Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.PolyaminesDrug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectParticle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Eosinophil Cationic Protein: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cetrimonium Compounds: Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.Molecular Imprinting: A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.PolyvinylsAbsorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Acrylic ResinsPolyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.AcrylatesKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Fluorocarbon PolymersPorosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin: A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polymyxin B: A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
D. Bilanovic; A. Sukenik; G. Shelef (1988). "Flocculation of microalgae with cationic polymers. Effects of medium salinity" ( ...
Ring opening can be carried out by cationic or anionic initiators, although cationic initiators have not been used commercially ... Nylon 12 is a polymer with the formula [(CH2)11C(O)NH]n. It is made from ω-aminolauric acid or laurolactam monomers that each ... Advances in Polymer Science. 68/69. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 201-208. doi:10.1007/3-540-13781-5_11. ISBN 978-3-540-13781 ... doi:10.1021/ie50723a005 Kubisa, P.; Matyjaszewski, K.; Penczek, S. (1985). Cationic Ring-Opening Polymerization. ...
... epoxycyclohexancarboxylate in photoinitiated cationic polymerizations". Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. ... Crivello, J. V.; Lam, J. H. W. (October 1978). "Dye-sensitized photoinitiated cationic polymerization". Journal of Polymer ... and heat-initiated cationic polymerizations". Polymer. 32 (15): 2779-2784. doi:10.1016/0032-3861(91)90108-U. Crivello, James V ... Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 51 (9): 2058-2067. doi:10.1002/pola.26595. Atsushi Udagawa; Yasuhiko ...
PEI is a cationic polymer; the negatively charged outer surfaces of cells are attracted to dishes coated in PEI, facilitating ... First use of PEI polymer in CO2 capture was devoted to improve the CO2 removal in space craft applications, impregnated over a ... It could universally reduce the work function of metals, metal oxides, conducting polymers and graphene, and so on. It is very ... Polyethylenimine (PEI) or polyaziridine is a polymer with repeating unit composed of the amine group and two carbon aliphatic ...
Rooney, J.M. (1983). "Cationic polymerization of 3,4-dimethoxystyrene by trityl hexachloroantimonate". Polymer bulletin. 10 (9- ...
Rudolf Faust, et al., "Silyl-functional living cationic polymers", US Patent 6,051,657 (2000). ...
There are also anionic synthetic polymers and cationic polymers. Can lower fluid loss rates from 500ml/30min to 20ml/30min. ... There are also anionic synthetic polymers and cationic polymers. The addition of materials that can physically bridge fractured ... Emulsion polymers are supplied as suspensions of polymer particles. They contain about 50% solids. Such particles can ... Organic proteins (polypeptides). Not used above temperatures of 93 °C. Non-ionic synthetic polymers Can lower fluid loss rates ...
"Toxicity of cationic lipids and cationic polymers in gene delivery". Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the ...
"Ionic Polymerization: Anionic and Cationic Polymerization" (PDF). Polymer Research Center, National Chiao Tung University. ... Their discovery, characterization, and properties". Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 36 (1): IX-XV. doi: ... For cationic polymerization, titanium-, boron-, aluminum-, and tin-halide complexes with water, alcohols, or oxonium salts are ... It can be considered as an alternative to radical polymerization, and may refer to anionic polymerization or cationic ...
"Cationic copolymerization of cyclic carbonate and epoxide via intermediate spiro orthocarbonate". Journal of Polymer Science ... Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 47 (14): 3680-3690. doi:10.1002/pola.23379. Acosta Ortiz, Ricardo; Duarte ... The quality of thermosets (crosslinked polymers) is determined by a numerous factors such as the purity of the used monomer, ... A minor role is playing furthermore the entropy change while polymerization and the package density, as the polymer is more ...
It is a high charge density cationic polymer. The charge density makes it well suited for flocculation. PolyDADMAC polymers ... It was remarkable as it was soluble in water in contrast at the time to other known synthetic polymers formed by polymerization ... At high concentrations the organic polymer can remove natural organic matter such as humic and fulvic acids resulting in fewer ...
US patent 4001032, "Method of Making Nongelling Aqueous Cationic Dialdehyde Starch Compositions" ... Carbohydrate Polymers. 79 (2): 296. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.08.005. ...
The polymers tend to be linear and not branched and have much higher molar mass. Coordination type polymers are also ... The active site is usually anionic but cationic coordination polymerization also exists. In many applications Ziegler-Natta ... Coordination polymerization has a great impact on the physical properties of vinyl polymers such as polyethylene and ... I. (2002). "Palladium catalysed copolymerisation of ethene with alkylacrylates: polar comonomer built into the linear polymer ...
