Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used in musculoskeletal and joint disorders and administered by mouth and topically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p16)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.
Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (1/3809)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

Regulated exopolysaccharide production in Myxococcus xanthus. (2/3809)

Myxococcus xanthus fibrils are cell surface-associated structures composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein. The level of M. xanthus polysaccharide production under different conditions in the wild type and in several mutants known to have alterations in fibril production was investigated. Wild-type exopolysaccharide increased significantly as cells entered the stationary phase of growth or upon addition of Ca2+ to growing cells, and the polysaccharide-induced cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination. The activity of the key gluconeogenic pathway enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) also increased under these conditions. Most fibril-deficient mutants failed to produce polysaccharide in a stationary-phase- or Ca2+-dependent fashion. However, regulation of Pck activity was generally unimpaired in these mutant strains. In an stk mutant, which overproduces fibrils, polysaccharide production and Pck activity were constitutively high under the conditions tested. Polysaccharide production increased in most fibril-deficient strains when an stk mutant allele was present, indicating that these fibril-deficient mutants retained the basic cellular components required for fibril polysaccharide production. In contrast to other divalent cations tested, Sr2+ effectively replaced Ca2+ in stimulating polysaccharide production, and either Ca2+ or Sr2+ was required for fruiting-body formation by wild-type cells. By using transmission electron microscopy of freeze-substituted log-phase wild-type cells, fibril material was observed as a cell surface-associated layer of uniform thickness composed of filaments with an ordered structure.  (+info)

Metal-catalyzed oxidation of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli: inactivation and destabilization by oxidation of active-site cysteines. (3/3809)

The in vitro instability of the phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase [DAHPS(Phe)] from Escherichia coli has been found to be due to a metal-catalyzed oxidation mechanism. DAHPS(Phe) is one of three differentially feedback-regulated isoforms of the enzyme which catalyzes the first step of aromatic biosynthesis, the formation of DAHP from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. The activity of the apoenzyme decayed exponentially, with a half-life of about 1 day at room temperature, and the heterotetramer slowly dissociated to the monomeric state. The enzyme was stabilized by the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate or EDTA, indicating that in the absence of substrate, a trace metal(s) was the inactivating agent. Cu2+ and Fe2+, but none of the other divalent metals that activate the enzyme, greatly accelerated the rate of inactivation and subunit dissociation. Both anaerobiosis and the addition of catalase significantly reduced Cu2+-catalyzed inactivation. In the spontaneously inactivated enzyme, there was a net loss of two of the seven thiols per subunit; this value increased with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+. Dithiothreitol completely restored the enzymatic activity and the two lost thiols in the spontaneously inactivated enzyme but was only partially effective in reactivation of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme. Mutant enzymes with conservative replacements at either of the two active-site cysteines, Cys61 or Cys328, were insensitive to the metal attack. Peptide mapping of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme revealed a disulfide linkage between these two cysteine residues. All results indicate that DAHPS(Phe) is a metal-catalyzed oxidation system wherein bound substrate protects active-site residues from oxidative attack catalyzed by bound redox metal cofactor. A mechanism of inactivation of DAHPS is proposed that features a metal redox cycle that requires the sequential oxidation of its two active-site cysteines.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (4/3809)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of ligands for L-selectin in the kidney. II. Expression of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans reactive with L-selectin. (5/3809)

Ligands for the leukocyte adhesion molecule L-selectin are expressed not only in lymph node high endothelial venules (HEV) but also in the renal distal tubuli. Here we report that L-selectin-reactive molecules in the kidney are chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans of 500-1000 kDa, unlike those in HEV bearing sialyl Lewis X-like carbohydrates. Binding of L-selectin to these molecules was mediated by the lectin domain of L-selectin and required divalent cations. Binding was inhibited by chondroitinase and/or heparitinase but not sialidase. Thus, L-selectin can recognize chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans structurally distinct from sialyl Lewis X-like carbohydrates.  (+info)

Eosinophil peroxidase increases membrane permeability in mammalian urinary bladder epithelium. (6/3809)

