Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Cetrimonium Compounds: Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.Eosinophil Cationic Protein: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Myristates: Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectProtamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Paromomycin: An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Mice, Inbred C57BLCarrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.TriglyceridesAdjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Mice, Inbred BALB CLight: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Polymyxin B: A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin: A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.PolyaminesAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Lv, Hongtao; Zhang, Shubiao; Wang, Bing; Cui, Shaohui; Yan, Jie (2006-08-10). "Toxicity of cationic lipids and cationic ...
Delivery is usually done by cationic liposomes, polymer nanoparticles, and lipid conjugation. This method is advantageous ... The three main groups of siRNA nanovectors are: lipid based, non-lipid organic-based, and inorganic. Lipid based nanovectors ... siRNA delivered via lipid based nanoparticles is able to cross the BBB completely. A huge difficulty in siRNA delivery is the ... siRNAs delivered via lipid based nanoparticles have been shown to have therapeutic potential for central nervous system (CNS) ...
... 's cationic lipid molecules are formulated with a neutral co-lipid (helper lipid). The DNA-containing liposomes ( ... Lipofectamine reagent contains lipid subunits that can form liposomes in an aqueous environment, which entrap the transfection ... Lipofectamine is a cationic liposome formulation, which complexes with negatively charged nucleic acid molecules to allow them ... due to the neutral co-lipid mediating fusion of the liposome with the cell membrane, allowing nucleic acid to cross into the ...
Lipofection generally uses a positively charged (cationic) lipid (cationic liposomes or mixtures) to form an aggregate with the ... by cell squeezing or by mixing a cationic lipid with the material to produce liposomes which fuse with the cell membrane and ... "Enhanced gene delivery and mechanism studies with a novel series of cationic lipid formulations". The Journal of Biological ... Another method is the use of cationic polymers such as DEAE-dextran or polyethylenimine (PEI). The negatively charged DNA binds ...
... therefore those lipids are called fusogenic lipids. Although cationic liposomes have been widely used as an alternative for ... they are complicated and time consuming to produce so attention was turned to the cationic versions. Cationic lipids, due to ... Later it was found that the use of cationic lipids significantly enhanced the stability of lipoplexes. Also as a result of ... It was also found that although cationic lipids themselves could condense and encapsulate DNA into liposomes, the transfection ...
... and eosinophil cationic protein are toxic to many tissues. Eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin are ... lipid mediators like the eicosanoids from the leukotriene (e.g., LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) and prostaglandin (e.g., PGE2) families. ... Eosinophil cationic protein creates toxic pores in the membranes of target cells allowing potential entry of other cytotoxic ... Morgan R, Costello R, Durcan N, Kingham P, Gleich G, McLean W, Walsh M (2005). "Diverse effects of eosinophil cationic granule ...
Vical's proprietary cationic lipid adjuvant. Vical is concluding Phase I clinical trials, while reporting data showing the ...
"Intracellular Distribution and Mechanism of Delivery of Oligonucleotides Mediated by Cationic Lipids". Pharmaceutical Research ... In the absence of linker, the cationic peptide can interact more efficient with the target cell and cellular uptake occurs ... In one study, TAT-fused proteins are rapidly internalized by lipid raft−dependent macropinocytosis using a transducible TAT−Cre ... the roles of cholesterol and anionic lipids". Soft Matter. 12 (32): 6716-6727. doi:10.1039/C5SM01696G. ISSN 1744-6848. PMID ...
Zwitterionic (amphoteric) surfactants have both cationic and anionic centers attached to the same molecule. The cationic part ... "The Lipid Chronicles. 11 November 2011. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2012.. ... Cationic head groups[edit]. pH-dependent primary, secondary, or tertiary amines; primary and secondary amines become positively ... Other types of aggregates can also be formed, such as spherical or cylindrical micelles or lipid bilayers. The shape of the ...
Since these oxidized lipids are expensive and only available in small quantities a surface tension device requiring only a ... complexes were correlated with high-throughput surface tension device to predict phospholipidosis in particular cationic drugs ... The physicochemical properties of oxidized lipids were characterized using a high throughput device. ...
