Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used in musculoskeletal and joint disorders and administered by mouth and topically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p16)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that are widely expressed in various cell types. Defects are associated with POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.
Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor that plays a role in pain sensation signaling and regulation of inflammatory processes.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these antiporters influences intracellular pH and potassium ion homeostasis.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.

Cloning and expression of the algL gene, encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum alginate lyase: purification and characterization of the enzyme. (1/3809)

The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme.  (+info)

Regulated exopolysaccharide production in Myxococcus xanthus. (2/3809)

Myxococcus xanthus fibrils are cell surface-associated structures composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein. The level of M. xanthus polysaccharide production under different conditions in the wild type and in several mutants known to have alterations in fibril production was investigated. Wild-type exopolysaccharide increased significantly as cells entered the stationary phase of growth or upon addition of Ca2+ to growing cells, and the polysaccharide-induced cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination. The activity of the key gluconeogenic pathway enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) also increased under these conditions. Most fibril-deficient mutants failed to produce polysaccharide in a stationary-phase- or Ca2+-dependent fashion. However, regulation of Pck activity was generally unimpaired in these mutant strains. In an stk mutant, which overproduces fibrils, polysaccharide production and Pck activity were constitutively high under the conditions tested. Polysaccharide production increased in most fibril-deficient strains when an stk mutant allele was present, indicating that these fibril-deficient mutants retained the basic cellular components required for fibril polysaccharide production. In contrast to other divalent cations tested, Sr2+ effectively replaced Ca2+ in stimulating polysaccharide production, and either Ca2+ or Sr2+ was required for fruiting-body formation by wild-type cells. By using transmission electron microscopy of freeze-substituted log-phase wild-type cells, fibril material was observed as a cell surface-associated layer of uniform thickness composed of filaments with an ordered structure.  (+info)

Metal-catalyzed oxidation of phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli: inactivation and destabilization by oxidation of active-site cysteines. (3/3809)

The in vitro instability of the phenylalanine-sensitive 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase [DAHPS(Phe)] from Escherichia coli has been found to be due to a metal-catalyzed oxidation mechanism. DAHPS(Phe) is one of three differentially feedback-regulated isoforms of the enzyme which catalyzes the first step of aromatic biosynthesis, the formation of DAHP from phosphoenolpyruvate and D-erythrose-4-phosphate. The activity of the apoenzyme decayed exponentially, with a half-life of about 1 day at room temperature, and the heterotetramer slowly dissociated to the monomeric state. The enzyme was stabilized by the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate or EDTA, indicating that in the absence of substrate, a trace metal(s) was the inactivating agent. Cu2+ and Fe2+, but none of the other divalent metals that activate the enzyme, greatly accelerated the rate of inactivation and subunit dissociation. Both anaerobiosis and the addition of catalase significantly reduced Cu2+-catalyzed inactivation. In the spontaneously inactivated enzyme, there was a net loss of two of the seven thiols per subunit; this value increased with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+. Dithiothreitol completely restored the enzymatic activity and the two lost thiols in the spontaneously inactivated enzyme but was only partially effective in reactivation of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme. Mutant enzymes with conservative replacements at either of the two active-site cysteines, Cys61 or Cys328, were insensitive to the metal attack. Peptide mapping of the Cu2+-inactivated enzyme revealed a disulfide linkage between these two cysteine residues. All results indicate that DAHPS(Phe) is a metal-catalyzed oxidation system wherein bound substrate protects active-site residues from oxidative attack catalyzed by bound redox metal cofactor. A mechanism of inactivation of DAHPS is proposed that features a metal redox cycle that requires the sequential oxidation of its two active-site cysteines.  (+info)

Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides. (4/3809)

Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of ligands for L-selectin in the kidney. II. Expression of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans reactive with L-selectin. (5/3809)

Ligands for the leukocyte adhesion molecule L-selectin are expressed not only in lymph node high endothelial venules (HEV) but also in the renal distal tubuli. Here we report that L-selectin-reactive molecules in the kidney are chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans of 500-1000 kDa, unlike those in HEV bearing sialyl Lewis X-like carbohydrates. Binding of L-selectin to these molecules was mediated by the lectin domain of L-selectin and required divalent cations. Binding was inhibited by chondroitinase and/or heparitinase but not sialidase. Thus, L-selectin can recognize chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans structurally distinct from sialyl Lewis X-like carbohydrates.  (+info)

Eosinophil peroxidase increases membrane permeability in mammalian urinary bladder epithelium. (6/3809)

Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), a cationic protein found in eosinophils, has been reported to be cytotoxic independent of its peroxidase activity. This study investigated with electrophysiological methods whether EPO is toxic to mammalian urinary bladder epithelium. Results indicate that EPO, when added to the mucosal solution, increases apical membrane conductance of urinary bladder epithelium only when the apical membrane potential is cell interior negative. The EPO-induced conductance was concentration dependent, with a maximum conductance of 411 microseconds/cm2 and a Michaelis-Menten constant of 113 nM. The EPO-induced conductance was nonselective for K+ and Cl-. The conductance was partially reversed using voltage but not by removal of EPO from the bulk solution. Mucosal Ca2+ reversed the EPO-induced conductance by a mechanism involving reversible block of the conductance. Prolonged exposure (up to 1 h) to EPO was toxic to the urinary bladder epithelium, as indicated by an irreversible increase in transepithelial conductance. These results suggest that EPO is indeed toxic to urinary bladder epithelium via a mechanism that involves an increase in membrane permeability.  (+info)

Structure of the oligonucleotide d(CGTATATACG) as a site-specific complex with nickel ions. (7/3809)

In this paper we explore the application of Ni2+to the crystallization of oligonucleotides. We have determined in this way the structure of a fully alternating (Y-R) decanucleotide d(CGTATATACG) by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This is the first oligonucleotide crystal structure with an alternating 5'-(TA)3-3' central part. Alternating oligonucleotides have a particular interest since they often have a unique structure. In this case the general conformation is B-like with an alternating twist and an end-to-end interaction which involves terminal guanines. The crystal belongs to space group P41212 with a = b = 52.46, c = 101.49 A. This packing imposes a 90 degrees crossing of the symmetry related helices. This is a new way of packing for decamers. The oligonucleotide structure is characterized by the specific association with seven nickel ions, involving the N7 atom of every guanine. One of the Ni2+ions is shared between two guanines of symmetry related molecules. Until now no oligonucleotide has been crystallized in the presence of this metal ion. A novel C.A.T triplet structure has also been tentatively identified.  (+info)

Heparin influence on alpha-staphylotoxin formed channel. (8/3809)

The effects of heparin on ion channels formed by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (ST channel) in lipid bilayers were studied under voltage clamp conditions. Heparin concentrations as small as 100 pM induced a sharp dose-dependent increase in channel voltage sensitivity. This was only observed when heparin was added to the negative-potential side of lipid bilayers in the presence of divalent cations. Divalent cations differ in their efficiency: Zn2+>Ca2+>Mg2+. The apparent positive gating charge increased 2-3-fold with heparin addition as well as with acidification of the bathing solution. 'Free' carboxyl groups and carboxyl groups in ion pairs of the protein moiety are hypothesized to interact with sulfated groups of heparin through divalent cation bridges. The cis mouth of the channel (that protrudes beyond the membrane plane on the side of ST addition and to which voltage was applied) is less sensitive to heparin than the trans-mouth. It is suggested that charged residues which interact with heparin at the cis mouth of ST channels and which contribute to the effective gating charge at negative voltage may be physically different from those at the trans mouth and at positive voltage.  (+info)