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), a cationic protein found in eosinophils, has been reported to be cytotoxic independent of its peroxidase activity. This study investigated with electrophysiological methods whether EPO is toxic to mammalian urinary bladder epithelium. Results indicate that EPO, when added to the mucosal solution, increases apical membrane conductance of urinary bladder epithelium only when the apical membrane potential is cell interior negative. The EPO-induced conductance was concentration dependent, with a maximum conductance of 411 microseconds/cm2 and a Michaelis-Menten constant of 113 nM. The EPO-induced conductance was nonselective for K+ and Cl-. The conductance was partially reversed using voltage but not by removal of EPO from the bulk solution. Mucosal Ca2+ reversed the EPO-induced conductance by a mechanism involving reversible block of the conductance. Prolonged exposure (up to 1 h) to EPO was toxic to the urinary bladder epithelium, as indicated by an irreversible increase in transepithelial conductance. These results suggest that EPO is indeed toxic to urinary bladder epithelium via a mechanism that involves an increase in membrane permeability.  (+info)

Structure of the oligonucleotide d(CGTATATACG) as a site-specific complex with nickel ions. (7/3809)

In this paper we explore the application of Ni2+to the crystallization of oligonucleotides. We have determined in this way the structure of a fully alternating (Y-R) decanucleotide d(CGTATATACG) by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This is the first oligonucleotide crystal structure with an alternating 5'-(TA)3-3' central part. Alternating oligonucleotides have a particular interest since they often have a unique structure. In this case the general conformation is B-like with an alternating twist and an end-to-end interaction which involves terminal guanines. The crystal belongs to space group P41212 with a = b = 52.46, c = 101.49 A. This packing imposes a 90 degrees crossing of the symmetry related helices. This is a new way of packing for decamers. The oligonucleotide structure is characterized by the specific association with seven nickel ions, involving the N7 atom of every guanine. One of the Ni2+ions is shared between two guanines of symmetry related molecules. Until now no oligonucleotide has been crystallized in the presence of this metal ion. A novel C.A.T triplet structure has also been tentatively identified.  (+info)

Heparin influence on alpha-staphylotoxin formed channel. (8/3809)

The effects of heparin on ion channels formed by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (ST channel) in lipid bilayers were studied under voltage clamp conditions. Heparin concentrations as small as 100 pM induced a sharp dose-dependent increase in channel voltage sensitivity. This was only observed when heparin was added to the negative-potential side of lipid bilayers in the presence of divalent cations. Divalent cations differ in their efficiency: Zn2+>Ca2+>Mg2+. The apparent positive gating charge increased 2-3-fold with heparin addition as well as with acidification of the bathing solution. 'Free' carboxyl groups and carboxyl groups in ion pairs of the protein moiety are hypothesized to interact with sulfated groups of heparin through divalent cation bridges. The cis mouth of the channel (that protrudes beyond the membrane plane on the side of ST addition and to which voltage was applied) is less sensitive to heparin than the trans-mouth. It is suggested that charged residues which interact with heparin at the cis mouth of ST channels and which contribute to the effective gating charge at negative voltage may be physically different from those at the trans mouth and at positive voltage.  (+info)

Prevalence: Anemia, hemolytic, congenital is a rare disorder, affecting approximately 1 in 100,000 to 1 in 200,000 births.

Causes: The condition is caused by mutations in genes that code for proteins involved in hemoglobin synthesis or red blood cell membrane structure. These mutations can lead to abnormal hemoglobin formation, red blood cell membrane instability, and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, which can result in hemolytic anemia.

Symptoms: Symptoms of anemia, hemolytic, congenital may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the condition can lead to life-threatening complications such as anemia, infections, and kidney failure.

Diagnosis: Anemia, hemolytic, congenital is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including blood smear examination, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and mutation analysis.

Treatment: Treatment for anemia, hemolytic, congenital depends on the specific underlying genetic cause and may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, antibiotics, and/or surgery to remove the spleen. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis: The prognosis for anemia, hemolytic, congenital varies depending on the specific underlying genetic cause and the severity of the condition. With appropriate treatment, many individuals with this condition can lead relatively normal lives, but in severe cases, the condition can be life-threatening.

