Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Amino Acid Transport System y+LAmino Acid Transport System y+Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Antigens, CD98 Light Chains: A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1: A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3: A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 4: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in cerebellar PURKINJE CELLS on postsynaptic DENDRITIC SPINES.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids, DiaminoCations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 5: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in the RETINA.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cystinuria: An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Cysteamine: A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Cystinosis: A metabolic disease characterized by the defective transport of CYSTINE across the lysosomal membrane due to mutation of a membrane protein cystinosin. This results in cystine accumulation and crystallization in the cells causing widespread tissue damage. In the KIDNEY, nephropathic cystinosis is a common cause of RENAL FANCONI SYNDROME.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Renal Aminoacidurias: A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Putrescine: A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hartnup Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Nucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PolyaminesBiogenic Polyamines: Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.Amino Acid Transport Disorders, Inborn: Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Cytokine treatment increases arginine metabolism and uptake in bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. (1/44)

L-Arginine (L-Arg) is metabolized to nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase (NOS) or to urea by arginase (AR). L-Arg is transported into bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (BPAECs) by cationic amino acid transporter-2 (CAT-2). We hypothesized that cytokine treatment would increase L-Arg metabolism and increase CAT-2 mRNA expression. BPAECs were incubated for 24 h in medium (control) or medium with lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (L-T). L-T increased nitrite production (3.1 +/- 0.4 nmol/24 h vs. 1.8 +/- 0.1 nmol/24 h for control; P < 0.01) and urea production (83.5 +/- 29.5 nmol/24 h vs. 17.8 +/- 8.6 nmol/24 h for control; P < 0.05). L-T-treated BPAECs had greater endothelial and inducible NOS mRNA expression compared with control cells. Increasing the medium L-Arg concentration resulted in increased nitrite and urea production in both the control and the L-T-treated BPAECs. L-T treatment resulted in measurable CAT-2 mRNA. L-T increased L-[(3)H]Arg uptake (5.78 +/- 0.41 pmol vs. 4.45 +/- 0.10 pmol for control; P < 0.05). In summary, L-T treatment increased L-Arg metabolism to both NO and urea in BPAECs and resulted in increased levels of CAT-2 mRNA. This suggests that induction of NOS and/or AR is linked to induction of CAT-2 in BPAECs and may represent a mechanism for maintaining L-Arg availability to NOS and/or AR.  (+info)

Two-way arginine transport in human endothelial cells: TNF-alpha stimulation is restricted to system y(+). (2/44)

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells transport arginine through two Na(+)-independent systems. System y(+)L is insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), inhibited by L-leucine in the presence of Na(+), and referable to the expression of SLC7A6/y(+)LAT2, SLC7A7/y(+)LAT1, and SLC3A2/4F2hc. System y(+) is referable to the expression of SLC7A1/CAT1 and SLC7A2/CAT2B. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide induce a transient stimulation of arginine influx and efflux through system y(+). Increased expression of SLC7A2/CAT2B is detectable from 3 h of treatment, while SLC7A1 expression is inhibited at later times of incubation. System y(+)L activity and expression remain unaltered. Nitric oxide synthase type 2 mRNA is not detected in the absence or presence of TNF-alpha, while the latter condition lowers nitric oxide synthase type 3 expression at the mRNA and the protein level. Nitrite accumulation is comparable in cytokine-treated and control cells up to 48 h of treatment. It is concluded that modulation of endothelial arginine transport by TNF-alpha or lipopolysaccharide occurs exclusively through changes in CAT2B and CAT1 expression and is dissociated from stimulation of nitric oxide production.  (+info)

Garlic attenuates nitric oxide production in rat cardiac myocytes through inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the arginine transporter CAT-2 (cationic amino acid transporter-2). (3/44)

