common dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHSt), also called xerocytosis. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, the massive increase in the cytosolic concentration of Ca 2+ is due in part to the overactivation of P2X7 receptors, a nonselective ligand-gated cation channel expressed at the cell surface of various cell types and activated by extracellular ATP. (frontiersin.org)
  • These conductance measurements also indicated that, even in asymmetric bi-ionic cation solutions, the conductance was somewhat independent of current direction and dependent on the composition of both solutions. (garvan.org.au)
  • Experiments show that the mucus gel may swell explosively within a short time period, accompanied by a massive transport of monovalent cations from the extracellular environment into the densely packed mucus in exchange for divalent calcium that had 'cross-linked' the negatively-charged mucus fibers. (aps.org)
  • After the steam treatment, turbidity measurements, methylene-blue sorption, water adsorption, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were measured on both untreated and treated samples. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Both the semi-rigid and flexible surfaces show higher adsorption of molecular cations ((NH 4 ) + and H 3 O + ) compared with the simple spherical cations. (copernicus.org)
  • movement of divalent cations and anions is normal. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Transport in clays is mainly diffusive because of the low hydraulic conductivity, and solutes are further retarded by sorption (cations) and by exclusion from part of the pore space (anions). (usgs.gov)
  • The double layer contains an excess of cations (counter-ions, in general) and a deficit of anions (co-ions, in general). (usgs.gov)
  • The charge in the double layer lowers the dielectric permittivity of the water, which enhances the ion-association of cations and anions into neutral species. (usgs.gov)
  • Where double layers overlap in pore constrictions, anions are impeded and forced to take longer paths, whereas cations and neutral species pass through unhindered. (usgs.gov)
  • Schneider, J. J. Complete charge separation provoked by full cation encapsulation in the radical mono- and di-anions of 5,6:11,12-di-o-phenylene-tetracene. (mpg.de)
  • The monovalent cation leak in overhydrated stomatocytic red blood cells results from amino acid substitutions in the Rh-associated glycoprotein. (medscape.com)
  • It is an alkali ion carrier with affinity for cations and preference for K + over other monovalent and divalent cations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • and consequently, in the same unit of time, the central atom will collide once with each of the two monovalent atoms and twice with the divalent. (yourdictionary.com)
  • From previous cases of radionuclide release, it is known that the chemical species of released radiocesium is monovalent cation (Cs + ) which is soluble 3 . (mondialisation.ca)
  • The hyperpolarisation-activated cation current ( I h ) has been described in many vertebrate and invertebrate species and cell types. (biologists.com)
  • Measurements of the cation concentration are of considerable interest and the subject of various investigations conducted by chemists, biologists, clinical biochemists and environmentalists. (springer.com)
  • The charge is partly neutralized by cations that are bound to the surface and partly by the electrostatic double layer that extends some distance into the pore. (usgs.gov)
  • Endo-lysosomal two-pore cation channels have now emerged as potentialnovel targets for SARS-CoV treatment. (nanion.de)
  • Some of the cations play a crucial role in biological processes (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ ). (springer.com)
  • Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of sensations such as coolness, by being activated by cold temperature below 25 degrees Celsius. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In medicine some diagnostics are based on the detection of certain cations and monitoring their concentration in blood and urine. (springer.com)
  • Some cations are toxic (Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ ) and early detection of their presence in organism is of uttermost importance. (springer.com)
  • We discuss the challenges of connecting experiments that elucidate the first solvation shell via extended x-ray absorptions fine structure (EXAFS) to molecular simulation of monovalent cations. (rutgers.edu)
  • Additionally, the binding constants estimated from the concentration profiles of the fluorescence changes are related to the charge density of the cations, so that larger was the cation charge density, greater was the complex-formation equilibrium constant. (springer.com)
  • In vegetation, this cation additionally performs a key function within the management of stomatal motion. (immpact-international.org)
  • An essential protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the envelope protein E, forms a homopentameric cation channel that is important for virus pathogenicity. (nanion.de)
  • However, upon addition of some amounts of water the selectivity of this sensor has been enhanced (especially towards lead cation). (springer.com)
  • We investigated the interactions of monovalent cations (H 3 O + , (NH 4 ) + , Li + , K + , Cs + ) with various surfaces of microcline, and subsequent effects on the near-surface water structure at 300 K. The investigated surfaces include the perfect cleavage planes, (001) and (010), as well as the high energy plane (100) of microcline. (copernicus.org)
  • Dynamic model of monovalent-divalent cation exchange in polyelectrolyte gels. (nih.gov)
  • Results show that on simulation timescales, lattice vibration is necessary for ion exchange between added cation and lattice K + , albeit at different exchange rates for the 3 planes. (copernicus.org)
  • A general principle of operation of many PET fluorescent indicators is based on significant enhancement of fluorescence emission upon addition of cations into fluorescing medium. (springer.com)
  • Monovalent cation leaks in human red cells caused by single amino-acid substitutions in the transport domain of the band 3 chloride-bicarbonate exchanger, AE1. (medscape.com)
  • Le présent document remplace la précédente note de synthèse on hepatitis B vaccines.2 It provides updated informa- sur les vaccins anti-hépatite B, publiée par l'OMS en 2009.2 Il tion on hepatitis B vaccines and their storage, transport fournit des informations actualisées sur les vaccins anti-hépa- and deployment. (who.int)
  • If a certain minimum charge must be collected in order to start coagulation, it will need the conjunction of 6n monovalent , or 3n divalent, to equal the effect of 2n trivalent ions. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Relatively high sensitivity but poor selectivity of the aminoalcohol thatcontains indicator towards the two-valued cations was observed. (springer.com)
  • They summarize essential background vaccination à grande échelle, résument les information on their respective diseases informations essentielles sur les maladies et and vaccines, and conclude with the les vaccins associés et présentent en conclu- current WHO position concerning their sion la position actuelle de l'OMS concernant use in the global context. (who.int)
  • M =one atom of a normal chromate bichromate trichromate monovalent metal. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Metal halide perovskite has the general formula ABX 3 , where A is a monovalent cation (which can be either organic ( e.g. (nsf.gov)