Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.TRPC Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Flufenamic Acid: An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used in musculoskeletal and joint disorders and administered by mouth and topically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p16)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gadolinium: Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Metals, Alkaline Earth: Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Tromethamine: An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pyridinium CompoundsElectrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cesium Isotopes: Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.Onium Compounds: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectTrityl CompoundsAdenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Tetraphenylborate: An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Receptors, Purinergic P2X7: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium Isotopes: Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.Membrane Transport Modulators: Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters: Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Melibiose: A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital: Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Receptors, Purinergic P2X4: A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Ion Pumps: A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Terbium: Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.PolyaminesSodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Rubidium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.Calixarenes: Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.

Bound forms of Ca taken up by the synaptic plasma membrane. (1/762)

Temperature dependent Ca-binding by the synaptic plasma membrane was increased in the presence of ATP and Mg++. Apparent Km for ATP was about 2.8 X 10(-5) M and optimal concentration of Mg++ was 2 mM in the presence of 2 mM ATP. After preincubation with nonradioactive Ca++, ATP and Mg++ to attain a steady state, addition of 45Ca resulted in remarkable labelling of the membrane, indicating rapid turnover of most of the membrane bound Ca. The presence of oxalate (60 mM) greatly increased Ca up-take on prolonged incubation. The Ca uptake in presence and absence of oxalate had similar substrate specificity and was similarly influenced by various monovalent cations. Furthermore, activities for Ca-uptake in the presence and absence of oxalate could not be separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of the synaptic plasma membrane fraction. Accordingly, it was considered that Ca++ in the medium was taken up by surface of the membrane, ATP- and temperature-dependently and then transferred into a cavity where the Ca-oxalate complex is formed.  (+info)

Selectivity and permeation in calcium release channel of cardiac muscle: alkali metal ions. (2/762)

Current was measured from single open channels of the calcium release channel (CRC) of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (over the range +/-180 mV) in pure and mixed solutions (e.g., biionic conditions) of the alkali metal ions Li+, K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, ranging in concentration from 25 mM to 2 M. The current-voltage (I-V) relations were analyzed by an extension of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) formulation of electrodiffusion, which includes local chemical interaction described by an offset in chemical potential, which likely reflects the difference in dehydration/solvation/rehydration energies in the entry/exit steps of permeation. The theory fits all of the data with few adjustable parameters: the diffusion coefficient of each ion species, the average effective charge distribution on the wall of the pore, and an offset in chemical potential for lithium and sodium ions. In particular, the theory explains the discrepancy between "selectivities" defined by conductance sequence and "selectivities" determined by the permeability ratios (i.e., reversal potentials) in biionic conditions. The extended PNP formulation seems to offer a successful combined treatment of selectivity and permeation. Conductance selectivity in this channel arises mostly from friction: different species of ions have different diffusion coefficients in the channel. Permeability selectivity of an ion is determined by its electrochemical potential gradient and local chemical interaction with the channel. Neither selectivity (in CRC) seems to involve different electrostatic interaction of different ions with the channel protein, even though the ions have widely varying diameters.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (3/762)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

Ion binding and permeation through the lepidopteran amino acid transporter KAAT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (4/762)

1. The transient and steady-state currents induced by voltage jumps in Xenopus oocytes expressing the lepidopteran amino acid co-transporter KAAT1 have been investigated by two-electrode voltage clamp. 2. KAAT1-expressing oocytes exhibited membrane currents larger than controls even in the absence of amino acid substrate (uncoupled current). The selectivity order of this uncoupled current was Li+ > Na+ approximately Rb+ approximately K+ > Cs+; in contrast, the permeability order in non-injected oocytes was Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+. 3. KAAT1-expressing oocytes gave rise to 'pre-steady-state currents' in the absence of amino acid. The characteristics of the charge movement differed according to the bathing ion: the curves in K+ were strongly shifted (> 100 mV) towards more negative potentials compared with those in Na+, while in tetramethylammonium (TMA+) no charge movement was detected. 4. The charge-voltage (Q-V) relationship in Na+ could be fitted by a Boltzmann equation having V of -69 +/- 1 mV and slope factor of 26 +/- 1 mV; lowering the Na+ concentrations shifted the Q-V relationship to more negative potentials; the curves could be described by a generalized Hill equation with a coefficient of 1.6, suggesting two binding sites. The maximal movable charge (Qmax) in Na+, 3 days after injection, was in the range 2.5-10 nC. 5. Addition of the transported substrate leucine increased the steady-state carrier current, the increase being larger in high K+ compared with high Na+ solution; in these conditions the charge movement disappeared. 6. Applying Eyring rate theory, the energy profile of the transporter in the absence of organic substrate included a very high external energy barrier (25.8 RT units) followed by a rather deep well (1.8 RT units).  (+info)

A single point mutation in the pore region of the epithelial Na+ channel changes ion selectivity by modifying molecular sieving. (5/762)

The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) belongs to a new class of channel proteins called the ENaC/DEG superfamily involved in epithelial Na+ transport, mechanotransduction, and neurotransmission. The role of ENaC in Na+ homeostasis and in the control of blood pressure has been demonstrated recently by the identification of mutations in ENaC beta and gamma subunits causing hypertension. The function of ENaC in Na+ reabsorption depends critically on its ability to discriminate between Na+ and other ions like K+ or Ca2+. ENaC is virtually impermeant to K+ ions, and the molecular basis for its high ionic selectivity is largely unknown. We have identified a conserved Ser residue in the second transmembrane domain of the ENaC alpha subunit (alphaS589), which when mutated allows larger ions such as K+, Rb+, Cs+, and divalent cations to pass through the channel. The relative ion permeability of each of the alphaS589 mutants is related inversely to the ionic radius of the permeant ion, indicating that alphaS589 mutations increase the molecular cutoff of the channel by modifying the pore geometry at the selectivity filter. Proper geometry of the pore is required to tightly accommodate Na+ and Li+ ions and to exclude larger cations. We provide evidence that ENaC discriminates between cations mainly on the basis of their size and the energy of dehydration.  (+info)

Effect of cations on purine.purine.pyrimidine triple helix formation in mixed-valence salt solutions. (6/762)

The effect of various monovalent, divalent and oligovalent cations on the reaction of triplex formation by GT and AG motif triplex-forming oligonucleotides, designed to bind to biologically relevant polypurine-polypyrimidine sequences occurring in the promoters of the murine Ki-ras and human bcr genes, has been investigated by means of electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA) and DNase I footprinting experiments. We found that in the presence of 10 mm MgCl2 the triple helices were progressively destabilized by adding increasing amounts of NaCl, from 20 to 140 mm, to the solution. We also observed that, while the total monovalent-ion concentration was constant at 100 mm, the exchange of sodium with potassium, but not lithium, results in a further destabilization of the triple helices, due to self-association equilibria involving the G-rich triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Potassium was found to destabilize triplex DNA even when the triple helices are preformed in the absence of K+. However, footprinting experiments also showed that the inhibitory effect of K+ on triplex DNA is partially compensated for by millimolar amounts of divalent transition metal ions such as Mn2+ and Ni2+, which upon coordinating to N7 of guanine are expected to enhance hydrogen-bond formation between the target and the third strand, and to reduce the assembly in quadruple structures of G-rich triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Triplex enhancement in the presence of potassium was also observed, but to a lesser extent, when spermine was added to the reaction mixture. Here, the ion effect on triplex DNA is rationalized in terms of competition among the different valence cations to bind to triplex DNA, and differential cation stabilization of unusual quadruplex structures formed by the triplex-forming oligonucleotides.  (+info)

Analysis of calcium-induced calcium release in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles using models derived from single-channel data. (7/762)

The planar lipid bilayer and vesicle release experiments are two alternative approaches used to study the function of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) channel at the subcellular level. In this work, we combine models of gating (Zahradnikova and Zahradnik, Biophys. J. 71 (1996) 2996-3012) and permeation (Tinker et al., J. Gen. Physiol. 100 (1992) 495-517) of the cardiac RyR channel to simulate calcium release experiments on sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. The resulting model and real experimental data agreed well within the experimental scatter, confirming indistinguishable properties of the RyRC in the vesicle preparation and in the planar lipid bilayer. The previously observed differences in calcium dependencies of the release and the gating processes can be explained by binding of calcium within the RyRC conducting pore. A novel method of analysis of calcium dependence of calcium release was developed and tested. Three gating models of the RyRC, showing, respectively, an increase, no change, and a decrease in calcium sensitivity over time, were compared. The described method of analysis enabled determination of temporal changes in calcium sensitivity, giving potential for detection of the adaptation/inactivation phenomena of the RyRC in both vesicle and in situ release experiments.  (+info)

Functional characterization of the Betaine/gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter BGT-1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (8/762)

Betaine is an osmolyte accumulated in cells during osmotic cell shrinkage. The canine transporter mediating cellular accumulation of the osmolyte betaine and the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (BGT-1) was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analyzed by two-electrode voltage clamp and tracer flux studies. Exposure of oocytes expressing BGT-1 to betaine or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) depolarized the cell membrane in the current clamp mode and induced an inward current under voltage clamp conditions. At 1 mM substrate the induced currents decreased in the following order: betaine = GABA > diaminobutyric acid = beta-alanine > proline = quinidine > dimethylglycine > glycine > sarcosine. Both the Vmax and Km of GABA- and betaine-induced currents were voltage-dependent, and GABA- and betaine-induced currents and radioactive tracer uptake were strictly Na+-dependent but only partially dependent on the presence of Cl-. The apparent affinity of GABA decreased with decreasing Na+ concentrations. The Km of Na+ also depended on the GABA and Cl- concentration. A decrease of the Cl- concentration reduced the apparent affinity for Na+ and GABA, and a decrease of the Na+ concentration reduced the apparent affinity for Cl- and GABA. A comparison of 22Na+-, 36Cl--, and 14C-labeled GABA and 14C-labeled betaine fluxes and GABA- and betaine-induced currents yielded a coupling ratio of Na+/Cl-/organic substrate of 3:1:1 or 3:2:1. Based on the data, a transport model of ordered binding is proposed in which GABA binds first, Na+ second, and Cl- third. In conclusion, BGT-1 displays significant functional differences from the other members of the GABA transporter family.  (+info)

*Microbial rhodopsin

It forms a cation-selective ion channel activated by light absorption. It transports both monovalent and divalent cations. It ... A transient increase in hydration of transmembrane α-helices with a t(1/2) = 60 μs tallies with the onset of cation permeation ... The observed proton transfer reactions and the protein conformational changes relate to the gating of the cation channel. ... a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ...