We have found that Mg++ supports IgM complex binding to mouse lymphocytes but not to macrophages. In contrast, Ca++ supports IgM complex binding to macrophages but not lymphocytes. IgG complex binding to both lymphocytes and macrophages is divalent cation independent. These findings allow one to distinguish IgG from IgM binding and macrophage from lymphocyte IgM complex binding by their differential divalent cation requirements. ...
Metals are essential nutrients to all living organisms. Roughly 40% of proteins use metal as cofactors and structural components in a vast number of cellular processes (1). Iron, zinc, and manganese are examples of first-row divalent transition metals used by living organisms. The ability to form stable complexes plays a vital role as to how each metal is used in the organism. The stability of protein-metal complexes is generalized by the Irving-Williams series (Mn , Fe , Co , Ni , Cu , Zn) (2). In general, more stable complexes correlate to a metals toxicity, as native metals for an active site can be displaced by another metal ion further along in the observed series. This mismetallation is present across multiple metal-binding motifs and can result in abnormal protein function (3). For most prokaryotes, however, metals such as copper, nickel, and cobalt are broadly toxic. Higher order organisms have evolved ways to regulate and transport these metals, reducing promiscuity in mature active ...
477D: Atomic-resolution crystal structures of B-DNA reveal specific influences of divalent metal ions on conformation and packing.
ADP can be replaced by GDP, ATP and GTP, to a limited extent. Divalent cations are necessary for activity, with Mg2+ followed by Co2+ being the most effective ...
CNNM2 antibody, Internal (cyclin and CBS domain divalent metal cation transport mediator 2) for WB. Anti-CNNM2 pAb (GTX46329) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
EDTA is a chelator of divalent cations and inhibits enzymes such as metalloproteases that require divalent cations for activity. EDTA is used in some electropho
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue. . ...
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue. . ...
Divalent cation (Mg2+, Co2+ and Ni2+) transport system, CorA. Helical tilting and rotation in TM1 generates an iris-like motion that increases the diameter of the permeation pathway, triggering ion conduction, thus defining the gating mechanism (Dalmas et al. 2014 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of zinc(II) and other divalent cations on binding of 3,5,3-triiodo-L-thyronine to nuclear receptors from cultured GC cells. AU - Surks, M. I.. AU - Ramirez, I. J.. AU - Shapiro, L. E.. AU - Kumara-Siri, M.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - The effect of Zn(II) in 3,5,3-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) binding to nuclear receptors was studied in dialyzed 0.4 M NaCl extracts of nuclei from cultured GC cells. Addition of ZnCl2 to nuclear extracts resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent dissociation of T3 from nuclear receptors. Half-maximal dissociation occurred at 6 μM ZnCl2. Addition of ZnCl2 also resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of binding of T3 to nuclear receptors. Half-maximal inhibition of binding occurred at 1-3 μM ZnCl2. Scatchard analysis indicated that Zn(II) addition decreased k(A) and did not alter receptor concentration. These effects of Zn(II) were prevented when ZnCl2 was added to nuclear extracts in the presence of 5 mM EDTA or 5 mM ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of divalent cations on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i transients of freshly isolated pyramidal cells of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus. AU - Harasztosi, Cs. AU - Rusznák, Z.. AU - Kovács, L.. AU - Szucs, G.. PY - 2001/12/1. Y1 - 2001/12/1. N2 - The effects of divalent cations on voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and depolarization-evoked cytoplasmic [Ca2+] elevations were studied in pyramidal neurones isolated from the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the rat. Ca2+ currents were recorded using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. 10 μmol·1-1 Cd2+ exerted a greater blocking effect on the high-voltage activated (HVA) currents than on the low-voltage activated (LVA) ones (decrease to 26.6 ± 2.5% and to 87.8 ± 2.1%, respectively). The blocking effect of 200 μmol·1-1 Cd2+ was more pronounced and the difference between the effect on the HVA and LVA currents became smaller (decrease to 11.7 ± 2.1% and to 32.4 ± 2.7%, ...
Abstract. Divalent cation-dependent platelet adhesion to fibronectin (FN) is mediated by the integrin receptors alpha 5 beta 1 (GP Ic-IIa) and alpha IIb beta 3
Biological membranes contain as a basic structural unit a phospholipid bilayer. Phospholipid membranes in the form of bilayer films (BLM) are currently used as experimental models for transport phenomena of the biological membranes. In particular, bilayers made of acidic phospholipids, present the advantage to investigate the bioelectrical phenomena across the biological membranes. This class of phospholipids by having a fixed charge might bind ions that play an important role on many physiological processes. It is known that Ca++ and other alkaline cations change the electrostatic potential of the negatively charged bilayer membranes either absorbing to the phospholipids or accumulating in the aqueous diffuse double layer, and this potential change may induce conductance variation (1). Cd++ another divalent cation has been shown to exert influence on the permeability of some anaelectrolytes across BLM made of negatively charged phospholipids, but not on the zwitterionic phospholipids (2). We ...
0-6.0), phosphate (pH 6.0-7.0), Tris-HCl (pH 7.0-9.0), and glycine-NaOH (pH 9.0-10.0) under standard conditions. The pH was adjusted at 50°C. Formation of the transketolase apoform and reconstitution of the holoenzyme Apo-transketolase was obtained by removing the. cofactors THDP and divalent cation through dialysis for 24 hours against Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.5 containing 10 mM EDTA. After removing EDTA NCT-501 price by dialysis, different divalent cations were tested as possible cofactors in the transketolase reaction using Assay I and 1.25 mM X5-P and R5-P, respectively. The effect of metal ions and EDTA, ATP or ADP on TKT activity was measured under standard conditions (Assay I) in the presence of Ca2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mg2, Mn2+ and Ni2+ at 1 mM final concentration in the reaction mixture. The remaining percentage activities were determined by comparison with no metal ion added. To investigate the effect Trichostatin A cost of EDTA, EDTA salt solution was incubated with TKT for 4 minutes. The ...
View Notes - 0243Pb45anp2-09 from CHEM orgo at NYU. + + Both cations (these are NOT resonance forms - they are two separate cations) are captured - two steps please - to give the two final products.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue ...
Article: Teamwork allows people to discuss their work together, and as a result, to grow professionally. To be successful, the teacher and para-educator must view themselves as a team and partners in the educational process ...
1776. Somme des cations échangeables (S) : Somme des cations métalliques échangeables exprimée en milliéquivalents-grammes pour 100 grammes de complexe absorbant ...
Single crystals of anhydrous strontium oxalate have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of divalent transition metal ions. Strontium is eight coordinate with approximate square antiprismatic geometry. The SrO polyhedra form a 3-dimensional network by sharing edges and vertices. This structure is compared to that of the strontium oxalate hydrates and related calcium minerals weddelite Ca(C2O4)(H2O)2 and whewellite Ca(C2O4)(H2O). ...
Carrier particles suitable for magnetic brush development comprising hard magnetic ferrite material having a single phase, W-type hexagonal crystalline structure represented by the formula MFe16 Me2 O27 where M is strontium or barium and Me is a divalent transition metal selected from the group consisting of nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, magnesium, iron and mixtures thereof, exhibiting a coercivity of approximately 100 to 300 Oersteds when magnetically saturated and an induced magnetic moment of at least 60 EMU/g when in an applied magnetic field of 1000 Oersteds are disclosed. Also disclosed are electrostatic two-component dry developer compositions comprising charged toner particles mixed with oppositely charged carrier particles comprising the magnetically hard ferrite material described above and a method of developing an electrostatic charge pattern by contacting the charge pattern with a two-component dry developer composition described above. The carrier particles provide high
Avanti, Christina and Oktaviani, Nur Alia and Hinrichs, Wouter L.J. and Frijlink, Henderik W. (2013) Aspartate buffer and divalent metal ions affect the oxytocin conformation in aqueous solution and protect it from degradation. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. ISSN 0378-5173 (In Press) ...
Sathiyakumar , S , Selvam , P , Hakkim , F L , Srinivasan , K & Harrison , W T A 2018 , Synthesis and characterisation of double-layered octahedral coordination networks built up from divalent metal ions, mixed carboxylate anions, and ethyl carbazate ligands , Journal of Molecular Structure ...
Complete information for CNNM2 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin And CBS Domain Divalent Metal Cation Transport Mediator 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for CNNM4 gene (Protein Coding), Cyclin And CBS Domain Divalent Metal Cation Transport Mediator 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Dear, I have a question about medium used in tissue cultruing. Im currently doing functional assays using RPMI 1640 medium, in which ligand binding on cells may occur. I would like to know if I want some divalent cation present in the medium to test the nature of binding, anyone can tell me what chemical compound(s) I should add into the medium to provide the divalent cation, like Ca++? or other kind of medium can be used instead of RPMI. Thank you in advance. Regards Eddie ...
d) Limestone, clay and gypsum. 48) An aqueous solution of sodium sulphate is electrolysed using inert electrodes.The products at the cathode and anode are respectively ...
Synonyms for Cations, divalent in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cations, divalent. 1 synonym for divalent: bivalent. What are synonyms for Cations, divalent?
Pregnancy (this medication is contraindicated). Children younger then 8 years: it is believed that this medication causes the staining of permanent teeth in this age group.. When patient is taking divalent ions concurrently PO: milk (Ca2+), antacids (Ca2+ or Mg2+), or iron-containing preparations should be avoided when taking this medication because divalent cations inhibit drugs absorption in the gut. ...
5 fA \ FP PR VMX ME US IR DR i ViI PADD VCMPU - i L I; VALIDValidity of the stimuli, their quality, and test speci?cation requirements Get Price ...
What does the name Cation mean? Learn about the meaning, origin, popularity, and more! Explore the history of your surname at Findmypast.
CUTA antibody, Internal (cutA divalent cation tolerance homolog (E. coli)) for WB. Anti-CUTA pAb (GTX46660) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Maximum efficiency of cation hydrolysis will be shown by? a) \(\sf Al^{+3}\) b) \(\sf Tl^{+3}\) c) \(\sf Tl^{+1}\) d) \(\sf Ga^{+3}\)The answer i...
View Notes - unk9scheme[1](2) from CHM 2045L at University of Florida. Instruction for unknown 9A/9B The author is not responsible for the scheme! Possible ions: 1. Cations: Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca2+,
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cAMP-gated channels were studied in inside-out membrane patches excised from the apical cellular pole of isolated olfactory receptor cells of the rat. In the absence of divalent cations the dose-response curve of activation of patch current by cAMP had a KM of 4.0 microM at -50 mV and of 2.5 microM at +50 mV. However, addition of 0.2 or 0.5 mM Ca2+ shifted the KM of cAMP reversibly to the higher cAMP concentrations of 33 or 90 microM, respectively, at -50 mV. Among divalent cations, the relative potency for inducing cAMP affinity shifts was: Ca2+ , Sr2+ , Mn2+ , Ba2+ , Mg2+, of which Mg2+ (up to 3 mM) did not shift the KM at all. This potency sequence corresponds closely to that required for the activation of calmodulin. However, the Ca(2+)-sensitivity is lower than expected for a calmodulin-mediated action. Brief (60 s) transient exposure to 3 mM Mg2+, in the absence of other divalent cations, had a protective effect in that following washout of Mg2+, subsequent exposure to 0.2 mM Ca2+ no ...
