Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.TRPC Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Flufenamic Acid: An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used in musculoskeletal and joint disorders and administered by mouth and topically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p16)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gadolinium: Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.TRPP Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Metals, Alkaline Earth: Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Tromethamine: An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pyridinium CompoundsElectrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cesium Isotopes: Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.Onium Compounds: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectTrityl CompoundsAdenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Tetraphenylborate: An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Receptors, Purinergic P2X7: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium Isotopes: Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.Membrane Transport Modulators: Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters: Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Melibiose: A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital: Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Receptors, Purinergic P2X4: A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Ion Pumps: A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Terbium: Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.PolyaminesSodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Rubidium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.Calixarenes: Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (1/3809)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

Regulated exopolysaccharide production in Myxococcus xanthus. (2/3809)

Myxococcus xanthus fibrils are cell surface-associated structures composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein. The level of M. xanthus polysaccharide production under different conditions in the wild type and in several mutants known to have alterations in fibril production was investigated. Wild-type exopolysaccharide increased significantly as cells entered the stationary phase of growth or upon addition of Ca2+ to growing cells, and the polysaccharide-induced cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination. The activity of the key gluconeogenic pathway enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) also increased under these conditions. Most fibril-deficient mutants failed to produce polysaccharide in a stationary-phase- or Ca2+-dependent fashion. However, regulation of Pck activity was generally unimpaired in these mutant strains. In an stk mutant, which overproduces fibrils, polysaccharide production and Pck activity were constitutively high under the conditions tested. Polysaccharide production increased in most fibril-deficient strains when an stk mutant allele was present, indicating that these fibril-deficient mutants retained the basic cellular components required for fibril polysaccharide production. In contrast to other divalent cations tested, Sr2+ effectively replaced Ca2+ in stimulating polysaccharide production, and either Ca2+ or Sr2+ was required for fruiting-body formation by wild-type cells. By using transmission electron microscopy of freeze-substituted log-phase wild-type cells, fibril material was observed as a cell surface-associated layer of uniform thickness composed of filaments with an ordered structure.  (+info)

Metal-catalyzed oxidation of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli: inactivation and destabilization by oxidation of active-site cysteines. (3/3809)

The in vitro instability of the phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase [DAHPS(Phe)] from Escherichia coli has been found to be due to a metal-catalyzed oxidation mechanism. DAHPS(Phe) is one of three differentially feedback-regulated isoforms of the enzyme which catalyzes the first step of aromatic biosynthesis, the formation of DAHP from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. The activity of the apoenzyme decayed exponentially, with a half-life of about 1 day at room temperature, and the heterotetramer slowly dissociated to the monomeric state. The enzyme was stabilized by the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate or EDTA, indicating that in the absence of substrate, a trace metal(s) was the inactivating agent. Cu2+ and Fe2+, but none of the other divalent metals that activate the enzyme, greatly accelerated the rate of inactivation and subunit dissociation. Both anaerobiosis and the addition of catalase significantly reduced Cu2+-catalyzed inactivation. In the spontaneously inactivated enzyme, there was a net loss of two of the seven thiols per subunit; this value increased with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+. Dithiothreitol completely restored the enzymatic activity and the two lost thiols in the spontaneously inactivated enzyme but was only partially effective in reactivation of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme. Mutant enzymes with conservative replacements at either of the two active-site cysteines, Cys61 or Cys328, were insensitive to the metal attack. Peptide mapping of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme revealed a disulfide linkage between these two cysteine residues. All results indicate that DAHPS(Phe) is a metal-catalyzed oxidation system wherein bound substrate protects active-site residues from oxidative attack catalyzed by bound redox metal cofactor. A mechanism of inactivation of DAHPS is proposed that features a metal redox cycle that requires the sequential oxidation of its two active-site cysteines.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (4/3809)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of ligands for L-selectin in the kidney. II. Expression of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans reactive with L-selectin. (5/3809)

Ligands for the leukocyte adhesion molecule L-selectin are expressed not only in lymph node high endothelial venules (HEV) but also in the renal distal tubuli. Here we report that L-selectin-reactive molecules in the kidney are chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans of 500-1000 kDa, unlike those in HEV bearing sialyl Lewis X-like carbohydrates. Binding of L-selectin to these molecules was mediated by the lectin domain of L-selectin and required divalent cations. Binding was inhibited by chondroitinase and/or heparitinase but not sialidase. Thus, L-selectin can recognize chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans structurally distinct from sialyl Lewis X-like carbohydrates.  (+info)

Eosinophil peroxidase increases membrane permeability in mammalian urinary bladder epithelium. (6/3809)

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), a cationic protein found in eosinophils, has been reported to be cytotoxic independent of its peroxidase activity. This study investigated with electrophysiological methods whether EPO is toxic to mammalian urinary bladder epithelium. Results indicate that EPO, when added to the mucosal solution, increases apical membrane conductance of urinary bladder epithelium only when the apical membrane potential is cell interior negative. The EPO-induced conductance was concentration dependent, with a maximum conductance of 411 microseconds/cm2 and a Michaelis-Menten constant of 113 nM. The EPO-induced conductance was nonselective for K+ and Cl-. The conductance was partially reversed using voltage but not by removal of EPO from the bulk solution. Mucosal Ca2+ reversed the EPO-induced conductance by a mechanism involving reversible block of the conductance. Prolonged exposure (up to 1 h) to EPO was toxic to the urinary bladder epithelium, as indicated by an irreversible increase in transepithelial conductance. These results suggest that EPO is indeed toxic to urinary bladder epithelium via a mechanism that involves an increase in membrane permeability.  (+info)

Structure of the oligonucleotide d(CGTATATACG) as a site-specific complex with nickel ions. (7/3809)

In this paper we explore the application of Ni2+to the crystallization of oligonucleotides. We have determined in this way the structure of a fully alternating (Y-R) decanucleotide d(CGTATATACG) by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This is the first oligonucleotide crystal structure with an alternating 5'-(TA)3-3' central part. Alternating oligonucleotides have a particular interest since they often have a unique structure. In this case the general conformation is B-like with an alternating twist and an end-to-end interaction which involves terminal guanines. The crystal belongs to space group P41212 with a = b = 52.46, c = 101.49 A. This packing imposes a 90 degrees crossing of the symmetry related helices. This is a new way of packing for decamers. The oligonucleotide structure is characterized by the specific association with seven nickel ions, involving the N7 atom of every guanine. One of the Ni2+ions is shared between two guanines of symmetry related molecules. Until now no oligonucleotide has been crystallized in the presence of this metal ion. A novel C.A.T triplet structure has also been tentatively identified.  (+info)

Heparin influence on alpha-staphylotoxin formed channel. (8/3809)

The effects of heparin on ion channels formed by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (ST channel) in lipid bilayers were studied under voltage clamp conditions. Heparin concentrations as small as 100 pM induced a sharp dose-dependent increase in channel voltage sensitivity. This was only observed when heparin was added to the negative-potential side of lipid bilayers in the presence of divalent cations. Divalent cations differ in their efficiency: Zn2+>Ca2+>Mg2+. The apparent positive gating charge increased 2-3-fold with heparin addition as well as with acidification of the bathing solution. 'Free' carboxyl groups and carboxyl groups in ion pairs of the protein moiety are hypothesized to interact with sulfated groups of heparin through divalent cation bridges. The cis mouth of the channel (that protrudes beyond the membrane plane on the side of ST addition and to which voltage was applied) is less sensitive to heparin than the trans-mouth. It is suggested that charged residues which interact with heparin at the cis mouth of ST channels and which contribute to the effective gating charge at negative voltage may be physically different from those at the trans mouth and at positive voltage.  (+info)

We have found that Mg++ supports IgM complex binding to mouse lymphocytes but not to macrophages. In contrast, Ca++ supports IgM complex binding to macrophages but not lymphocytes. IgG complex binding to both lymphocytes and macrophages is divalent cation independent. These findings allow one to distinguish IgG from IgM binding and macrophage from lymphocyte IgM complex binding by their differential divalent cation requirements. ...
477D: Atomic-resolution crystal structures of B-DNA reveal specific influences of divalent metal ions on conformation and packing.
CNNM2 antibody, Internal (cyclin and CBS domain divalent metal cation transport mediator 2) for WB. Anti-CNNM2 pAb (GTX46329) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
EDTA is a chelator of divalent cations and inhibits enzymes such as metalloproteases that require divalent cations for activity. EDTA is used in some electropho
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue. . ...
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue. . ...
Divalent cation (Mg2+, Co2+ and Ni2+) transport system, CorA. Helical tilting and rotation in TM1 generates an iris-like motion that increases the diameter of the permeation pathway, triggering ion conduction, thus defining the gating mechanism (Dalmas et al. 2014 ...