Mori Y, Hirano T, Notomi T (2006). "Sequence specific visual detection of LAMP reactions by addition of cationic polymers". BMC ...
Soc., 1996 Award for Distinguished Service to Polymer Science, Society of Polymer Science, Japan, 2000 Charles Goodyear Medal, ... Kennedy, Joseph P. (1999). "Living Cationic Polymerization of Olefins. How Did the Discovery Come About?" (PDF). J. POLYM. SCI ... where he helped to develop the College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering. Döbereiner Medaille, F. Schiller Universität ... Joseph P. Kennedy is a Distinguished Professor of Polymer Science and Chemistry at the University of Akron, noted particularly ...
The mechanism of molecular termination by aromatic compounds in cationic polymerization of styrene". Journal of Polymer Science ... Branched polymers are formed as monomer adds to the new radical site which is located along the polymer backbone. The ... Transfer to polymer. Chain transfer may take place with an already existing polymer chain, especially under conditions in which ... proved the sulfur from a mercaptan modifier did indeed become incorporated into a polymer chain under the conditions of bulk or ...
Cationic polymers are among the main functional components of hair gel. The positive charges in the polymers causes them to ... because the stretched-out polymer takes up more space than a coiled polymer and thus resists the flow of solvent molecules ... More complicated polymer formulas exist; i.e., a copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone, methacrylamide, and N-vinylimidazole.[citation ...
... and configuration of the polymers precisely. Cyclic carbonates undergo both cationic polymerization and anionic polymerization ... Cationic ring-opening polymerization (CROP) is characterized by having a cationic initiator and intermediate. Examples of ... Thus, AROP often results in low molecular-weight polymers. A possible method to increase the molecular mass of the polymer ... Conix, André; Smets, G. (January 1955). "Ring opening in lactam polymers". Journal of Polymer Science. 15 (79): 221-229. ...
Cationic surfactants adhere well to natural fibers (wool, cotton), but less so to synthetic fibers. Cationic softeners are ... Another approach is a polymeric network, an emulsion polymer. In addition to fabric softening chemicals, fabric softeners may ... These are often used together with the conventional cationic softeners. Cationic softeners are incompatible with anionic ... Cationic softeners bind by electrostatic attraction to the negatively charged groups on the surface of the fibers and ...
Hold conditioners, based on cationic polyelectrolyte polymers, hold the hair in a desired shape. These have a function and ... Usually polymers, usually silicones, e.g., dimethicone or cyclomethicone. Oils (EFAs - essential fatty acids), which can help ... Detanglers, which modify the hair surface by pH as acidifiers, or by coating it with polymers, as glossers. Thermal protectors ... Their role is supposedly to penetrate the hair and strengthen its structure through polymer crosslinking. Acidifiers, acidity ...
It is water-soluble, forms gels when cross linked, and acts as a cationic polyelectrolyte. It can be used for ion exchange ... PolyAPTAC, or poly (acrylamido-N-propyltrimethylammonium chloride), is an organic polymer. ...
Another method is the use of cationic polymers such as DEAE-dextran or polyethylenimine (PEI). The negatively charged DNA binds ... Lipofection generally uses a positively charged (cationic) lipid (cationic liposomes or mixtures) to form an aggregate with the ... Chemical-based transfection can be divided into several kinds: cyclodextrin, polymers, liposomes, or nanoparticles (with or ... This transfection technology performs the same tasks as other biochemical procedures utilizing polymers, DEAE-dextran, calcium ...
Delivery is usually done by cationic liposomes, polymer nanoparticles, and lipid conjugation. This method is advantageous ...
The retention agent is a polymer with high cationic, positively charged groups. An additional feature of a retention agent is ... By adding cationic (positive charged) starch, the fibre can bind with the starch and thus also increase the interconnections ... To enhance the paper's strength, cationic starch is added to wet pulp in the manufacturing process. Starch has a similar ... Co-binders, or thickeners, are generally water-soluble polymers that influence the paper's color viscosity, water retention, ...
Tipco manufactures cationic asphalt emulsion, cutback asphalt and polymer modified asphalt cement. DIRECTORY OF LEADING ...