*Perchloratoborate

Rosolovskii (1975). "Reaction of nitrates of monovalent cations with BCl3". Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR ...

*Tetranitratoborate

Rosolovskii (1975). "Reaction of nitrates of monovalent cations with BCl3". Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR ... It has formula [B(NO3)4]−. It can form salts with large cations such as tetramethyl ammonium nitratoborate, or tetraethyl ...

*Peptization

Multivalent cations are more efficient flocculants than monovalent cations: AlCl3 > CaCl2 > NaCl. The electrical charges ... In the synthesis of titania (titanium dioxide) nanoparticles, peptization involves adsorption of quaternary ammonium cation on ...

*Nucleic acid tertiary structure

Metal cations that bind RNA can be monovalent, divalent or trivalent. Potassium (K+) is a common monovalent ion that binds RNA ... In the early stages, RNA forms secondary structures stabilized through the binding of monovalent cations, divalent cations and ... the A-A platform motif binds preferentially to monovalent cations. In many of these motifs, absence of the monovalent or ... The G-quartet typically binds monovalent cations such as potassium, while other bases can bind numerous other ligands such as ...

*Ion channel

These channels are permeable to the monovalent cations K+ and Na+. There are 4 members of this family, all of which form ... These channels are primarily permeable to monovalent cations such as K+ and Na+. They are also permeable to Ca2+, though it ... Proton channels Voltage-gated proton channels Non-selective cation channels: These non-selectively allow many types of cations ... Cation channels of sperm: This small family of channels, normally referred to as Catsper channels, is related to the two-pore ...

*Parasporal body

These channels allow monovalent cations such as potassium to pass through. B. thuringiensis toxin genes have been engineered to ...

*UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase

IV Activation of uridine diphospho-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase by monovalent cations". J. Biol. Chem. 248 (14): ...

*Glycerol dehydrogenase

Lin ECC; Magasanik B (1960). "The activation of glycerol dehydrogenase from Aerobacter aerogenes by monovalent cations". J. ... Lin ECC; Magasanik B (1960). "The activation of glycerol dehydrogenase from Aerobacter aerogenes by monovalent cations". J. ... Research into the structure of B. stearothermophilus shows that the active site contains a divalent cation-zinc ion, Zn2+. This ...

*Membrane potential

The most important cations for the action potential are sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+). Both of these are monovalent cations ... ISBN 0-12-664661-9. Hodgkin AL, Keynes RD (1955). "Active transport of cations in giant axons from Sepia and Loligo". J. ... 35-37 Spangler SG (1972). "Expansion of the constant field equation to include both divalent and monovalent ions". Ala J Med ... Action potentials can also involve calcium (Ca2+), which is a divalent cation that carries a double positive charge. The ...

*P2X purinoreceptor

The generalized transport reaction is: Monovalent cations or Ca2+ (out) ⇌ monovalent cations or Ca2+ (in) The pharmacology of a ... P2X receptor channels transport small monovalent cations, although some also transport Ca2+. Evidence from early molecular ... The ATP-gated P2X receptor cation channel family (TC# 1.A.7), or simply P2X receptor family, consists of cation-permeable ... The entry of cations leads to the depolarization of the cell membrane and the activation of various Ca2+-sensitive ...

*Rydberg state

For molecules with multiple stable monovalent cations, multiple Rydberg series may exist. Because of the complexity of ...

*Alum

... are known where A is a monovalent cation such as sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium, or thallium(I), or a compound cation ... Aluminum-based alums are named by the monovalent cation. Unlike the other alkali metals, lithium does not form alums; a fact ... In some cases, solid solutions of alums with different monovalent and trivalent cations may occur. Many trivalent metals are ... The possible combinations of univalent cation, trivalent cation, and anion depends on the sizes of the ions. Chrome alum, KCr( ...

*Hammerhead ribozyme

... provided a sufficiently high concentration of monovalent cation is present to permit the RNA to fold. This discovery suggested ... but can be dispensed with at higher concentrations of monovalent cations. The reaction thus likely involves abstraction of the ... hairpin and VS ribozymes are catalytically proficient in monovalent cations alone". Chem Biol. 5 (10): 587-595. doi:10.1016/ ... in the sense that they were assumed to require the presence of divalent cations, such as Mg2+, for both folding and catalysis. ...

*Hairpin ribozyme

... hairpin and VS ribozymes are catalytically proficient in monovalent cations alone". Chemistry & Biology. 5 (10): 587-595. doi: ... In the laboratory, a functional interaction between the two domains is promoted by the addition of cations, whose positive ...

*Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase

Roche, Thomas E.; Reed, Lester J. (1974). "Monovalent cation requirement for ADP inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase". ...

*Jarosite

Divalent cations may also substitute for the monovalent cation K+ in the A site. Charge balance may be achieved in three ways. ... Firstly by replacing two monovalent cations by one divalent cation, and leaving an A site vacancy, as in plumbogummite, Pb2+Al3 ...

*SLC7A3

2005). "Monovalent cation conductance in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing hCAT-3". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1668 (2): 234-9. ...

*Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase

Monovalent cations have been shown to activate IMPDH enzymes and may serve to stabilize the conformation of the active-site ... Xiang, Bosong; Taylor, John C.; Markham, George D. (1996). "Monovalent cation activation and kinetic mechanism of inosine 5'- ...

*TRPM7

As a channel, it conducts calcium and monovalent cations to depolarize cells and increase intracellular calcium. As a kinase, ... Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7, also known as TRPM7, is a human gene encoding a protein of ... TRPM7 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7". Runnels LW, Yue L, Clapham DE (May 2002). "The TRPM7 ...

*Gramicidin

... gramicidin channels are completely selective for monovalent cations and the single-channel conductances for the alkali cations ... The channel is permeable to most monovalent cations, which move through the channel in single file. The channel is filled with ... Divalent cations like Ca2+ block the channel by binding near its mouth so it is essentially impermeable to divalent cations and ... Its ability to bind and transport cations is due to the presence of cation-binding sites, one strong and the other weak, in the ...

*2-isopropylmalate synthase

Monovalent and divalent cation activation have been reported for enzymes from different sources. Mycobacterium tuberculosis α- ... Carvalho LP, Blanchard, JS (2006). "Kinetic analysis of the effects of monovalent cations and divalent metals on the activity ... and a monovalent cation, with K+ as the best activator. Zn2+ was shown to be an inhibitor, contrary to what was assumed from ...

*Suxamethonium chloride

Binding of suxamethonium to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor results in opening of the receptor's monovalent cation channel ...

*Fluorosulfates

"The missing crystal structures of fluorosulfates of monovalent cations: M(I)SO3F, M=Na, Rb and Tl". Journal of Fluorine ... The fluorosulfate ion has a low propensity to form complexes with the metal cation. Since fluorine is similar in size to oxygen ...

*Cassaine

... can be defined as a specific inhibitor of monovalent cation transport and of Na+-K+ ATPase; the result being an ...

*Inward-rectifier potassium channel

It transports monovalent cations with the selectivity: K ≈ Rb ≈ Cs ≫ Li ≈ Na ≈ NMGM (protonated N-methyl-D-glucamine). Activity ...

*Uranate

Essentially these arise when the cation:uranium ratio is different from 2:1 (monovalent cations) or 1:1 (divalent cations). ... For example, with the cation K+, compounds with K:U ratios of 2, 1 and 0.5 were found, corresponding to empirical formulas ... where M represents a cation. The uranium atom in uranates(VI) has two short collinear U-O bonds and either four or six more ... Charge-balance constrains the number of oxygen atoms to be equal to half the sum of charges of the cations and uranyl groups. ...

*Ligation (molecular biology)