Biological membranes contain as a basic structural unit a phospholipid bilayer. Phospholipid membranes in the form of bilayer films (BLM) are currently used as experimental models for transport phenomena of the biological membranes. In particular, bilayers made of acidic phospholipids, present the advantage to investigate the bioelectrical phenomena across the biological membranes. This class of phospholipids by having a fixed charge might bind ions that play an important role on many physiological processes. It is known that Ca++ and other alkaline cations change the electrostatic potential of the negatively charged bilayer membranes either absorbing to the phospholipids or accumulating in the aqueous diffuse double layer, and this potential change may induce conductance variation (1). Cd++ another divalent cation has been shown to exert influence on the permeability of some anaelectrolytes across BLM made of negatively charged phospholipids, but not on the zwitterionic phospholipids (2). We ...
View Notes - 0243Pb45anp2-09 from CHEM orgo at NYU. + + Both cations (these are NOT resonance forms - they are two separate cations) are captured - two steps please - to give the two final products.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue ...
Article: Teamwork allows people to discuss their work together, and as a result, to grow professionally. To be successful, the teacher and para-educator must view themselves as a team and partners in the educational process ...
1776. Somme des cations échangeables (S) : Somme des cations métalliques échangeables exprimée en milliéquivalents-grammes pour 100 grammes de complexe absorbant ...
Single crystals of anhydrous strontium oxalate have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of divalent transition metal ions. Strontium is eight coordinate with approximate square antiprismatic geometry. The SrO polyhedra form a 3-dimensional network by sharing edges and vertices. This structure is compared to that of the strontium oxalate hydrates and related calcium minerals weddelite Ca(C2O4)(H2O)2 and whewellite Ca(C2O4)(H2O). ...
Carrier particles suitable for magnetic brush development comprising hard magnetic ferrite material having a single phase, W-type hexagonal crystalline structure represented by the formula MFe16 Me2 O27 where M is strontium or barium and Me is a divalent transition metal selected from the group consisting of nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, magnesium, iron and mixtures thereof, exhibiting a coercivity of approximately 100 to 300 Oersteds when magnetically saturated and an induced magnetic moment of at least 60 EMU/g when in an applied magnetic field of 1000 Oersteds are disclosed. Also disclosed are electrostatic two-component dry developer compositions comprising charged toner particles mixed with oppositely charged carrier particles comprising the magnetically hard ferrite material described above and a method of developing an electrostatic charge pattern by contacting the charge pattern with a two-component dry developer composition described above. The carrier particles provide high
Avanti, Christina and Oktaviani, Nur Alia and Hinrichs, Wouter L.J. and Frijlink, Henderik W. (2013) Aspartate buffer and divalent metal ions affect the oxytocin conformation in aqueous solution and protect it from degradation. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ISSN 0378-5173 (In Press) ...
Sathiyakumar , S , Selvam , P , Hakkim , F L , Srinivasan , K & Harrison , W T A 2018 , Synthesis and characterisation of double-layered octahedral coordination networks built up from divalent metal ions, mixed carboxylate anions, and ethyl carbazate ligands , Journal of Molecular Structure ...
Complete information for CNNM4 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin And CBS Domain Divalent Metal Cation Transport Mediator 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CNNM2 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin And CBS Domain Divalent Metal Cation Transport Mediator 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Dear, I have a question about medium used in tissue cultruing. Im currently doing functional assays using RPMI 1640 medium, in which ligand binding on cells may occur. I would like to know if I want some divalent cation present in the medium to test the nature of binding, anyone can tell me what chemical compound(s) I should add into the medium to provide the divalent cation, like Ca++? or other kind of medium can be used instead of RPMI. Thank you in advance. Regards Eddie ...
d) Limestone, clay and gypsum. 48) An aqueous solution of sodium sulphate is electrolysed using inert electrodes.The products at the cathode and anode are respectively ...
Synonyms for Cations, divalent in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cations, divalent. 1 synonym for divalent: bivalent. What are synonyms for Cations, divalent?
CUTA antibody, Internal (cutA divalent cation tolerance homolog (E. coli)) for WB. Anti-CUTA pAb (GTX46660) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Get Metal Ion Catalysis help from experts with hundreds of reviews and rates from $20/hour. The fastest most effective way to learn Metal Ion Catalysis.
Maximum efficiency of cation hydrolysis will be shown by? a) \(\sf Al^{+3}\) b) \(\sf Tl^{+3}\) c) \(\sf Tl^{+1}\) d) \(\sf Ga^{+3}\)The answer i...
View Notes - unk9scheme[1](2) from CHM 2045L at University of Florida. Instruction for unknown 9A/9B The author is not responsible for the scheme! Possible ions: 1. Cations: Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+,
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cAMP-gated channels were studied in inside-out membrane patches excised from the apical cellular pole of isolated olfactory receptor cells of the rat. In the absence of divalent cations the dose-response curve of activation of patch current by cAMP had a KM of 4.0 microM at -50 mV and of 2.5 microM at +50 mV. However, addition of 0.2 or 0.5 mM Ca2+ shifted the KM of cAMP reversibly to the higher cAMP concentrations of 33 or 90 microM, respectively, at -50 mV. Among divalent cations, the relative potency for inducing cAMP affinity shifts was: Ca2+ , Sr2+ , Mn2+ , Ba2+ , Mg2+, of which Mg2+ (up to 3 mM) did not shift the KM at all. This potency sequence corresponds closely to that required for the activation of calmodulin. However, the Ca(2+)-sensitivity is lower than expected for a calmodulin-mediated action. Brief (60 s) transient exposure to 3 mM Mg2+, in the absence of other divalent cations, had a protective effect in that following washout of Mg2+, subsequent exposure to 0.2 mM Ca2+ no ...
Divalent cations are important in the folding and stabilization of complex RNA structures. The adenine-sensing riboswitch controls the expression of mRNAs for proteins involved in purine metabolism by directly sensing intracellular adenine levels. Adenine binds with high affinity and specificity to the ligand binding or aptamer domain of the adenine-sensing riboswitch. The X-ray structure of this domain in complex with adenine revealed an intricate RNA-fold consisting of a three-helix junction stabilized by long-range base-pairing interactions and identified five binding sites for hexahydrated Mg2+-ions. Furthermore, a role for Mg2+-ions in the ligand-induced folding of this RNA was suggested. Here, we describe the interaction of divalent cations with the RNA-adenine complex in solution as studied by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Paramagnetic line broadening, chemical shift mapping and intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) indicate the presence of at least three binding sites for ...
The six elements in the alkaline earth metals group all have a variety of different uses, including making batteries, flashbulbs, fireworks, fertilizers and various metal alloys. The six alkaline...
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins cluster separately but probably function with the same polarity by similar mechanisms. These proteins are secondary carriers which utilize the pmf and function by H antiport (for metal efflux). One member, CzcD of Bacillus subtilis, has been shown to exchange the divalent cation (Zn2+ or Cd2+ ) for two monovalent cations (K+ and H+ ) in an electroneutral process energized by the transmembrane pH gradient (Guffanti et al., 2002). Another, ZitB of E. coli (TC #2.A.4.1.4), has been reconstituted in proteoliposomes and studied kinetically (Chao and Fu, 2004a). It appears to function by simple Me2+:H antiport with a 1:1 stoichiometry.. Montanini et al (2007) have conducted phylogenetic analysis of CDF family members. Their analysis revealed three major and two minor phylogenetic groups. They suggest that the three major groups segregated according to metal ion specificity: (1) Mn2+ , (2) Fe2+ and Zn2+ as well as other metal ions, and (3) Zn2+ plus other metals, but ...
We have shown that the E172Q and E172C mutations of L247T α7 nicotinic receptors eliminate receptor stimulation by the presence of permeable divalent cations. ACh dose responses of E172Q/L247T α7 nAChRs were inhibited by the presence of Ca2+, Ba2+, or Sr2+, and E172C/L247T α7 nAChRs were insensitive to the presence of these ions. E172Q/L247T α7 nAChRs did not display the high level of basal activity that is a characteristic of L247T α7 receptors and were not activated by the antagonist DHβE. E172C/L247T α7 receptors were blocked by the thiol-modifying reagent MTSET, indicating that E172 is accessible to permeant ions. These data support the conclusion drawn from a chimera of α7 nicotinic receptors and 5-HT3 receptors that E172 is essential for the modulation of α7 receptors by Ca2+ and other permeant divalent cations (19). The data are also consistent with a model of α7 receptors based on the crystal structure of AChBP (6) that places E172 near the inner surface of the vestibule, where ...
1O0T: Probing the role of divalent metal ions in a bacterial psychrophilic metalloprotease: binding studies of an enzyme in the crystalline state by x-ray crystallography.
Liquid pharmaceutical compositions for administration to a mucosal surface, comprising a therapeutic agent and a pectin with a low degree of esterification are described. Such compositions gel, or can be adapted to gel, at the site of application in the absence of an extraneous source of divalent metal ions.