Divalent cations (e.g. Mg2+) are also required for integrin-ligand binding. Integrin ligands ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are activated by ...
I cations present are divalent). Ephesite with monovalent cations of Na prove to be a true mica and with 2.5 octahedral cations ... Depending on the interlayer cation, the micas are subdivided into true micas (if 50% I cations present are monovalent) or ... Ephesite, a mica structure, arises from the stacking of T-O-T layers along the c-axis direction connected by I-cations where T, ...
Divalent cations help coordinate the nucleotide. The general mechanism is shown in the figure below. Riboflavin kinase plays an ...
It forms a cation-selective ion channel activated by light absorption. It transports both monovalent and divalent cations. It ... A transient increase in hydration of transmembrane α-helices with a t(1/2) = 60 μs tallies with the onset of cation permeation ... The observed proton transfer reactions and the protein conformational changes relate to the gating of the cation channel. ... November 2003). "Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel". Proceedings of the National ...
The extracellular domain is where the ligand binds through the use of divalent cations. The integrins contain multiple divalent ... Zhang, Kun; Chen, JianFeng (January 2012). "The regulation of integrin function by divalent cations". Cell Adhesion & Migration ... Both the presence of cations bound to the multiple cation binding sites is required, along with the direct physical association ... The integrin cation binding sites can be occupied by Ca2+ or by Mn2+ ions. Cations are necessary but not sufficient for ...
It has 2 cofactors: thiamin diphosphate, and Divalent cation. Vanderbilt AS, Gaby NS, Rodwell VW (1975). "Intermediates and ...
Both α and β subunits bind several divalent cations. The role of divalent cations in the α subunit is unknown, but may ... In both cases, the A-domains carry up to three divalent cation binding sites. One is permanently occupied in physiological ... concentrations of divalent cations, and carries either a calcium or magnesium ion, the principal divalent cations in blood at ... As detailed above, this finally revealed why divalent cations (in the A-domains) are critical for RGD-ligand binding to ...
The binding with dystroglycan (DG) depends on several factors (glycosylation of DG, presence of divalent cations, presence of ... The binding between dystroglycan and pikachurin requires divalent cations. Ca2+ produces strongest binding; Mn2+ produces only ...
It employs one cofactor, divalent cation. At least one compound, chelating agent is known to inhibit this enzyme. As of late ...
Wilson J, Chin A (1991). "Chelation of divalent cations by ATP, studied by titration calorimetry". Anal Biochem. 193 (1): 16-9 ... Inorganic polyphosphates play a crucial role in tolerance of yeast cells to toxic heavy metal cations. Sodium polyphosphate ( ...
Divalent cations stabilize the enzyme activity of the p48 subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21608-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34. ...
"Crystal Structure Investigations of Amide Sulfate Tetrahydrates with Divalent Cations". Croatica Chemica Acta. 72 (2-3): 295- ...
The enzymatic activity is enhanced by divalent cations, particularly Ca2+. In many bacteria, this enzyme is a membrane protein ...
Divalent cations stabilize the enzyme activity of the p48 subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21608-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34. ...
ATP binds metal cations with high affinity. The binding constant for Mg2+ is (9554). The binding of a divalent cation, almost ... Wilson, J.; Chin, A. (1991). "Chelation of divalent cations by ATP, studied by titration calorimetry". Anal. Biochem. 193 (1): ... "Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator". BMC ...
Divalent cations stabilize the enzyme activity of the p48 subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21608-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34. ...
It can bind divalent cations, including Co(II) and Ni(II). TAPS is effective to make buffer solutions in the pH range 7.7-9.1, ... y systems involving divalent ions (cobalt or nickel) and zwitterionic biological buffers (AMPSO, DIPSO, TAPS and TAPSO) in ...
This increases the reabsorption of divalent cations by secondary active transport. It is currently unknown why magnesium ...
In the early stages, RNA forms secondary structures stabilized through the binding of monovalent cations, divalent cations and ... absence of the monovalent or divalent cations results in either greater flexibility or loss of tertiary structure. Divalent ... Metal cations that bind RNA can be monovalent, divalent or trivalent. Potassium (K+) is a common monovalent ion that binds RNA ... in which divalent cations interact with the Hoogsteen edge of guanosine via O6 and N7. Another ion-binding motif in the ...
EDTA is a chelator of divalent cations, particularly of magnesium (Mg2+). As these ions are necessary co-factors for many ...