At high concentration of monovalent cation (>200 mM) ligation can also be almost completely inhibited. The standard buffer used ... The kinds of cations presence can also influence the ligation reaction, for example, excess amount of Na+ can cause the DNA to ...
Two mechanisms of passive Ca2+ transport, Na+-Ca2+ exchange and Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange, were studied using highly-purified dog heart sarcolemmal vesicles. About 80% of the Ca2+ accumulated by Na+-Ca2+ exchange or Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange could be released as free Ca2+, while up to 20% was probably bound. Na+-Ca2+ exchange was simultaneous, coupled countertransport of Na+ and Ca2+. The movement of anions during Na+-Ca2+ exchange did not limit the initial rate of Na+-Ca2+ exchange. Na+-Ca2+ exchange was electrogenic, with a reversal potential of about -105 mV. The apparent flux ratio of Na+-Ca2+ exchange was 4 Na+:1 Ca2+. Coupled cation countertransport by the Na+-Ca2+ exchange mechanism required a monovalent cation gradient with the following sequence of ion activation: Na+ much greater than Li+ greater than Cs+ greater than K+ greater than Rb+. In contrast to Na+-Ca2+ exchange, Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange did not require a monovalent cation gradient, but required the presence of Ca2+ plus a monovalent cation on both sides
Gramicidins bactericidal activity is a result of increasing the permeability of the bacterial cell wall allowing inorganic monovalent cations (e.g. H+) to travel through unrestricted, thereby destroying the ion gradient between the cytoplasm and the extracellular environment. That gramicidin D functions as a channel was demonstrated by Hladky and Haydon, who investigated the unit conductance channel. In general, gramicidin channels are ideally selective for monovalent cations and the single-channel conductances for the alkali cations are ranked in the same order as the aqueous mobilities of these ions. Divalent cations like Ca-2+ block the channel by binding near the mouth of the channel. So it is basically impermeable to divalent cations. It also excludes anions. Cl- in particular is excluded from the channel because its hydration shell is thermodynamically stronger than that of most monovalent cations. The channel is permeable to most monovalent cations, which move through the channel in ...
In aqueous solutions, an elongated, negatively charged DNA chain can quickly change its conformation into a compacted globule in the presence of positively charged molecules, or cations. This well-known process, called DNA compaction, is a highly potential method for gene therapy and delivery. Experimental c
Famodez VNX 150 - washing and cleaning of any acid and waterproof surfaces in the kitchen. Buy Famidez VNX 150 in MEGA-SPECTR manufacturer DesoMark.
We showed that both Ca2+ and Mg2+ exhibit anomalous mole-fraction effects at normal physiological pH. The apparent affinity of TRPM7 is 47.1 μM for Ca2+ and 5.4 μM for Mg2+, similar to the previously reported Ca2+ (20 μM, at −120 mV) (Fomina et al., 2000) and Mg2+ affinity (3 μM, at −120 mV) to native MIC/MagNuM channels (Kerschbaum et al., 2003). Under normal physiological Ca2+ (2 mM) and Mg2+ (0.7-1.1 mM) concentrations (Konrad et al., 2004), we showed that monovalent cations contribute to the inward currents of TRPM7 (Fig. 3), and the contribution of monovalent currents becomes more pronounced under acidic conditions (pH 4.0, Fig. 4).. Several lines of evidence shown in the present study indicate that external protons increase TRPM7 inward currents by competing with divalent cations for binding sites in the TRPM7 pore, thereby enhancing monovalent cation permeability. First, there was a concentration-dependent increase in monovalent cation conductance and reversal potential for Na+, ...
mode, was anticipated by work with more intensively These additional catalytic modes, which will be detailed studied Tet proteins and was confirmed by Yamaguchi et further below, have in common the use of cationic al. (1995) and Guffanti and Krulwich (1995). Modes II and substrates with single net charge, but the cytoplasmic III, the Monovalent cation/H+ Antiport and Monovalent substrates range from a Tc- -Me2+ complex that has regions cation or Tc- -Me2+/K+ Antiport (the Net K+ Uptake Mode), with highly non-polar features to highly hydrated respectively, were unanticipated, although Ives and Bott monovalent cations. The substrate diversity of Tet(L) and (1990) speculated that tetL was likely to have a Tc-unrelated Tet(K) opens up some of the same questions that are function of physiological significance. Chromosomally central to function of those MDRs whose substrates encoded Tet(L) from Bacillus subtilis was identified as a encompass diverse structures and both non-polar and polar possible ...
Interpreters Software Software. Free, secure and fast downloads from the largest Open Source applications and software directory - SourceForge.net
View Notes - 0243Pb45anp2-09 from CHEM orgo at NYU. + + Both cations (these are NOT resonance forms - they are two separate cations) are captured - two steps please - to give the two final products.
A method of treating a subterranean formation including providing a well bore that includes a filter cake on at least a portion of the well bore and contacting at least a portion of the filter cake with a filter cake degradation fluid comprising a relative permeability modifier. The method also includes allowing the relative permeability modifier to retain at least a portion of the filter cake degradation fluid in the well bore for a time sufficient to contact the filtercake and allowing the filter cake to degrade.
Article: Teamwork allows people to discuss their work together, and as a result, to grow professionally. To be successful, the teacher and para-educator must view themselves as a team and partners in the educational process ...
1776. Somme des cations échangeables (S) : Somme des cations métalliques échangeables exprimée en milliéquivalents-grammes pour 100 grammes de complexe absorbant ...
Fig. 5. Proton-activated currents associated with AtMHX expression in vacuolar giant patches. (A) Patch from a vacuole of a transformed cell. Currents are activated by switching from a pH 7.7 solution to a pH 5.7 solution and back to pH 7.7. N-methyl-glucamine (NMG) is the only monovalent cation in solution. The pipette solution (pH 7.0; cytoplasmic membrane side) contains 2 mM Mg2 and 2 mM Ca2 ; the bath solution contains 0.5 mM Mg2 . (B) Typical current records for the same protocol in a vacuolar patch from a non-transformed cell. (C) Current-voltage relations for the proton-activated current in Figure 5A (2-1), whereby records were subtracted just before (1) and after (2) application of the pH 5.7 solution. In addition, the current- voltage relation is given for the reverse current observed on removing protons, whereby the subtracted records were obtained just after returning to pH 7.7 (3) and 30 s later when the current had decayed (4). (D) Current-voltage relation of the 10 times smaller current
He catalytic activity; replacement of HEPES/KOH buffer with TRIS/HCl abolished the enzymatic activity unless a monovalent cation was present (Figure 3C). Among
Synonyms for Cations, divalent in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cations, divalent. 1 synonym for divalent: bivalent. What are synonyms for Cations, divalent?
View Notes - unk9scheme[1](2) from CHM 2045L at University of Florida. Instruction for unknown 9A/9B The author is not responsible for the scheme! Possible ions: 1. Cations: Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+,
Maximum efficiency of cation hydrolysis will be shown by? a) \(\sf Al^{+3}\) b) \(\sf Tl^{+3}\) c) \(\sf Tl^{+1}\) d) \(\sf Ga^{+3}\)The answer i...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of connexin hemichannels by monovalent cations. AU - Srinivas, Miduturu. AU - Calderon, D. Paola. AU - Kronengold, Jack. AU - Verselis, Vytautas. PY - 2006/1. Y1 - 2006/1. N2 - Opening of connexin hemichannels in the plasma membrane is highly regulated. Generally, depolarization and reduced extracellular Ca2+ promote hemichannel opening. Here we show that hemichannels formed of Cx50, a principal lens connexin, exhibit a novel form of regulation characterized by extraordinary sensitivity to extracellular monovalent cations. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with K+, while maintaining extracellular Ca2+ constant, resulted in ,10-fold potentiation of Cx50 hemichannel currents, which reversed upon returning to Na+. External Cs+, Rb+, NH4+, but not Li +, choline, or TEA, exhibited a similar effect. The magnitude of potentiation of Cx50 hemichannel currents depended on the concentration of extracellular Ca2+, progressively decreasing as external Ca 2+ was reduced. The primary ...
Relative permeability is one of the key parameters governing fluid flow through porous media. Determination of relative permeability is traditionally conducted in the laboratory using either recombined reservoir oil or laboratory oil at simulated reservoir conditions, or simply at laboratory conditions. This is because it is expensive to sample representative uncontaminated reservoir fluids and extremely difficult to cut reservoir cores without altering their surface properties. Restoring rock properties to their original reservoir conditions has been a technical challenge to the industry. Upscaling laboratory special core-analysis data to reservoir scale is also a concern. Consequently, the industry has been researching new methods to extract relative permeability in situ, including the utilization of specially designed permanent downhole electric resistivity array, pressure and flow rate measurements. In this study, a different approach was taken. A semi-analytical model, developed to infer ...
Wolf, R., Dommröse, A. - M., & Grützmacher, H. - F. (1988). Destabilized carbenium ions: secondary and tertiary [alpha]-carbomethoxybenzyl cations. Organic Mass Spectrometry, 23(1), 26-32. doi:10.1002/oms. ...
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TRPV6 / ECAC2, 0.1 ml. FUNCTION: Calcium selective cation channel probably involved in Ca(2+) uptake in various tissues, including Ca(2+) reabsorption in intestine.
வேதியியலில் உப்பு (salt) என்பது ஒரு காடியும், காரமும் சேர்ந்து வேதியியல் வினைப்படும் பொழுது நடுமை அடைகையில் உருவாகும் பொருள். உப்புகள் மின்ம முனைப்படும் சேர்மங்கள் ஆகும். உப்புகளில் நேர்மின்மம் கொண்ட நேர்முனையி அல்லது கேட்டயான் (cation) பகுதியும், எதிர்மின்மம் கொண்ட எதிர்முனையி அல்லது ஆனையான் (anion) பகுதியும் கொண்ட ஆனால் மொத்தமாக மின்மம் ஏதுமற்ற, மின்மநடுநிலை கொண்ட ஒரு பொருள். ...
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Prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins cluster separately but probably function with the same polarity by similar mechanisms. These proteins are secondary carriers which utilize the pmf and function by H antiport (for metal efflux). One member, CzcD of Bacillus subtilis, has been shown to exchange the divalent cation (Zn2+ or Cd2+ ) for two monovalent cations (K+ and H+ ) in an electroneutral process energized by the transmembrane pH gradient (Guffanti et al., 2002). Another, ZitB of E. coli (TC #2.A.4.1.4), has been reconstituted in proteoliposomes and studied kinetically (Chao and Fu, 2004a). It appears to function by simple Me2+:H antiport with a 1:1 stoichiometry.. Montanini et al (2007) have conducted phylogenetic analysis of CDF family members. Their analysis revealed three major and two minor phylogenetic groups. They suggest that the three major groups segregated according to metal ion specificity: (1) Mn2+ , (2) Fe2+ and Zn2+ as well as other metal ions, and (3) Zn2+ plus other metals, but ...
1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? C7H16 + ____ O2 - , ____ CO2 + ____ H2O a) 21 b) 24 c) 18 d) 27 2. An atom has an atomic number of 7 and a mass number of 14. How many electrons will it have in its valence level: a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) 5 3. Calculate the molar concentration of the solution produced by dissolving 11g of K2SO4 in 125 cm3 of water (atomic masses are: K=39; S=32; O=16) a) 0.05 M b) 0.5 M c) 0.25 M d) 0.025 M 4. Select a group of acids according to Brönsted concept: a) CH3COO-, HCl, H2O, HCO3- b) HCl, H2O, NH4+, HS- c) H2SO4, Cl-, H3O+, CH3NH2 d) H2CO3, CH3NH2, H3O+, HCl 5. The bond between sulfur and chlorine would be: a) not formed b) ionic c) polar covalent d) nonpolar covalent 6. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does monovalent cation of 31H have? a) 1, 2, 0 b) 2, 1, 3 c) 3, 2, 1 d) 1, 2, 3 7. As you move up and to the right on the periodic table: a) atomic radius increases and electronegativity increases ...
Read interesting answers and in fact write your own answer to the question which element ionic radius is smaller than its atomic radius?
In the present study we report the synthesis, crystal structure and Raman spectroscopy studies of Na1-xKxPb4(VO4)(3) orthovanaclates solid solutions (0 ,= x ,= 1). Rielveld refinements showed that this solid solution is continuous adopting P6(3)/m (no. 176) space group. Some of Pb(II) cations are located in the (6 h) sites. The ninefold coordination sites (4f) are equally occupied by the other lead cations and the K+ and Na+ monovalent ions. The structure can be described as built up from [VO4](3-) tetrahedral and Ph2+ of sixfold coordination cavities (6 h positions), which delimit void hexagonal tunnels running along [0 0 1]. These tunnels are connected by cations of mixed sites (4f) half occupied by Pb(II) and half by Na+/K+ mixed cations. The existence of this type of lacunar apatite seems to be conditioned by the presence of lone pair cations Pb(II). Raman spectra of all the compositions are similar and show some linear shifts in band positions as a function of the composition toward high ...
Determination of cations in beverages - Food and Beverage - Beverage by Lumex Instruments Group. The method enables fast determination of inorganic cations ...
Every ionic bond will result in the formation of an anion and a cation. The anion is the atom which receives the electron (usually the nonmetal with a large EN) and the cation is the atom which donates the electron (usually the metal with a low EN). Because of this, we can say that as EN increases going right across the periodic table, so does the likelihood of the element forming an anion when in an ionic bond. Vice versa, we can say that as EN decreases going left across the periodic table, so does the likelihood of an element forming a cation when in an ionic bond ...
Every ionic bond will result in the formation of an anion and a cation. The anion is the atom which receives the electron (usually the nonmetal with a large EN) and the cation is the atom which donates the electron (usually the metal with a low EN). Because of this, we can say that as EN increases going right across the periodic table, so does the likelihood of the element forming an anion when in an ionic bond. Vice versa, we can say that as EN decreases going left across the periodic table, so does the likelihood of an element forming a cation when in an ionic bond ...
Using Periodic Properties to Identify Group 2A Cations and Group 7A Anions Objectives The objectives of this lab are as follows: To observe the solubility properties of various ionic compounds containing