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...and I dont have the photo to prove it! Does a meet up really happen if theres no photographic evidence? Last Thursday Cation Designs, Morgan of Crab & Bee, Meris of The Fabric Alchemist, and I met up for brunch at Lola in downtown Seattle. Cation Designs was in town for a few days, and her visit was the…
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Calixarene-Based Molecules for Cation Recognition. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Wolf, R., Dommröse, A. - M., & Grützmacher, H. - F. (1988). Destabilized carbenium ions: secondary and tertiary [alpha]-carbomethoxybenzyl cations. Organic Mass Spectrometry, 23(1), 26-32. doi:10.1002/oms. ...
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வேதியியலில் உப்பு (salt) என்பது ஒரு காடியும், காரமும் சேர்ந்து வேதியியல் வினைப்படும் பொழுது நடுமை அடைகையில் உருவாகும் பொருள். உப்புகள் மின்ம முனைப்படும் சேர்மங்கள் ஆகும். உப்புகளில் நேர்மின்மம் கொண்ட நேர்முனையி அல்லது கேட்டயான் (cation) பகுதியும், எதிர்மின்மம் கொண்ட எதிர்முனையி அல்லது ஆனையான் (anion) பகுதியும் கொண்ட ஆனால் மொத்தமாக மின்மம் ஏதுமற்ற, மின்மநடுநிலை கொண்ட ஒரு பொருள். ...
Одоогоор гэртээ удахгүй мэндлэх хүүхдээ хүлээн амарч байгаа Чимбай агентлагийн захирал, мисс Э.Содтуяагийн гэрэл зургуудыг сонирхоно уу. www.factnews.mn
УИХ-ын гишүүн Л.Эрдэнэчимэг туйлын эгэл жирийн амьдардаг гэдгээ олон нийтэд үзүүлэв. Тэрбээр өнгөрсөн ням гаригт
The invention is a method for preparing a stabilized aqueous alkali or alkaline earth metal hypobromite solution. The method comprises the steps of: a. Mixing an aqueous solution of alkali or alkaline earth metal hypochlorite with a water soluble bromide ion source; b. Allowing the bromide ion source and the alkali or alkaline earth metal hypochlorite to react to form a 0.5 to 30 percent by weight aqueous solution of unstabilized alkali or alkaline earth metal hypobromite; c. Adding to the unstabilized solution of alkali or alkaline earth metal hypobromite an aqueous solution of an alkali metal sulfamate having a temperature of at least 50 C. in a quantity to provide a molar ratio of alkali metal sulfamate to alkali or alkaline earth metal hypobromite is from about 0.5 to about 6; and then, d. Recovering a stabilized aqueous alkali or alkaline earth metal hypobromite solution.
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG)1 ion channels are key players in visual and olfactory signal transduction pathways (reviewed in Lancet, 1986; Yau and Baylor, 1989; Zufall et al., 1994). Although they are only weakly voltage dependent, CNG channels have regions of sequence similarity with voltage-gated channels (Jan and Jan, 1990). One region of high conservation between CNG channels and voltage-gated channels is the P region, thought to line a portion of the ion-conducting pore. Shaker K+ channels that have had portions of their P region replaced with the corresponding region from CNG channels take on many of the permeation properties of CNG channels (Heginbotham et al., 1992). These chimeric channels become permeable to Na+ as well as to K+ and become blocked by the divalent cations Mg2+ and Ca2+. Like voltage-gated channels, CNG channels are thought to possess multi-ion pores (Furman and Tanaka, 1990; Sesti et al., 1995). The external divalent cation binding site is thought to involve the E363 ...
The formation of ordered aggregates of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in the presence of divalent metal ions has been studied in concentrated (1-25 mg/ml) solutions of the virus. The divalent metal cations Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+ have been found
KUMAR, B. Ananda; RAJU, S.; BHARATH KUMAR, K .Naik y RAO, G. Nageswara. Ternary complexes of some divalent metal ions with potentially tridentate ligands in dioxane-water mixtures. S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) [online]. 2012, vol.65, pp.184-190. ISSN 1996-840X.. Chemical speciation of mixed ligand complexes of Ca(II), Mg(II) and Zn(II) with L-histidine and L-glutamic acid have been studied in varying concentrations (0.0-60.0 % v/v) of 1, 4-dioxane-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 mol L-1 sodium chloride at 303.0 K. Titrations were carried out in the presence of different relative concentrations (M:L:X = 1.0:2.5:2.5, 1.0:2.5:5.0, 1.0:5.0:2.5) of metal (M) to L-histidine (L) to L-glutamic acid (X) with sodium hydroxide. Stability constants of ternary complexes were refined with MINIQUAD75. The best-fit chemical models were selected based on statistical parameters and residual analysis. The predominant species detected were ML2XH2, MLXH2 and MLX2 for Ca(II), Mg(II) and Zn(II). The ...
Reversible protein phosphorylation is widely accepted as a major mechanism for the control of biological processes in eukaryotic cells. In plants, reversible protein phosphorylation is involved in processes such as hormonal, pathogenic, or environmental stress responses (Mumby and Walter, 1993; Smith and Walker, 1993; Garbers et al., 1996; Schöntal, 1998;Janssens and Goris, 2001). In this context, Ser/Thr protein phosphatases (PPs) are important regulatory components of many signal transduction pathways (Ingebritsen and Cohen, 1983a; Schöntal, 1998). Several Ser/Thr phosphatases, grouped into different categories, have been identified in a variety of plant species. Specifically, homologs of the 1, 2A, and 2C types of animal PPs have been described in plants (Rodrı́guez, 1998; Lin et al., 1999; Meek et al., 1999). All these types of PPs are distinguished by their different sensitivity to inhibitors and their divalent cation requirements, and are structurally different (for review, see Mumby ...
An apparatus for removing deposits from a razor blade includes a quantity of cation source material, a vessel retaining a cation carrying medium, and a medium and cation permeable barrier dividing the vessel and the medium into a blade placement region and a material retaining region, for separating the quantity of cation source material from the razor blade. The cation source material preferably includes several plastic beads. The medium permeable barrier is preferably a wire mesh. The cation carrying medium preferably includes water. A method of removing deposits from a razor blade includes the steps of: providing an apparatus including a vessel containing a water medium and cation source material at least partly submerged in the water medium, and immersing the blade in the water medium for a length of time to permit cations supplied by the material to react with the deposits on the blade.
Alkaline lysis or alkaline extraction is a method used in molecular biology to isolate plasmid DNA from bacteria. Bacteria containing the plasmid of interest are first cultured, then a sample is centrifuged in order to concentrate cellular material (including DNA) into a pellet at the bottom of the containing vessel. The supernatant is discarded, and the pellet is then re-suspended in an EDTA-containing physiological buffer. The purpose of the EDTA is to chelate divalent metal cations such as Mg2+ and Ca2+, which are required for the function of DNA degrading enzymes (DNAses) and also serve to stabilise the DNA phosphate backbone and cell wall. Glucose in the buffer will maintain the osmotic pressure of the cell in order to prevent the cell from bursting. Tris in the buffer will retain the pH of the cell with 8.0 and RNase will remove the RNA which will disrupt the experiment. Separately, a strong alkaline solution consisting of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a strong base such ...
d) None of these. 44) The atomic radii of alkali metals (M) lie in the order Li , Na , K , Rb, but the radii of M+ ions in aqueous solution lie in the reverse order Li+ , Na+ , K+ and Rb+. What is the reason for this reverse order (on going from Li to Rb) ? ...
Every ionic bond will result in the formation of an anion and a cation. The anion is the atom which receives the electron (usually the nonmetal with a large EN) and the cation is the atom which donates the electron (usually the metal with a low EN). Because of this, we can say that as EN increases going right across the periodic table, so does the likelihood of the element forming an anion when in an ionic bond. Vice versa, we can say that as EN decreases going left across the periodic table, so does the likelihood of an element forming a cation when in an ionic bond ...
Every ionic bond will result in the formation of an anion and a cation. The anion is the atom which receives the electron (usually the nonmetal with a large EN) and the cation is the atom which donates the electron (usually the metal with a low EN). Because of this, we can say that as EN increases going right across the periodic table, so does the likelihood of the element forming an anion when in an ionic bond. Vice versa, we can say that as EN decreases going left across the periodic table, so does the likelihood of an element forming a cation when in an ionic bond ...
I always hydrate with TE pH 8. Degradation is TE is slower than water. , Does anyone know why? My genomic DNA is just fine at 4C, but I have only , a little experience with plasmids. , , Anne , The tris keeps the pH stable and the EDTA chelates divalent cations. Mg and Mn cause chemical cleavage of nucleic acids. -----== Posted via Deja News, The Leader in Internet Discussion ==----- http://www.dejanews.com/rg_mkgrp.xp Create Your Own Free Member Forum ...
Metal ions in the brain are a necessity as well as a poison. The presence of metal ions in the active sites of biological catalysts or metalloproteins and in the biological functioning of nucleic acid
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Nancy E. Brown, Alexandra Navrotsky; Hematite-ilmenite (Fe 2 O 3 -FeTiO 3 ) solid solutions; the effects of cation ordering on the thermodynamics of mixing. American Mineralogist ; 79 (5-6): 485-496. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Müller, A., Krickemeyer, E., Bögge, H., Schmidtmann, M., Botar, B., & Talismanova, M. O. (2003). Drawing small cations into highly charged porous nanocontainers reveals "Water" assembly and related interaction problems. ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, 42(18), 2085-2090. doi:10.1002/anie. ...