... uptake activity is inhibited by divalent Pb2, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2, Co2+, Fe2+, and trivalent cations La3+, Fe3+, Gd3+. The ... The conductance of TRPV6 for divalent cations follows the preference: Ca2+ > Ba2+ > Sr2+ > Mn2. Intra-cellular Mg2+ inhibits ... Finally, four symmetrical cation binding sites in the extracellular vestibule mediate the recruitment of cations towards the ... "Heavy metal cations permeate the TRPV6 epithelial cation channel". Cell Calcium. 49 (1): 43-55. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2010.11.007 ...
"Biological interactions between polysaccharides and divalent cations: The egg-box model". FEBS Letters. 32 (1): 195-198. doi: ... which provide cavities for cations to sit in like eggs in an egg box. Whilst the reality is likely to be much more complicated ... NMR spectroscopic analysis of the interactions between s-block cations and kelp monosaccharides". Dalton Transactions. 50 (38 ...
EDTA is a chelator of divalent cations, particularly of magnesium (Mg2+). As these ions are necessary co-factors for many ...
TdT requires a divalent cation cofactor, however, TdT is unique in its ability to use a broader range of cations such as Mg2+, ... Similar to many polymerases, the catalytic site of TdT has two divalent cations in its palm domain that assist in nucleotide ... The rate of enzymatic activity depends on the available divalent cations and the nucleotide being added. TdT is expressed ... Vashishtha AK, Wang J, Konigsberg WH (September 2016). "Different Divalent Cations Alter the Kinetics and Fidelity of DNA ...
Inward flow of sodium ions is blocked by extracellular divalent cations. Increased intracellular magnesium concentrations also ... produces outwardly rectifying currents with the outward portion composed of Na+ ions and the inward portion of divalent cations ...
PKD2 and polycystin-L have been shown to exhibit voltage-, pH- and divalent cation-dependent channel activity. PKD1 may ... "Modulation of the human polycystin-L channel by voltage and divalent cations". FEBS Letters. 525 (1-3): 71-6. doi:10.1016/s0014 ... The Polycystin Cation Channel (PCC) Family (TC# 1.A.5) consists of several transporters ranging in size from 500 to over 4000 ... Polycystin-L has been shown to be a cation (Na+, K+ and Ca2+) channel that is activated by Ca2+, while polycystin-2 has been ...
In these enzymes, a divalent cation, usually zinc, activates the water molecule. The metal ion is held in place by amino acid ...
The broad specificity NRAMP2 (DMT1) transports a range of divalent metal cations. Studies have shown that it transports Fe2+ ... Zn2+ and other divalent cations. Regulation of these transporters in bacteria can occur through Fur, OxyR, and most commonly a ... "The Thlaspi caerulescens NRAMP homologue TcNRAMP3 is capable of divalent cation transport". Molecular Biotechnology. 41 (1): 15 ... Cellier MF (2012-01-01). "Nramp: from sequence to structure and mechanism of divalent metal import". Current Topics in ...
... is a mobile ion-carrier that forms stable complexes with divalent cations (ions with a charge of +2). A23187 is also ... It also acts as a divalent cation ionophore, allowing these ions to cross cell membranes, which are usually impermeable to them ... a divalent cation ionophore antibiotic". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 16 (6): 808-812. doi:10.1128/aac.16.6.808. PMC ...
... a divalent cation ionophore antibiotic". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 16 (6): 808-812. doi:10.1128/aac.16.6.808. PMC ... Ionophores selective for cations and anions have found many applications in analysis. These compounds have also shown to have ... An example of a carrier ionophore is valinomycin, a molecule that transports a single potassium cation. Carrier ionophores may ... Gräfe, U.; Reinhardt, G.; Miosga, N. (1989). "Monovalent cation specificity of passive transport mediated by laidlomycin and 26 ...
8 MgS + 8 I2 → S8 + 8 MgI2 Aqueous solutions of transition metals cations react with sulfide sources (H2S, NaHS, Na2S) to ... in association with divalent iron in the formal +2 oxidation state (ferrous ion: Fe2+). Dimethyldisulfide has the chemical ...
The metal ions are general divalent cations that help the 3' OH initiate a nucleophilic attack onto the alpha phosphate of the ...
In the case of Eu, its reduced divalent (2+) cations are similar in size and carry the same charge as Ca2+, an ion found in ... it is preferentially incorporated into plagioclase in its divalent form (Eu2+) in a reducing magma, where it substitutes for ...
α-L-Guluronic acid has been found to bind divalent metal ions (such as calcium and strontium) through the carboxylate moiety ... NMR spectroscopic analysis of the interactions between s-block cations and kelp monosaccharides". Dalton Transactions. 50 (38 ...
Nevertheless, the divalent state would be the main one in aqueous solution (although the +4 and +6 states would be possible ... this outermost electron is expected to be very loosely bound and very easily lost to form a 173+ cation. As a result, element ...
Whether or not this mechanism requires a divalent ion is currently unclear, but failed attempts to trap and detect the presence ... of the magnesium cation suggest that this mechanism is metal ion independent. SPS-kinase reversibly phosphorylates a serine ...