Calixarene-Based Molecules for Cation Recognition. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Müller, A., Krickemeyer, E., Bögge, H., Schmidtmann, M., Botar, B., & Talismanova, M. O. (2003). Drawing small cations into highly charged porous nanocontainers reveals "Water" assembly and related interaction problems. ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, 42(18), 2085-2090. doi:10.1002/anie. ...
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The following investigation focuses on the impact of capillary pressure on estimation of two phases relative permeability curves. Accurate relative permeability is a crucial parameter for evaluating reservoir performance. The unsteady state core flooding tests, which is considered in this study, is mostly used to measure oil-water relative permeabilities. The Johnson ,Bossler and Neumann (JBN) method is the conventional method for estimating relative permeabilities from field core. The limitations in the JBN method create an error in relative permeability curves and make it unrepresentative of a typical core flooding test results. There are always capillary pressure effects taking place during core flood tests. Ignoring of capillary pressure by JBN method will influence the calculation of relative permeability curves and final saturation levels. One dimensional numerical model with uniform initial saturation has been implemented in this study using Eclipse 100 software to understand the ...
A method of removing ash from sugar containing solutions comprises contacting the sugar containing solution against one side of an ultrafiltration membrane with a stripping fluid to strip away monovalent ions and low molecular weight sugars which pass through the membrane. The stripping fluid is contacted at high pressure against one side of a nanofiltration membrane which allows passage of monovalent ions and water only. The deashed retentate can be returned to sugar containing solution, pass through an ion exchange column or cause to contact one side of a high pressure ultrafiltration membrane which allows passage of water monovalent ions and low molecular weight sugars. The permeate from the high pressure ultrafiltration membrane can be subjected to ion exchange to provide a liquid sugar having a low ash content while the retentate can be evaporated to a sugar product. The use of the semipermeable membranes allows efficient deashing of sugar containing solutions (i.e. sugar cane or sugar beet
Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and total exchangeable cations (TEC) are two significant concepts in soil fertility. Cations refer to the positively charged nutrients in the soil, e.g. Ca2+ and K+. They are important as they give you an idea of how many cations a soil can potentially hold and how many cations are currently being held. Understanding exactly how these soil properties influence soil fertility and applying soil management systems that enhance these properties can assist in improving pasture quality and yield.. CEC is defined as the degree to which a soil can adsorb (hold/capture) and exchange cations with the soil solution1. This term is often confused with a soils TEC which refers to the number of basic cations that are held on the soil exchange sites (CEC sites) in comparison to the total sites and is usually reported in cmol(+)/kg soil. The ability of the soil to hold nutrients is greatly influenced by the soils organic matter (OM) content, which is mostly made up of carbon, as ...
This invention relates to a process for producing a quality-improved water-absorbent polymer in which the aqueous liquid (I), which is obtained by mixing in an aqueous medium at least one kind of a water-soluble salt (A) selected from a group of halogenated compounds, sulfates, acetates, and nitrates, which are derived from at least one kind of a polyvalent metal selected from a group of aluminum, calcium, and magnesium, with at least one kind of a water-soluble salt (B) selected from a group of monovalent metal salts and ammonium salts, which are derived from at least one kind of an oxyacid selected from a group of sulfurous acid and thiosulfuric acid, is mixed with a water-absorbent polymer (II) in a proportion of that the water-soluble salt of the polyvalent metal (A) is in a range of 0.1˜10 parts by weight against 100 parts by weight of the water-absorbent polymer (II) and the water-soluble salt of the oxyacid (B) is in a range of 0. 1˜10 parts by weight against 100 parts by weight of the water
An apparatus for removing deposits from a razor blade includes a quantity of cation source material, a vessel retaining a cation carrying medium, and a medium and cation permeable barrier dividing the vessel and the medium into a blade placement region and a material retaining region, for separating the quantity of cation source material from the razor blade. The cation source material preferably includes several plastic beads. The medium permeable barrier is preferably a wire mesh. The cation carrying medium preferably includes water. A method of removing deposits from a razor blade includes the steps of: providing an apparatus including a vessel containing a water medium and cation source material at least partly submerged in the water medium, and immersing the blade in the water medium for a length of time to permit cations supplied by the material to react with the deposits on the blade.
Molecular mechanical (MM) force fields are commonly employed for biomolecular simulations. Despite their success, the non-polarizable nature of contemporary additive force fields limits their performance, especially in long simulations and when strong polarization effects are present. Guanine quadruplex D(R)NA molecules have been successfully studied by MM simulations in the past. However, the G-stems are stabilized by a chain of monovalent cations which create sizable polarization effects. Indeed, simulation studies revealed several problems which have been tentatively attributed to the lack of polarization. Here we provide a detailed comparison between quantum-chemical (QM) DFT-D3 and MM Potential Energy Surfaces of ion binding to G-stems and assess differences which may affect MM simulations. We suggest that MM describes binding of a single ion to the G-stem rather well. However, polarization effects become very significant when a second ion is present. We suggest that the MM approximation ...
The ionogenic nature of the synaptic vesicle surface and its calcium adsorption characteristics have been investigated by microelectrophoretic measurements on vesicles isolated from the guinea pig cerebral cortex. The electrophoretic mobility of synaptic vesicles determined in 0.16 M KCl was -1.31 µm sec-1 cm V-1, corresponding to a surface ζ potential of -18.2 mV and surface charge density of 5451 esu cm-2. Whereas the monovalent cation species of the suspending medium had little effect upon the electrokinetic properties of synaptic vesicles, addition of Ca2+, 1-10 mM, markedly decreased the surface charge. From the monomolecular adsorption isotherm the number of Ca2+ binding sites was found to be 4.17 x 1012 cm-2, with an electrochemical free energy of calcium ion adsorption, ΔGCa2+, of -5.00 kcal mole-1, increasing to -5.64 kcal mole-1 at low (0.02) ionic strength. Adenine and pyridine nucleotides (1 mM) were without effect on synaptic vesicle mobility. In contrast, the neuroactive agents ...
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A series of short, fun videos exploring the chemistry of the alkali metals, taken from a lecture by Dr. Peter Wothers at the University of Cambridge.
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The material structure in Maxwells equations is determined by the relative permittivity ε(x) and the relative permeability μ(x). However, ε is not only a function of position. In general, it also depends on frequency (material dispersion) and on the electric field E itself (nonlinearity). It may also depend on the orientation of the field (anisotropy). Material dispersion, in turn, is generally associated with absorption loss in the material, or possibly gain. All of these effects can be simulated in Meep, with certain restrictions. Similarly for the relative permeability μ(x), for which dispersion, nonlinearity, and anisotropy are all supported as well. In this section, we describe the form of the equations and material properties that Meep can simulate. The actual interface with which you specify these properties is described in the Meep reference. ...
SPE Part: 8B-S035-JDG Strata™-X-CW 33 µm Polymeric Weak Cation, 1 g / 12 mL, Giga Tubes , 20/Pk Phase: Polymeric weak cation exchange Sorbent Type: Polymer-based Format: Tube Target Analytes: Basic compounds, particularly strong bases
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League of Legends Summoner data for Cation Anion 990161 in br. Contains statistics, match data and more to help players analyze and improve performance.
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Nishimura, S, Biggs, S, Scales, PJ, Healy, TW, Tsunematsu, K and Tateyama, T (1994) Molecular-Scale Structure of the Cation Modified Muscovite Mica Basal-Plane. Langmuir, 10 12: 4554-4559. doi:10.1021/la00024a028 ...
EDTA is a chelator of divalent cations and inhibits enzymes such as metalloproteases that require divalent cations for activity. EDTA is used in some electropho
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Laboratory experiments and field tests were conducted to determine the effect of inorganic cations on effluent from activated-sludge systems. Laboratory experiments showed that monovalent cations tend to increase the concentration of solution biological polymers(biopolymers), whereas divalent cations tend to retain the biopolymers in the floc. Biopolymers in solution affect effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD). Coagulation tests were performed on the effluent with ferric chloride. Ferric hydroxide can coagulate protein through possible adsorptive interactions and may be responsible for some biopolymer retention in the flocs. In the field study, it was found that sodium ions in the influent wastewater caused an increase in proteins and polysaccharides in solution, thereby increasing the effluent COD concentration of the treated municipal wastewater. The attachment or release of these microbially derived organic biopolymers and recalcitrant influent substrate may depend on the ...
The effect of polyvalent cations on adsorption capacity of zeolites has been reported in the literature, which indicated that the adsorptive capacity increases with increasing charge density of the cation. The effects of metal balancing cation in zeolite structure on gas adsorption depend primarily on the size and shape of the gas molecule, the size of the cation and its location in the channel, and its interaction with the gas molecule. Modification of zeolite using cation exchange technique was used to determine the effect of different cation on gas adsorption characteristics. In this study, sodium cations originally present in zeolites are exchanged with other metal cations. It is observed that at very low concentration of adsorbed gas, the type of cation influences the adsorption characteristics, in which divalent cations adsorb more than monovalent cations exchanged zeolite. At higher concentrations of adsorbed gas, the effect of cation is insignificant. However, different gases adsorb ...
A retention model is derived for inorganic cations eluted from cation-exchange columns with eluents containing a single competing cation and a complexing ligand. This model is evaluated using divalent solute cations and a low-capacity fixed-site cation-exchange column, and good agreement is obtained between theoretical and experimental results both for simple cation exchange and also when complexation effects are present. Sodium ions added to the eluent during pH adjustment were found to contribute significantly to the elution of solute cations and should be included in all calculations using the retention model. Retention characteristics were also studied for an ion-interaction chromatographic system using a C18 column, octanesulfonic acid as the ion-interaction reagent, and oxalate as the complexing ligand in the eluent. Experimental data for this system did not show close agreement with the ion-exchange retention model. Discrepancies are attributed to variations in the ion-exchange capacity ...
KNaNbOF5 and KNaMO2F4 (M = Mo6+, W6+), three new layered oxide-fluoride perovskites with the general formula ABBX6, form from the combination of a second-order Jahn-Teller d0 transition metal and an alkali metal (Na+) on the B-site. Alternating layers of cation vacancies and K+ cations on the A-site complete the structure. The K+ cations are found in the A-site layer where the fluoride ions are located. The A-site is vacant in the adjacent A-site layer where the axial oxides are located. This unusual layered arrangement of unoccupied A-sites and under bonded oxygen has not been observed previously although many perovskite-related structures are known.
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SPE Part: 8B-S035-HCH Strata™-X-CW 33 µm Polymeric Weak Cation, 500 mg / 6 mL, Tubes , 30/Pk Phase: Polymeric weak cation exchange Sorbent Type: Polymer-based Format: Tube Target Analytes: Basic compounds, particularly strong bases
Cations are positively charged ions and anions are negatively charged ions. Metals act as cations and willingly give up or donate electrons to nonmetals. Nonmetals act as anions and accept donated...
Thuwal, Saudi Arabia (SPX) Nov 01, 2016 - The mechanism of sodium ion storage in an important two-dimensional material could be a simpler and less toxic route to cheaper batteries, a team of KAUST researchers discovered. Lithium ion b
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The magnetic permeability characterises the permeability or magnetic conductivity of materials. The relative permeability of vacuum is 1.
A family of novel and unique synthetic alkali metal alumino-silicates (SAMS) are produced by the hydrothermal reaction between kaolin and alkali metal silicates. The integrated composition of the SAMS products is a unique entity having an overall composition of xM.sub.2 O:Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 :ySiO.sub.2 :zH.sub.2 O where x is the number of moles of alkali metal oxides and is an integer from 0.01 to 2.0, M is the alkali metal, y is the number of moles of SiO2 in the unique SAMS compositions and is an integer greater than 2.0, and z is the number of moles of bound water and is an integer ranging from 1.0 to 5.0. The unique SAMS compositions are structured materials in which the structure can be controlled, and are therefore useful as functional fillers, as TiO2 extenders, as silica extenders or as reinforcing agents for paper, paint, rubber, plastics and specialty products.
ionic radius Half the distance between the centres of two ions of the same element. Although no precise measurement can be made of the size of individual ions, in practice various techniques (e.g. Source for information on ionic radius: A Dictionary of Earth Sciences dictionary.