Using Periodic Properties to Identify Group 2A Cations and Group 7A Anions Objectives The objectives of this lab are as follows: To observe the solubility properties of various ionic compounds containing
League of Legends Summoner data for Cation Anion 990161 in br. Contains statistics, match data and more to help players analyze and improve performance.
N5 X730/75/01 FRIDAY, 22 MAY 9:00 AM 10:30 AM FOR OFFICIAL USE National Quali cations 2015 Mark French Reading *X * Fill in these boxes and read what is printed below. Full name of centre Town Forename(s)
Use up my fabric and pattern stash, within reason. I have some fabrics that I dont feel up to working with yet, skill-wise, and some patterns that will probably never be used because of the style. I need to stop buying patterns at Joanns just because theyre on sale, and limit it to only getting unique styles that I cant hack from my existing patterns. I just looked at my pattern stash and realized I have at least five fitted bodices with the two side darts and two front darts. If I want a different neckline, I can figure it out on my own. Also, Im going to learn from Sarah at Musings of a Seamstress and save all my sewing-related receipts this year as a record. Gaaah, how scary. Maybe thatll teach me to be better about it ...
Thank you for taking the time to tell me your thoughts! I appreciate reading them and I try to reply to most, if not all, comments, especially when they are questions. I ask that you keep your comments polite, and if youre a spammer, dont bother because your comment will just be deleted! Also, if youre commenting on a post thats more than two weeks old, it will be moderated. ...
Cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) proteins are a conserved family of transmembrane transporters that ensure cellular homeostasis of divalent transition metal cations. Metal cations bind to CDF proteins cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (CTD), leading to closure from its apo open V-shaped dimer to a tighter packed structure, followed by a conformational change of the transmembrane domain thus enabling transport of the metal cation. By implementing a comprehensive range of biochemical and biophysical methods, we studied the molecular mechanism of metal binding to the magnetotactic bacterial CDF protein MamM CTD. Our results reveal that the CTD is rather dynamic in its apo form, and that two dependent metal binding sites, a single central binding site and two symmetrical, peripheral sites, are available for metal binding. However, only cation binding to the peripheral sites leads to conformational changes that lock the protein in a compact state. Thus, this work reveals how metal binding is ...
Voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents in Paramecium caudatum were studied under voltage clamp conditions. To separate Ca2+ inward currents from concomitant K+ outward currents, the voltage-dependent Ca2+ conductance was temporarily inactivated by a preceding depolarization. The remaining currents were then subtracted from the overall currents measured in the absence of a prepulse. In this way pure Ca2+ currents could be obtained up to a depolarization of 100 mV, which is about 50 mV below the theoretical Ca2+ equilibrium potential (Eca). Ca2+ currents were maximal at a depolarization of 35 mV and declined with further approach to Eca, but they did not reverse sign in the voltage range tested.. In the presence of Mg2+, Co2+, Mn2+ or Ni2+, the Ca2+ inward currents decreased to a different extent. From experiments where these cations were added at different concentrations and from measurements at different Ca2+ concentrations in the absence of other divalent cations the following ratio of apparent ...
Acanthamoeba myosin-II forms filaments of two different sizes. Thin bipolar filaments 7 nm wide and 200 nm long consist of 16 myosin-II molecules. Thick bipolar filaments of variable width (14-19 nm) consist of 40 or more myosin-II molecules. Both have a central bare zone 90 nm long and myosin heads projecting laterally at the ends. The heads are arranged in rows spaced 15 nm apart. In the case of the thin myosin-II filaments there are two molecules per row. The thick filaments are formed rapidly and reversibly in the presence of 6-10 mM MgCl2 (or any of five other different divalent cations tested) by the lateral aggregation of thin myosin-II filaments. Acid pH also favors thick filament formation. Neither the myosin-II concentration (50-1,000 micrograms/ml) nor ATP has an effect on the morphology of the filaments. The polymerization mechanism was studied quantitatively by measuring the amount of polymer formed (Cp) under various conditions as a function of total myosin-II concentration (Ct). ...
COMP Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_000086), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. The protein encoded by this gene is a noncollagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) protein. It consists of five identical glycoprotein subunits, each with EGF-like and calcium-binding (thrombospondin-like) domains. Oligomerization results from formation of a five-stranded coiled coil and disulfides. Binding to other ECM proteins such as collagen appears to depend on divalent cations. Mutations can cause the osteochondrodysplasias pseudochondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED).
According to early studies on the transport of cadmium (Cd), it was suggested that iron (Fe) or calcium (Ca) transport system is important in Cd incorporation into cells based on the evidence that dietary Fe or Ca deficiency enhanced intestinal Cd absorption. Transporter of Fe, divalent metal transporter, was shown to be capable of permeating other divalent metals including Cd. On the other hand, L-type Ca channel was also shown to be responsible at least in part, for cellular Cd uptake. In addition to Ca and Fe, it was suggested that the transporter for cellular incorporation of manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) may also be involved in Cd uptake by using Cd-resistant metallothionein null cells. Recently, two members of ZIP family, ZIP8 (Slc39a8) and ZIP14 (Slc39a14) have been suggested as the candidates for Cd transporter. ZIP8 was found to be the determinant for the sensitivity to Cd-induced testicular hemorrhage. ZIP14 was down-regulated in Cd-resistant metallothionein null cells. Further ...
Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and total exchangeable cations (TEC) are two significant concepts in soil fertility. Cations refer to the positively charged nutrients in the soil, e.g. Ca2+ and K+. They are important as they give you an idea of how many cations a soil can potentially hold and how many cations are currently being held. Understanding exactly how these soil properties influence soil fertility and applying soil management systems that enhance these properties can assist in improving pasture quality and yield.. CEC is defined as the degree to which a soil can adsorb (hold/capture) and exchange cations with the soil solution1. This term is often confused with a soils TEC which refers to the number of basic cations that are held on the soil exchange sites (CEC sites) in comparison to the total sites and is usually reported in cmol(+)/kg soil. The ability of the soil to hold nutrients is greatly influenced by the soils organic matter (OM) content, which is mostly made up of carbon, as ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for P9WIZ4 (MNTH_MYCTO), Divalent metal cation transporter MntH. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain CDC 1551 / Oshkosh)
Article Biotic ligand modelling approach: Synthesis of the effect of major cations on the toxicity of metals to soil and aquatic organisms. The biotic ligand model (BLM) approach is used to assess metal toxicity, taking into account the competition o...
Histochemical and morphological research increasingly relies upon quanti cation of complex biological systems. For such investigations to be meaningful, quanti cation techniques must meet the seemingly conflicting requirements of being theoretically robust, yet sufficiently practical to facilitate widespread applicability. Validity ought to be enhanced by theoretical simplicity, use of measured rather than assumed variables, and minimising observer interpretation. Practicality is facilitated by simplifying and reducing measurements, broadening applicability, and reducing costs and analysis time. As a result, quanti cation systems that rely upon sampling and estimation have been favoured over serial reconstruction techniques. To provide reliable estimates, sampling must be valid at all levels from tissue harvest, to the selection of microscope fields in which quanti cation is performed by techniques that account for the anisotropic distribution, and variable size of many elements in biological ...
Its well documented that Ca2+ performs a significant position in organic membrane fusion phenomena when other cations listed higher than are ineffective in many this kind of devices. Hence its most suitable with the body. As a result, calcium may be the best suited divalent cation claimed for planning cochleates and consequently used in the existing get the job done. The addition of calcium ions for the SPC and cholesterol vesicles induces fusion of lipid membranes plus the formation of planar sheet which eventually coil about an initial issue of folding to variety cochleates cylinder. The obtained nanocochleates were being bigger in measurement and demonstrated superior EE (76.sixty nine ± three.41%) as as opposed with vesicle. Our report is the main to exhibit the quercetin encapsulation benefits of nanocochleates. Their unfavorable zeta potential is probably a result of the anionic nature from the used SPC ...
An enzyme that catalyzes the Hydrolysis of ATP and is activated by millimolar concentrations of either Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Unlike Ca(2+)-Transporting ATPase it does not require the second divalent cation for its activity, and is not sensitive to orthovanadate. (Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1988;52(1):1). A subgroup of EC 3.6.1.3 ...
In molecular biology, TBE and TAE buffers are often used in procedures involving nucleic acids, the most common being electrophoresis. Tris-acid solutions are effective buffers for slightly basic conditions, which keep DNA deprotonated and soluble in water. EDTA is a chelator of divalent cations, particularly of magnesium (Mg,sup,2+,/sup,). As these ions are necessary co-factors for many enzymes, including contaminant nucleases, the role of the EDTA is to protect the nucleic acids against enzymatic degradation. But since Mg,sup,2+,/sup, is also a co-factor for many useful DNA-modifying enzymes such as [[restriction enzyme]]s and [[DNA polymerase]]s, its concentration in TBE or TAE buffers is generally kept low (typically at around 1 mM ...