It is suggested that exposing the cells to divalent cations in cold condition may change or weaken the cell surface structure, ... Typically the cells are incubated in a solution containing divalent cations (often calcium chloride) under cold conditions, ...
"Synthesis and properties of the divalent 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (dmpe) complexes MCl2(dmpe)2 and MMe2(dmpe)2(M = Ti, ... actinide Complexes and Their Radical Cations and Dications". Journal of Coordination Chemistry. 32 (1-3): 173-212. doi:10.1080/ ...
These studies have shown that divalent cations play a critical role in the fusion process by binding to negatively charged ... Leventis, Rania; Gagne, Jeannine; Fuller, Nola; Rand, R.; Silvius, J. (1986). "Divalent Cation Induced Fusion and Lipid Lateral ...
The DNA cleavage event also requires the divalent metal cation magnesium. A large conformational change reveals a large ...
... activity requires two divalent cations to stabilize the binding of negatively ... Zea CJ, Camci-Unal G, Pohl NL (July 2008). "Thermodynamics of binding of divalent magnesium and manganese to uridine phosphates ...
M represents a divalent ion such as ferrous iron or magnesium) The combined TOT layer has a residual negative charge, since its ... meaning that it is composed of parallel TOT layers weakly bonded to each other by cations (c). The TOT layers in turn consist ... with magnesium or ferrous iron being the usual cations. Apical oxygens take the place of some of the hydroxyl ions that would ...
Calcium is a divalent cation, allowing it to form bonds with several caseinate anions. This leads to the formation of several ... The type of caseinate is determined by the cation added alongside the acid casein. Other cations used to form caseinates ...
Structurally, RNAse T exists as an anti-parallel dimer and requires a divalent cation to function. RNAse T is able to achieve ...
The presence of ions, in particular divalent cations like magnesium and calcium, strongly affects this step. One of the ... Leventis R, Gagné J, Fuller N, Rand RP, Silvius JR (November 1986). "Divalent cation induced fusion and lipid lateral ... Anions typically have a higher rate of diffusion through bilayers than cations. Compared to ions, water molecules actually have ...
Essentially these arise when the cation:uranium ratio is different from 2:1 (monovalent cations) or 1:1 (divalent cations). ... For example, with the cation K+, compounds with K:U ratios of 2, 1 and 0.5 were found, corresponding to empirical formulas ... where M represents a cation. The uranium atom in uranates(VI) has two short collinear U-O bonds and either four or six more ... Charge-balance constrains the number of oxygen atoms to be equal to half the sum of charges of the cations and uranyl groups. ...
The canonical coordination sphere of the divalent cation interaction site includes the active residues E210 and D216 within 2.1 ... The enzyme is physiologically stimulated by divalent cations (e.g., magnesium) and is allosterically activated by the magnesium ...
One eighth of the tetrahedral sites A are typically occupied by 2+ cations, and half of the octahedral sites B by 3+ cations. ... A is divalent Fe, Ni, Co or Cu and B is trivalent Co, Ni or, for daubréelite, Cr. The minerals are isometric, space group Fd3m ... A solid solution results when one cation can substitute for another across an appreciable composition range. In carrollite Co2+ ...
Working off of this effect, sodium cellulose phosphate will bind with divalent intestinal cations. Because of this binding, ...
Unlike its heavier congeners, it is not known to form a simple B3+ or hydrated [B(H2O)4]3+ cation. The small size of the boron ... Germanium generally forms tetravalent (IV) compounds, and it can also form less stable divalent (II) compounds, in which it ... It is not known to form a cation. Silicon can form alloys with metals such as iron and copper. It shows fewer tendencies to ... Whether or not germanium forms a cation is unclear, aside from the reported existence of the Ge2+ ion in a few esoteric ...
Half of the octahedral sites are filled by divalent cations, principally Mg, and one tenth of the tetrahedral sites are filled ...
... multiple binding sites and the role of divalent cations". Eur. J. Biochem. 271 (14): 3085-90. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004. ...
LMP gels in presence of divalent cations, which are found in sufficient amount in water (when undistilled), thus causing a ...
The presence of divalent electrolytes (Ca2+) can neutralize the charge surface of bacteria by the binding between Ca2+ and the ... Alexis J. de Kerchove and Menachem Elimelech, Calcium and Magnesium Cations Enhance the Adhesion of Motile and Nonmotile ... and less become negative at higher ionic strength in both mono and divalent salt solutions. Ultra pure quartz surface ...
The germylene hydride cation was also further reacted with the trityl cation, [Ph3C]+[B(C6F5)4]-, as a hydride scavenger, which ... Richards, Anne F.; Phillips, Andrew D.; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Power, Philip P. (2003-03-01). "Isomeric Forms of Divalent ... The Cl/H exchange can then be undergone via reaction with K[HB(s-Bu) 3] to give the germylene hydride cation in 91% yield. ... Similar to the germylene hydrides, the first known example of a germyliumylidene hydride (a germylene hydride cation) was ...