It is now accepted that allicin, the main biologically active compound in garlic, exhibits antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant activity of garlic can be partially attributed to the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by cytokine-induced NO synthase (iNOS). Cardiac myocytes cultured from neonatal Wistar rats were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated for 24 h with various concentrations of allicin. This resulted in marked inhibition of nitrite production. Interestingly, a low concentration of allicin (10 microM) was significantly more potent in abrogating the effect of LPS on nitrite production than a higher concentration (40 microM). Allicin decreased steady-state iNOS mRNA levels, and this effect was maximal when a lower concentration was used (10 microM compared with 40 microM). In order to explore additional effects of allicin on NO generation that might counteract the effect on iNOS, we assessed the effects of higher allicin concentrations on arginine transport. Allicin inhibited the uptake of 1 mM extracellular arginine in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of the two arginine transporters that are expressed in cardiac myocytes [CAT-1 (cationic amino acid transporter-1) and CAT-2] was studied using reverse transcription-PCR. A concentration of 200 microM allicin abolished the expression of CAT-2 mRNA, 100 microM significantly attenuated it, whereas 50 microM had no effect. Allicin had no effect on steady-state CAT-1 mRNA levels. Our results suggest that allicin inhibits iNOS activity through two different mechanisms: at lower concentrations it decreases iNOS mRNA levels, whereas at higher concentrations it inhibits arginine transport through down-regulation of CAT-2 mRNA.  (+info)

Intrauterine growth retardation is associated with reduced activity and expression of the cationic amino acid transport systems y+/hCAT-1 and y+/hCAT-2B and lower activity of nitric oxide synthase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (4/44)

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with vascular complications leading to hypoxia and abnormal fetal development. The effect of IUGR on L-arginine transport and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was investigated in cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). IUGR was associated with membrane depolarization and reduced L-arginine transport (V(max)= 5.8+/-0.2 versus 3.3+/-0.1 pmol/microg protein per minute), with no significant changes in transport affinity (K(m)=159+/-15 versus 137+/-14 micromol/L). L-Arginine transport was trans-stimulated (8- to 9-fold) in cells from normal and IUGR pregnancies. IUGR was associated with reduced production of L-[3H]citrulline from L-[3H] arginine, lower nitrite and intracellular L-arginine, L-citrulline, and cGMP. IUGR decreased hCAT-1 and hCAT-2B mRNA, and increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels. IUGR-associated inhibition of L-arginine transport and NO synthesis, and membrane depolarization were reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-L,D-penicillamine. In summary, endothelium from fetuses with IUGR exhibit altered L-arginine transport and NO synthesis (L-arginine/NO pathway), reduced expression and activity of hCAT-1 and hCAT-2B and reduced eNOS activity. Alterations in L-arginine/NO pathway could be critical for the physiological processes involved in the etiology of IUGR in human pregnancies.  (+info)

L-Arginine transport is augmented through up-regulation of tubular CAT-2 mRNA in ischemic acute renal failure in rats. (5/44)

BACKGROUND: Ischemic acute renal failure (iARF) is associated with increased nitric oxide (NO) production during the reperfusion period, as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is maximally activated, and renal tubular inducible NOS (iNOS) is stimulated. Increased NO production leads to augmented tubular injury, probably through the formation of peroxynitrite. l-Arginine (l-Arg), the only precursor for NO, is transported into cells by cationic amino acid transporters, CAT-1 and CAT-2. We hypothesized that the increased NO production observed in iARF may result from increased l-Arg uptake, which would be reflected in the augmented expression of l-Arg transporter(s). METHODS: Ischemic acute renal failure was induced in rats by right nephrectomy + left renal artery clamping for 60 minutes. l-Arg uptake was examined in freshly harvested glomeruli and tubuli from control, sham operated, and animals subjected to 15, 30, and 60 minutes, and 24 hours of reperfusion, following 60 minutes of ischemia. Using RT-PCR, renal tissues were examined further for the expression of iNOS, CAT-1, CAT-2, arginase I and arginase II. RESULTS: Tubular expression of iNOS mRNA was initiated by ischemia, continued to increase after 60 minutes of reperfusion, and decreased after 24 hours. l-Arg transport into glomeruli was similar in all experimental groups. l-Arg uptake into tubuli was markedly augmented following the 60-minute reperfusion, while it moderately increased after 24 hours of reperfusion. This was accompanied by a parallel, preferential increase in tubular CAT-2 mRNA expression at 60 minutes of reperfusion. CAT-1 mRNA expression was unchanged, as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, the expression of arginase II and arginase I mRNA was attenuated by 30 minutes and one hour of reperfusion, and returned to baseline values after 24 hours of reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic ARF is associated with augmented tubular CAT-2 mRNA expression, which leads to enhanced l-Arg transport and increased NO production. This may contribute to the renal injury exhibited in iARF.  (+info)