Polymers[edit]. 2-Oxazolines, such as 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline, can undergo living cationic ring-opening polymerisation to form poly ... Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry. 40 (2): 192-209. Bibcode:2002JPoSA..40..192K. doi:10.1002/pola.10090.. ... Hoogenboom, Richard (12 October 2009). "Poly(2-oxazoline)s: A Polymer Class with Numerous Potential Applications". Angewandte ... as protecting groups for carboxylic acids and increasingly as monomers for the production of polymers. ...
1. High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional cationic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange ... cationic. cationic detergent. cationic detergents. cationic protein. cationically. cationised ferritin. cationization. ...
The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal ... On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid ... Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by ... With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight ...
BACKGROUND: Following our recent synthesis and characterization of three new families of cationic amphiphilic polymers with ... These amphiphilic polymers are comb poly(meth)acrylamides laterally substituted by groups containing a quaternary ammonium site ... Keywords: amphiphilic polymers; fluorescence spectroscopy; molecular rotor; pyrene; viscometry Document Type: Research Article ... RESULTS: Viscometry first showed that these polymers display typical polysoap behaviour in hydro‐alcoholic mixtures. ...
Cationic Polysaccharides in Regenerative Medicine: Challenges and Perspectives. Stefan Spirk and Tamilselvan Mohan ... After an introduction to polysaccharides in general and cationic polysaccharides in particular, a short overview on different ...
... we examine the synthesis and characterization of polymer micelle using polymerizable cationic gemini surfactant (surfmer). In ... this work, polymerizable cationic gemini surfmer, (CH2)2 [BrN(CH3)2C11H22OCOC(CH3)CH2]2 (GSM) was newly synthesized and ... Nano-Sized Polymer Micelle Synthesized from Cationic Gemini Surfmer. T. Ohkubo, T. Koike, K. Tsubone, K. Tsuchiya, H. Sakai and ... polymer micelle, gemini surfactant, surfmer. Abstract:. In this study, we examine the synthesis and characterization of polymer ...
In this article, a synthesis process of 6-N-substituted cationic inulin derivatives, including 6-pyridyl-6-deoxyinulin bromide ... Chen Y, Mi Y, Zhang J, Dong F, Li Q, Ji N, Guo Z. Radical Scavenging Activities of Novel Cationic Inulin Derivatives. Polymers ... Keywords: cationic inulin derivatives; free radicals; radical scavenging activity; amino-pyridine group cationic inulin ... "Radical Scavenging Activities of Novel Cationic Inulin Derivatives." Polymers 10, no. 12: 1295. ...
Cationic photopolymerization is a powerful method for UV-curing of epoxy, vinyl ether and oxetane monomers. Little attention ... Cationic photopolymerization is a powerful method for UV-curing of epoxy, vinyl ether and oxetane monomers. Little attention ... Novel photoacid generators for cationic photopolymerization N. Klikovits, P. Knaack, D. Bomze, I. Krossing and R. Liska, Polym ... studies with common onium salt PAGs showed the advantageous reactivity of the novel alkoxyaluminate-based cationic ...
US 6,737,049 B1: BASF AG, Ludwigshafen, Germany, patented a process to obtain a cationic polymer through free-radical ... US 6,737,049 B1: BASF AG, Ludwigshafen, Germany, patented a process to obtain a cationic polymer through free-radical ...
Recently, I was doing some research on a few newer cationic polymers (of the INCI : polyquaternium-xx family), when I ran into ... The INCI designation for this polymer is Polyquaternium-68 (PQ-68). The polymer nerd in me was intrigued by the complex ... However, I would like to see the polymer used in a gel product, as that is a styling product that seems to be preferred by many ... Some of you may know that my main passion in the world of chemistry and materials is for polymers. I frequently peruse the ...
Cationic polymers differ from cationic lipids in that they do not contain a hydrophobic moiety and are completely soluble in ... Cationic polymers differ from cationic lipids in that they do not contain a hydrophobic moiety and are completely soluble in ... Other cationic polymers used for gene delivery include cationic peptides and their derivatives (e.g., polylysine, polyornithine ... Nucleic acid-cationic polymer complexes are formed via electrostatic interactions between the polymer and phosphate backbone of ...
Cationic polymers differ from cationic lipids in that they do not contain a hydrophobic moiety and are completely soluble in ... Step 1 : Mix nucleic acid with cationic polymer Mix nucleic acid with cationic polymer solution in transfection medium or ... Cationic polymers differ from cationic lipids in that they do not contain a hydrophobic moiety and are completely soluble in ... Other cationic polymers used for gene delivery include cationic peptides and their derivatives (e.g., polylysine, polyornithine ...