Divalent ions like Cd2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ba2+, Hg2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Fe2+ inhibit BPPs by replacing Ca2+ within the enzyme. This is ... Döbereiner A, Schmid A, Ludwig A, Goebel W, Benz R (September 1996). "The effects of calcium and other polyvalent cations on ... Their active site has a number of calcium cations (Ca2+) bound to it via negatively charged amino acid carboxylate groups. ... "Crystal structures of Bacillus alkaline phytase in complex with divalent metal ions and inositol hexasulfate". Journal of ...
It contains a divalent cation tolerance protein CutA motif from amino acids 57-88. No transmembrane domains or N-terminal ...
... also contain high levels of the divalent cations: Zn2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+.[citation needed] vesicles Membrane ...
B is a divalent cation such as Fe2+ , Ca2+ , or Mg2+ , and C is an alkali metal cation such as Li+ , Na+ , or K+ . In all these ... In some of the species, aluminum Al3+ may replace some silicon atoms Si4+ in the backbone, with extra B or C cations to balance ... where A is a trivalent cation such as Fe3+ or Al3+ , ...
The distribution of divalent ions in semidilute solutions of high-molecular-mass DNA containing both sodium chloride and ... Adsorption of divalent cations on DNA Isabelle Morfin 1 , Ferenc Horkay, Peter J Basser, Françoise Bley, Anne-Marie Hecht, ... Adsorption of divalent cations on DNA Isabelle Morfin et al. Biophys J. 2004 Oct. ... Divalent cations and the electrostatic potential around DNA: Monte Carlo and Poisson-Boltzmann calculations. Pack GR, Wong L, ...
Inhibition of human red cell sodium and potassium transport by divalent cations J C Ellory et al. J Physiol. 1983 Jul. ... Inhibition of human red cell sodium and potassium transport by divalent cations J C Ellory, P W Flatman, G W Stewart ... Mg and other divalent cations should not be used as inert ionic substitutes in human red cell Na and K transport studies. ... Regulation of cation content and cell volume in hemoglobin erythrocytes from patients with homozygous hemoglobin C disease. ...
Influence of divalent cations on the biofouling behaviors of alginate hydrogels.. Zhang, Jiamin; Ke, Jia; Zhu, Yingnan; Song, ... A series of alginate hydrogels was prepared by tuning the concentrations of two types of divalent cation (Ca2+ or Ba2+). It was ... The mechanical properties of alginate hydrogels can be easily tailored by adding different concentrations of divalent cations. ... found that the biofouling behaviors of the hydrogels exhibited a U curve tendency with the cation concentrations. ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between FE 90 Plus Oral and divalent-trivalent-cations-tetracyclines. ... Tetracyclines/Divalent & Trivalent Cations Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical ... Avidity of the tetracyclines for the cations of metal. Nature 1956 Mar 3;177(4505):433-4. ...
Furthermore, divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ increase the binding of fluoride to bacterial cells. These findings suggest ... Furthermore, divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ increase the binding of fluoride to bacterial cells. These findings suggest ... Furthermore, divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ increase the binding of fluoride to bacterial cells. These findings suggest ... Furthermore, divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ increase the binding of fluoride to bacterial cells. These findings suggest ...
heat (50C) stable; divalent cations enhanced inact. at 50C Lipid Solvent (ether - % used to test). After Treatment Titer. ...
Monovalent and Divalent Cation Standards (4) (Phosphoric Acid Eluent) Monovalent and divalent cation standards were analyzed ... Ion chromatography (cation) column, IC YS-50 was used to separate mono- and divalent cations in the presence of ethylenediamine ... Monovalent and Divalent Cation Standards (8) (Ethylenediamine, EDA) Ethylenediamine (0.1% v/v of 50 mg/mL) is added to water … ... Monovalent and Divalent Cations in Tap Water (Etylenediamine EDA) Chloric acid should be analyzed by ion chromatography for ...
Fosaprepitant for injection is incompatible with any solutions containing divalent cations (e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+), including ...
Effect of monovalent-divalent cation exchange on the swelling of polyacrylate hydrogels in physiological salt solutions. ... Effects of mono- and divalent cations on the structure and thermodynamic properties of polyelectrolyte gels. Soft Matter 22: ... Dynamic model of monovalent-divalent cation exchange in polyelectrolyte gels. Physical Review Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 3. ( ... Comparison between neutral gels and neutralized polyelectrolyte gels in the presence of divalent cations. Macromolecules 34(12 ...
2H2O) with mono- and divalent cations. Inorg. Chem. 24, 1782-1787 (1985). ... Concentrated dual-cation electrolyte strategy for aqueous zinc-ion batteries. Energy Environ. Sci. 14, 4463-4473 (2021). ... I. The secondary cation effect. J. Phys. Chem. 61, 1651-1655 (1957). ...
Apatites deficient in divalent cations, p. 279 Posner, A.S.; Perloff, A. http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.058.035 ...