Calculated spatial positions of peptides in the lipid bilayer Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides at the US National Library of ... increased number of Lipid A acyl tails by adding myristate to Lipid A with 2-hydroxymyristate and forming hepta-acylated Lipid ... In contrast, the outer part of the membranes of plants and mammals is mainly composed of lipids without any net charges since ... Alterations occur in Lipid A. Salmonella species reduce the fluidity of their outer membrane by increasing hydrophobic ...
Evidence for a Tertiary Cyclopropylcarbinyl Cationic Intermediate in the Rearrangement of Presqualene Diphosphate to Squalene ... Lipid Res. 21 (5): 505-517. PMID 6995544. Olson, Robert E. (1967-01-01). Robert S. Harris, Ira G. Wool, John A. Loraine, G. F. ... Lipid Res. 47 (9): 1950-8. doi:10.1194/jlr.M600224-JLR200. PMID 16741291. Davidson MH (January 2007). "Squalene synthase ...
Non-viral methods involve complexing therapeutic DNA to various macromolecules including cationic lipids and liposomes, ... FuGene 6 and modified cationic liposomes are two non-viral gene delivery methods that have so far been utilized for gene ... FuGene 6 is a non-liposomal lipid formulation, which has proved to be successful in transfecting a variety of cell lines. ... Liposomes have shown to be an appropriate candidate for gene delivery, where cationic liposomes are made to facilitate the ...
The most effective LNP to be found in vivo contains an ionizable cationic lipid 2,2-dilinoleyl-4-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-[1,3]- ... These four major types of nanoparticles are all nonionic lipids. Nonionic lipids are safe, nontoxic and biocompatible. ... Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are being considered for delivering siRNA to silence AR. ... Lipoplexes are liposome structures characterized by a bilayer lipid membrane. Lastly, micelles result from electrostatic ...
Synthesis: Synthesized water-soluble and insoluble lipopolymers, soluble steroidal peptides, cationic lipids, and conjugated ... Lipopolymers and Cationic Lipids (iv) Construction of Plasmid and Adenovirus-based Gene and shRNA Expression Systems. These ... Design of Gene Delivery Systems: Developed polymer, lipid, lipopolymer and peptide-based systems to deliver and transfect ... Lyophilization: Lyophilized anticancer drugs and lipid/plasmid complexes. Intracellular Trafficking: Investigated the mechanism ...
Intracellular distribution and mechanism of delivery of oligonucleotides mediated by cationic lipids. Pharm. Res. 13: 1367-1372 ... This feature requires the orientation of cationic -hydrophilic on one side, and hydrophobic residues on the other side of the ... In the absence of linker, the cationic peptide can interact more efficient with the target cell and cellular uptake occurs ... In one study, TAT-fused proteins are rapidly internalized by lipid raft−dependent macropinocytosis using a transducible TAT−Cre ...
... , pronounced like Dye Aye, also known as DiIC18(3), is a fluorescent lipophilic cationic indocarbocyanine dye which is ... as DiI is retained in the lipid bilayers). DiI is manufactured by Invitrogen, which has a series of long-chain lipophilic ... based on their vertical sinking into or floating up with respect to a lipid bilayer driven by electric field which changes ... that relies on an extensive lipid removal by detergent (SDS). FAST DiI (D-3899 oil, D-7756 solid crystals) has diunsaturated ...
Since the lipid cannot be stable for a long time in the chamber environment, lipid A and other hydrophobic molecules may "flip ... Pgp is known to transport organic cationic or neutral compounds. A few ABCC family members, also known as MRP, have also been ... MsbA is a multi-drug resistant (MDR) ABC transporter and possibly a lipid flippase. It is an ATPase that transports lipid A, ... Lipid A is an endotoxin and so loss of MsbA from the cell membrane or mutations that disrupt transport results in the ...