Regulation of the S100B gene by alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation in cardiac myocytes. (6/44)

We previously reported that S100B, a 20-kDa Ca(2+)-binding homodimer, inhibited the postinfarct myocardial hypertrophic response mediated by alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation through the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. In the present study, we examined whether the same pathway induced the S100B gene, supporting the hypothesis that S100B is a feedback negative regulator of this pathway. We transfected cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes with a luciferase reporter gene driven by the maximal human S100B promoter and progressively shorter segments of this promoter sequentially deleted from the 5' end. We identified a basic promoter essential for transcription spanning 162 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site and positive (at -782/-162 and -6,689/-4,463) and negative (at -4,463/-782) myocyte-selective regulatory elements. We showed that the basic and maximal S100B promoters were activated specifically by alpha(1)-adrenergic agonists through the alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptor, but not by any other trophic hormonal stimuli. The activation of the S100B promoter was mediated through the PKC signaling pathway. Transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) and related to TEF-1 (RTEF-1) influenced transcription from the maximal, but not the basic, promoter implicating active MCAT elements upstream from the basic promoter. Acting in opposing fashions, TEF-1 transrepressed the S100B promoter and RTEF-1 transactivated the promoter. Our results suggest that alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation induces the S100B gene after myocardial infarction through the PKC signaling pathway and that this induction is modulated by TEF-1 and RTEF-1.  (+info)

Hypothermia attenuates iNOS, CAT-1, CAT-2, and nitric oxide expression in lungs of endotoxemic rats. (7/44)

Endotoxemia stimulates endogenous nitric oxide formation, induces transcription of arginine transporters, and causes lung injury. Hypothermia inhibits nitric oxide formation and is used as a means of organ preservation. We hypothesized that hypothermia inhibits endotoxin-induced intrapulmonary nitric oxide formation and that this inhibition is associated with attenuated transcription of enzymes that regulate nitric oxide formation, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cationic amino acid transporters 1 (CAT-1) and 2 (CAT-2). Rats were anesthetized and randomized to treatment with hypothermia (18-24 degrees C) or normothermia (36-38 degrees C). Endotoxin was administered intravascularly. Concentrations of iNOS, CAT-1, CAT-2 mRNA, iNOS protein, and nitrosylated proteins were measured in lung tissue homogenates. We found that hypothermia abrogated the endotoxin-induced increase in exhaled nitric oxide and lung tissue nitrotyrosine concentrations. Western blot analyses revealed that hypothermia inhibited iNOS, but not endothelial nitric oxide synthase, protein expression in lung tissues. CAT-1, CAT-2, and iNOS mRNA concentrations were lower in the lungs of hypothermic animals. These findings suggest that hypothermia protects against intrapulmonary nitric oxide overproduction and nitric oxide-mediated lung injury by inhibiting transcription of iNOS, CAT-1, and CAT-2.  (+info)

Differential regulation of glomerular arginine transporters (CAT-1 and CAT-2) in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. (8/44)

The decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that is characteristic of sepsis has been shown to result from inhibition of glomerular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by nitric oxide (NO) generated from the inducible isoform of NOS (iNOS). Although l-arginine is the sole precursor for NO biosynthesis, its intracellular availability in glomeruli from septic animals has never been investigated. Arginine uptake was measured in freshly harvested glomeruli from the following experimental groups: 1) untreated rats; 2) rats pretreated with LPS (4 mg/kg body wt, 4 h before experiments); 3) rats treated with LPS as above with either l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine hydrochloride (l-NIL), a selective iNOS antagonist, or 7-nitroindazole, a selective neuronal NOS antagonist; and 4) rats treated with l-NIL only. Both glomeular and mesangial arginine transport characteristics were found compatible with a y(+) system. Arginine uptake was augmented in glomeruli from LPS-treated rats. Treatment with l-NIL completely abolished this effect whereas l-NIL alone had no effect. Similar results were obtained when primary cultures of rat mesangial cells were preincubated with LPS (10 microg/ml for 24 h) with or without l-NIL. Using RT-PCR, we found that in vivo administration of LPS resulted in a significant increase in glomerular cationic amino acid transporter-2 (CAT-2) mRNA expression whereas CAT-1 mRNA was undetected. Northern blotting further confirmed a significant increase in glomerular CAT-2 by LPS. In mesangial cells, the expression of both CAT-1 and CAT-2 mRNA was augmented after incubation with LPS. In conclusion, in vivo administration of LPS augments glomerular arginine transport through upregulation of steady-state CAT-2 mRNA while downregulating CAT-1 mRNA. These results may correspond to the changes in glomerular iNOS and eNOS activity in sepsis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Heme oxygenase 1, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and nuclear factor κb are involved in hemin inhibition of type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and L-arginine transport in stimulated macrophages. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. AU - Chen, Chien Chuan. AU - Tsai, Pei-Shan. AU - Yang, Lin Cheng. AU - Huang, Wan Yu. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - BACKGROUND: l-Arginine transport mediated by type 2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide production mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction has been reported to significantly attenuate inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production. The authors sought to explore the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. The effects of HO-1 induction on nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were also investigated. METHODS: Murine macrophages ...
Infection of rodent cells by ecotropic type C retroviruses requires the expression of a cationic amino acid transporter composed of multiple membrane-spanning domains. By exchanging portions of cDNAs encoding the permissive mouse and nonpermissive human transporters and examining their abilities to specify virus infection upon expression in human 293 cells, we have identified the amino acid residues in the extracellular loop connecting the fifth and sixth membrane-spanning segments of the mouse transporter that are required for both envelope gp70 binding and infection. These findings strongly suggest that the role of the mouse transporter in determining infection is to provide an envelope-binding site. This role is analogous to those of host membrane proteins composed of a single membrane-spanning domain that serve as binding proteins or receptors for other enveloped viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and murine and human coronaviruses. ...
MDSCs are one of the dominant immunosuppressive populations that are present in the tumor microenvironment, impairing T cell function and promoting tumor progression (30). Therefore, MDSCs present a major obstacle for the success of cancer immunotherapy. As a result, blocking MDSC function has been an attractive endeavor to complement cancer therapies. Indeed, several studies demonstrated that depletion of MDSCs or inhibiting MDSC function impaired cancer progression (31, 32). Although these studies are very promising, more specific strategies to block MDSC suppressive function are needed.. MDSCs mediate their inhibitory effects on T cells through diverse mechanisms (33). One mechanism is the metabolism of amino acids by MDSCs (34). For example, MDSCs express enzymes that metabolize l-Arg, l-tryptophan, and cysteine, leading to their consumption from the microenvironment. Depletion of these amino acids results in T cell dysfunction (35-37). In addition, MDSCs can metabolize l-Arg and ...
Homo sapiens solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 5 (SLC7A5), mRNA. (H00008140-R01) - Products - Abnova
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:8:40898438:40917726:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000061152 transcript:OTTMUST00000078365 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Slc7a2 description:solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2 ...