1. The intercellular matrix of the cells on the gills of Mytilus edulis is readily dispersed by hydroxyl ions.. 2. All cations inhibit the action of hydroxyl ions, but the divalent metals are much more powerful than the monovalent metals. All divalent metallic ions except magnesium irreversibly coagulate the matrix at the hydroxyl ion concentration of seawater. This does not occur in the presence of magnesium ions.. 3. There is a marked difference between the action of different non-electrolytes, since in the absence of salts the matrix remains stable for a much longer period in sugar, or glycerine, than in urea. Alcohol in certain concentrations has a marked stabilising action in the absence of salts.. 4. With pure solutions of different monovalent sodium salts the anions can be arranged in a well-marked series in which the matrix is most readily dispersed in sodium iodide. I, Br. NO, , C1, Ac.. 5. The relationship of the matrix to ions is similar to that between protein systems and ions, ...
In the first group of cations, we include Silver(I), Mercury(I)and Lead(II) cations. Before we begin, it is good to note that mercury(I) ions - or mercurous ions - are NOT Hg+ but Hg22+.. The group reagent is dilute Hydrochloric acid.. When we pass dil. Hcl through the solution, we expect the precipitation of the chlorides of the aforementioned cations. ANY Precipitation is nothing but a chloride and the cation of the ppt. can not be any other than the three.. If a ppt is obtained, group I cations are confirmed. If not, we wll test the solution for the presence of group II cations.. Suppose we obtain a ppt on adding dil. HCl to the solution. It is inferred that the cation in the solution is either Ag+, Hg22+ or Pb2+.. Our goal now would be to distinguish between these three cations.. Before we pass onto this section, please realize that dil. HCl was added to only a part of the solution, taken in another testtube. The rest of the solution would be preserved for use in other tsts should it be ...
Todays best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions.
The presence of specific leukotriene B4 (LTB4) binding sites was investigated in membranes prepared from mouse, rat, guinea pig and rabbit brain. Specific binding sites have been found in guinea pig brain membranes (GPBM) but not in the other species studied. Specific binding of LTB4 to GPBM was proportional to membrane concentration, saturable and reversible, reaching a steady-state suggesting equilibrium after 30 min of incubation. Analysis of the binding data showed a single binding site with a Kd = 2.27 +/- 0.55 nM and a Bmax = 576 +/- 89.6 fmol/mg protein. The relative potencies of LTB4 analogs to displace the tritiated ligand were LTB4 greater than 20-hydroxy-LTB4 much greater than 20-carboxy-LTB4 greater than 12-(S)hydroxy-5,8,10,14(Z,Z,E,Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid; LTD4 and LTC4 did not displace the ligand in concentrations up to 50 microM. The binding was inhibited by monovalent cations and GTP[gamma S] and increased by divalent cations. Specific binding was associated to the cerebral ...
Primesep C separates a mixture of inorganic cations, potassium, sodium, and lithium, by a combination of cation exchange and complex formation. The peak order is reversed on the Primesep C column compared to the order normally obtained on columns that rely on cation exchange alone. The mobile phase mixture of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and ammonium acetate is compatible with UV and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). ...
In this thesis we have studied computationally two types of inorganic materials which can be classified as aluminophosphates and carbon nitrides. Both semi-classical and QM techniques have been applied. Aluminophosphates (AlPOs) are inorganic microporous oxides that have found use in a variety of industrial processes including ion exchange, molecular sieving and size and shape selective catalysis. Initially we examined whether we could influence the defect conformation of silicon doped AlPOs by the choice of extraframework templating species; our calculations indicate that doubly charged extraframework species encourage a clustering of the defects within the AlPO framework whilst monovalent cations lead to formation of more dispersed dopant configurations in the material. Later we examine the chemistry of vanadium dopants in AlPO and conclude that isomorphous substitutions at either Al or P sites can be achieved with little structural distortions; however, incorporations as vanadyl ion, (VO)2+, ...
The ever increasing advances in the integrated circuit technology made it possible for electronic system designers to assemble complete systems-on-chips (SoC). As these SoCs have been used in computer, graphics, and networking hardware systems, the complexity of functionality within them have rapidly increased. At the same time shrinking time to market leaves little room for errors in the design. Hence functional veri cation has become one of the major tasks in committing chips to fabrication. Just as designs are pushing towards reusable environment so must the veri cation environment. As veri cation itself takes 70% of the design time, the need of standalone, pre-veri ed veri ca- tion infrastructure is arisen so that veri cation does not become the bottleneck for the designers. The Veri cation Intellectual Property (Veri cation IP/VIP) which can be easily plugged in the simulation-based tests, is an important component of such infrastructure. In this dissertation the modeling of VIP of STBUS ...
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques have the potential to improve hydrocarbon recovery and project economics substantially. Characterizing fluid displacement and the relevant multiphase flow properties are essential to modeling EOR processes to reliably forecast the performance and economics. The spatial-temporal distribution of fluids spans a broad spectrum of composition and saturation spaces. In addition, a fundamental understanding of characteristic parameters of interphase mass-transfer in various EOR applications is crucial to capture and model fluid displacement. Relative permeability is a critical characteristic petrophysical property for modeling fluid displacement in porous media. Also, hysteresis phenomena govern physics of fluid flow in many subsurface applications such as multicyclic EOR processes, geological CO2 sequestration, and natural gas storage. Capillary trapping is the essence of hysteresis to trap fluids. In this research, we developed a high-fidelity computational tool ...
Article Biotic ligand modelling approach: Synthesis of the effect of major cations on the toxicity of metals to soil and aquatic organisms. The biotic ligand model (BLM) approach is used to assess metal toxicity, taking into account the competition o...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinetics of Cation Redisribution in Ferrospinels. AU - Sujata, K.. AU - Mason, Thomas O. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - In situ electrical resistivity measurements were employed to follow the kinetics of cation redistribution in ferrospinels, xFe3O4-(1 -x)MeFe2O4 (Me = Co, Mg, Mn, or Ni) or xFe3O4-FeMe2O4 (Me = Al) with x≥ 0.2. Relaxation temperatures (at 20°C/min heating rate) were established and kinetic parameters-activation energies and time constants-were determined for each cation. These parameters were insensitive to grain size, cation ratio, and oxygen nonstoichiometry. The mechanism was shown to be a local "homogeneous" point defect reaction in contrast to the "heterogeneous" nucleation and growth mechanism reported to take place in ferrispinels lacking Fe2+. Electron hopping between Fe2+ and Fe3+ in ferrospinels apparently screens the excess ionic charge associated with the diffusing species and enables homogeneous point defect reactions with lower attendant activation ...
Histochemical and morphological research increasingly relies upon quanti cation of complex biological systems. For such investigations to be meaningful, quanti cation techniques must meet the seemingly conflicting requirements of being theoretically robust, yet sufficiently practical to facilitate widespread applicability. Validity ought to be enhanced by theoretical simplicity, use of measured rather than assumed variables, and minimising observer interpretation. Practicality is facilitated by simplifying and reducing measurements, broadening applicability, and reducing costs and analysis time. As a result, quanti cation systems that rely upon sampling and estimation have been favoured over serial reconstruction techniques. To provide reliable estimates, sampling must be valid at all levels from tissue harvest, to the selection of microscope fields in which quanti cation is performed by techniques that account for the anisotropic distribution, and variable size of many elements in biological ...
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Positively charged cations and negatively charged anions attract one another. Conversely, cations repel one another as do anions.. Electrostatic attraction is indiscriminate. That is a cation can attract more than one anion and visa versa. The result is that cation-anions attractions form a large array that we call an ionic compound or salt. The bonds holding these ions together are called ionic bonds. However, this array has a very specific composition completely dictated by the charges on the cations and anions.. Formulas of ionic compounds:. The composition of ionic compounds is determined by the requirement that the compounds must be electrically neutral. That is that the charges of the cations and anions must balance or cancel out one another. For example consider sodium cations (Na+) and Chlorine anions (Cl ). Sodium has a positive 1 charge and chloride has a negative 1 charge. Thus one sodium cation cancels one chloride anion (+1 + 1 = 0) resulting in the formula Na1Cl1 or NaCl. ...
Yes, but the ionic bonding between a alkaline oxide metal with two positive charges and a hydroxyl ion are even stronger (more than twice as strong as in a corresponding alkali metal given that the ionic radii are smaller, too ...
Used for cation analysis by Ion Chromatography, these standards for cation analysis can be used for primary calibration or to prepare second source calibration check standards.
Cation Workwear & Uniform is a unifrom producer such as overalls, coats, vests, t-shirts, aprons, trousers, shirts, s-shirts and uniforms.
...and I dont have the photo to prove it! Does a meet up really happen if theres no photographic evidence? Last Thursday Cation Designs, Morgan of Crab & Bee, Meris of The Fabric Alchemist, and I met up for brunch at Lola in downtown Seattle. Cation Designs was in town for a few days, and her visit was the…
Please do not use this form to solicit or promote your products and services. Your request will be reviewed by our customer service staff prior to being sent to the recipient suppliers. ...
A group of six highly reactive metals, group IA of the Periodic Table of the Elements including, in increasing order of atomic weight and reactivity, li...
Nancy E. Brown, Alexandra Navrotsky; Hematite-ilmenite (Fe 2 O 3 -FeTiO 3 ) solid solutions; the effects of cation ordering on the thermodynamics of mixing. American Mineralogist ; 79 (5-6): 485-496. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Its hard to know if anyone cares about this any more except the original protagonists, most of whom are long gone (RIP H. C. Brown), but a huge controversy raged for decades on whether a nonclassical cation (e.g. not representable by a Lewis structure) existed in the fused ring system of norbornane and its derivatives.…
Should I stay(cation) or should I go?. Judy from the Discover Worthing team is back on the blog today to talk about European adventures in her camper and the amazing watersports on offer a little closer to home…. Read the full story: http://adwb.co/psuMn. #Worthing #DiscoverWorthing #Tourism. ...
well im studied C3 further science, and these have really got to me? not a clue what they are on about on the revision booklet i have, or on any of the revision notes i have come across on here? i dont know what are example and what i need to remember for my exam? any help?. ...
Separations of inorganic cations are important to municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment plants for compliance monitoring. This application note describes the rapid separation of inorganic cations in municipal wastewater using our high pressure capillary Ion Chromatography system, the Thermo Scientific Dionex 5000+ ICS HPIC system.
8. Quantity X(zδ) in Formula 8 is related only to the binding and unbinding of extracellular permeant ions to the external site. However, TEA(zδ) is related to the movement of TEA and possibly other permeant ions (excluding the one bound to the external site) in the electrical field along the pore (for more details, see Spassova and Lu 1998). According to Formula 8, voltage dependence of channel blockade by intracellular TEA is determined by the movement of TEA as well as permeant ions in the transmembrane electrical field. Since the external site has different affinity for the various alkali metal ions, the site is occupied to a different extent in the presence of various ions at a given finite concentration. This explains why various degrees of voltage dependence are observed in the presence of 100 mM of the four extracellular alkali metal ions.. Although we exploited the apparent competition between extracellular alkali metal ions and intracellular TEA to determine Kd values for the alkali ...
Aguilera, R.. Relative Permeability Concepts for Predicting the Performance of Naturally Fractured. Reservoirs. JCan PetT,.22,41, (1982). Amaefule, J.O. and Handy, L.I., The Effect oflnterfacial Tensions on Relative Oil/Water Permeabilities of Consolidated Porous Media. Soc Pet E J, 371, (1982). Bardon, C. and Longeron, D., Influence of Very Low Interfacial Tensions on Relative Permeability. Soc Pet EJ, 20, 391,(1980). Batycky, J.P., Mirkin, M.I., Besserer, G.J., Jackson, C.H., Miscible and Immiscible Displacement Studies on Carbonate Reservoir Cores. JCanPetT,2L, 104,(1981A). Batycky, J.P., McCaffery, F.G., Hodgins, P.K., Fisher, D.B., Interpreting Relative Permeability and. Wettability from Unsteady-State Displacement Measurements. Soc Pet E J, 21, 296, (198IB). Bemsten, R.G., Using Parameter Estimation Techniques to Convert Centrifuge Data into a Capillary. Pressure Curve. SPE paper 5026 presented at the SPE-AIME 49th Annual Meeting, Houston, Texas, (Oct. 6-9 1974). Broadbent, S.R. and ...
May be part of an oligomeric complex which is likely to have a transport or channel function in the erythrocyte membrane. Involved in ammonia transport across the erythrocyte membrane. Seems to act in monovalent cation transport.
An improved chromatographic analytical column, the column containing a pellicular type (agglomerated) anion-exchange packing, comprising: Component A, which comprises a pressure packed bed of substrate particles of insoluble synthetic resin, having cation-exchanging sites at least on their available surfaces, the Component A particles being of low porosity relative to Component B microparticles, described below, and Component B, derived by agglomerating microparticles of insoluble synthetic resin onto the pressure packed bed of Component A particles, the microparticles having a volume average diameter of less than about 1,500 and greater than about 50 Angstroms and having anion-exchanging sites, at least on their outer surfaces, which attract available cation sites of Component A, wherein the microparticles of Component B are attached as a monolayer to the available surfaces of the Component A particles.