SPE Part: 8B-S035-JDG Strata™-X-CW 33 µm Polymeric Weak Cation, 1 g / 12 mL, Giga Tubes , 20/Pk Phase: Polymeric weak cation exchange Sorbent Type: Polymer-based Format: Tube Target Analytes: Basic compounds, particularly strong bases
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Nishimura, S, Biggs, S, Scales, PJ, Healy, TW, Tsunematsu, K and Tateyama, T (1994) Molecular-Scale Structure of the Cation Modified Muscovite Mica Basal-Plane. Langmuir, 10 12: 4554-4559. doi:10.1021/la00024a028 ...
well im studied C3 further science, and these have really got to me? not a clue what they are on about on the revision booklet i have, or on any of the revision notes i have come across on here? i dont know what are example and what i need to remember for my exam? any help?. ...
در این پژوهش اثر اسکاونجر حفره EDTA در تسریع رنگبری رنگزای آبی مستقیم 71 به‌عنوان یک آلاینده سخت تجزیه‌پذیر در فرایند فتوکاتالیستی با استفاده از نانو ذرات دی‌اکسید تیتانیوم پوشش داده شده بر بستر سیمانی بررسی شد. با استفاده از 03/0 مولار EDTA، 75 میلی‌گرم در لیتر رنگزا در pH برابر 6 ، تحت تابش لامپ UV-C 60 وات طی مدت زمان 75 دقیقه رنگبری شد. این درحالی است که رنگزا تحت این شرایط و بدون حضور اسکاونجر در مدت زمان 225 دقیقه حذف شد، به ‌این ترتیب اثر تسریع‌کنندگی این اسکاونجر تأیید شد. سینتیک فرایند فتوکاتالیستی در حضور EDTA مرتبه اول با ثابت واکنش 05/0 بر دقیقه به‌دست آمد که 5/2
For me, its mostly a style thing, except for FOREIGN KEY constraints which, if defined inline, will inherit the data type of the parent column. That makes life easier if you ever need to change the data type of a parent key (not a recommended best practice mind you). I just think it looks prettier (factual based evidence). Its all in one file and I like to see how many constraints I can put on a single table. Im shooting for at least one per column to save myself time down the road of coding exceptions. Let the database do its job ...
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TY - GEN. T1 - Influence of alkaline earth metals on cellulose pyrolysis. AU - Zhu, Cheng. AU - Maduskar, Saurabh. AU - Paulsen, Alex D.. AU - Dauenhauer, Paul J.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84971377892&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84971377892&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Conference contribution. AN - SCOPUS:84971377892. T3 - Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Division 2015 - Core Programming Area at the 2015 AIChE Annual Meeting. BT - Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Division 2015 - Core Programming Area at the 2015 AIChE Annual Meeting. PB - AIChE. T2 - Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Division 2015 - Core Programming Area at the 2015 AIChE Annual Meeting. Y2 - 8 November 2015 through 13 November 2015. ER - ...
Gramicidins bactericidal activity is a result of increasing the permeability of the bacterial cell wall allowing inorganic monovalent cations (e.g. H+) to travel through unrestricted, thereby destroying the ion gradient between the cytoplasm and the extracellular environment. That gramicidin D functions as a channel was demonstrated by Hladky and Haydon, who investigated the unit conductance channel. In general, gramicidin channels are ideally selective for monovalent cations and the single-channel conductances for the alkali cations are ranked in the same order as the aqueous mobilities of these ions. Divalent cations like Ca-2+ block the channel by binding near the mouth of the channel. So it is basically impermeable to divalent cations. It also excludes anions. Cl- in particular is excluded from the channel because its hydration shell is thermodynamically stronger than that of most monovalent cations. The channel is permeable to most monovalent cations, which move through the channel in ...
Looking for online definition of carnosinase in the Medical Dictionary? carnosinase explanation free. What is carnosinase? Meaning of carnosinase medical term. What does carnosinase mean?
1. The molecular weight of the native hemocyanin from Ampullaria canaliculata determined by gel filtration has a molecular mass of 7.5 x 10(6) Da. Dialysis against buffer free of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions dissociated the hemocyanin into molecular species of 1.0 x 10(6) and 3.2 x 10(5) Da. 2. The oxygen-binding curves of hemocyanin were sigmoidal with Hill coefficient of about 2. A positive Bohr effect was demonstrable at pH values ranging from 6.5 to 9.0. 3. Differences between associated and dissociated hemocyanin as well as the effect of the divalent cations on the aggregation of hemocyanin molecule were illustrated by immunoelectrophoresis analysis. 4. Negatively stained preparations of hemocyanin observed by TEM showed the cylindrical configuration of molluscan hemocyanins molecules. Its inner structure, enhanced by the negative contrasting, reveals a regular periodicity as a result of the alignment of serial subunits ...
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The ever increasing advances in the integrated circuit technology made it possible for electronic system designers to assemble complete systems-on-chips (SoC). As these SoCs have been used in computer, graphics, and networking hardware systems, the complexity of functionality within them have rapidly increased. At the same time shrinking time to market leaves little room for errors in the design. Hence functional veri cation has become one of the major tasks in committing chips to fabrication. Just as designs are pushing towards reusable environment so must the veri cation environment. As veri cation itself takes 70% of the design time, the need of standalone, pre-veri ed veri ca- tion infrastructure is arisen so that veri cation does not become the bottleneck for the designers. The Veri cation Intellectual Property (Veri cation IP/VIP) which can be easily plugged in the simulation-based tests, is an important component of such infrastructure. In this dissertation the modeling of VIP of STBUS ...
Quantitative aspects of metal ion binding to certain transfer RNA anticodon loop modified nucleosides.: Magnesium and manganese ions bind strongly to the unusua
A light emitting device which is capable of suppressing deterioration by diffusion of impurities such as moisture, oxygen, alkaline metal and alkaline earth metal, and concretely, a flexible light emitting device which has light emitting element formed on a plastic substrate. On the plastic substrate, disposed are two layers and more of barrier films comprising a layer represented by AlNxOy which is capable of blocking intrusion of moisture and oxygen in a light emitting layer and blocking intrusion of impurities such as an alkaline metal and an alkaline earth metal in an active layer of TFT, and further, a stress relaxation film containing resin is disposed between two layers of barrier films.
Positively charged cations and negatively charged anions attract one another. Conversely, cations repel one another as do anions.. Electrostatic attraction is indiscriminate. That is a cation can attract more than one anion and visa versa. The result is that cation-anions attractions form a large array that we call an ionic compound or salt. The bonds holding these ions together are called ionic bonds. However, this array has a very specific composition completely dictated by the charges on the cations and anions.. Formulas of ionic compounds:. The composition of ionic compounds is determined by the requirement that the compounds must be electrically neutral. That is that the charges of the cations and anions must balance or cancel out one another. For example consider sodium cations (Na+) and Chlorine anions (Cl ). Sodium has a positive 1 charge and chloride has a negative 1 charge. Thus one sodium cation cancels one chloride anion (+1 + 1 = 0) resulting in the formula Na1Cl1 or NaCl. ...
Contractions induced by 10 nM endothelin-1 (ET) in the rabbit aortic media intimal layer were inhibited by prior exposure to 100 microM Ni++ (33.1%) or to a Ca(++)-free buffer (80.2%) but were unaffected by pretreatment with 0.1 microM nifedipine. Contractions elicited by phenylephrine (1 nM-100 microM) or K+ (10-50 mM) were not inhibited by 100 microM Ni++ but those induced by ET in tissues submaximally precontracted with 20 mM K+ were selectively antagonized by the divalent cation. The mechanism for the inhibitory action of Ni++ was ascertained by an examination of the effects of the cation on ET-induced alterations in the cellular distribution and mobilization of Ca++. Efflux of 45Ca from the muscle into a solution without added Ca++ was not altered by ET. Total or cellular 45Ca uptake (uptake after exposure to La and low temperature), at either low- or high-affinity sites in resting muscles was also not affected by the peptide. However, low-affinity cellular 45Ca retention in muscles ...
The city of Chofu in Tokyo started a new program in November 2010 for recycling components such as electric circuit boards and hard disks from home appliances, collected as bulky waste. This is the first program of its kind in any of the municipalities in Tokyo. The city collects over 11,000 pieces of used home […]. ...
Used for cation analysis by Ion Chromatography, these standards for cation analysis can be used for primary calibration or to prepare second source calibration check standards.