Another type of lipid-nanoparticle that can be used for drug delivery to the brain is a cationic liposome. These are lipid ... SLNs can be made by replacing the liquid lipid oil used in the emulsion process with a solid lipid. In solid lipid ... Also, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are lipid nanoparticles with a solid interior as shown in the diagram on the right. ... Cationic nanoparticles (including cationic liposomes) are of interest for this mechanism, because their positive charges assist ...
The interacts with membranes depends on membrane lipid composition and the cationic nature of the protegrin-1 adapts to the ... The insertion of Protegrin-1 into the lipid layer results in the disordering of lipid packing to the membrane disruption. The ... dimer interaction with lipid bilayers and its effect", BMC Structural Biology, 7: 21, doi:10.1186/1472-6807-7-21, PMC 1858697 ... in lipid bilayers", Molecular Simulation, 9 (10): 799-807, doi:10.1080/08927020701313737 Yasin, B.; Harwig, S.S.; Lehrer, R.I ...
Therefore, OATPs are present in the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, acting as the cell's gatekeepers. OATPs belong to the ... as well as neutral and even cationic compounds. They also transport an extremely diverse range of drug compounds, ranging from ... The most clinically relevant interactions have been associated with the lipid lowering drugs statins, which led to the removal ... anti-cancer, antibiotic, lipid lowering to anti-diabetic drugs, as well as toxins and poisons. Various anti-cancer drugs like ...
Both lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress can cause membrane damage. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress take place as ... The cationic group (pyridinium ring) of the compound probably inhibits the efflux through the membrane. This results in an ... It has been suggested that superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals may be formed and that lipid peroxidation could be ... This process is preceded by the lipid peroxidation. Thereafter, probably a combination of events, such as formation of a ...
... which are predominantly lipids. The lipids ultimately form the lamellar lipid bilayer that surrounds corneocytes and also ... Characterization of a class of cationic proteins that specifically interact with intermediate filaments. Proceedings of the ... J Lipid Res, 48, 2531-2546. Squier, C.A., Cox, P. & Wertz, P.W. (1991) Lipid content and water permeability of skin and oral ... Feingold, K.R. (2007) Thematic review series: skin lipids. The role of epidermal lipids in cutaneous permeability barrier ...
... is a cationic peptide, which is a polycationic protein that is rich in positive residues of the amino acids arginine and ... These features mean that it can interact with the anionic lipids in the bacterial membrane, such as phosphatidylglycerol. It ...
... monophosphoryl lipid A, cholera toxin, cationic and mannan-coated liposomes, QS21, carboxymethyl cellulose and ubenimix). ... Gene gun delivery systems, cationic liposome packaging, and other delivery methods bypass this entry method, but understanding ... This has been demonstrated by coating biodegradable cationic microparticles (such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) formulated with ... Mucosal surface delivery has also been achieved using cationic liposome-DNA preparations, biodegradable microspheres, ...
... s, or cationic steroid antimicrobials (CSAs), are synthetically-produced, small-molecule chemical compounds consisting ... CSAs have a high binding affinity for such membranes (including Lipid A[1]) and are able to rapidly disrupt the target ... Origins of Cell Selectivity of Cationic Steroid Antibiotics J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126(42), 13642 -13648, 2004. ... "Antibacterial properties of cationic steroid antibiotics". FEMS Microbiology Letters. Retrieved 2006-03-24 ...
... Kei Yamaguchi,1 Mari Inoue,1 and Naoki Goshima2 ... Wr-T/cationic lipid reagents mixture-mediated selective delivery of proteins into living MRC-5 cells. ...
Cationic lipids can transfect a broad range of cell lines with high efficiency and deliver DNA of all sizes, as well as RNA and ... see Cationic Lipid-Mediated Transfection).. The advantages of cationic lipid-mediated transfection are the ability to transfect ... newer cationic lipid-based reagents spontaneously form condensed nucleic acid-cationic lipid reagent complexes via ... see Considerations for Cationic Lipid-Mediated Transfection).. Life Technologies™ offers a wide range of cationic lipid- ...