Patent US5071815 - Method for producing catalysts - Google PatentsPatent US5071815 - Method for producing catalysts - Google Patents

y is the number of extra peroxide defects created by the presence of the monovalent alkali dopant cation in the metal oxide ... The general formula for a metal oxide doped with monovalent alkali metal or alkaline earth metal cations and containing ... D is a monovalent alkali metal cation dopant, for example lithium or sodium; and ... can be doped with small alkali metal or alkaline earth metal cations. These replace the normal cation in the metal oxide ...
more infohttp://www.google.co.uk/patents/US5071815

Monovalent cation:proton antiporter-2 - WikipediaMonovalent cation:proton antiporter-2 - Wikipedia

CPA superfamily Sodium-Proton antiporter Monovalent cation:Proton antiporter-1 Monovalent cation:Proton antiporter-3 ... The Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-2 (CPA2) Family (TC# 2.A.37) is a moderately large family of transporters belonging to ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.37 The Monovalent Cation:Proton ... The identification of these proteins as members of the CPA2 family reveals that monovalent cation transport is required for ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monovalent_cation:proton_antiporter-2

Monovalent cation:proton antiporter-1 - WikipediaMonovalent cation:proton antiporter-1 - Wikipedia

Sodium-proton antiporter Monovalent cation:Proton antiporter-2 Monovalent cation:Proton antiporter-3 Transporter Classification ... The Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-1 (CPA1) Family (TC# 2.A.36) is a large family of proteins derived from Gram-positive ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.36 The Monovalent Cation:Proton ... "2.A.36 The Monovalent Cation:Proton Antiporter-1 (CPA1) Family". Transporter Classification Database. Retrieved 2016-03-16. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monovalent_cation:proton_antiporter-1

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20043620 - Human skin is permselective for the small, monovalent cations sodium and potassium...NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20043620 - Human skin is permselective for the small, monovalent cations sodium and potassium...

Cation transport numbers for four of these electrolytes were measured in Franz cells by the electromo ... Results for skin showed the expected increase in cation permselectivity for monovalent cations and a 40-110-fold reduction in ... Human skin is permselective for the small, monovalent cations sodium and potassium but not for nickel and chromium.. ... Molar conductance and cation transport values at infinite dilution were extrapolated from these data and used to estimate ionic ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20043620.html

Dedoping of Lead Halide Perovskites Incorporating Monovalent CationsDedoping of Lead Halide Perovskites Incorporating Monovalent Cations

... Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba Univ Cambridge, Dept Phys, Cavendish ... Such a shift infers that incorporation of these monovalent cations dedope the n-type perovskite films when formed without added ... Synchrotron X-ray diffraction reveals a pronounced shift in the main perovskite peaks for the monovalent cation-based films, ... This dedoping effect leads to cleaner bandgaps as reflected by the lower energetic disorder in the monovalent cation-doped ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1260751&c=1&searchType=SIMPLE&language=en&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%2210051%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

Band 3 Missense Mutations and Stomatocytosis: Insight into the Molecular Mechanism Responsible for Monovalent Cation LeakBand 3 Missense Mutations and Stomatocytosis: Insight into the Molecular Mechanism Responsible for Monovalent Cation Leak

This monovalent cation leak could be correlated to a nonselective cation conductance and to elevated activity of endogenous ... and G796R abolish anion exchange and induce a similar monovalent cation leak that is also similar to the cation leak observed ... a A mutated state only conducts monovalent cations and a B mutated state shows both transport activities, anion exchange and ... L. J. Bruce, H. C. Robinson, H. Guizouarn et al., "Monovalent cation leaks in human red cells caused by single amino-acid ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcb/2011/136802/

Tunable electrochemiluminescence properties of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals using mixed-monovalent cations - New Journal of...Tunable electrochemiluminescence properties of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals using mixed-monovalent cations - New Journal of...