Divalent cations are required for many essential functions of mitochondrial metabolism. Yet the transporters that mediate the flux of these molecules into and out of the mitochondrion remain largely unknown. Previous studies in yeast have led to the molecular identification of a component of the major mitochondrial electrophoretic Mg2+ uptake system in this organism as well as a functional mammalian homolog. Other yeast mitochondrial studies have led to the characterization of an equilibrative fatty acid-stimulated Ca2+ transport activity. To gain a deeper understanding of the regulation of mitochondrial divalent cation levels we further characterized the efflux of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from yeast mitochondria. When isolated mitochondria from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were suspended in a salt-based suspension medium, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were released from the matrix space. Release did not spontaneously occur in a non-ionic mannitol media. When energized mitochondria were suspended in a mannitol medium in the
Divalent cations are important in the folding and stabilization of complex RNA structures. The adenine-sensing riboswitch controls the expression of mRNAs for proteins involved in purine metabolism by directly sensing intracellular adenine levels. Adenine binds with high affinity and specificity to the ligand binding or aptamer domain of the adenine-sensing riboswitch. The X-ray structure of this domain in complex with adenine revealed an intricate RNA-fold consisting of a three-helix junction stabilized by long-range base-pairing interactions and identified five binding sites for hexahydrated Mg2+-ions. Furthermore, a role for Mg2+-ions in the ligand-induced folding of this RNA was suggested. Here, we describe the interaction of divalent cations with the RNA-adenine complex in solution as studied by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Paramagnetic line broadening, chemical shift mapping and intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) indicate the presence of at least three binding sites for ...
The six elements in the alkaline earth metals group all have a variety of different uses, including making batteries, flashbulbs, fireworks, fertilizers and various metal alloys. The six alkaline...
A systematic study was carried out to investigate the attachment of inorganic particles to fabric media in the presence of divalent cations and the dissolved or
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins cluster separately but probably function with the same polarity by similar mechanisms. These proteins are secondary carriers which utilize the pmf and function by H antiport (for metal efflux). One member, CzcD of Bacillus subtilis, has been shown to exchange the divalent cation (Zn2+ or Cd2+ ) for two monovalent cations (K+ and H+ ) in an electroneutral process energized by the transmembrane pH gradient (Guffanti et al., 2002). Another, ZitB of E. coli (TC #2.A.4.1.4), has been reconstituted in proteoliposomes and studied kinetically (Chao and Fu, 2004a). It appears to function by simple Me2+:H antiport with a 1:1 stoichiometry.. Montanini et al (2007) have conducted phylogenetic analysis of CDF family members. Their analysis revealed three major and two minor phylogenetic groups. They suggest that the three major groups segregated according to metal ion specificity: (1) Mn2+ , (2) Fe2+ and Zn2+ as well as other metal ions, and (3) Zn2+ plus other metals, but ...
Pascual,I. Gomez,H. Pons,T. Chappe,M. Vargas,M.A. Valdes,G. Lopez,A. Saroyan,A. Charli,J.L. Chavez,M.D. 2011. Effect of divalent cations on the porcine kidney cortex membrane-bound form of dipeptidyl peptidase IV International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 43, 363-371 ...
We have shown that the E172Q and E172C mutations of L247T α7 nicotinic receptors eliminate receptor stimulation by the presence of permeable divalent cations. ACh dose responses of E172Q/L247T α7 nAChRs were inhibited by the presence of Ca2+, Ba2+, or Sr2+, and E172C/L247T α7 nAChRs were insensitive to the presence of these ions. E172Q/L247T α7 nAChRs did not display the high level of basal activity that is a characteristic of L247T α7 receptors and were not activated by the antagonist DHβE. E172C/L247T α7 receptors were blocked by the thiol-modifying reagent MTSET, indicating that E172 is accessible to permeant ions. These data support the conclusion drawn from a chimera of α7 nicotinic receptors and 5-HT3 receptors that E172 is essential for the modulation of α7 receptors by Ca2+ and other permeant divalent cations (19). The data are also consistent with a model of α7 receptors based on the crystal structure of AChBP (6) that places E172 near the inner surface of the vestibule, where ...
Meenakshi Priyam has joined udaan.com- a B2B trade platform, created specifically for small & medium businesses in India - as group CHRO. She has moved from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), the pharmaceutical major, where she was CHRO for India and global HR head for classic and established products (CEP).. Priyam had spent just over three years at GSK, where she initially headed HR for India and South Asia for almost two years before being elevated to CHRO India & global HR head CEP in May last year.. Before joining GSK, Priyam had served as head HR - global product strategy & commercialisation (GPS&C) and global functions at Novartis, based out of Basel Area, Switzerland. She had joined Novartis in 2013, as head-HR, in Mumbai, before moving to Switzerland in 2016, for a year and four months.. Her longest stint was with Johnson & Johnson (J&J) where she joined as senior HR business partner in 2006. In less than three years, she worked her way up to become the Total Rewards Lead for two years and three ...
1O0T: Probing the role of divalent metal ions in a bacterial psychrophilic metalloprotease: binding studies of an enzyme in the crystalline state by x-ray crystallography.
Liquid pharmaceutical compositions for administration to a mucosal surface, comprising a therapeutic agent and a pectin with a low degree of esterification are described. Such compositions gel, or can be adapted to gel, at the site of application in the absence of an extraneous source of divalent metal ions.
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...and I dont have the photo to prove it! Does a meet up really happen if theres no photographic evidence? Last Thursday Cation Designs, Morgan of Crab & Bee, Meris of The Fabric Alchemist, and I met up for brunch at Lola in downtown Seattle. Cation Designs was in town for a few days, and her visit was the…
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Calixarene-Based Molecules for Cation Recognition. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Wolf, R., Dommröse, A. - M., & Grützmacher, H. - F. (1988). Destabilized carbenium ions: secondary and tertiary [alpha]-carbomethoxybenzyl cations. Organic Mass Spectrometry, 23(1), 26-32. doi:10.1002/oms. ...
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வேதியியலில் உப்பு (salt) என்பது ஒரு காடியும், காரமும் சேர்ந்து வேதியியல் வினைப்படும் பொழுது நடுமை அடைகையில் உருவாகும் பொருள். உப்புகள் மின்ம முனைப்படும் சேர்மங்கள் ஆகும். உப்புகளில் நேர்மின்மம் கொண்ட நேர்முனையி அல்லது கேட்டயான் (cation) பகுதியும், எதிர்மின்மம் கொண்ட எதிர்முனையி அல்லது ஆனையான் (anion) பகுதியும் கொண்ட ஆனால் மொத்தமாக மின்மம் ஏதுமற்ற, மின்மநடுநிலை கொண்ட ஒரு பொருள். ...
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Divalent cations (e.g. Mg2+) are also required for integrin-ligand binding. Integrin ligands ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are activated by ...
I cations present are divalent). Ephesite with monovalent cations of Na prove to be a true mica and with 2.5 octahedral cations ... Depending on the interlayer cation, the micas are subdivided into true micas (if 50% I cations present are monovalent) or ... Ephesite, a mica structure, arises from the stacking of T-O-T layers along the c-axis direction connected by I-cations where T, ...
Divalent cations help coordinate the nucleotide. The general mechanism is shown in the figure below. Riboflavin kinase plays an ...
It forms a cation-selective ion channel activated by light absorption. It transports both monovalent and divalent cations. It ... A transient increase in hydration of transmembrane α-helices with a t(1/2) = 60 μs tallies with the onset of cation permeation ... The observed proton transfer reactions and the protein conformational changes relate to the gating of the cation channel. ... November 2003). "Channelrhodopsin-2, a directly light-gated cation-selective membrane channel". Proceedings of the National ...
The extracellular domain is where the ligand binds through the use of divalent cations. The integrins contain multiple divalent ... Zhang, Kun; Chen, JianFeng (January 2012). "The regulation of integrin function by divalent cations". Cell Adhesion & Migration ... Both the presence of cations bound to the multiple cation binding sites is required, along with the direct physical association ... The integrin cation binding sites can be occupied by Ca2+ or by Mn2+ ions. Cations are necessary but not sufficient for ...
It has 2 cofactors: thiamin diphosphate, and Divalent cation. Vanderbilt AS, Gaby NS, Rodwell VW (1975). "Intermediates and ...
Both α and β subunits bind several divalent cations. The role of divalent cations in the α subunit is unknown, but may ... In both cases, the A-domains carry up to three divalent cation binding sites. One is permanently occupied in physiological ... concentrations of divalent cations, and carries either a calcium or magnesium ion, the principal divalent cations in blood at ... As detailed above, this finally revealed why divalent cations (in the A-domains) are critical for RGD-ligand binding to ...
The binding with dystroglycan (DG) depends on several factors (glycosylation of DG, presence of divalent cations, presence of ... The binding between dystroglycan and pikachurin requires divalent cations. Ca2+ produces strongest binding; Mn2+ produces only ...
It employs one cofactor, divalent cation. At least one compound, Chelating agent is known to inhibit this enzyme. As of late ...
Wilson J, Chin A (1991). "Chelation of divalent cations by ATP, studied by titration calorimetry". Anal Biochem. 193 (1): 16-9 ... Inorganic polyphosphates play a crucial role in tolerance of yeast cells to toxic heavy metal cations. Sodium polyphosphate ( ...
Divalent cations stabilize the enzyme activity of the p48 subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21608-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34. ...
"Crystal Structure Investigations of Amide Sulfate Tetrahydrates with Divalent Cations". Croatica Chemica Acta. 72 (2-3): 295- ...
The enzymatic activity is enhanced by divalent cations, particularly Ca2+. In many bacteria, this enzyme is a membrane protein ...
Divalent cations stabilize the enzyme activity of the p48 subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21608-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34. ...
ATP binds metal cations with high affinity. The binding constant for Mg2+ is (9554). The binding of a divalent cation, almost ... Wilson, J.; Chin, A. (1991). "Chelation of divalent cations by ATP, studied by titration calorimetry". Anal. Biochem. 193 (1): ... "Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator". BMC ...
It can bind divalent cations, including Co(II) and Ni(II). TAPS is effective to make buffer solutions in the pH range 7.7-9.1, ... y systems involving divalent ions (cobalt or nickel) and zwitterionic biological buffers (AMPSO, DIPSO, TAPS and TAPSO) in ...
This increases the reabsorption of divalent cations by secondary active transport. It is currently unknown why calcium ...
In the early stages, RNA forms secondary structures stabilized through the binding of monovalent cations, divalent cations and ... absence of the monovalent or divalent cations results in either greater flexibility or loss of tertiary structure. Divalent ... Metal cations that bind RNA can be monovalent, divalent or trivalent. Potassium (K+) is a common monovalent ion that binds RNA ... in which divalent cations interact with the Hoogsteen edge of guanosine via O6 and N7. Another ion-binding motif in the ...
EDTA is a chelator of divalent cations, particularly of magnesium (Mg2+). As these ions are necessary co-factors for many ...
... uptake activity is inhibited by divalent Pb2, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2, Co2+, Fe2+, and trivalent cations La3+, Fe3+, Gd3+. The ... The conductance of TRPV6 for divalent cations follows the preference: Ca2+ > Ba2+ > Sr2+ > Mn2. Intra-cellular Mg2+ inhibits ... Finally, four symmetrical cation binding sites in the extracellular vestibule mediate the recruitment of cations towards the ... "Heavy metal cations permeate the TRPV6 epithelial cation channel". Cell Calcium. 49 (1): 43-55. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2010.11.007 ...