SPE Part: 8B-S035-HCH Strata™-X-CW 33 µm Polymeric Weak Cation, 500 mg / 6 mL, Tubes , 30/Pk Phase: Polymeric weak cation exchange Sorbent Type: Polymer-based Format: Tube Target Analytes: Basic compounds, particularly strong bases
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Effects of the deletion of Ca++, Mg++, or Ca++ and Mg++ on the leakage of primary amines, Ca++, and Mg++ from gills of Mytilus californianus were studied. In the absence of Ca++ the gills leak primary amines and Ca++ for about 30 minutes, after which the primary amines are reabsorbed. In the absence of Mg++ the gills leak primary amines, with no net reabsorption for at least 90 minutes, and show rapid leakage of Mg++. In the absence of both Ca++ and Mg++ amino acid leakage is initially less than in the absence of only one of the cations. Measurements of the kinetics of leakages of Ca++ and Mg++ are consistent with the hypothesis that both ions are associated with the cell surface, but the affinity of Ca++ for the cell surface is greater than that of Mg++. In the absence of Mg++, the influx of 14C-glycine was depressed to about 1/3 that seen in controls, while deletion of Ca++ had no effect on the rate of influx. Increasing the [Mg++] stepwise between 5 x 10(-6) and 1 x 10(-1) M results in a sigmoidal
Looking for online definition of Rare earth metals in the Medical Dictionary? Rare earth metals explanation free. What is Rare earth metals? Meaning of Rare earth metals medical term. What does Rare earth metals mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linoleic acid permeabilizes gastric epithelial cells by increasing connexin 43 levels in the cell membrane via a GPR40- and Akt-dependent mechanism. AU - Puebla, Carlos. AU - Cisterna, Bruno A.. AU - Salas, Daniela P.. AU - Delgado-López, Fernando. AU - Lampe, Paul D.. AU - Sáez, Juan C.. PY - 2016/5/1. Y1 - 2016/5/1. N2 - Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC activity of similar intensity ...
Divalent cations (e.g. Mg2+) are also required for integrin-ligand binding. ...
I cations present are divalent). Ephesite with monovalent cations of Na prove to be a true mica and with 2.5 octahedral cations ... Depending on the interlayer cation, the micas are subdivided into true micas (if 50% I cations present are monovalent) or ... Ephesite, a mica structure, arises from the stacking of T-O-T layers along the c-axis direction connected by I-cations where T, ...
Divalent cations help coordinate the nucleotide. The general mechanism is shown in the figure below. Riboflavin kinase plays an ...
It forms a cation-selective ion channel activated by light absorption. It transports both monovalent and divalent cations. It ... A transient increase in hydration of transmembrane α-helices with a t(1/2) = 60 μs tallies with the onset of cation permeation ... The observed proton transfer reactions and the protein conformational changes relate to the gating of the cation channel. ... a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ...
Aquo ions of divalent metal ions are less acidic than those of trivalent cations. ... Most first row divalent metals form Tutton's salts, which feature the hexaaquo complexes. One example is Ferrous ammonium ... The main factor affecting rates is charge: highly charged metal aquo cations exchange their water more slowly than singly ...
It has 2 cofactors: thiamin diphosphate, and Divalent cation. Vanderbilt AS, Gaby NS, Rodwell VW (1975). "Intermediates and ...
Both α and β subunits bind several divalent cations. The role of divalent cations in the α subunit is unknown, but may ... In both cases, the A-domains carry up to three divalent cation binding sites. One is permanently occupied in physiological ... concentrations of divalent cations, and carries either a calcium or magnesium ion, the principal divalent cations in blood at ... As detailed above, this finally revealed why divalent cations (in the A-domains) are critical for RGD-ligand binding to ...
It employs one cofactor, divalent cation. At least one compound, Chelating agent is known to inhibit this enzyme. As of late ...
Wilson J, Chin A (1991). "Chelation of divalent cations by ATP, studied by titration calorimetry". Anal Biochem. 193 (1): 16-9 ... Inorganic polyphosphates play a crucial role in tolerance of yeast cells to toxic heavy metal cations. Phosphoric acids Sodium ...
Divalent cations stabilize the enzyme activity of the p48 subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21608-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34. ...
Divalent cations stabilize the enzyme activity of the p48 subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21608-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34. ...
ATP binds metal cations with high affinity. The binding constant for Mg2+ is (9554). The binding of a divalent cation, almost ... Wilson, J.; Chin, A. (1991). "Chelation of divalent cations by ATP, studied by titration calorimetry". Anal. Biochem. 193 (1): ... "Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator". BMC ...
It can bind divalent cations, including Co(II) and Ni(II). TAPS is effective to make buffer solutions in the pH range 7.7-9.1, ... Machado, C. M. M.; Gameiro, P.; Soares, H. M. V. M. (2008). "Complexation of M-(buffer)x-(OH)y systems involving divalent ions ...
This increases the reabsorption of divalent cations by secondary active transport. It is currently unknown why calcium ...
In the early stages, RNA forms secondary structures stabilized through the binding of monovalent cations, divalent cations and ... absence of the monovalent or divalent cations results in either greater flexibility or loss of tertiary structure. Divalent ... Metal cations that bind RNA can be monovalent, divalent or trivalent. Potassium (K+) is a common monovalent ion that binds RNA ... in which divalent cations interact with the Hoogsteen edge of guanosine via O6 and N7. Another ion-binding motif in the ...
EDTA is a chelator of divalent cations, particularly of magnesium (Mg2+). As these ions are necessary co-factors for many ...
Inward flow of sodium ions is blocked by extracellular divalent cations. Increased intracellular magnesium concentrations also ... produces outwardly rectifying currents with the outward portion composed of Na+ ions and the inward portion of divalent cations ...
is (9554).[4] The binding of a divalent cation, almost always magnesium, strongly affects the interaction of ATP with various ... Wilson, J.; Chin, A. (1991). "Chelation of divalent cations by ATP, studied by titration calorimetry". Anal. Biochem. 193 (1): ... Binding of metal cations to ATPEdit. Being polyanionic and featuring a potentially chelatable polyphosphate group, ATP binds ... "Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator". BMC ...
... is a mobile ion-carrier that forms stable complexes with divalent cations (ions with a charge of +2). A23187 is also ... It also acts as a divalent cation ionophore, allowing these ions to cross cell membranes, which are usually impermeable to them ... a divalent cation ionophore antibiotic". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 16 (6): 808-812. doi:10.1128/aac.16.6.808. PMC ...
In the presence of divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+), or at alkaline pH the activation takes much longer. ...
The specific conformational state occurs based on the binding of specific divalent cations and is also related to adenylation.[ ...
... also contain high levels of the divalent cations: Zn2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Ronquist G, Brody I (1985). "The prostasome ...
This gene encodes a member of a superfamily of divalent cation-dependent phosphodiesterases. The encoded protein associates ... as a member of a superfamily of divalent cation-dependent phosphodiesterases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 285 (5): 1274-9. ...
Uptake was also inhibited by Co(III)Hex and by other divalent cations. Only Co2+ and Cu2+ inhibited transport with Ki values ... Conklin DS, Kung C, Culbertson MR (Apr 1993). "The COT2 gene is required for glucose-dependent divalent cation transport in ... Interestingly, the mnr2 mutation also altered accumulation of other divalent cations, suggesting this mutation may increase Alr ... have a similar but not identical array of affinities for divalent cations. In fact, this observation can be extended to all of ...
Transport is specific to Mg2+, as other divalent cations do not evoke currents. Large external concentrations of some cations ...
Essentially these arise when the cation:uranium ratio is different from 2:1 (monovalent cations) or 1:1 (divalent cations). ... For example, with the cation K+, compounds with K:U ratios of 2, 1 and 0.5 were found, corresponding to empirical formulas ... where M represents a cation. The uranium atom in uranates(VI) has two short collinear U-O bonds and either four or six more ... Charge-balance constrains the number of oxygen atoms to be equal to half the sum of charges of the cations and uranyl groups. ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Similar solutions are formed by the heavy divalent alkaline earth metals calcium, strontium, barium, as well as the divalent ... However, for the alkali metal cations, the second coordination sphere is not well-defined as the +1 charge on the cation is not ... Other "pseudo-alkali metals" include the alkylammonium cations, in which some of the hydrogen atoms in the ammonium cation are ...
Ganesan, M.; Bérubé, C. D.; Gambarotta, S.; Yap, G. P. A. (2002). "Effect of the Alkali-Metal Cation on the Bonding Mode of 2,5 ... Girard, P.; Namy, J. L.; Kagan, H. B. (1980). "Divalent Lanthanide Derivatives in Organic Synthesis. 1. Mild Preparation of ... Although usually trivalent, ytterbium readily forms divalent compounds. This behavior is unusual for lanthanides, which almost ... in Divalent Samarium and Ytterbium Complexes". Organometallics. 21 (8): 1707. doi:10.1021/om0109915.. ...
For divalent dopant cations, for example calcium, the general formula for doped metal oxide is given by:. ... can be doped with small alkali metal or alkaline earth metal cations. These replace the normal cation in the metal oxide ... y is the number of extra peroxide defects created by the presence of the monovalent alkali dopant cation in the metal oxide ... In a further preferred aspect the metal oxide forms a cation of large ionic radius, for example a rare earth. ...