Abstract: R1.00261 : Electrostatics of DNA complexes with cationic lipids. Preview Abstract Abstract ... We discuss also some aspects of 2D DNA condensation and DNA-DNA attraction in DNA-lipid lamellar phase in the presence of di- ... of the linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory for several problems relevant to electrostatics of DNA complexes with cationic lipids. ... We obtain an estimate for the strength of electrostatic interactions of 1D DNA smectic layers across a lipid membrane. ...
... lipid films or pre-formed lipid bilayer fragments. The lipid adsorption on silica in situ over a range of added lipid ... and polydispersity of the silica/lipid nanoparticles. Superior bilayer deposition took place from lipid films, whereas ... silica over a range of experimental conditions for the intervening medium and two different assemblies for the cationic lipid, ... This work aims at optimizing the deposition of cationic bilayers on ...
Fibroin particle-supported cationic lipid layers for highly efficient intracellular protein delivery.. [Woo-Jin Kim, Bong-Soo ... Here, we present an intracellular protein delivery system based on fibroin particles coated with cationic lipid layers, denoted ...
... fluorescence microscopy shows that 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles with cationic surfaces adhere strongly to these lipid ... Synthetic lipid bilayers in a giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) format were used to study potentially harmful interactions ... Deformation and poration of lipid bilayer membranes by cationic nanoparticles S. Li and N. Malmstadt, Soft Matter, 2013, 9, ... Synthetic lipid bilayers in a giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) format were used to study potentially harmful interactions ...
Whilst the polyelectrolyte is embedded within the lipid bilayer in the anionic membrane, it remains close to the surface, ... Results show that despite the preferential interaction of HTMA-PFP with anionic lipids, HTMA-PFP shows affinity for ... and model lipid membranes. The study was carried out using different biophysical techniques, mainly fluorescence spectroscopy ... forming aggregates that are sensitive to the physical state of the lipid bilayer in the zwitterionic system. The different ...
Backgroud Cationic liposomes (CLs) can be used as non-viral vectors in gene transfer and drug delivery. However, the underlying ... Cationic lipid/DNA complexes induce TNF-alpha secretion in splenic macrophages[J]. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2008;69(3):817-23. ... Cationic liposomes induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 via regulation of lipid metabolism based on whole-transcriptome sequencing ... Yang K, Lu Y, Xie F, Zou H, Fan X, Li B, Li W, Zhang W, Mei L, Feng SS, Yin Y, Liu Y, Zhang H, Yin C, Zhong YGao J. Cationic ...
Common molar ratios of DOPE:cationic lipid are 3:1 and 1:1. In some cases, a lipid system composed entirely of cationic lipid ... PREPARATION OF LIPID/DNA MIXTURES. *Combine cationic lipid dispersion with DNA (1µg per 10µg lipid) in a suitable container. ... Lipid-DNA Preparation (Transfection) * Preparation of Cationic Liposomes & Transfection of Cells * Procedure for Preparation of ... Avanti Polar Lipids, Inc.. 700 Industrial Park Drive. Alabaster, Alabama 35007-9105. (205) 663-2494. (800) 227-0651. Contact us ...
The synthetic scheme can be extended to give cationic lipids of different charge, spacer, or lipid chain length. The chemical ... with DNA give indications of why multivalent cationic lipids possess superior transfection properties. The lipid bears a ... Efficient synthesis and cell-transfection properties of a new multivalent cationic lipid for nonviral gene delivery.. [Kai ... This paper describes the efficient and facile synthesis and the characterization of a new multivalent cationic lipid with a ...
... Q.B. Xu, M. Wang. Tufts ... Here we present a combinatorial approach for the creation of cationic lipid-like nanoparticles (termed "lipidoids") to ...
B16-F0 cells were transfected with cationic lipid/pEGFP-N1 and cationic lipid/ß-gal lipoplexes complexed at +/- charge ratios ... A gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature below 37°C, appears to be the crucial property that cationic lipids ... None of the other lipid derivatives, dilauroyl, dimyristoyl, dipalmitoyl and distearoyl were able to fully neutralize the ... have to possess in order to mediate high levels of in vitro transfection activity in the absence of other helper lipids. ...