TdT requires a divalent cation cofactor, however, TdT is unique in its ability to use a broader range of cations such as Mg2+, ... Similar to many polymerases, the catalytic site of TdT has two divalent cations in its palm domain that assist in nucleotide ... The rate of enzymatic activity depends on the available divalent cations and the nucleotide being added. TdT is expressed ... Vashishtha AK, Wang J, Konigsberg WH (September 2016). "Different Divalent Cations Alter the Kinetics and Fidelity of DNA ...
Inward flow of sodium ions is blocked by extracellular divalent cations. Increased intracellular magnesium concentrations also ... produces outwardly rectifying currents with the outward portion composed of Na+ ions and the inward portion of divalent cations ...
In these enzymes, a divalent cation, usually zinc, activates the water molecule. The metal ion is held in place by amino acid ...
The broad specificity NRAMP2 (DMT1) transports a range of divalent metal cations. Studies have shown that it transports Fe2+ ... Zn2+ and other divalent cations. Regulation of these transporters in bacteria can occur through Fur, OxyR, and most commonly a ... "The Thlaspi caerulescens NRAMP homologue TcNRAMP3 is capable of divalent cation transport". Molecular Biotechnology. 41 (1): 15 ... Cellier MF (2012-01-01). "Nramp: from sequence to structure and mechanism of divalent metal import". Current Topics in ...
... is a mobile ion-carrier that forms stable complexes with divalent cations (ions with a charge of +2). A23187 is also ... It also acts as a divalent cation ionophore, allowing these ions to cross cell membranes, which are usually impermeable to them ... a divalent cation ionophore antibiotic". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 16 (6): 808-812. doi:10.1128/aac.16.6.808. PMC ...
... a divalent cation ionophore antibiotic". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 16 (6): 808-812. doi:10.1128/aac.16.6.808. PMC ... Ionophores selective for cations and anions have found many applications in analysis. These compounds have also shown to have ... An example of a carrier ionophore is valinomycin, a molecule that transports a single potassium cation. Carrier ionophores may ... Gräfe, U.; Reinhardt, G.; Miosga, N. (1989). "Monovalent cation specificity of passive transport mediated by laidlomycin and 26 ...
... also contain high levels of the divalent cations: Zn2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+.[citation needed] vesicles Membrane ...
This gene encodes a member of a superfamily of divalent cation-dependent phosphodiesterases. The encoded protein associates ...
The enzyme was not activated by divalent cations nor inhibited by chelating agents. The determined Km value was 0.55mM and the ... The latter enzymes catalyze the irreversible decarboxylation of oxaloacetate and can be classified into (i) the divalent cation ... An oxaloacetate decarboxylase from the family of divalent cation dependent decarboxylases was isolated from Corynebacterium ... cytoplasmic oxaloacetate decarboxylases are dependent on the presence of divalent cations such as Mn2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, or ...
Uptake was also inhibited by Co(III)Hex and by other divalent cations. Only Co2+ and Cu2+ inhibited transport with Ki values ... Conklin DS, Kung C, Culbertson MR (Apr 1993). "The COT2 gene is required for glucose-dependent divalent cation transport in ... The mnr2 mutation also altered accumulation of other divalent cations, suggesting this mutation may increase Alr gene ... have a similar but not identical array of affinities for divalent cations. In fact, this observation can be extended to all of ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Similar solutions are formed by the heavy divalent alkaline earth metals calcium, strontium, barium, as well as the divalent ... However, for the alkali metal cations, the second coordination sphere is not well-defined as the +1 charge on the cation is not ... Other "pseudo-alkali metals" include the alkylammonium cations, in which some of the hydrogen atoms in the ammonium cation are ...
Essentially these arise when the cation:uranium ratio is different from 2:1 (monovalent cations) or 1:1 (divalent cations). ... For example, with the cation K+, compounds with K:U ratios of 2, 1 and 0.5 were found, corresponding to empirical formulas ... where M represents a cation. The uranium atom in uranates(VI) has two short collinear U-O bonds and either four or six more ... Charge-balance constrains the number of oxygen atoms to be equal to half the sum of charges of the cations and uranyl groups. ...
This increases the reabsorption of divalent cations by secondary active transport. It is currently unknown why calcium ...
Half of the octahedral sites are filled by divalent cations, principally Mg, and one tenth of the tetrahedral sites are filled ...
"Effect of the Alkali-Metal Cation on the Bonding Mode of 2,5-Dimethylpyrrole in Divalent Samarium and Ytterbium Complexes" ... Girard, P.; Namy, J. L.; Kagan, H. B. (1980). "Divalent Lanthanide Derivatives in Organic Synthesis. 1. Mild Preparation of ... Although usually trivalent, ytterbium readily forms divalent compounds. This behavior is unusual for lanthanides, which almost ...
Wilson J, Chin A (1991). "Chelation of divalent cations by ATP, studied by titration calorimetry". Anal Biochem 193 (1): 16-9. ... "Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator". BMC ...
Note that in the IUPAC system, the name ethylene is reserved for the divalent group -CH2CH2-. Hence, names like ethylene oxide ... Magnesium monohydride cation. *Methylidyne radical. *Nitric oxide. *Nitrogen (molecular). *Nitrogen monohydride. *Nitrogen ...
SP Sepharose (Cation exchanger) Strongly acidic SP (Sulfopropyl) 6 SOURCE S (Cation exchanger) Strongly acidic S (Methyl ... "Plug-and-Play Pairing via Defined Divalent Streptavidins". J Mol Biol. 426 (1): 199-214. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2013.09.016. PMC ... Cation exchange chromatography is used when the desired molecules to separate are cations and anion exchange chromatography is ... Cation exchange chromatography retains positively charged cations because the stationary phase displays a negatively charged ...
... end of the RNA strand enters a conserved basic surface pocket and makes contacts through a divalent cation (an atom with two ...
In the body, oxalic acid combines with divalent metallic cations such as calcium (Ca2+) and iron(II) (Fe2+) to form crystals of ...
Demmig, B.; Gimmler, H. (1979). "Effect of divalent cations on cation fluxes across the chloroplast envelope and on ... Mg2+ is the fourth-most-abundant metal ion in cells (per moles) and the most abundant free divalent cation - as a result, it is ... A number of chelators of divalent cations have different fluorescence spectra in the bound and unbound states.[58] Chelators ... the synthesis of chlorophyll and the biogenesis of the thylakoid membrane stacks absolutely require the divalent cation.[82][83 ...
Aquo ions of divalent metal ions are less acidic than those of trivalent cations. ... Most first row divalent metals form Tutton's salts, which feature the hexaaquo complexes. One example is Ferrous ammonium ... The main factor affecting rates is charge: highly charged metal aquo cations exchange their water more slowly than singly ...
Large divalent ions such as Ca2+, Zn2+, Sn2+ and Pb2+ have a pKa of 6 or more and would not normally be classed as acids, but ... a b Baes, C.F.; Mesmer, R.E. The Hydrolysis of Cations, (1976), Wiley, New York ... Thus the aqua cations behave as acids in terms of Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory. This effect is easily explained by ... The salt also dissociates into its constituent anions and cations. For example, sodium acetate dissociates in water into sodium ...
Wilson J, Chin A (1991). "Chelation of divalent cations by ATP, studied by titration calorimetry". Anal Biochem 193 (1): 16-9. ...
If ion-exchange chromatography is used, the mixture of lanthanides is loaded into one column of cation-exchange resin and Cu2+ ... which are divalent in the metallic state).[7] ... so that the Ln3+ cations descend the development column in a ...
The middle of the bifunnel contains two sites in which divalent cations bind (Mn+2 or Mg+2). One cation binding site is ... ATP binds first to the top of the active site near a cation binding site, while glutamate binds near the second cation binding ... Cation binding sites are yellow and orange; ADP is pink; phosphinothricin is blue.[1] ... Ammonium ion binds more strongly than water to GS due to electrostatic forces between a cation and a negatively charged pocket. ...
is (9554).[4] The binding of a divalent cation, almost always magnesium, strongly affects the interaction of ATP with various ... Wilson, J.; Chin, A. (1991). "Chelation of divalent cations by ATP, studied by titration calorimetry". Anal. Biochem. 193 (1): ... Binding of metal cations to ATPEdit. Being polyanionic and featuring a potentially chelatable polyphosphate group, ATP binds ... "Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator". BMC ...
Most mercury(I) compounds are diamagnetic and feature the dimeric cation, Hg2+. 2. Stable derivatives include the chloride and ... Organomercury compounds are always divalent and usually two-coordinate and linear geometry. Unlike organocadmium and organozinc ...
Half of the Fe3+ cations occupy tetrahedral sites while the other half, along with Fe2+ cations, occupy octahedral sites. The ... Magnetite differs from most other iron oxides in that it contains both divalent and trivalent iron.[9] ... The structure is inverse spinel, with O2− ions forming a face centered cubic lattice and iron cations occupying interstitial ...
... cation is a univalent or monovalent cation, whereas the Ca2+ cation is a divalent cation, and the Fe3+ cation is a trivalent ... cation. Unlike Cs and Ca, Fe can also exist in other charge states, notably 2+ and 4+, and is thus known as a multivalent ( ...
The terbium(III) cation is brilliantly fluorescent, in a bright lemon-yellow color that is the result of a strong green ... Terbium "green" phosphors (which fluoresce a brilliant lemon-yellow) are combined with divalent europium blue phosphors and ... Terbium green phosphors are combined with divalent europium blue phosphors and trivalent europium red phosphors to provide ...
For instance, divalent sulfur can stabilize carbanions, cationic centers, and radical. Chalcogens can confer upon ligands (such ... Studying chalcogen interactions gives access to radical cations, which are used in mainstream synthetic chemistry. Metallic ...
The divalent lanthanides such as europium and ytterbium form compounds similar to those of heavier alkali metal. In these ... Hydron (hydrogen cation). *Hydronium. *Proton. *Hydrogen ion. *Hydride compressor. References[edit]. *^ a b Greenwood, N. N ...
... readily reacts with oxygen forming mostly Cm2O3 and CmO2 oxides,[48] but the divalent oxide CmO is also known.[61] Black ... Jensen, Mark P.; Bond, Andrew H. (2002). "Comparison of Covalency in the Complexes of Trivalent Actinide and Lanthanide Cations ... Furthermore, a number of ternary oxides of the type M(II)CmO3 are known, where M stands for a divalent metal, such as barium.[ ...
Class II proteins use a different mechanism which polarizes the carbonyl group with a divalent cation like Zn2+. The ...
In the presence of divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+), or at alkaline pH the activation takes much longer. ...
Divalent europium is the source of the blue fluorescence, when seen in the mineral fluorite. Trivalent lanthanides such as ... Hexavalent uranium, in the form of the uranyl cation, fluoresces at all concentrations in a yellow green, and is the cause of ... Divalent manganese, in concentrations of up to several percent, is responsible for the red or orange fluorescence of calcite, ... some examples of which contain traces of divalent europium, which serves as the fluorescent activator to emit blue light. In a ...
This occurs because of the much greater lattice energy afforded by the more highly charged Ca2+ cation compared to the ... Hence, calcium is almost always divalent in its compounds, which are usually ionic. Hypothetical univalent salts of calcium ... In the absence of steric hindrance, smaller group 2 cations tend to form stronger complexes, but when large polydentate ... as well as the alkali metals and the divalent lanthanides europium and ytterbium, calcium metal dissolves directly in liquid ...
2 C5H6 Nickelocene can be oxidized to the corresponding cation, which contains Ni(III). Gaseous Ni(C5H5)2 decomposes to a ... On the crystal structure of biscyclopentadienyl compounds of divalent iron, cobalt and nickel]. Z. Naturforsch. B. 7: 377-379. ...