Concentration of divalent cations. Help The millimolar concentration of divalent salt cations (usually MgCl2+ in the PCR). ... Monovalent cations] = [Monovalent cations] + 120*(v([divalent cations] - [dNTP])). According to the formula concentration of ... Primer3 converts concentration of divalent cations to concentration of monovalent cations using formula suggested in the paper ... This argument is considered only if Concentration of divalent cations is specified. ...
Both PLP and divalent cations (eg. Mn2+) are required for catalytic activity. Low specificity D-TAs show similarity to ...
The SLC11A2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). Learn about this gene ... divalent cation transporter 1. *DMT-1. *DMT1. *natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 2 ... The SLC11A2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). Four different versions ... Divalent metal transporter 1. Hematology. 2005 Aug;10(4):339-45. doi: 10.1080/10245330500093419. Citation on PubMed ...
MeSH Terms: Adolescent; Cation Transport Proteins/genetics*; Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism; Cations, Divalent; ... SLC39A8 is a member of the solute carrier gene family known to import Mn, Zn, and other divalent cations across the plasma ... Abstract: Manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) are essential divalent cations used by cells as protein cofactors; various human studies ...
High affinity divalent cation binding to actin. Effect of low affinity salt binding.. Selden LA; Estes JE; Gershman LC. J Biol ... Divalent cation binding to the high- and low-affinity sites on G-actin.. Zimmerle CT; Patane K; Frieden C. Biochemistry; 1987 ... The influence of divalent cations.. Nyitrai M; Hild G; Belágyi J; Somogyi B. J Biol Chem; 1999 May; 274(19):12996-3001. PubMed ... 4. Effects of the type of divalent cation, Ca2+ or Mg2+, bound at the high-affinity site and of the ionic composition of the ...
Anion Gap as a Determinant of Ionized Fraction of Divalent Cations in Hemodialysis Patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 Feb 7 ...
The interaction of pH and divalent cations at the neuromuscular junction. Landau EM, Nachshen DA. Landau EM, et al. Among ... Inhibition of Ca influx by multivalent metal cations. Nachshen DA. Nachshen DA. J Gen Physiol. 1984 Jun;83(6):941-67. doi: ...
Magnesium is a divalent cation that is maximally absorbed in the distal small intestine. At low concentrations, it appears to ...
The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems. OL = ... It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while ...
Interaction of metals with prion protein: possible role of divalent cations in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. ...
Antagonistic effects are mostly found between divalent cations (Rietra et al., 2017). In addition, the soil texture influences ...
Pfam PF01769; Divalent cation transporter. *. Protein Mg2+ transporter MgtE [161095] (1 species). ...
Divalent cation transporting ATPase of 1207 aas and 9 putative TMSs, Catp-6. C. elegans has three paralogues, Catp5, Catp6 and ...
Cobalt transforms rather quickly to divalent cobalt cations upon dissolution. In this form, it is available via diet or ... instead when becoming systemically available is in the form of divalent cobalt cations. ... The bioavailability of the cation varies in a predictable manner and is assumed to be dependent on the bioaccessibility of the ... Once systemically available, cobalt is stable in the cobalt cation and not subject to any changes in speciation or valence. ...
  • The distribution of divalent ions in semidilute solutions of high-molecular-mass DNA containing both sodium chloride and strontium chloride in near-physiological conditions is studied by small-angle x-ray scattering and by small-angle neutron scattering. (nih.gov)
  • In general, gramicidin channels are ideally selective for monovalent cations and the single-channel conductances for the alkali cations are ranked in the same order as the aqueous mobilities of these ions. (wikidoc.org)
  • Idealized image of water softening process involving replacement of calcium ions in water with sodium ions donated by a cation-exchange resin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gramicidin's bactericidal activity is a result of increasing the permeability of the bacterial cell wall allowing inorganic monovalent cations (e.g. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cl- in particular is excluded from the channel because its hydration shell is thermodynamically stronger than that of most monovalent cations. (wikidoc.org)
  • The channel is permeable to most monovalent cations, which move through the channel in single file. (wikidoc.org)
  • You can also try the effects of divalent or trivalent cations, such as calcium, magnesium and aluminum salts. (madsci.org)
  • 5. Divalent cation-, nucleotide-, and polymerization-dependent changes in the conformation of subdomain 2 of actin. (nih.gov)
  • Guanine nucleotide and divalent cation sensitivity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The SLC11A2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Divalent metal transporter 1. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The category consists of inorganic cobalt substances for which the toxicity is governed by the cobalt cation. (europa.eu)