Abbreviations: PNA, peptide nucleic acid; CCP, cationic conjugated polymers; PFBT, poly[9,9′-bis(6′′-N,N,N-trimethylammonium) ... Polymer loading (for hybridized DNA without a dye modification). The polymer was applied (0.5 μl, 5 × 10-7 M in repeat units) ... One successful DNA-sensing method involves the use of labeled peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and cationic conjugated polymers ( ... Methods for strand-specific DNA detection with cationic conjugated polymers suitable for incorporation into DNA chips and ...
Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 2017, 55, 22, 3697. Wiley Online Library ... Cationic polymerization of isobutylene at room temperature. Authors. *. Sergei V. Kostjuk,. *Research Institute for Physical ... Next article in issue: Post-functionalization of a ROMP polymer backbone via radical thiol-ene coupling chemistry Next article ... Xiao-jian Yang, An-ru Guo, Hui-chao Xu, Yi-xian Wu, Direct synthesis of highly reactive polyisobutylenes via cationic ...
Low molecular weight cationic polymer based on EpiDMA. ... High Molecular Weight Cationic Acrylamide Co-Polymer Flocculant ... Advanced EpiDMA polymer cationic coagulant emulsion for wastewater & effluent treatment applications. ... Accepta 4350 comprises a linear low molecular weight cationic polymer, an aqueous solution of a polyquaternary ammonium ... based cationic coagulant emulsion polymer (50% Active) scientifically formulated for use in a range of wastewater and effluent ...
The cationic polymers ability to compete with positively charged Al- and Fe-hydrolysis products was argued as the explanation ... Since all Al and Fe added as coagulants end up in sludge, the potential to substitute them with cationic coagulants was studied ... Coagulation Mechanisms during the Substitution of Inorganic Salts with Cationic Polymers to Increase the Sludge Value () ... Coagulation Mechanisms during the Substitution of Inorganic Salts with Cationic Polymers to Increase the Sludge Value. Journal ...
However, most of the gelled systems are based on anionic polymers that are difficult to clean up after the acid treatments. ... A Novel Cationic Polymer System That Improves Acid Diversion in Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoirs ... A New Cationic Polymer System That Improves Acid Diversion in Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoirs ... This work evaluates a new cationic-polymer acid system with self-breaking ability for application as an acid diverter in ...
Abstract: S33.00008 : Structure and Properties of a Semi-crystalline Cationic Polymer for Anion Exchange Membranes. 12:39 PM-12 ... Session S33: Ion Containing Polymer Membranes. 11:15 AM-2:15 PM, Thursday, March 17, 2016. Room: 336. Sponsoring Unit: DPOLY. ... The resulting polymer shows some characteristics that are similar to those of Nafion. In this presentation, the synthesis, ... The ether linkages between the charged species and backbone are also utilized to place the cationic species (trimethylamine) in ...
"Well-defined Polymer Structures Based on Living Cationic Polymerisations." In IBCAST Book of Abstracts of the 2nd International ... "Well-defined Polymer Structures Based on Living Cationic Polymerisations." IBCAST Book of Abstracts of the 2nd International ... Well-defined polymer structures based on living cationic polymerisations. Eric Goethals (UGent) ... Goethals, E. (2003). Well-defined polymer structures based on living cationic polymerisations. IBCAST Book of abstracts of the ...
Cellular Uptake of Cationic Polymer-DNA Complexes Via Caveolae Plays a Pivotal Role in Gene Transfection in COS-7 Cells. ... Polyplexes are non-viral gene delivery systems based on cationic polymers that are able to condense the DNA into small ... Some controversy about cellular uptake and gene delivery of cationic polymers remains. Kichler et al. showed that incubation of ... In this study we compared two established cationic polymers pDMAEMA and PEI with regard to their transfection efficiency and ...
... ... A novel cationic nanodiamond-polymer brush was synthesized by 2-bromoisobutyrate-modified nanodiamond (ND) surface-initiated ... TGA and zeta potential analysis were used to confirm the successful synthesis of ND-polymer brushes. It was shown that the ND- ... making the nanodiamond-polymer brushes an excellent multifunctional gene vector with not only high transfection efficiency but ...