Some effects of divalent cations on binding and engulfment of several metal oxides and carbon particles are... ... Anionic Group Divalent Cation Peritoneal Macrophage Carbon Particle Fe203 Particle These keywords were added by machine and not ... Some effects of divalent cations on binding and engulfment of several metal oxides and carbon particles are described. ... Metzger G.V., Casarett L.J. (1967) Some Effects of Divalent Cations on In Vitro Phagocytosis. In: Luzio N.R.D., Paoletti R. ( ...
PPM-type phosphatase, divalent cation binding (IPR000222). Short name: PP2C_BS Description. Protein phosphatases remove ... This entry represents a conserved aspartate residue involved in divalent cation binding [PMID: 9003755]. ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Gelusil Antacid And Anti-Gas Oral and divalent-trivalent-cations- ... Tetracyclines/Divalent & Trivalent Cations. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical advice. ... Avidity of the tetracyclines for the cations of metal. Nature 1956 Mar 3;177(4505):433-4. ...
... EddieWK ewkip at hkucc.hku.hk Thu Aug 2 12:14:24 EST 2001 *Previous message: Job: RA ... I would like to know if I want some divalent cation present in the medium to test the nature of binding, anyone can tell me ... divalent cation, like Ca++? or other kind of medium can be used instead of RPMI. Thank you in advance. Regards Eddie *Previous ...
Interaction of divalent cations and polymyxin B with lipopolysaccharide.. Schindler M, Osborn MJ. ...
Effect of divalent cations on bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tannic acid interaction and its influence on turbidity and in ... Tannins, proteins, and divalent cations interactions are important for many processes in the food industry and human and animal ... Coordination to Divalent Cations by Calcium-Binding Proteins.. 07:00 EST 1st January 2019 , BioPortfolio ... Arresting an Unusual Amide Tautomer Using Divalent Cations.. Ion-specific effects on peptides and proteins are key to ...
Divalent cations modulate glutamate receptors in retinal horizontal cells of the perch (Perca fluviatilis).. Schmidt KF1. ... Without such divalent cations application of dopamine caused no increase of the maximum currents induced by glutamate, and only ... Divalent cations had two effects on concentration-response relations of glutamate induced membrane currents recorded from ... The dopamine dependent enhancement of glutamate gated currents requires the presence of divalent cations besides calcium in the ...
H(+)-stimulated, divalent metal cation uptake system. Involved in manganese and iron uptake. Can also transport cadmium, cobalt ...
... divalent metal cation uptake system. Involved in manganese and iron uptake. Can also transport cadmium, cobalt, zinc and to a ... Divalent metal cation transporter MntHAdd BLAST. 412. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages ... Divalent metal cation transporter MntHUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... sp,P0A769,MNTH_ECOLI Divalent metal cation transporter MntH OS=Escherichia coli (strain K12) OX=83333 GN=mntH PE=1 SV=1 ...
the Role of Divalent Cations in the Mechanisms of EDTA Cytotoxicity Contact Person: Michael O. Ogundele ([email protected]). ... Ogundele, M.O.; (1998). the Role of Divalent Cations in the Mechanisms of EDTA Cytotoxicity. Presented at INABIS 98 - 5th ... The possible interactions between these cations and EDTA in inducing its toxic effects need to be examined. Back to the top.. ... and magnesium cations (Mg2+) (Grubbs et al. 1985, Borovansky and Riley 1989). EDTA has been shown to be capable of penetrating ...
The membrane responds to the divalent cations by changing colour reversibly. The response time of the mem-DTZ is about 1 h for ... Smart sensory materials for divalent cations: a dithizone immobilized membrane for optical analysis G. Alberti, S. Re, A. M. C ... Smart sensory materials for divalent cations: a dithizone immobilized membrane for optical analysis† ... The applicability of mem-DTZ to real samples has been proved by analysis of the four metal cations in a certificate material ( ...
Electrical stability of erythrocytes in the presence of divalent cations T. Ch. Tomov T. Ch. Tomov ... Doncheva; Electrical stability of erythrocytes in the presence of divalent cations. Biosci Rep 1 October 1988; 8 (5): 421-426. ... The percentage of haemolysed cells decreases several-fold in the presence of divalent cations. The protective action of the ... It is assumed that divalent ions bind to the negative charges of the lipid and protein molecules and reduce their electrostatic ...
Potentiation of Acetylcholine Receptors by Divalent Cations Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Divalent cations promote activation of several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes, presumably by lowering the ... agonist binding to ACh binding sites are propagated through the extracellular domain of AChRs to regulate opening of the cation ...
Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. ... Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. ...
Different divalent cation requirements for binding IgM complexes to lymphocytes and macrophages.. A S Walia, D R Shaw, E W ... IgG complex binding to both lymphocytes and macrophages is divalent cation independent. These findings allow one to distinguish ... Different divalent cation requirements for binding IgM complexes to lymphocytes and macrophages. ... IgG from IgM binding and macrophage from lymphocyte IgM complex binding by their differential divalent cation requirements. ...
... are analyzed with respect to their virus retention capacity when using feed solutions based on monovalent and divalent salts ( ... Effect of divalent versus monovalent cations on the MS2 retention capacity of amino-functionalized ceramic filters ... Effect of divalent versus monovalent cations on the MS2 retention capacity of amino-functionalized ceramic filters J. Bartels, ... are analyzed with respect to their virus retention capacity when using feed solutions based on monovalent and divalent salts ( ...
Divalent cations such as magnesium and calcium play a crucial role in the development of solvent tolerance in bacterial cells. ... Finally, we demonstrate that divalent cations improve solvent tolerance in P. putida DOT‑T1E strains. ... along with the influence of divalent cations present in the growth media. Multivariate analysis of the data using principal ... while it increased in the presence of divalent cations. This study clearly demonstrates that the combination of metabolic ...
Control of Ciliary Activities by Adenosinetriphosphate and Divalent Cations in Triton-Extracted Models of Paramecium Caudatum ... Control of Ciliary Activities by Adenosinetriphosphate and Divalent Cations in Triton-Extracted Models of Paramecium Caudatum ... Control of Ciliary Activities by Adenosinetriphosphate and Divalent Cations in Triton-Extracted Models of Paramecium Caudatum ... Control of Ciliary Activities by Adenosinetriphosphate and Divalent Cations in Triton-Extracted Models of Paramecium Caudatum ...
These results indicate that Ca2+ and other divalent cations compete for binding sites at the Ca-channel and thus determine ... Determination of Pure Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Current in Paramecium Caudatum and its Inhibition by Divalent Cations ... Determination of Pure Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Current in Paramecium Caudatum and its Inhibition by Divalent Cations ... Determination of Pure Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Current in Paramecium Caudatum and its Inhibition by Divalent Cations ...
2001) Divalent Cations in Womenwith PCOS Implications for Cardiovascular Disease. Gynecological Endocrinology, 15, 198-201. ... Implication of Electrostatic Forces on the Adsorption Capacity of a Modified Brick for the Removal of Divalent Cations from ... 2001) Divalent Cations in Womenwith PCOS: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease. Gynecological Endocrinology, 15, 198-201. ... In vitro activity of cationic peptides against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and vaginal Lactobacillus species: The effect of divalent ...
Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance.. R A Harris, H H Loh and E ... Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance.. R A Harris, H H Loh and E ... Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance.. R A Harris, H H Loh and E ... Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance. ...
Divalent cations (Ca++, Mg++ and Mn++) inhibited equilibrium radioligand binding by as much as 50% at 100 mM, with the potency ... Angiotensin II vascular receptors in fowl aorta: binding specificity and modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotides ... Angiotensin II vascular receptors in fowl aorta: binding specificity and modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotides ... Angiotensin II vascular receptors in fowl aorta: binding specificity and modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotides ...
... ... The cations were selected as sorbates for their diverse characteristics and the experiments were performed with three different ...
THE DIVALENT CATION TRANSPORTER NRAMP IN PARASITE PERKINSUS MARINUS: GENOMIC, MOLECULAR, STRUCTURAL, FUNCTIONAL AND ... THE DIVALENT CATION TRANSPORTER NRAMP IN PARASITE PERKINSUS MARINUS: GENOMIC, MOLECULAR, STRUCTURAL, FUNCTIONAL AND ...