Some effects of divalent cations on binding and engulfment of several metal oxides and carbon particles are... ... Anionic Group Divalent Cation Peritoneal Macrophage Carbon Particle Fe203 Particle These keywords were added by machine and not ... Some effects of divalent cations on binding and engulfment of several metal oxides and carbon particles are described. ... Metzger G.V., Casarett L.J. (1967) Some Effects of Divalent Cations on In Vitro Phagocytosis. In: Luzio N.R.D., Paoletti R. ( ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Antacid Liquid-Simethicone II Oral and divalent-trivalent-cations- ... Tetracyclines/Divalent & Trivalent Cations Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical ... Avidity of the tetracyclines for the cations of metal. Nature 1956 Mar 3;177(4505):433-4. ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Gelusil Antacid And Anti-Gas Oral and divalent-trivalent-cations- ... Tetracyclines/Divalent & Trivalent Cations. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical advice. ... Avidity of the tetracyclines for the cations of metal. Nature 1956 Mar 3;177(4505):433-4. ...
Interaction of divalent cations and polymyxin B with lipopolysaccharide.. Schindler M, Osborn MJ. ...
PPM-type phosphatase, divalent cation binding (IPR000222). Short name: PP2C_BS Description. Protein phosphatases remove ... This entry represents a conserved aspartate residue involved in divalent cation binding [PMID: 9003755]. ...
... EddieWK ewkip at hkucc.hku.hk Thu Aug 2 12:14:24 EST 2001 *Previous message: Job: RA ... I would like to know if I want some divalent cation present in the medium to test the nature of binding, anyone can tell me ... divalent cation, like Ca++? or other kind of medium can be used instead of RPMI. Thank you in advance. Regards Eddie *Previous ...
Effect of divalent cations on bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tannic acid interaction and its influence on turbidity and in ... Tannins, proteins, and divalent cations interactions are important for many processes in the food industry and human and animal ... Coordination to Divalent Cations by Calcium-Binding Proteins.. 07:00 EST 1st January 2019 , BioPortfolio ... Arresting an Unusual Amide Tautomer Using Divalent Cations.. Ion-specific effects on peptides and proteins are key to ...
Divalent cations modulate glutamate receptors in retinal horizontal cells of the perch (Perca fluviatilis).. Schmidt KF1. ... Without such divalent cations application of dopamine caused no increase of the maximum currents induced by glutamate, and only ... Divalent cations had two effects on concentration-response relations of glutamate induced membrane currents recorded from ... The dopamine dependent enhancement of glutamate gated currents requires the presence of divalent cations besides calcium in the ...
H(+)-stimulated, divalent metal cation uptake system. Involved in manganese and iron uptake. Can also transport cadmium, cobalt ...
the Role of Divalent Cations in the Mechanisms of EDTA Cytotoxicity Contact Person: Michael O. Ogundele ([email protected]). ... Ogundele, M.O.; (1998). the Role of Divalent Cations in the Mechanisms of EDTA Cytotoxicity. Presented at INABIS 98 - 5th ... The possible interactions between these cations and EDTA in inducing its toxic effects need to be examined. Back to the top.. ... and magnesium cations (Mg2+) (Grubbs et al. 1985, Borovansky and Riley 1989). EDTA has been shown to be capable of penetrating ...
The membrane responds to the divalent cations by changing colour reversibly. The response time of the mem-DTZ is about 1 h for ... Smart sensory materials for divalent cations: a dithizone immobilized membrane for optical analysis G. Alberti, S. Re, A. M. C ... Smart sensory materials for divalent cations: a dithizone immobilized membrane for optical analysis† ... The applicability of mem-DTZ to real samples has been proved by analysis of the four metal cations in a certificate material ( ...
... divalent metal cation uptake system. Involved in manganese and iron uptake. Can also transport cadmium, cobalt, zinc and to a ... Divalent metal cation transporter MntHAdd BLAST. 412. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages ... Divalent metal cation transporter MntHUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... sp,P0A769,MNTH_ECOLI Divalent metal cation transporter MntH OS=Escherichia coli (strain K12) OX=83333 GN=mntH PE=1 SV=1 ...
Electrical stability of erythrocytes in the presence of divalent cations T. Ch. Tomov T. Ch. Tomov ... Doncheva; Electrical stability of erythrocytes in the presence of divalent cations. Biosci Rep 1 October 1988; 8 (5): 421-426. ... The percentage of haemolysed cells decreases several-fold in the presence of divalent cations. The protective action of the ... It is assumed that divalent ions bind to the negative charges of the lipid and protein molecules and reduce their electrostatic ...
Potentiation of Acetylcholine Receptors by Divalent Cations Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Divalent cations promote activation of several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes, presumably by lowering the ... agonist binding to ACh binding sites are propagated through the extracellular domain of AChRs to regulate opening of the cation ...
Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. ... Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. ...
... J Gen Physiol. 1997 ... However, IGABA was inhibited by extracellular divalent cations, with the following order of the inhibitory potency: Zn2+ , Ni2+ ...
... are analyzed with respect to their virus retention capacity when using feed solutions based on monovalent and divalent salts ( ... Effect of divalent versus monovalent cations on the MS2 retention capacity of amino-functionalized ceramic filters ... Effect of divalent versus monovalent cations on the MS2 retention capacity of amino-functionalized ceramic filters J. Bartels, ... are analyzed with respect to their virus retention capacity when using feed solutions based on monovalent and divalent salts ( ...
Divalent cations such as magnesium and calcium play a crucial role in the development of solvent tolerance in bacterial cells. ... Finally, we demonstrate that divalent cations improve solvent tolerance in P. putida DOT‑T1E strains. ... along with the influence of divalent cations present in the growth media. Multivariate analysis of the data using principal ... while it increased in the presence of divalent cations. This study clearly demonstrates that the combination of metabolic ...
Different divalent cation requirements for binding IgM complexes to lymphocytes and macrophages.. A S Walia, D R Shaw, E W ... IgG complex binding to both lymphocytes and macrophages is divalent cation independent. These findings allow one to distinguish ... Different divalent cation requirements for binding IgM complexes to lymphocytes and macrophages. ... IgG from IgM binding and macrophage from lymphocyte IgM complex binding by their differential divalent cation requirements. ...
Control of Ciliary Activities by Adenosinetriphosphate and Divalent Cations in Triton-Extracted Models of Paramecium Caudatum ... Control of Ciliary Activities by Adenosinetriphosphate and Divalent Cations in Triton-Extracted Models of Paramecium Caudatum ... Control of Ciliary Activities by Adenosinetriphosphate and Divalent Cations in Triton-Extracted Models of Paramecium Caudatum ... Control of Ciliary Activities by Adenosinetriphosphate and Divalent Cations in Triton-Extracted Models of Paramecium Caudatum ...
These results indicate that Ca2+ and other divalent cations compete for binding sites at the Ca-channel and thus determine ... Determination of Pure Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Current in Paramecium Caudatum and its Inhibition by Divalent Cations ... Determination of Pure Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Current in Paramecium Caudatum and its Inhibition by Divalent Cations ... Determination of Pure Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Current in Paramecium Caudatum and its Inhibition by Divalent Cations ...
2001) Divalent Cations in Womenwith PCOS Implications for Cardiovascular Disease. Gynecological Endocrinology, 15, 198-201. ... Implication of Electrostatic Forces on the Adsorption Capacity of a Modified Brick for the Removal of Divalent Cations from ... 2001) Divalent Cations in Womenwith PCOS: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease. Gynecological Endocrinology, 15, 198-201. ... In vitro activity of cationic peptides against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and vaginal Lactobacillus species: The effect of divalent ...
Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance.. R A Harris, H H Loh and E ... Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance.. R A Harris, H H Loh and E ... Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance.. R A Harris, H H Loh and E ... Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance. ...
Divalent cations (Ca++, Mg++ and Mn++) inhibited equilibrium radioligand binding by as much as 50% at 100 mM, with the potency ... Angiotensin II vascular receptors in fowl aorta: binding specificity and modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotides ... Angiotensin II vascular receptors in fowl aorta: binding specificity and modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotides ... Angiotensin II vascular receptors in fowl aorta: binding specificity and modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotides ...
... ... The cations were selected as sorbates for their diverse characteristics and the experiments were performed with three different ...
Divalent cation substitution reveals CD18- and very late antigen-dependent pathways that mediate human neutrophil adherence to ... Divalent cation substitution reveals CD18- and very late antigen-dependent pathways that mediate human neutrophil adherence to ... Divalent cation substitution reveals CD18- and very late antigen-dependent pathways that mediate human neutrophil adherence to ... Divalent cation substitution reveals CD18- and very late antigen-dependent pathways that mediate human neutrophil adherence to ...
Integrins contain several cation-binding sites, and binding of distinct divalent cations can regulate the ligand-binding ... 1998). Divalent cations and ligands induce conformational changes that are highly divergent among beta1 integrins. J. Biol. ... 1995). Regulation of integrin alpha 5 beta 1 function by anti-integrin antibodies and divalent cations. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 23 ... Integrins are divalent cation-dependent, αβ heterodimeric adhesion receptors that control many fundamental aspects of cell ...
Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) are two major divalent cations in the human body. They are involved in a variety of fundamental ... Anion Gap as a Determinant of Ionized Fraction of Divalent Cations in Hemodialysis Patients. Yusuke Sakaguchi, Takayuki Hamano ... Clinical significance of these divalent cations in patients with CKD is recognized, especially in terms of the mineral and bone ... Anion Gap as a Determinant of Ionized Fraction of Divalent Cations in Hemodialysis Patients ...
Impact of natural organic matter and divalent cations on the stability of aqueous nanoparticles. Journal Title:. Water research ... cations. nanotechnology. calcium. zinc oxide. titanium dioxide. iron oxides. risk assessment. human health. water pollution. ...
Excess protons in synthetic micas with tetrahedrally coordinated divalent cations Jean-Louis Robert Jean-Louis Robert ... Jean-Louis Robert, Michel Hardy, Jesus Sanz; Excess protons in synthetic micas with tetrahedrally coordinated divalent cations ...
  • In all cases, Mg ++ did not significantly change the phagocytic index from control levels (with 0.145 M NaCl and no divalent ions). (springer.com)
  • It is assumed that divalent ions bind to the negative charges of the lipid and protein molecules and reduce their electrostatic repulsion, which results in stabilization of the membranes. (portlandpress.com)
  • 10-3.5M). Removal of the 6X His-tag by thrombin enzyme failed to remove the inhibitory effect of the divalent metal ions, indicating that the affinity purification tag is not the divalent metal binding site. (butler.edu)
  • Objective: The present study was designed to encapsulate levofloxacin in chitosan-alginate hybrid gel for controlled release and to evaluate the effect of divalent alkaline earth metal ions (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) on encapsulation efficiency and drug release kinetics considering their role in polyelectrolyte gelation method. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Method: Divalent metal ions control the rigidity and elasticity of the hydrogels and have the ability to change the shape and size of nanostructure formed by chitosan-alginate. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The particle size increases and encapsulation efficiency decreases with the size of the divalent ions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The divalent cations which enhance opiate agonist binding appear to counteract the ability of sodium ions to inhibit agonist binding selectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Viscosity analysis associated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and measurements of zeta potential in the presence of different ions implied that polysaccharide aggregation was a consequence of the interaction between the carboxyl groups of glucuronic acid and divalent cations. (elsevier.com)