Paper of the month: Ab initio RAFT emulsion polymerization mediated by small cationic RAFT agents to form polymers with low ... employ small cationic RAFT agents to produce low dispersity polymers in ab initio emulsion polymerization. ... Ab initio RAFT emulsion polymerization mediated by small cationic RAFT agents to form polymers with low molar mass dispersity, ... Athina Anastasaki is an Editorial Board Member and a Web Writer for Polymer Chemistry. Since January 2019, she joined the ...
... whichever kind of cationic emulsifier is used in making the cationic polymer dispersions, for the purposes of this invention, ... cationic filnpforming polymers, which dispersion is stabilized and maintained solely by a cationic ammonium stabilizer of the ... vinyl chloride polymers, and vinylidene chloride polymers. Aqueous dispersions or latexes of film-forming polymers are usually ... styrene polymers, lower alkyl acrylate polymers, lower alkyl methacrylate polymers, styrene-butadiene copolymers, lower alkyl ...
"The development of cationic polymers for non-viral gene delivery system." PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) thesis, University of Iowa ... Another aspect to take into account is the degree of positive charge of the polymer. We tested a new polymer called poly( ... Another aspect to take into account is the degree of positive charge of the polymer. We tested a new polymer called poly( ... By mixing 1) DNA with 2) positively charged polymers, "polyplexes" form which protect DNA from degradation and increase ...
The high charge density and cationic oligo(ethylene oxide) side chains endue the polymer with a good water solubility (∼12 mg/ ... Pu, K.-Y., Liu, B. (2008-09-23). A multicolor cationic conjugated polymer for naked-eye detection and quantification of heparin ... A multicolor cationic conjugated polymer for naked-eye detection and quantification of heparin. ... This study hence reports a general approach to construct convenient multicolor biosensors using cationic conjugated polymers ...
Quaternary ammonium cationic polymer as a superior bifunctional binder for lithium - sulfur batteries and effects of counter ... Quaternary ammonium cationic polymer as a superior bifunctional binder for lithium - sulfur batteries and effects of counter ... Quaternary ammonium cationic polymer as a superior bifunctional binder for lithium - sulfur batteries and effects of counter ... Liao, Junbin and Ye, Zhibin (2017) Quaternary ammonium cationic polymer as a superior bifunctional binder for lithium - sulfur ...
  • However, the higher toxicity of larger MW polymers can be reduced by biodegradable cross-linking of small polymers into larger polymeric structures. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cationic micelles self-assembled from a biodegradable amphiphilic copolymer, poly{( N-methyldietheneamine sebacate)- co-[(cholesteryl oxocarbonylamido ethyl) methyl bis(ethylene) ammonium bromide] sebacate} (P(MDS- co-CES)) have recently been reported for efficient gene delivery and co-delivery of drug and nucleic acid. (naver.com)
  • This volume incorporates 13 contributions from renowned experts from the relevant research fields that are related biodegradable and biobased polymers and their environmental and biomedical applications. (wiley.com)
  • 2. A modulated release composition of claim 1 wherein said biodegradable and biocompatible polymer is selected from the group consisting of poly(lactide)s, poly(glycolide)s, poly(lactide-co-glycolide)s polyanhydrides, polyorthoesters, polyetheresters, polycaprolactone, polyesteramides, blends and copolymers thereof. (google.com.au)
  • CARMEN SCHOLZ, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, where her research concentrates on the synthesis and characterization of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The effect of polycationic polymers of polyacrylate guanidine (PAG) and polymethacrylate guanidine (PMAG) on bilirubin absorbance were studied in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). (elsevier.com)
  • Guo, Z. Radical Scavenging Activities of Novel Cationic Inulin Derivatives. (mdpi.com)
  • A novel cationic nanodiamond-polymer brush was synthesized by 2-bromoisobutyrate-modified nanodiamond (ND) surface-initiated atomic transfer radical polymerization of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, the utility of poly[9,9′-bis(6′′- N,N,N -trimethylammonium)-hexyl)fluorene- co -alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) dibromide] has been demonstrated in homogenous and solid-state assays that involve fluorescence resonance energy transfer to a reporter dye (Cy5) and that can benefit from the light harvesting properties observed in water-soluble conjugated polymers. (pnas.org)
  • The emission intensities of acceptor chromophores on hybridization probes are magnified, relative to direct excitation, when the absorption coefficient of the polymer is large and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the polymer to the acceptor is efficient ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Japan Conditioning Polymers Industry Market Research Report 2017 is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Conditioning Polymers industry. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Cationic photopolymerization is a powerful method for UV-curing of epoxy, vinyl ether and oxetane monomers. (rsc.org)