  • When the strontium chloride is replaced by calcium chloride, similar results are obtained, but the thickness of the sheath increases when the divalent salt concentration decreases. (nih.gov)
  • It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. (nih.gov)
  • Water softening is the removal of calcium , magnesium , and certain other metal cations in hard water . (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentrated dual-cation electrolyte strategy for aqueous zinc-ion batteries. (nature.com)
  • Divalent cation transporting ATPase of 1207 aas and 9 putative TMSs, Catp-6. (tcdb.org)
  • SLC39A8 is a member of the solute carrier gene family known to import Mn, Zn, and other divalent cations across the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • The product of this gene transports divalent metals and is involved in iron absorption. (nih.gov)
  • The bioavailability of the cation varies in a predictable manner and is assumed to be dependent on the bioaccessibility of the respective cobalt substance. (europa.eu)
  • beryllium , levels were assumed to be similar to divalent cations such as cobalt. (cdc.gov)
  • Avidity of the tetracyclines for the cations of metal. (webmd.com)
  • Inhibition of Ca influx by multivalent metal cations. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that exposure of oral bacteria to fluoride in the presence of divalent cations increases fluoride binding to bacterial cells and subsequently enhances fluoride-induced inhibition of bacterial acid production. (elsevier.com)
  • Influence of divalent cations on the biofouling behaviors of alginate hydrogels. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1. Spectroscopic study of conformational changes in subdomain 1 of G-actin: influence of divalent cations. (nih.gov)
  • 2. The influence of divalent cations on the dynamic properties of actin filaments: a spectroscopic study. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Fluorescence anisotropy of labeled F-actin: influence of divalent cations on the interaction between F-actin and myosin heads. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Influence of the high affinity divalent cation on actin tryptophan fluorescence. (nih.gov)
  • The influence of divalent cations. (nih.gov)
  • Its ability to bind and transport cations is due to the presence of cation-binding sites in the channel. (wikidoc.org)
  • The enhanced inhibition of acid production in the presence of divalent cations is probably due to the improved efficiency of fluoride binding to bacterial cells being improved via these divalent cations. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, divalent cations such as Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ increase the binding of fluoride to bacterial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ increase the binding of fluoride to bacterial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, the effect of some divalent cations on the interaction with vesicles TRCDA/DMPC was investigated. (scielo.cl)
  • Both small-angle neutron scattering and small-angle x-ray scattering reveal a continuous increase in the scattering intensity at low q with increasing divalent ion concentration, while at high q the scattering curves converge. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Effects of the type of divalent cation, Ca2+ or Mg2+, bound at the high-affinity site and of the ionic composition of the solution on the structure of F-actin. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Divalent cation binding to the high- and low-affinity sites on G-actin. (nih.gov)
  • 14. High affinity divalent cation binding to actin. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Fluorescence measurements of the binding of cations to high-affinity and low-affinity sites on ATP-G-actin. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of cation content and cell volume in hemoglobin erythrocytes from patients with homozygous hemoglobin C disease. (nih.gov)
  • Mg and other divalent cations should not be used as 'inert' ionic substitutes in human red cell Na and K transport studies. (nih.gov)
  • Background and Purpose P2X receptors (P2XRs) are trimeric ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) that open a cation-selective pore in response to ATP binding to their large extracellular domain (ECD). (biorxiv.org)
  • The SLC11A2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The divalent cations calcium and magnesium and the anion phosphorus are important in several cellular processes. (medscape.com)
  • It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. (nih.gov)
  • Our results provide evidence that cellular divalent cation regulation is functionally coupled to the Kell/XK system in erythrocytes and loss of this complex may contribute to acanthocytosis formation in McLeod syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • We generated three knockout (KO) mice that lacked either Xk, Kell or both proteins and characterized erythrocyte cation levels, transport and hematological parameters. (nih.gov)
  • beryllium , levels were assumed to be similar to divalent cations such as cobalt. (cdc.gov)