... ... J.}, title = {Protective role for proteoglycans against cationic lipid cytotoxicity allowing optimal transfection efficiency in ...
In this thesis, we investigate a variety of problems involving the interaction of cationic peptides with lipid membranes. To ... Electrostatic Interactions of Peptides with Lipid Membranes: Competitive Binding between Cationic Peptides and Divalent ... Electrostatic Interactions of Peptides with Lipid Membranes: Competitive Binding between Cationic Peptides and Divalent ... In particular, we study how this interaction is influenced by peptides geometry, valence of salt ions, and lipid demixibility. ...
... and at least one cationic amphiphilic lipid, and its uses in cosmetics or in dermopharmaceuticals. ... comprising an amphiphilic lipid phase containing at least one non-ionic amphiphilic lipid which is liquid at an ambient ... Nanoemulsions comprising an amphiphilic lipid phase composed of phospholipids, of a cationic lipid, of water and of a ... and at least one cationic amphiphilic lipid, the ratio by weight of the amount of oil to the amount of said amphiphilic lipid ...
Cationic lipid-mediated delivery and expression of prepro-neuropeptide Y cDNA after intraventricular administration in rat: ... These findings suggest a potential for cationic lipid mediated gene transfer in the brain as an experimental tool and as a ...
DNA undergo a significant loss of rotational strength in the signal near 275 nm upon interaction with either the cationic lipid ... The structure of DNA within cationic lipid/DNA complexes.. @article{Braun2003TheSO, title={The structure of DNA within cationic ... Conformational transition of DNA induced by cationic lipid vesicle in acidic solution: spectroscopy investigation.. *Zheling ... Cationic cholesterol derivative efficiently delivers the genes: in silico and in vitro studies. *Jasmin D Monpara, Divya Velga ...
Discovery of Next-Generation siRNA Delivery Systems Through Rational Design of Novel Cationic Lipids. ... Discovery of Next-Generation siRNA Delivery Systems Through Rational Design of Novel Cationic Lipids. ... Discovery of Next-Generation siRNA Delivery Systems Through Rational Design of Novel Cationic Lipids ... Discovery of Next-Generation siRNA Delivery Systems Through Rational Design of Novel Cationic Lipids ...
... or cationic lipid-pDNA complexes (pDNA:GL67) and related such responses to concomitant indicators of transfection efficiency, ... Transfection efficiency and toxicity following delivery of naked plasmid DNA and cationic lipid-DNA complexes to ovine lung ... or cationic lipid-pDNA complexes (pDNA:GL67) and related such responses to concomitant indicators of transfection efficiency, ...
UK CF Gene Therapy Consortium is currently evaluating long-term repeated delivery of pGM169 complexed with the cationic lipid ... The safety profile of a cationic lipid-mediated cystic fibrosis gene transfer agent following repeated monthly aerosol ... UK CF Gene Therapy Consortium is currently evaluating long-term repeated delivery of pGM169 complexed with the cationic lipid ... Toxicology study assessing efficacy and safety of repeated administration of lipid/DNA complexes to mouse lung.. Alton EW et al ...
High Cationic Charge and Bilayer Interface-Binding Helices in a Regulatory Lipid Glycosyltransferase † , ‡ ...
Lipid topology and electrostatic interactions underpin lytic activity of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides in membranes ... Paterson, D. J., Tassieri, M. , Reboud, J. , Wilson, R. and Cooper, J. M. (2017) Lipid topology and electrostatic interactions ... Linear cationic antimicrobial peptides are a diverse class of molecules that interact with a wide range of cell membranes. Many ... We also show the validity of the proposed model by investigating the activity of two prototypical linear cationic peptides: ...
Natural, Modified, and Synthetic Lipids Fluorescent Lipids & Bioactive Lipids Cationic & Neutral Lipids Lipid Mixture ... and Synthetic Lipids Fluorescent Lipids & Bioactive Lipids Cationic & Neutral Lipids Lipid Mixture ... Some uncommon lipids such as polymerizable lipids, cationic lipids, and neutral lipids are rear to find but critical to some ... Lipids Phospholipids Sphingolipids Steroids and Terpenes Natural, Modified, ...