  • It was shown that the change in absorbance spectra of bilirubin in the presence of PAG/PMAG can be associated with the formation of a bilirubin-polymer complex and dissociation of tetramers on bilirubin monomers. (elsevier.com)
  • This work demonstrates a versatile and environmentally friendly route for the development of new orthogonal monomers that can be used for postfunctionalizable polymer networks. (diva-portal.org)
  • The work presented in this thesis has focused on the utilization of catalysis, mainly enzymatic, and photopolymerization in order to create efficient synthesis of polymeric networks from bio-based monomers.Polyesters from bio-based monomers have been polymerized in bulk and thereafter crosslinked by UV initiation to yield polymer networks with tunable properties. (diva-portal.org)
  • Electrostatic forces cause the oppositely charged cationic conjugated polymer to bind selectively to the "complementary" surfaces. (pnas.org)
  • ResultsUsing surface-bound peptide nucleic acids PNA probes and soluble fluorescent cationic polythiophenes, we show a simple and sensitive electrostatic approach to detect and identify unlabelled target nucleic acid on microarray. (duhnnae.com)
  • The analysis of the adsorption isotherms confirms the possibility of electrostatic interactions of bilirubin molecules with guanidine polymers incorporated inside silica matrix. (elsevier.com)
  • Sara Azizzadeh, Valiollah Nobakht, Lucia Carlucci, Davide M. Proserpio Anion-directed assembly of three cationic silver(I) coordination polymers with bis(imidazolyl)-based linker: Structural characterization and anion exchange study. (sctms.ru)
  • This invention relates to polymeric combinations and more particularly to combinations of glycosaminoglycan and cationic polymer and to processes for managing keratinous material and modifying glycosaminoglycan properties using such combinations. (justia.com)
  • The present invention also relates to a method for modulating the release of a biologically active agent from a biocompatible polymeric matrix, comprising the steps of dissolving a biocompatible polymer in a solvent to form a polymer solution and also separately dispersing a metal cation component and a biologically active agent within the polymer solution. (google.com.au)
  • The polymer solution is then solidified to form a polymeric matrix, wherein at least a significant portion of the metal cation component is dispersed in the polymeric matrix separately from the biologically active protein, and whereby the metal cation component modulates the release of the biologically active agent from the polymeric matrix. (google.com.au)
  • b) condensing said precondensates by acid catalysis with an acid to achieve cross-linking of said polymer about said material, thereby to form said polymeric shells. (google.co.uk)
  • We have studied a new method for the sequence-specific visual detection of minute amounts of nucleic acids using precipitation reaction by addition of cationic polymers to amplicons of Loop mediated isothermal Amplification (LAMP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanical stability and coating characteristics of structurally cation-active, film-forming latex, especially useful in electrodeposition coatings can be improved by the addition of small stabilizing amounts of linear cationic amine-modified epoxy resin having tertiary amine functionality and base number. (google.com.au)
  • 3. The composition according to claim 1 wherein the cationic resin adduct is a dispersion of the reaction product of a diamine reacted in part with a multifunctional epoxy terminated polyether and in part with an C 4-20 alkyl monoepoxide. (google.com.au)
  • an anionic colorimetric indicator component electrostatically coupled to said cationic ion exchange resin material. (google.ca)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the water soluble polymer contains alcohol, amine, amide, acid, or acid derivative groups. (google.co.uk)
  • 6. The method of claim 5 wherein the water soluble polymer is anionic. (google.co.uk)
  • 9. The method of claim 1 wherein the material to be encapsulated comprises minute droplets of a water-immiscible liquid and said water soluble polymer is dispersion stabilizing on its own. (google.co.uk)
  • 10. The method of claim 9 wherein the water soluble polymer is dispersion stabilizing in the presence of at least one of said precondensates. (google.co.uk)
  • 11. The method of claim 1 wherein said urea-formaldehyde precondensate, said melamine formaldehyde precondensate and said water-soluble polymer are all present in said aqueous medium before addition of the finely divided material to be encapsulated to form said dispersion, and wherein the acid catalyst utilized to achieve condensation of the precondensate is added after formation of said dispersion. (google.co.uk)
  • 12. The method of claim 1 wherein only said urea-formaldehyde precondensate and said water soluble polymer are present in said aqueous medium before addition of the finely divided material to be encapsulated, and wherein said melamine formaldehyde precondensate is added subsequently to said material to form said dispersion. (google.co.uk)