  • The ligand system was evaluated for extraction and preconcentartion of a series of divalent metal ions from aqueous solutions including: Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+. (edu.ps)
  • We have studied the ability of divalent cations to restore to normal axonal transport (AXT) which was inhibited by deprivation of Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ ions. (core.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that divalent metal ions have substantial effects on PIP2 lateral organization at physiological concentrations, and local fluxes in their cytoplasmic levels can contribute to regulating protein-PIP2 interactions. (utmb.edu)
  • Rocks in many subsurface settings are at elevated temperature and are saturated with brines of high ionic strength (high salinity) containing divalent ions. (elsevier.com)
  • We report experimental measurements of the temperature dependence of the zeta potential in well characterised, natural quartz sandpacks over the temperature range 23-120 °C saturated with electrolytes containing divalent ions at a range of concentrations relevant to natural systems. (elsevier.com)
  • The zeta potential is negative irrespective of sample or electrolyte, but its magnitude is strongly correlated to pH, which varies both with temperature and the concentration of divalent ions. (elsevier.com)
  • The pH is also typically lower in the presence of divalent ions, irrespective of the total ionic strength. (elsevier.com)
  • Different relationships between zeta potential, temperature and concentration of divalent ions could be obtained in buffered experiments where the pH is fixed at a given value. (elsevier.com)
  • There is proof that various other pLGICs could be controlled Goat polyclonal to IgG (H+L)(HRPO) by divalent ions binding to an identical region, despite the fact that the interacting residues aren't conserved inside the family members. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Mg2+ ions were more effective in promoting the binding of alpha1beta1 integrin to col IV but Ca2+ proved to be more effective one for Ln. Kinetic analysis of binding in dot blot assays using different concentrations of cations showed that while Mg2+ was active at low concentrations Ca2+ and Mn2+ promoted the binding more at higher concentrations. (who.int)
  • The enzyme was inhibited by the divalent ions Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Zn(2+), following kinetic mechanisms of mixed inhibition, with K(i) values of 2.04×10(-1), 2.28×10(-2), 4.21×10(-4), 8.00×10(-5) and 2.95×10(-5) M, respectively. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Genomic RNA within native capsids containing both Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ions is extremely resistant to nucleases, but depletion of both of these cations results in nuclease sensitivity, as measured by a significant reduction in RCNMV infectivity. (utmb.edu)
  • I investigated the inhibition of Rv0045c by divalent metals and the structural components of Rv0045c responsible for its regulation. (butler.edu)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effects of divalent cations on the short-time fluoride exposure induced-inhibition of the pH fall ability of Streptococcus mutans. (elsevier.com)
  • In the presence of divalent cations, short-time fluoride exposure enhanced the inhibition of pH fall by S. mutans, probably due to the fluoride bound to bacterial cell via cations. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, it is suggested that the pre-rinse with divalent cations increases fluoride retention to plaque bacteria and subsequently enhances fluoride inhibition on acid production by dental plaque in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Addition of other divalent cations did not affect AXT (Sr2+ and Ba2+) or potentiated the inhibition caused by Ca2+-deprived medium (Mn2+ and Co2+). (core.ac.uk)
  • divalent inhibition is situated on the external rim from the extracellular area, on the user interface between adjacent subunits but at some length through the agonist binding area. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • The features of monovalent cation and divalent metal activation, as well as the inhibition by Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ , are discussed in light of the kinetic and structural information available for MtIPMS and other relevant enzymes. (elsevier.com)
  • it has come to our attention, that a polemical note by Milonjic [S.K. Milonjic, Comments on factors influencing the removal of divalent cations by hydroxyapatite, J. Hazard. (ac.rs)
  • Janackovic, M. Mitric, Factors influencing the removal of divalent cations by hydroxyapatite, J. Hazard. (ac.rs)
  • Alendronate-Functionalized Poly(2-oxazoline)s with Tunable Affinity for Calcium Cations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Integrins contain several cation-binding sites that regulate the ligand-binding affinity of the receptor. (biologists.org)
  • Different cations have markedly different effects on ligand affinity: in general, Mn 2+ supports ligand binding, Mg 2+ does so to a lesser extent, and Ca 2+ does not support ligand binding at all ( Gailit and Ruoslahti, 1988 ). (biologists.org)
  • Brief (60 s) transient exposure to 3 mM Mg2+, in the absence of other divalent cations, had a protective effect in that following washout of Mg2+, subsequent exposure to 0.2 mM Ca2+ no longer caused affinity shifts. (rupress.org)
  • Divalent cation binding to the high- and low-affinity sites on G-actin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Two classes of cation binding sites were found on G-actin which could be separated on the basis of their Ca2+ affinity: a single high-affinity site with a Kd considerably less than 1 microM and three identical moderate-affinity binding sites with a Kd of 18 microM. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Divalent cation affinity sites in Paramecium aurelia. (rupress.org)
  • Although similar in many respects to constitutive monoterpene cyclases of herbaceous species, this inducible cyclase, the first enzyme of this type to be purified to homogeneity from a conifer, is distinguished by the relatively high pH optimum, and the strict specificity and high affinity for the divalent metal ion cofactor. (nih.gov)
  • Differential effects of cations in promoting the binding of alpha1beta1 integrin to Col IV and Ln suggest that changes in level of diffusible cations can modulate affinity of the common receptor alpha1beta1 integrin to its ligands and can influence adhesion of hepatic cells to different matrix proteins during hepatic development and regeneration. (who.int)
  • Tannins, proteins, and divalent cations interactions are important for many processes in the food industry and human and animal nutrition and health. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The possible interactions between these cations and EDTA in inducing its toxic effects need to be examined. (mcmaster.ca)
  • The hypothesis that PIP2 forms submicrometer-sized clusters in the membrane by electrostatic interactions with intracellular divalent cations is tested here using lipid monolayer and bilayer model membranes. (utmb.edu)
  • The data obtained suggest that the end stabilization mediated by divalent cations is primarily the result of inter-base interactions rather than bridging of phosphate moieties. (nebraska.edu)
  • Dahlgren, PR & Lyubchenko, YL 2002, ' Atomic force microscopy study of the effects of Mg 2+ and other divalent cations on the end-to-end DNA interactions ', Biochemistry , vol. 41, no. 38, pp. 11372-11378. (nebraska.edu)
  • Cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) proteins are a conserved family of transmembrane transporters that ensure cellular homeostasis of divalent transition metal cations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Concentrations of extracellular divalent cations (Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ) fall substantially during intensive synaptic transmission as well as during some pathophysiological conditions such as epilepsy and brain ischemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we report that a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, nafamostat mesylate (NM), and several of its analogues, block recombinant TRPM7 currents expressed in HEK293T cells in inverse relationship to the concentration of extracellular divalent cations. (elsevier.com)
  • In the presence of physiological concentrations of extracellular divalent cations, NM activates TRPM7. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Concentrations of extracellular divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) fall substantially during intensive synaptic transmission as well as during some pathophysiological conditions such as epilepsy and brain ischemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The tail domain of lamin B1 is more strongly modulated by divalent cations than lamin A'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (syr.edu)
  • Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were extracted under various conditions in order to examine the role of divalent cations in the solubilization of microtubule proteins. (conicyt.cl)
  • We have tried to assess the role of divalent cations in mediating attachment of hepatocytes to matrix proteins like collagen IV (Col IV) and laminin (Ln). The three cations examined viz. (who.int)
  • The tests conducted in this study to investigate the role of divalent cations on LS water response should be routine practice as a supplement to conventional core flooding experiments. (mst.edu)
  • The results also indicate that divalent cation effects on cyclic nucleotide-gated channels may depend on the sequence of pre-exposure to other divalent cations. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that divalent cations play a central role in capsid dynamics and suggest a mechanism for the release of viral RNA in low-divalent-cation environments such as those found within the cytoplasm of a cell. (utmb.edu)
  • The kinetic model suggests that iron complexation by fulvic acid occurs predominantly via a disjunctive pathway (where iron complexation by ligand occurs after dissociation of Me from Me-ligand complex) at concentrations of divalent cations and natural organic matter typical of natural waters including seawater and freshwater. (elsevier.com)
  • Amperometric measurements were performed on graphite electrodes, onto which FDH was adsorbed and the effect on the response current to fructose was investigated when varying the pH and the concentrations of divalent/monovalent cations in the contacting buffer. (chromoscience.com)
  • The binding of cells to various surfaces was also investigated as a function of divalent ion concentrations. (springer.com)
  • The invention also relates to a process to prepare the complex of the invention, comprising the steps of adding the chelating agent and a soluble salt of the divalent cation to an aqueous solution at a neutral pH, allowing a precipitate to form, and, optionally, separating off the precipitate from the solution. (wipo.int)
  • It is known that Ca++ and other alkaline cations change the electrostatic potential of the negatively charged bilayer membranes either absorbing to the phospholipids or accumulating in the aqueous diffuse double layer, and this potential change may induce conductance variation (1). (unimi.it)
  • It binds and transports cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Ceramic capillary membranes conditioned for virus filtration via functionalization with n -(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine (TPDA) are analyzed with respect to their virus retention capacity when using feed solutions based on monovalent and divalent salts (NaCl, MgCl 2 ). (rsc.org)
  • We have studied the effect of divalent cations as Ca++ and Ba++ that exert a cross linking together with a screening effect respectively, on the kinetics of incorporation of the mithocondrial porin in bimolecular lipid membranes made with phosphatydilinositol. (unimi.it)
  • Divalent cations promote activation of several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes, presumably by lowering the energetic barrier between open and closed conformations. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we have characterized fowl vascular ANG II receptors in terms of binding specificity and their modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotide, to understand how the fowl receptor might differ from mammalian vascular ANG II receptors that mediate vasoconstriction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels of rat olfactory receptor cells: divalent cations control the sensitivity to cAMP. (rupress.org)
  • Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel involved in pain sensation and in a wide range of non-pain-related physiological and pathological conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • Our data demonstrate that modulation by divalent cations involves substantial conformational changes in the receptor extracellular domain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since alpha1beta1 integrin is a common receptor for col IV and LN in liver, the effect of cations in its binding to these matrix proteins was studied. (who.int)
  • Coordination to Divalent Cations by Calcium-Binding Proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Inspection of PC-DFA loadings plots revealed that several IR spectral regions including lipids, proteins and polysaccharides contribute to the separation in PC-DFA space, thereby indicating large phenotypic response to toluene and these cations. (mdpi.com)
  • The activation state of cell surface integrins is tightly regulated by divalent cation occupancy of the ligand-binding pocket and by interaction with cytoplasmic adaptor proteins, such as talin. (biologists.org)
  • With cells in culture, we observe altered lamin B1 organization in the presence of excess Mg 2+ more so than for lamin A. We suggest that the differential sensitivity to divalent cations contributes to the vastly different functionalities and binding of the 2 proteins. (syr.edu)
  • Rowe, L, Ensor, M & Daunert, S 2007, EF-hand Ca 2+ -binding bioluminescent proteins: Effects of mutations and alternative divalent cations . (elsevier.com)
  • Right here, divalent cations connect to the proteins via carboxylate side-chains, and the website is comparable in framework to calcium mineral binding sites referred to in other protein. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Different divalent salt subphases, of either magnesium, calcium, strontium, manganese, iron or zinc salts, with fixed sodium chloride concentration of 0.15 mol/l at pH of 5.8 and 25 °C were investigated. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Strongest binding effects were observed for calcium and manganese cations. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Effect of divalent cations on bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tannic acid interaction and its influence on turbidity and in vitro protein digestibility. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The second effect of divalent cations was related to the dopamine dependent modulation of glutamate receptors in horizontal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Steady state kinetic assays were run using fluorogenic ester substrates to analyze the effect of divalent metal cations on Rv0045c catalysis. (butler.edu)
  • To investigate the effect of these changes on MLOs, we studied the influence of divalent cations on the physical and chemical properties of RNA coacervates. (meta.org)
  • Cysteine substitution of either of two glutamates (E 44 or E 172 ), thought to participate in the divalent cation binding site, caused a loss of allosteric modulation, yet Ba 2+ still had a significant effect on modification rates of these residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, a computational study of the effect of doping barium sulfate with divalent cations (Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ ) is presented. (hw.ac.uk)
  • Jackson, Robert A. / A computational study of the effect of doping divalent cations in barite . (hw.ac.uk)
  • Here, a computational study of the effect of doping barium sulfate with divalent cations (Ca2+ and Sr2+) is presented. (hw.ac.uk)
  • Although cations in general enhanced the binding, different cations exhibited differential effect in promoting the binding for different ligands. (who.int)
  • Particular attention was given to examination of the effect of competitive divalent cations (Me: Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ) at concentrations typical of seawater on the complexation rate. (elsevier.com)
  • Particular attention was given to examination of the effect of competitive divalent cations (Me: Ca2+ and Mg2+) at concentrations typical of seawater on the complexation rate. (elsevier.com)
  • Addition of MgCl2 or of the monovalent cations shows, surprisingly, no effect on the electron transfer to the electron acceptor. (chromoscience.com)
  • This effect could be explained by the chelation of metal cations on the amine groups of chitosan, which increased the partition coefficient. (uminho.pt)
  • K + acts most likely as an allosteric activator, and exerts part of its effect through the catalytic divalent metal. (elsevier.com)
  • Effect of divalent cations on the porcine kidney cortex membrane-bound form of dipeptidyl peptidase IV. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Effect of Divalent Cations in Formation Water on Wettability Alteratio" by Hasan N. Al-Saedi, Ralph E. Flori et al. (mst.edu)
  • Effect of Divalent Cations in Formation Water on Wettability Alteration during Low Salinity Water Flooding in Sandstone Reservoirs: Oil Recovery Analyses, Surface Reactivity Tests, Contact Angle, and Spontaneous Imbibition Experiments," Journal of Molecular Liquids , vol. 275, pp. 163-172, Elsevier, Feb 2019. (mst.edu)
  • We report force field predictions for the hydrogen uptakes of porous aromatic framework (PAF) materials containing carboxylate functional groups with divalent metallic cations. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Each functional group of divalent metallic cations and two carboxylic acid groups provided 13 (Mg) or 14 (Ca) binding sites for hydrogen molecules with an average binding energy of 8 kJ·mol -1 per hydrogen molecule. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Predicting Hydrogen Storage Performances in Porous Aromatic Frameworks Containing Carboxylate Functional Groups with Divalent Metallic Cations[J].Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • The change in the permeation properties of chitosan to anionic solutes in the presence of these metallic cations is an important result and should be taken into consideration when trying to make in vitro predictions of the drug release from chitosan-based controlled release systems. (uminho.pt)
  • Although calcium is the traditional, and generally the most powerful, triggering ligand in this bioluminescence reaction, alternative di- and trivalent cations can also bind to the EF-hand loops and stimulate luminescence. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to explore whether or not these cysteine residues contributed to the specificity of the EF-hand domains for cations we generated four aequorin and obelin mutants and observed their luminescent intensity and decay kinetics by stimulation with calcium, barium, and magnesium. (elsevier.com)
  • In this work we characterized the monovalent and divalent specificity of MtIPMS using steady-state kinetics. (elsevier.com)
  • Divalent cation substitution reveals CD18- and very late antigen-dependent pathways that mediate human neutrophil adherence to fibronectin. (jimmunol.org)
  • Synthesis of magnetically ordered barium hexaferrite powders and the adjustment of magnetic properties for perpendicular magnetic recording media are realized through substitution of divalent cation (Ca) in the BaFe 12O19 system. (iith.ac.in)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that this conferred cohesive end stability is specific for divalent cations, as substitution of MgCl 2 with NaCl leads to a near complete loss of cohesive end stability. (nebraska.edu)
  • The monovalent cation dependence of the kinetic parameters of substrates and divalent metals indicates that K + is the likely physiological activator. (elsevier.com)
  • Fluorimetric analyses demonstrated that QacA confers resistance to the divalent cation 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, utilizing a proton motive force-dependent efflux mechanism previously demonstrated for QacA-mediated resistance to the monovalent cation ethidium. (edu.au)
  • Divalent cations had two effects on concentration-response relations of glutamate induced membrane currents recorded from retinal horizontal cells. (nih.gov)
  • There is evidence that separate membrane channels exits for the transport of calcium cations, Ca2+ (also shared by Fe2+ and Zn2+) and magnesium cations (Mg2+) (Grubbs et al. (mcmaster.ca)
  • The membrane responds to the divalent cations by changing colour reversibly. (rsc.org)
  • These studies are helping to reveal how movements initiated by agonist binding to ACh binding sites are propagated through the extracellular domain of AChRs to regulate opening of the cation channel through the membrane. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These associated lipid membrane changes were characterized by variation of the compression speed, kind and concentration of the monovalent and divalent salt, pH, and temperature. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Among the flavocytochrome oxidoreductases, the DET mechanism for membrane bound FDH has not yet been elucidated [45] and therefore FDH has attracted a growing interest also regarding all factors that can influence the DET reaction (e.g., pH, cations, ionic strength, etc.) [46-48]. (chromoscience.com)
  • Addition of magnesium or barium cations in millimolar concentration was sufficient to completely restore the dopamine dependent modulation. (nih.gov)
  • Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. (jci.org)
  • Angiotensin II vascular receptors in fowl aorta: binding specificity and modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we show modulation of lamin tail domain structures in the presence of divalent cations. (syr.edu)
  • The modulation of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) by divalent cations is thought to play a significant role within their regulation within a physiological context. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Modulation of alpha1beta1 integrin mediated adhesion of hepatocytes to collagen IV and laminin by divalent cations. (who.int)
  • The divalent metal specificity of MtIPMS is broad, and Mg 2+ and Mn 2+ are the metals that cause the highest activation. (elsevier.com)
  • The divalent metal specificity of MtIPMS is broad, and Mg2+ and Mn2+ are the metals that cause the highest activation. (elsevier.com)
  • Hexacoordinated C-3 symmetrical complexes were demonstrated for divalent cations with ionic radii around 1 Å (Ca2+ and Ba2+), while 5-coordination is preferred for divalent cations with larger (Ba2+) or smaller ionic radii (Mg2+). (kent.ac.uk)
  • Some effects of divalent cations on binding and engulfment of several metal oxides and carbon particles are described. (springer.com)
  • Effects of divalent cations, cation chelators and an ionophore on morphine analgesia and tolerance. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of selected heavy metal cations on the function of TRPV1. (elsevier.com)
  • Using a model arginine-rich peptide-RNA system, we predicted and observed that variations in signaling cations exert interaction-dependent effects on RNA LLPS. (meta.org)
  • Thus divalent modulators cause some but not all of the conformational effects elicited by agonist. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was found that the cysteine mutations do appear to alter the effects that alternative divalent cations have on the bioluminescence of both aequorin and obelin. (elsevier.com)
  • de Carvalho, LPS & Blanchard, JS 2006, ' Kinetic analysis of the effects of monovalent cations and divalent metals on the activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis α-isopropylmalate synthase ', Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics , vol. 451, no. 2, pp. 141-148. (elsevier.com)
  • We took advantage of the APS-mica, allowing the preparation of samples in a broad range of monovalent and divalent cations to separate the effects of Mg 2+ and Na + cations on the interaction of restriction DNA fragments with cohesive end. (nebraska.edu)
  • We took advantage of the APS-mica, allowing the preparation of samples in a broad range of monovalent and divalent cations to separate the effects of Mg2+ and Na+ cations on the interaction of restriction DNA fragments with cohesive end. (nebraska.edu)
  • The effects of divalent cations on voltage-activated Ca 2+ channels and depolarization-evoked cytoplasmic [Ca 2+ ] elevations were studied in pyramidal neurones isolated from the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the rat. (elsevier.com)
  • Comparison of the blocking effects of divalent cations on Ca 2+ currents and [Ca 2+ ] i transients supports further the conclusion that the depolarization-induced [Ca 2+ ] i changes are produced mainly by the activation of the HVA Ca 2+ channels. (elsevier.com)
  • Divalent cations modulate glutamate receptors in retinal horizontal cells of the perch (Perca fluviatilis). (nih.gov)