... Lind, Jesper Stockholm ... 13C-relaxation NMR of the lipids was used to survey the effects of the model peptides on the lipid bilayer.In paper IV and V ... and both were inserted in the lipid bilayer but perturbed the lipid system differently, which may indicate differences in their ... are characterized by high cationic charge, certain distances between small and cationic amino acids, and by amphipathic helices ...
The cationic lipid Genzyme lipid (GL) 67 is the current gold-standard for in vivo lung gene transfer. Here, we assessed, if ... From: Inefficient cationic lipid-mediated siRNA and antisense oligonucleotide transfer to airway epithelial cells in vivo ...
  • abstract = "We examined the effect of cationic lipid-mediated gene transfection of nerve growth factor (NGF) in primary septo-hippocampal cell cultures. (utmb.edu)
  • abstract = "We investigated the ability of cationic liposomes composed of 1,5-dihexadecyl N-arginyl-L-glutamate (Arg-Glu2C16) to carry nucleic acids into neuronal cells. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Microalgae lipids could be a good alternative feedstock for liquid fuel, but complex processing steps with significant energy demands present roadblocks. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, a series of cationic bile salt derivatives (cholamine conjugates) were prepared with one, two, and three alpha-hydroxyl groups on the steroid moiety. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is desired to minimize the known toxicity effects of cationic lipids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer is one of the most promising non-viral gene delivery systems to date due to such characteristics as non-immunogenicity, efficacy, moderate toxicity and simplicity of large scale production and use. (scirp.org)
  • Among all the basic components of the cationic lipid, the type of head group has been made known to have a dominant role in transfection efficiency and toxicity. (scirp.org)
  • Hydrogenation of the acrylamide analogue of βAE-DMRI, the polymerizable precursor of PCL, provided a monomeric lipid derivative (MHL) which was used for direct comparison of corresponding lipoplex stability, toxicity, and transfection activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The new poly(cationic lipid) did not display any significant toxicity to rat hepatocytes or Hep G 2 cells as indicated by an LDH leakage assay. (elsevier.com)
  • Choi JS, Lee EJ, Jang HS et al (2001) New cationic liposomes for gene transfer into mammalian cells with high efficiency and low toxicity. (springer.com)
  • And while the data presented a compelling case for continued development of cationic CT contrast agents, the research team cautioned that the suitability for in vivo applications remains to be determined, adding that toxicity levels and radiation dosage will be the focus of future studies. (innovations-report.com)
  • This new edition is expanded to two separate volumes that contain in-depth discussions of different non-viral approaches, including cationic liposomes and polymers, naked DNA and various physical methods of delivery, as well as a comprehensive coverage of the molecular biological designs of the plasmid DNA for reduced toxicity, prolonged expression and tissue or disease specific genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Increasing the ratio of DOTAP or DC to DNA led to a dose dependent enhancement of transfection efficiency in the presence of high serum concentrations up to a ratio of approximately 128 nmol lipid/μg DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DOTAP (1,2-dioleoyl-3-(trimethyammonium) propane) and an equimolar mixture of DOTAP and cholesterol (DC) were selected as lipids in this study, since they are readily available and have already been extensively characterized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Various formulations of cationic liposomes, such as MHL, MHL-cholesterol (Chol), PCL, PCL-Chol, DOTAP-Chol, and commercially available lipofectamine were generated and examined in this study. (elsevier.com)
  • The luciferase activity of the PCL formulations in Hep G 2 cells were similar to those of the MHL, DOTAP-Chol and lipofectamine formulations, demonstrating that lipid polymerization does not compromise transfection activity. (elsevier.com)
  • The cationic lipid used was dioleoyl(C 18:1 )-trimethyl ammonium propane (DOTAP). (stanford.edu)
  • When compared with 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), a commercially available cationic lipid with a similar structure, the blank liposomes consisting of DOBP showed much more potent antitumor effects than DOTAP in human lung tumor xenografts, following an antitumor mechanism similar to metformin. (naver.com)