... by using mixed-monovalent cations. By replacing some of the Cs+ with Rb+, a series of RbxCs1−xPbBr3 NCs were obtained. They ... by using mixed-monovalent cations. By replacing some of the Cs+ with Rb+, a series of RbxCs1−xPbBr3 NCs were obtained. They ... Tunable electrochemiluminescence properties of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals using mixed-monovalent cations L. Chen, Q. Kang ... Tunable electrochemiluminescence properties of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals using mixed-monovalent cations† ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2020/nj/c9nj05665c

Effect of divalent versus monovalent cations on the MS2 retention capacity of amino-functionalized ceramic filters - Physical...Effect of divalent versus monovalent cations on the MS2 retention capacity of amino-functionalized ceramic filters - Physical...

... are analyzed with respect to their virus retention capacity when using feed solutions based on monovalent and divalent salts ( ... Effect of divalent versus monovalent cations on the MS2 retention capacity of amino-functionalized ceramic filters ... Effect of divalent versus monovalent cations on the MS2 retention capacity of amino-functionalized ceramic filters J. Bartels, ... are analyzed with respect to their virus retention capacity when using feed solutions based on monovalent and divalent salts ( ...
more infohttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/cp/c8cp01607k

RCSB PDB 









- 1FPM: MONOVALENT CATION BINDING SITES IN N10-FORMYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE SYNTHETASE FROM MOORELLA THERMOACETICA...RCSB PDB - 1FPM: MONOVALENT CATION BINDING SITES IN N10-FORMYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE SYNTHETASE FROM MOORELLA THERMOACETICA...

Cation binding and thermostability of FTHFS monovalent cation binding sites and thermostability of N10-formyltetrahydrofolate ... MONOVALENT CATION BINDING SITES IN N10-FORMYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE SYNTHETASE FROM MOORELLA THERMOACETICA. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1fpm/pdb ... Green solid line show hydrophobic interactions and green dashed lines show π-π and π-cation interactions. ... Green solid line show hydrophobic interactions and green dashed lines show π-π and π-cation interactions. ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/litView.do?structureId=1FPM

RCSB PDB 









- 1FP7: MONOVALENT CATION BINDING SITES IN N10-FORMYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE SYNTHETASE FROM MOORELLA THERMOACETICA...RCSB PDB - 1FP7: MONOVALENT CATION BINDING SITES IN N10-FORMYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE SYNTHETASE FROM MOORELLA THERMOACETICA...

Cation binding and thermostability of FTHFS monovalent cation binding sites and thermostability of N10-formyltetrahydrofolate ... MONOVALENT CATION BINDING SITES IN N10-FORMYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE SYNTHETASE FROM MOORELLA THERMOACETICA. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1fp7/pdb ... Green solid line show hydrophobic interactions and green dashed lines show π-π and π-cation interactions. ... Green solid line show hydrophobic interactions and green dashed lines show π-π and π-cation interactions. ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/litView.do?structureId=1FP7

Frontiers | Conserved and Diversified Gene Families of Monovalent Cation/H+ Antiporters from Algae to Flowering Plants | Plant...Frontiers | Conserved and Diversified Gene Families of Monovalent Cation/H+ Antiporters from Algae to Flowering Plants | Plant...

One strategy is mediated by cation-proton antiporters (CPA). CPA1 genes found in bacteria, fungi, metazoa and plants have been ... cation/H+ exchanger) families are largely unknown. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three clades of the Na+-H+ exchanger (NHX ... One strategy is mediated by cation-proton antiporters (CPA). CPA1 genes found in bacteria, fungi, metazoa and plants have been ... functionally-characterized; though roles of plant CPA2 genes in KEA (K+-efflux antiporter) and CHX (cation/H+ exchanger) ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2012.00025/full

Binding of monovalent and multivalent metal cations to polyethylene oxide in methanol probed by electrophoretic and diffusion...Binding of monovalent and multivalent metal cations to polyethylene oxide in methanol probed by electrophoretic and diffusion...

... the magnitude of the acquired effective charge was on the order of 1 cation per 100 monomer units. For monovalent cations, the ... The binding of monovalent ions was demonstrated not to follow the Hofmeister order; multivalent cations except barium all ... Binding of monovalent and multivalent metal cations to polyethylene oxide in methanol probed by electrophoretic and diffusion ... Diffusion experiments directly show that the acetate anion with monovalent cations does not associate with PEO. Considering all ...
more infohttp://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A740050&c=49&searchType=SIMPLE&language=en&query=&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22journalId%22%3A%226295%22%7D%5D%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&noOfRows=50&sortOrder=author_sort_asc&sortOrder2=title_sort_asc&onlyFullText=false&sf=all

Effects of monovalent cations on folding kinetics of G-quadruplexes | Bioscience ReportsEffects of monovalent cations on folding kinetics of G-quadruplexes | Bioscience Reports

Effects of monovalent cations on folding kinetics of G-quadruplexes. Jing You, Hui Li, Xi-Ming Lu, Wei Li, Peng-Ye Wang, Shuo- ... Effects of monovalent cations on folding kinetics of G-quadruplexes. Jing You, Hui Li, Xi-Ming Lu, Wei Li, Peng-Ye Wang, Shuo- ... Effects of monovalent cations on folding kinetics of G-quadruplexes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... In the present study, we compared the effects of three monovalent cations (Li+, Na+, and K+) on G-quadruplex folding kinetics ...
more infohttp://www.bioscirep.org/content/37/4/BSR20170771

Kinetics and mechanisms of activation and inhibition of porcine liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by monovalent cations. -...Kinetics and mechanisms of activation and inhibition of porcine liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by monovalent cations. -...

In addition, the monovalent cations may, along with Mg2+ ions and surrounding residues of the protein, help orient the 1- ... Monovalent cations inhibit FBPase either by distorting the geometry of the active site or by retarding turnover or product ... It is postulated that monovalent cations activate FBPase by helping the Arg276 residue deshield the partial negative charge ... K+ and Li+ were used to study the kinetic effects of monovalent cations on porcine liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Kinetics-and-mechanisms-of-activation-and-of-liver-Zhang-Villeret/9970ee94a805cba7b2d6bb124b323446f7ea5ffe

Cations, Monovalent | Profiles RNSCations, Monovalent | Profiles RNS

Monovalent" by people in this website by year, and whether "Cations, Monovalent" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Cations, Monovalent" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Platelet shape change and cytoskeletal assembly: effects of pH and monovalent cation ionophores. Thromb Haemost. 1983 Jun 28; ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cations, Monovalent" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://profiles.rush.edu/display/28906

Plant and Soil - incl. option to publish open accessPlant and Soil - incl. option to publish open access

Monovalent cation transporters; establishing a link between bioinformatics and physiology Frans J. M. Maathuis. ...
more infohttp://www.springer.com/life+sciences/plant+sciences/journal/11104

Monovalent selective cation exchange membrane - Marvel-Hydrogen.euMonovalent selective cation exchange membrane - Marvel-Hydrogen.eu

This is a different story when working with real solutions containing several monovalent and multivalent ions. We have ...
more infohttp://www.marvel-hydrogen.eu/forum/viewtopic.php?t=1&p=1

Ion exchange equilibrium and structural changes in clinoptilolite irradiated with β- and γ-radiation: Monovalent cations<...Ion exchange equilibrium and structural changes in clinoptilolite irradiated with β- and γ-radiation: Monovalent cations<...

Ion exchange equilibrium and structural changes in clinoptilolite irradiated with β- and γ-radiation : Monovalent cations. In: ... Ion exchange equilibrium and structural changes in clinoptilolite irradiated with β- and γ-radiation : Monovalent cations. / ... Ion exchange equilibrium and structural changes in clinoptilolite irradiated with β- and γ-radiation: Monovalent cations. ... with a concomitant decrease in cation-exchange capacity (CEC). Crystallographic parameters and especially exchangeable cation ...
more infohttps://squ.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/ion-exchange-equilibrium-and-structural-changes-in-clinoptilolite

Regulation of connexin hemichannels by monovalent cations<...Regulation of connexin hemichannels by monovalent cations<...