  • Identification of cation-binding sites on actin that drive polymerization and modulate bending stiffness. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Without such divalent cations application of dopamine caused no increase of the maximum currents induced by glutamate, and only a slight shift of the half maximal saturation concentration was observed. (nih.gov)
  • For monovalent cations on the cardiolipin monolayer, the dependence on salt concentration of the lipid liquid gel phase transition surface pressure πc was determined and a non-monotonic behavior was found, with a maximum in πc for a salt concentration of 0.1 mol/l. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • The compression speed, monovalent salt concentration, pH, and selected divalent cations were investigated with the BAM. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Based on the kinetic data results, diverse divalent metals appear to serve as allosteric inhibitors of Rv0045c, as the KM value remained steady throughout the assays despite the presence of divalent metals, while the kcat value decreased drastically. (butler.edu)
  • In an attempt to locate the allosteric binding site of these divalent metal cations, I changed potential amino acid binding residues to alanine via site-directed mutagenesis. (butler.edu)
  • The influence of divalent cations on allosteric behaviour of muscle pyruvate kinase from the sea mussel Mytilus edulis L. (uu.nl)
  • Elucidation of the ion transport mechanisms in CorA, a divalent cation transporter. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Since the mechanism of transport proposed here is largely based on conserved amino acids and it is comparable between two CorA belonging to different organisms - Thermotoga maritima and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, we can extrapolate this mechanism to the rest of the family, hence allowing us to understand better the transport mechanism of this divalent cation transporter family. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to directly visualize the end-to-end DNA interaction mediated by magnesium cations. (nebraska.edu)
  • These results demonstrate the essential roles played by divalent cations to facilitate folding of the β-integrin subunit, to prevent inappropriate intracellular integrin signalling, and to activate ligand binding and signalling at the cell surface. (biologists.org)
  • We display that divalent cations such as for example calcium mineral or zinc inhibit ELIC by occupying an extracellular site remote control from your ligand-binding region therefore interfering with gating. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • A systematic study was carried out to investigate the attachment of inorganic particles to fabric media in the presence of divalent cations and the dissolved organics in water, on filter media, or on both. (iwaponline.com)
  • Ledneva, Nikolai G. Naumov, Nathalie Audebrand * and Stephane Cordier *, "Hexacyano Molybdenum Clusters Chalcohalides and Divalent Cations (Zn2+ and Cu2+) for the Design of Extended Polymeric and Supramolecular Frameworks", Current Inorganic Chemistry (Discontinued) (2017) 7: 111. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In this study, I present data showing that M1 is required mainly for protein stabilization leaving M2 acting as a divalent cation sensor. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Avidity of the tetracyclines for the cations of metal. (webmd.com)
  • Metal binding to the dynamic cytoplasmic domain of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) protein MamM induces a 'locked-in' configuration. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Metal cations bind to CDF protei. (bioportfolio.com)
  • H(+)-stimulated, divalent metal cation uptake system. (rcsb.org)
  • The applicability of mem-DTZ to real samples has been proved by analysis of the four metal cations in a certificate material (Sewage Sludge CC136A), white wine, and drinking water samples. (rsc.org)
  • The present invention relates to complexes of divalent metal cations and a chelating agent chosen from the group of EDDHA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-(hydroxyphenyl acetic acid)), EDDHMA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-(hydroxy-methylphenyl acetic acid)), and HBED (N,N'-bis(hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-Ν,Ν'-diacetic acid), to the preparation thereof, and to the use thereof. (wipo.int)
  • The metal complexes contain one metal cation and one chelating agent and are said to be between 1 and 5% soluble. (wipo.int)
  • Surprisingly, it has now been found to be possible to prepare complexes of EDDHA, EDDHMA or HBED with two divalent metal cations. (wipo.int)
  • Accordingly, the present invention covers complexes of two divalent metal cations and a chelating agent chosen from the group of EDDHA, EDDHMA, and HBED. (wipo.int)
  • These complexes containing two divalent metal cations have been found to have unexpected properties that can be of beneficial use in certain applications, like the ones which benefit from an unexpected low solubility over a broad pH range and/or a slow release of the divalent metal cation. (wipo.int)
  • Preferably, the divalent metal cation is a metal cation that is not easily oxidized to a higher oxidation state. (wipo.int)
  • An example of a metal cation that can be easily oxidized to a higher oxidation state is iron, which is easily converted from the ferrous cation to the ferric cation. (wipo.int)
  • More preferably, the divalent metal cation is Mn 2+ , Cu 2+ or Zn 2+ , most preferably it is Zn 2+ . (wipo.int)
  • The permeability of the salicylate anion was significantly enhanced by the presence of metal cations commonly present in biological fluids, such as calcium and magnesium, but remained unchanged for the neutral 2-phenylethanol. (uminho.pt)
  • Thus, the binding of divalent cations, probably via a regulatory protein, controls the sensitivity of the cAMP-gated channels to cAMP. (rupress.org)
  • Interaction of divalent cations and polymyxin B with lipopolysaccharide. (nih.gov)
  • To date, the exact nature of the interaction between divalent cations, such as Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ , has not been fully characterized. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • To date, the exact nature of the interaction between divalent cations, such as Ca2+ or Mg2+, has not been fully characterized. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • The AFM data clearly show that DNA restriction fragments with cohesive ends form substantial amount of circles in the presence of Mg 2+ cations, suggesting that Mg 2+ cations stabilize the interaction of cohesive ends. (nebraska.edu)
  • In the present study, we have investigated how divalent cations in concert with the chondroitin sulfate chain influence the structure and stability of inter-α-inhibitor. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These findings allow one to distinguish IgG from IgM binding and macrophage from lymphocyte IgM complex binding by their differential divalent cation requirements. (rupress.org)
  • By employing differential scanning fluorimetry, protease protection and hydrodynamic analyses, we show that Dad2p is specifically responsive to the presence of divalent cations. (ccsenet.org)
  • The dopamine dependent enhancement of glutamate gated currents requires the presence of divalent cations besides calcium in the extracellular solution. (nih.gov)
  • The percentage of haemolysed cells decreases several-fold in the presence of divalent cations. (portlandpress.com)
  • Here, we have used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy directly on cells (metabolic fingerprinting) to monitor bacterial response to the absence and presence of toluene, along with the influence of divalent cations present in the growth media. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, the saturated fatty acid ratio from the FT-IR spectra showed that upon toluene exposure, the saturated fatty acid ratio was reduced, while it increased in the presence of divalent cations. (mdpi.com)
  • Under all conditions tested, tubulin kinase activity in epimastigote extracts was lower than the addition of the corresponding value in the parasite cytosolic and membranous fractions, suggesting the presence of a kinase inhibitor or regulatory subunit which also seemed to be modulated by divalent cations. (conicyt.cl)
  • The presence of divalent cations during the nucleation of barium sulfate can alter the properties of the nucleated material. (hw.ac.uk)
  • pLGIC function is certainly affected also by 486-66-8 supplier divalent cations (such as for example calcium mineral and zinc) in two distinctive methods. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Divalent cations such as magnesium and calcium play a crucial role in the development of solvent tolerance in bacterial cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that divalent cations improve solvent tolerance in P. putida DOT‑T1E strains. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we solved the crystal structure of the N-terminal matrix domain of human MCU, revealing a β-grasp-like fold with a cluster of negatively charged residues that interacts with divalent cations. (elsevier.com)
  • Using Ba 2+ as a surrogate for Ca 2+ , we found a divalent-dependent decrease the modification rates of cysteine substitutions at M 37 and M 40 , residues at which rates were also slowed by ACh. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutational disruption of the acidic face weakens oligomerization of the isolated matrix domain and full-length human protein similar to cation binding and markedly decreases MCU activity. (elsevier.com)
  • πc decreases upon addition of divalent salts to the subphase. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Knowledge about the mechanisms of action of divalent cations may facilitate the design of new inhibitors. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • Channel function could be modulated also by divalent cations, which either potentiate or inhibit pLGICs at physiological concentrations. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Integrins are divalent cation-dependent, αβ heterodimeric adhesion receptors that control many fundamental aspects of cell behaviour by bi-directional signalling between the extracellular matrix and intracellular cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • The family members contains both cation-selective stations, such as for example nicotinic Acetylcholine- (nAChRs) and Serotonin receptors (5HT3Rs), and anion-selective stations, such as for example GABA- (GABARs) and Glycine receptors (GlyRs) [1]. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • The IC 50 of Co 2+ on these point mutants were determined to be reasonably comparable to those on the wild type, which suggests that divalent cations passing through the TRPV1 channel use the same negatively charged amino acids as Ca 2+ . (elsevier.com)
  • Cd++ another divalent cation has been shown to exert influence on the permeability of some anaelectrolytes across BLM made of negatively charged phospholipids, but not on the zwitterionic phospholipids (2). (unimi.it)
  • Much less is known about the activation state of newly synthesised integrins or the role of cations during the early folding and trafficking of integrins. (biologists.org)
  • Tiwari, S. , Askari, J.A. , Humphries, M.J. and Bulleid, N.J. (2011) Divalent cations regulate the folding and activation status of integrins during their intracellular trafficking. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Conventional purification protocols result in the removal of the Mg 2+ found in plasma and because divalent cations influence the conformation and affect function it is important to consider this when characterizing the biological activity of inter-α-inhibitor. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This work examines the influence of monovalent and divalent cations on tetramyristoyl cardiolipin (TMCL) monolayers. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • We report on the influence of pH and monovalent/divalent cations on the catalytic current response, internal electron transfer (IET), and structure of fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) by using amperometry, spectrophotometry, and circular dichroism (CD). (chromoscience.com)
  • Contrary to CaCl2, addition of MgCl2 did not show any particular influence, whereas addition of monovalent cations (Na+ or K+) led to a slight linear increase in the maximum response current. (chromoscience.com)
  • Different divalent cation requirements for binding IgM complexes to lymphocytes and macrophages. (rupress.org)
  • The binding of a series of monovalent and divalent cations was assessed by 1H NMR, circular dichroism, fluorescence and molecular modelling. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Intracellular Free Magnesium in Erythrocytes of Essential Hypertension: Relation to Blood Pressure and Serum Divalent Cations. (thestemcellfoundation.com)