  • A cationic lipid emulsion was formulated with soybean oil and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as major components and was used to transfer genes to the epithelial cells of the mouse nasal cavity via intranasal instillation. (elsevier.com)
  • Whilst all cationic LNP (cLNP) formulations promoted high association with cells in vitro, those formulations containing the fusogenic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) in combination with DOTAP or DDA were the most efficient at inducing antigen expression. (strath.ac.uk)
  • 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) was used as a single cationic lipid emulsifier. (elsevier.com)
  • We have observed that the uptake of ovalbumin (OVA) into DC2.4 cells is greatly increased when co-cultured with the cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] (DC-chol). (scirp.org)
  • We recently demonstrated that the cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] (DC-chol), termed as DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes, are served as a potent adjuvant. (scirp.org)
  • The synergistic benefits of cationic surfactants can be attained by maintaining a slightly positive zeta potential for effective flocculation and adding the minimum concentration of surfactant needed for cell disruption. (elsevier.com)
  • ii) a cationic surfactant material. (google.com)
  • 8 . A hair care composition according to claim 1 , wherein the cationic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, stearyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, dicetyldimethyl ammonium chloride, dicocodimethyl ammonium chloride, and mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis showed that these DEGs were mainly related to cholesterol, steroid, lipid biosynthetic and metabolic processes. (springer.com)
  • Five cholesterol-based gemini cationic lipids, which differ in the length of the spacer $[-(CH_2)_n-]$ chain between the head groups, have been synthesized. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Lipid-mediated delivery of DNA into cells holds great promise both for gene therapy and basic research applications. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The UK CF Gene Therapy Consortium is currently evaluating long-term repeated delivery of pGM169 complexed with the cationic lipid GL67A in a large Multidose Trial. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • The most important objective of the present study was to explain why cationic lipid (CL)-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) is better than that of linear DNA in gene therapy, a question that, until now, has remained unanswered. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • With respect to therapeutic compositions for gene therapy, the DNA is provided typically in the form of a plasmid for complexing with the cationic amphiphile. (google.com)
  • These results indicate that DOBP could be used as a versatile and promising cationic lipid for improving the therapeutic index of gene therapy in cancer treatment. (naver.com)
  • T4 safety and expression of a single dose of lipid-mediated CFTR gene therapy to the upper and lower airways of patients with cystic fibrosis. (naver.com)
  • What Role can chemistry play in cationic liposome-based gene therapy research today? (elsevier.com)
  • Multivariate and bioinformatic sequence analyses show that such interface enzymes, in relation to soluble ones of similar fold, are characterized by high cationic charge, certain distances between small and cationic amino acids, and by amphipathic helices. (diva-portal.org)
  • Data from FT-IR spectroscopy show in addition that the stability of the bound β-sheets of (KX)4K depends on the hydrophobicity of the uncharged amino acid X and on the size of the lipid headgroup. (mysciencework.com)
  • We have demonstrated that Arg-Glu2C 16 , as a model cationic amino acid-based lipid, has a high capability as a gene carrier, even for neuronal transfection. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings suggest a potential for cationic lipid mediated gene transfer in the brain as an experimental tool and as a possible future therapeutic principle, but also indicate the need for optimization of delivery strategies in order to achieve functionally relevant expression levels. (diva-portal.org)
  • There are provided also therapeutic compositions prepared typically by contacting a dispersion of one or more cationic amphiphiles with the therapeutic molecules. (google.com)
  • No. 5,747,471, and entitled "Cationic Amphiphiles Containing Steroid Lipophilic Groups for Intracellular Delivery of Therapeutic Molecules", itself a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. (google.com)
  • No. 08/352,479 entitled "Cationic Amphiphiles for Intracellular Delivery of Therapeutic Molecules", as filed on Dec. 9, 1994, now U.S. Pat. (google.com)