  • In all cases, Mg ++ did not significantly change the phagocytic index from control levels (with 0.145 M NaCl and no divalent ions). (springer.com)
  • It is assumed that divalent ions bind to the negative charges of the lipid and protein molecules and reduce their electrostatic repulsion, which results in stabilization of the membranes. (portlandpress.com)
  • 10-3.5M). Removal of the 6X His-tag by thrombin enzyme failed to remove the inhibitory effect of the divalent metal ions, indicating that the affinity purification tag is not the divalent metal binding site. (butler.edu)
  • The ligand system was evaluated for extraction and preconcentartion of a series of divalent metal ions from aqueous solutions including: Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+. (edu.ps)
  • These results suggest that divalent metal ions have substantial effects on PIP2 lateral organization at physiological concentrations, and local fluxes in their cytoplasmic levels can contribute to regulating protein-PIP2 interactions. (utmb.edu)
  • There is proof that various other pLGICs could be controlled Goat polyclonal to IgG (H+L)(HRPO) by divalent ions binding to an identical region, despite the fact that the interacting residues aren't conserved inside the family members. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Mg2+ ions were more effective in promoting the binding of alpha1beta1 integrin to col IV but Ca2+ proved to be more effective one for Ln. Kinetic analysis of binding in dot blot assays using different concentrations of cations showed that while Mg2+ was active at low concentrations Ca2+ and Mn2+ promoted the binding more at higher concentrations. (who.int)
  • The enzyme was inhibited by the divalent ions Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Zn(2+), following kinetic mechanisms of mixed inhibition, with K(i) values of 2.04×10(-1), 2.28×10(-2), 4.21×10(-4), 8.00×10(-5) and 2.95×10(-5) M, respectively. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Genomic RNA within native capsids containing both Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions is extremely resistant to nucleases, but depletion of both of these cations results in nuclease sensitivity, as measured by a significant reduction in RCNMV infectivity. (utmb.edu)
  • Ordered association of tobacco mosaic virus in the presence of divalent metal ions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The formation of ordered aggregates of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in the presence of divalent metal ions has been studied in concentrated (1-25 mg/ml) solutions of the virus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we have used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy directly on cells (metabolic fingerprinting) to monitor bacterial response to the absence and presence of toluene, along with the influence of divalent cations present in the growth media. (mdpi.com)
  • The influence of divalent cations on allosteric behaviour of muscle pyruvate kinase from the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L. (uu.nl)
  • Coordination to Divalent Cations by Calcium-Binding Proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Tannins, proteins, and divalent cations interactions are important for many processes in the food industry and human and animal nutrition and health. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Inspection of PC-DFA loadings plots revealed that several IR spectral regions including lipids, proteins and polysaccharides contribute to the separation in PC-DFA space, thereby indicating large phenotypic response to toluene and these cations. (mdpi.com)
  • The activation state of cell surface integrins is tightly regulated by divalent cation occupancy of the ligand-binding pocket and by interaction with cytoplasmic adaptor proteins, such as talin. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Rowe, L, Ensor, M & Daunert, S 2007, EF-hand Ca 2+ -binding bioluminescent proteins: Effects of mutations and alternative divalent cations . (elsevier.com)
  • Right here, divalent cations connect to the proteins via carboxylate side-chains, and the website is comparable in framework to calcium mineral binding sites referred to in other protein. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Since alpha1beta1 integrin is a common receptor for col IV and LN in liver, the effect of cations in its binding to these matrix proteins was studied. (who.int)
  • Differential effects of cations in promoting the binding of alpha1beta1 integrin to Col IV and Ln suggest that changes in level of diffusible cations can modulate affinity of the common receptor alpha1beta1 integrin to its ligands and can influence adhesion of hepatic cells to different matrix proteins during hepatic development and regeneration. (who.int)
  • We propose that the metal-induced cross-linking may be the predominant mechanism to account for the limited solubility of a variety of proteins in solution containing metal cations with valence 2 and higher. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The cation dependent mannose-6-phosphate (man-6-P) receptor is one of two transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of lysosomal enzymes from the Golgi complex and the cell surface to lysosomes [ PMID: 1376319 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It binds and transports cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Ceramic capillary membranes conditioned for virus filtration via functionalization with n -(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine (TPDA) are analyzed with respect to their virus retention capacity when using feed solutions based on monovalent and divalent salts (NaCl, MgCl 2 ). (rsc.org)
  • It is known that Ca++ and other alkaline cations change the electrostatic potential of the negatively charged bilayer membranes either absorbing to the phospholipids or accumulating in the aqueous diffuse double layer, and this potential change may induce conductance variation (1). (unimi.it)
  • We have studied the effect of divalent cations as Ca++ and Ba++ that exert a cross linking together with a screening effect respectively, on the kinetics of incorporation of the mithocondrial porin in bimolecular lipid membranes made with phosphatydilinositol. (unimi.it)
  • The hypothesis that PIP2 forms submicrometer-sized clusters in the membrane by electrostatic interactions with intracellular divalent cations is tested here using lipid monolayer and bilayer model membranes. (utmb.edu)
  • The cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor (CD-MPR) is present predominantly as a stable homodimer in membranes and has a single M6P-binding site per polypeptide [ PMID: 2954652 , PMID: 2544594 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Divalent cations promote activation of several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes, presumably by lowering the energetic barrier between open and closed conformations. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we have characterized fowl vascular ANG II receptors in terms of binding specificity and their modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotide, to understand how the fowl receptor might differ from mammalian vascular ANG II receptors that mediate vasoconstriction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels of rat olfactory receptor cells: divalent cations control the sensitivity to cAMP. (rupress.org)
  • The P2X7 receptors are members of the ATP-activated P2X receptor family and constitute a cation ion channel that is permeable to K + , Na + and Ca 2+ . (karger.com)
  • Gene and pseudogene of the mouse cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 7. The method of claim 1, 2 or 5 wherein said polyvalent cation is present at a level of 0.025 to 0.20 equivalents of divalent cation/liter in said aqueous solution. (google.com)
  • A new synthetic methodology route consisted in reacting the natural babassu coconut mesocarp (BCM) and babassu coconut epicarp (BCE) with ethylenesufide, for adding basic sulfur centers in pendant chains that possess high potential activity for coordinating divalent cations from aqueous solution. (unicamp.br)
  • We have reviewed some scientific papers dealing with cation sorption, in order to demonstrate variety of experimental approaches used for batch sorption tests, regarding solution pH. (ac.rs)
  • Divalent cations modulate glutamate receptors in retinal horizontal cells of the perch (Perca fluviatilis). (nih.gov)
  • Identification of cation-binding sites on actin that drive polymerization and modulate bending stiffness. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Based on the kinetic data results, diverse divalent metals appear to serve as allosteric inhibitors of Rv0045c, as the KM value remained steady throughout the assays despite the presence of divalent metals, while the kcat value decreased drastically. (butler.edu)
  • In an attempt to locate the allosteric binding site of these divalent metal cations, I changed potential amino acid binding residues to alanine via site-directed mutagenesis. (butler.edu)
  • Cysteine substitution of either of two glutamates (E 44 or E 172 ), thought to participate in the divalent cation binding site, caused a loss of allosteric modulation, yet Ba 2+ still had a significant effect on modification rates of these residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For monovalent cations on the cardiolipin monolayer, the dependence on salt concentration of the lipid liquid gel phase transition surface pressure πc was determined and a non-monotonic behavior was found, with a maximum in πc for a salt concentration of 0.1 mol/l. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Without such divalent cations application of dopamine caused no increase of the maximum currents induced by glutamate, and only a slight shift of the half maximal saturation concentration was observed. (nih.gov)
  • The compression speed, monovalent salt concentration, pH, and selected divalent cations were investigated with the BAM. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Scatchard plots for plasmid DNA cations showed positive slopes indicating that there was a minimum concentration of plasmid DNA or cations before a significant aggregation occurred. (edu.au)
  • Although calcium is the traditional, and generally the most powerful, triggering ligand in this bioluminescence reaction, alternative di- and trivalent cations can also bind to the EF-hand loops and stimulate luminescence. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, I present data showing that M1 is required mainly for protein stabilization leaving M2 acting as a divalent cation sensor. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Tiwari, S. , Askari, J.A. , Humphries, M.J. and Bulleid, N.J. (2011) Divalent cations regulate the folding and activation status of integrins during their intracellular trafficking. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The family members contains both cation-selective stations, such as for example nicotinic Acetylcholine- (nAChRs) and Serotonin receptors (5HT3Rs), and anion-selective stations, such as for example GABA- (GABARs) and Glycine receptors (GlyRs) . (conferencedequebec.org)
  • We describe the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the complexation properties towards cations of a cyclic peptoid hexamer composed of alternating α- and β-peptoid monomers, which bear exclusively chiral (S)-phenylethyl side chains (spe) that have no noticeable chelating properties. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Synthesis of magnetically ordered barium hexaferrite powders and the adjustment of magnetic properties for perpendicular magnetic recording media are realized through substitution of divalent cation (Ca) in the BaFe 12O19 system. (iith.ac.in)
  • The pentamethylcyclopentadienylsilicon(II) cation: synthesis, characterization, and reactivity. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Conventional purification protocols result in the removal of the Mg 2+ found in plasma and because divalent cations influence the conformation and affect function it is important to consider this when characterizing the biological activity of inter-α-inhibitor. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, the binding of divalent cations, probably via a regulatory protein, controls the sensitivity of the cAMP-gated channels to cAMP. (rupress.org)
  • These findings allow one to distinguish IgG from IgM binding and macrophage from lymphocyte IgM complex binding by their differential divalent cation requirements. (rupress.org)
  • By employing differential scanning fluorimetry, protease protection and hydrodynamic analyses, we show that Dad2p is specifically responsive to the presence of divalent cations. (ccsenet.org)