Srinivas, M., Calderon, D. P., Kronengold, J., & Verselis, V. (2006). Regulation of connexin hemichannels by monovalent cations ... Srinivas, M, Calderon, DP, Kronengold, J & Verselis, V 2006, Regulation of connexin hemichannels by monovalent cations, ... Regulation of connexin hemichannels by monovalent cations. In: Journal of General Physiology. 2006 ; Vol. 127, No. 1. pp. 67-75 ... Regulation of connexin hemichannels by monovalent cations. Miduturu Srinivas, D. Paola Calderon, Jack Kronengold, Vytautas ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/regulation-of-connexin-hemichannels-by-monovalent-cations-2

Dependence of Na+-Ca2+ exchange and Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange on monovalent cations. - Semantic ScholarDependence of Na+-Ca2+ exchange and Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange on monovalent cations. - Semantic Scholar

Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange did not require a monovalent cation gradient, but required the presence of Ca2+ plus a monovalent cation on ... Coupled cation countertransport by the Na+-Ca2+ exchange mechanism required a monovalent cation gradient with the following ... Na+ inhibited Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange when Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange was supported by another monovalent cation. Both Na+-Ca2+ exchange and ... Ca2+-Ca2+ exchange did not require a monovalent cation gradient, but required the presence of Ca2+ plus a monovalent cation on ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Dependence-of-Na-Ca2-exchange-and-Ca2-Ca2-exchange-Ledvora-Hegyvary/b49f5e75368a5328309af301647506f1ca856127

NDLI: The Influence Of Monovalent Cations On The Stability Of Electrochemically Formed Nickel Fluoride �lmsNDLI: The Influence Of Monovalent Cations On The Stability Of Electrochemically Formed Nickel Fluoride �lms

The Influence Of Monovalent Cations On The Stability Of Electrochemically Formed Nickel Fluoride �lms The Influence Of ... The stability of electrochemically formed NiF2 film in 1.0 M perchloric acid containing monovalent fluorides namely, NH4F, HF, ...
more infohttp://ndl.iitkgp.ac.in/document/ZsJKz6pdHw6hD7qnrsmunKcglPXZzrRU0gUHhFnDDQPQP0GFlyWx25zxzKDqwwsDkOXgbzhro_DQu-_8YLxTfA

IUCr) Acta Crystallographica Section D Volume 71, Part 4, April 2015IUCr) Acta Crystallographica Section D Volume 71, Part 4, April 2015

New structures of the N-terminal 43 kDa fragment of the E. coli DNA gyrase B subunit reveal two discrete monovalent cation- ... The role of monovalent cations in the ATPase reaction of DNA gyrase. ...
more infohttps://journals.iucr.org/d/issues/2015/04/00/

Genetic Expression in the Cell Cycle - 1st EditionGenetic Expression in the Cell Cycle - 1st Edition

Monovalent Cations and Transformation of Fibroblasts. VIII. Monovalent Cation Flux in Fibroblasts: Current Status. IX. The Cell ... Rapid Changes in Fibroblast Monovalent Cation Flux. IV. Later Changes in Monovalent Cations during Go/G1. V. Increased Na+, K+ ... V. Cation Transport and Electrical Membrane Properties. VI. Growth Stimulation and Cation Transport. VII. Concluding Remarks. ... Growth Cycle and Monovalent Cation Flux: Future Directions of Research. References. Index. ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.com/books/genetic-expression-in-the-cell-cycle/padilla/978-0-12-543720-2

9ins - Proteopedia, life in 3D9ins - Proteopedia, life in 3D

Monovalent cation binding to cubic insulin crystals.,Gursky O, Li Y, Badger J, Caspar DL Biophys J. 1992 Mar;61(3):604-11. PMID ... Two localized monovalent cation binding sites have been identified in cubic insulin from 2.8 A-resolution difference electron ... Monovalent cation binding to cubic insulin crystals. Biophys J. 1992 Mar;61(3):604-11. PMID:1504238 ... Monovalent cations of ionic radius less than 1.5 A are required for crystal stability. Replacing Na+ with Cs+, Mg++, Ca++ or ...
more infohttp://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/9ins
  • We report significant improvements in the optoelectronic properties of lead halide perovskites with the addition of monovalent ions with ionic radii close to Pb 2+ . (diva-portal.org)
  • This is a different story when working with real solutions containing several monovalent and multivalent ions. (marvel-hydrogen.eu)
  • Cx46 hemichannels exhibited a modest increase upon substituting Na + with K + . Analyses of reciprocal chimeric hemichannels that swap NH 2 - and COOH-terminal halves of Cx46 and Cx50 demonstrate that the difference in regulation by monovalent ions in these connexins resides in the NH 2 -terminal half. (elsevier.com)
  • Analyses of reciprocal chimeric hemichannels that swap NH2- and COOH-terminal halves of Cx46 and Cx50 demonstrate that the difference in regulation by monovalent ions in these connexins resides in the NH2-terminal half. (elsevier.com)
  • Two localized monovalent cation binding sites have been identified in cubic insulin from 2.8 A-resolution difference electron density maps comparing crystals in which the Na+ ions have been replaced by Tl+. (proteopedia.org)
  • A simple cationic substitution can be represented in a compound of the general form A + X − in which cation B + replaces in part or in total cation A + . Both cations in this example have the same valence (+1), as in the substitution of K + (potassium ions) for Na + (sodium ions) in the NaCl (sodium chloride) structure. (britannica.com)
  • Both have a single valence electron in their outer shell, which they readily donate, creating positive ions, or Na + and K + cations. (asbmb.org)
  • Here we show that hemichannels formed of Cx50, a principal lens connexin, exhibit a novel form of regulation characterized by extraordinary sensitivity to extracellular monovalent cations. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results demonstrate a new, robust means of regulating hemichannels through a combination of extracellular monovalent and divalent cations, principally Na + , K + , and Ca 2+ . (elsevier.com)
  • Importantly, we show that the well-characterized endogenous TRPM7-like current MIC (Mg 2+ -inhibitable cation)/MagNuM (Mg nucleotide-regulated metal ion) in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells is similarly potentiated by a decrease in extracellular pH. (rupress.org)
  • For example, the two end-members of olivine [(Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 ], forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) and fayalite (Fe 2 SiO 4 ), define a complete solid-solution series in which magnesium cations (Mg 2+ ) are replaced partially or totally by Fe 2+ . (britannica.com)
  • The experiments were performed either in PBS only or in presence of divalent cations of calcium and magnesium corresponding to their concentrations in the interstitial fluid. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cesium-saturated samples exhibited changes in the cation sites Cs2 and Cs3, which are next to clinoptilolite channel walls with lower Al 3+ for Si 4+ substitution. (elsevier.com)
  • In vertebrates, light-activated rhodopsin initiates a G protein-coupled enzyme cascade that ends in the hydrolysis of cGMP and the closure of the cGMP-regulated cation channels, thus hyperpolarizing the plasma membrane ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • whereas at high H + concentrations, the affinity of TRPM7 for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ is decreased, thereby allowing monovalent cations to pass through TRPM7. (rupress.org)
  • Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of sensations such as coolness, by being activated by cold temperature below 25 degrees Celsius. (abcam.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the folding kinetics of G-quadruplex in different monovalent cation environments and determined the detailed kinetic parameters for Na + - and K + -induced G-quadruplex folding, and for its structural transition from the basket-type Na + form to the hybrid-type K + form. (bioscirep.org)
  • It has been proposed that the molecular mechanism accounting for cation leaky red cells in these hereditary stomatocytoses was a change in AE1 transport properties induced by the point mutations. (hindawi.com)
  • The present study may shed new light on the roles of monovalent cations in G-quadruplex folding and should be useful for further studies of the underlying folding mechanism. (bioscirep.org)
  • Coupled cation countertransport by the Na+-Ca2+ exchange mechanism required a monovalent cation gradient with the following sequence of ion activation: Na+ much greater than Li+ greater than Cs+ greater than K+ greater than Rb+. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effective charge of the tetramethylammonium cation ion in water, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile, methanol and ethanol was estimated by eNMR and diffusion measurements and compared to the value predicted by the Debye-Hückel-Onsager limiting law. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cation transport numbers for four of these electrolytes were measured in Franz cells by the electromotive force method. (cdc.gov)
  • Molar conductance and cation transport values at infinite dilution were extrapolated from these data and used to estimate ionic conductances at infinite dilution. (cdc.gov)
  • Seems to act in monovalent cation transport (PubMed:18931342, PubMed:21849667). (genecards.org)
  • Ceramic capillary membranes conditioned for virus filtration via functionalization with n -(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine (TPDA) are analyzed with respect to their virus retention capacity when using feed solutions based on monovalent and divalent salts (NaCl, MgCl 2 ). (rsc.org)
  • As a strong oxidizing agent, chlorine is abundant as chloride anions, or Cl-, that combine with Na + , K + and other cations to form chloride salts. (asbmb.org)
  • Uptake of the glucoside by Caco-2 and G6D3 cells was sodium-dependent and was inhibited by the monovalent ionophore nystatin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we showed that the endogenous TRPM7-like current, which is known as Mg 2+ -inhibitable cation current (MIC) or Mg nucleotide-regulated metal ion current (MagNuM) in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells was also significantly potentiated by acidic pH, suggesting that MIC/MagNuM is encoded by TRPM7. (rupress.org)
  • The observed changes include a shift in cation sites Cs2 and Cs3 toward channel walls and occupancy decrease in site Cs2. (elsevier.com)
  • The cation occupancy in both sites depends on the net charge on the protein which was varied by equilibrating crystals in the pH range 7-10. (proteopedia.org)
  • Moraetis, D , Christidis, GE & Peridikatsis, V 2007, ' Ion exchange equilibrium and structural changes in clinoptilolite irradiated with β- and γ-radiation: Monovalent cations ', American Mineralogist , vol. 92, no. 10, pp. 1714-1730. (elsevier.com)
  • In the cell, RNA and DNA interact with cations that screen the negatively charged phosphate backbone. (pnas.org)
  • Crystallographic parameters and especially exchangeable cation site coordinates were refined for all samples with the Rietveld method. (elsevier.com)
  • M4 and M9 therefore contain critical sites for both drug and cation recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results for skin showed the expected increase in cation permselectivity for monovalent cations and a 40-110-fold reduction in effective diffusivities with respect to those in solution. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary effect of K + appears to be a reduction in the ability of Ca 2+ , as well as other divalent cations, to close Cx50 hemichannels. (elsevier.com)
  • Significant association was found for cations that have a surface charge density below a critical value. (diva-portal.org)
  • Green solid line show hydrophobic interactions and green dashed lines show π-π and π-cation interactions. (rcsb.org)
  • The stability of electrochemically formed NiF2 film in 1.0 M perchloric acid containing monovalent fluorides namely, NH4F, HF, NaF, KF and LiF, is investigated using cyclic voltammetry, chronoampe- rometry, atomic absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (iitkgp.ac.in)
  • Complex formation in methanol between monodisperse polyethylene oxide (PEO) and a large set of cations was studied by measuring the effective charge acquired by PEO upon complexation. (diva-portal.org)
  • The association of a large set of cations to polyethylene oxide (PEO) in methanol, through the ion-dipole interaction, was quantified by eNMR. (diva-portal.org)