  • This study demonstrates that EAE can be inhibited by a single injection of therapeutic cytokine (IL-4, IFN-β, and TGF-β) DNA-cationic liposome complex directly into the central nervous system. (jimmunol.org)
  • Common molar ratios of DOPE:cationic lipid are 3:1 and 1:1. (avantilipids.com)
  • Formulations were composed of DOPE, a cationic lipid and DMG-PEG2000 at 49:49:2 molar ratio or DSPC, Chol, a cationic lipid/ionizable lipid and DMG-PEG2000 at 10:48:40:2 molar ratio. (strath.ac.uk)
  • In the presence of serum, on the other hand, a considerable (about 30-50%) amount of transfection activity was still observed at 10% fetal calf serum in the cationic MLV and SUV composed of TMAG, DOPE and DLPC. (okayama-u.ac.jp)
  • Cationic MLV, composed of TMAG, DOPE and DLPC, can transfect plasmid DNA, not only in the adherent cell lines but also in the suspension cell lines. (okayama-u.ac.jp)
  • 6 . A hair care composition according to claim 1 , wherein the lipid material is selected from the group consisting of cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, cetyl palmitate, glycerol monostearate, and mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • 37 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 36 , wherein the vegetable-base raw materials are selected from the group consisting of vegetable oils, hydrated vegetable oils, vegetable waxes and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • 38 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the vegetable oils are selected from the group consisting of mango seed oil, meadowfoam seed oil, macadamia nut oil, shea butter, jojoba oil and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • 39 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the hydrogenated vegetable oils are selected from the group consisting of hydrogenated cottonseed oil, hydrogenated vegetable oil, hydrogenated castor oil, hydrogenated coco-glycerides, hydrogenated jojoba oil and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • 40 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 37 , wherein the vegetable waxes are selected from the group consisting of canauba, candelilla cera, Rhus succedanea , rice wax, sugar cane wax and mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • Two types of cationic cholesteryl amphiphiles, one where the headgroup is attached to the steroid by an ester linkage and the second by an ether linkage, were synthesized. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • The optimizing ability of cationic liposome-encapsulated nisin that exploit the sustained preventive features of an anti-streptococcal strategy may improve prevention of dental caries. (opendentistryjournal.com)
  • The Lipofectamine 3000 reagent leverages the most advanced lipid nanoparticle technology to enable superior transfection efficiency and reproducible results in a broad spectrum of difficult-to transfect cell types with improved viability. (thermofisher.com)
  • The safety profile of a cationic lipid-mediated cystic fibrosis gene transfer agent following repeated monthly aerosol administration to sheep. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Cationic lipid-mediated CFTR gene transfer to the lungs and nose of patients with cystic fibrosis: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (naver.com)
  • A clinical inflammatory syndrome attributable to aerosolized lipid-DNA administration in cystic fibrosis. (naver.com)
  • Incubate lipid/DNA mixture for 5 min. (avantilipids.com)
  • Incubate cells with lipid/DNA mixture in HEPES-buffered saline (3 ml mixture per 100 mm culture dish) at 37°C for 90 min. (avantilipids.com)
  • 36 . A lipid-bearing preparation for cosmetic uses, comprising an oil phase and a solid phase, wherein the oil phase comprises a mixture of vegetable-base raw materials. (google.ca)
  • 47 . A lipid-bearing preparation as set forth in claim 36 , wherein the vegetable-base raw material comprises a mixture of hydrogenated jojoba oil and meadowfoam seed oil. (google.ca)
  • A Fluorescence Study on the Interactions of Cationic Lipids with Bovine Serum Albumin[J]. Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics , 2004, 17(4): 476-480. (ustc.edu.cn)
  • Interactions of a series of dialkyl cationic lipids linking with bovine serum albumin (BSA) through acetal (linker) have been studied by the fluorescence spectroscopy. (ustc.edu.cn)
  • Each of these synthetic lipids generated vesicle-like aggregates with closed inner aqueous compartments from their aqueous suspensions. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • The images reveal that the LPN is made of three layers: Intact MTs are coated by a lipid bilayer (appears brighter in the images, as the ionic stain avoids the hydrophobic lipid tails), which in turn are coated by tubulin oligomers forming rings or spirals. (stanford.edu)