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:16:17572018:17576721:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000035925 transcript:OTTMUST00000092151 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Slc7a4 description:solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 4 ...
The present invention provides a reagent for introducing a protein or gene into a cell. The reagent of the present invention is, for example, a reagent for introducing a protein or gene into a cell, which comprises a composition comprising a cationic amino acid type lipid represented by the following formula (I)-1: (wherein in formula (I)-1: L is a single bond, -CONH-, or -S-S-; M1 is -(CH2)k- or -(CH2CH2O)k- (wherein k is an integer between 0 and 14); and m1 and m2 are each independently an integer between 11 and 21 (in this regard, when providing a reagent for introducing a gene into a cell, the case where both m1 and m2 are 15 is excluded)).
TY - JOUR. T1 - HO-1 Overexpression Attenuates Endotoxin Effects on CAT-2 Isozymes Expression. AU - Huang, Te Yang. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - Background: l-arginine transport mediated by type-2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) isozymes is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We sought to investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression on CAT-2 isozymes, e.g., CAT-2, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B. Materials and Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were allocated to receive lipopolysaccharide (LPS), normal saline, hemin (a HO-1 inducer), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, a HO-1 inhibitor), LPS plus hemin, or LPS plus hemin plus SnPP. After maintaining for 6 h, rats were sacrificed and the expression and activity of individual enzyme was evaluated. Results: LPS increased HO activity, HO-1 concentration, NO production, l-arginine transport, and concentrations of iNOS, ...
More than 50 distinct amino acid transporter genes have been identified in the genome of Arabidopsis, indicating that transport of amino acids across membranes is a highly complex feature in plants. Based on sequence similarity, these transporters can be divided into two major superfamilies: the amino acid transporter family and the amino acid polyamine choline transporter family. Currently, mainly transporters of the amino acid transporter family have been characterized. Here, a molecular and functional characterization of amino acid polyamine choline transporters is presented, namely the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) subfamily. CAT5 functions as a high-affinity, basic amino acid transporter at the plasma membrane. Uptake of toxic amino acid analogs implies that neutral or acidic amino acids are preferentially transported by CAT3, CAT6, and CAT8. The expression profiles suggest that CAT5 may function in reuptake of leaking amino acids at the leaf margin, while CAT8 is expressed in young ...
Amino acids represent a strong signal that positively regulates mTORC1 (reviewed by Guertin and Sabatini, 2007). It was recently shown that leucine, an essential amino acid required for mTORC1 activation, is transported into cells in a glutamine-dependent fashion (Nicklin et al., 2009). Glutamine, which is imported into cells through SLC1A5 [solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter) member 5], is exchanged to import leucine via a heterodimeric system composed of SLC7A5 [antiport solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system, member 5] and SLC3A2 [solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport) member 2]. The mechanism by which intracellular amino acids then signal to mTORC1 remained obscure for many years. The activation of mTORC1 by amino acids is known to be independent of TSC1/2, because the mTORC1 pathway remains sensitive to amino acid deprivation in cells that lack TSC1 or TSC2 (Nobukuni et al., 2005). Some studies have ...
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Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Effect of nor-NOHA on arginase activity and amino acid levels. (A) Significant arginase inhibition was observed in cell lysates of CL-19 cultures treated with n
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L-lysine transmembrane transporter activity. • amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter ... Cationic amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A2 gene.[5][6] ... 1997). "Human cationic amino acid transporters hCAT-1, hCAT-2A, and hCAT-2B: three related carriers with distinct transport ... Schnorr O, Suschek CV, Kolb-Bachofen V (2003). "The importance of cationic amino acid transporter expression in human skin". J ...
Cationic amino acid transporter 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A4 gene. SLC7A4 protein, human at the US ... Hammermann R, Brunn G, Racke K (Oct 2001). "Analysis of the genomic organization of the human cationic amino acid transporters ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A4 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 4". Muñoz L, Lasa A, ... "The gene encoding a cationic amino acid transporter (SLC7A4) maps to the region deleted in the velocardiofacial syndrome". ...
Cationic amino acid transporter 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A3 gene. SLC7A3 is a member of the system ... Ito K, Groudine M (1997). "A new member of the cationic amino acid transporter family is preferentially expressed in adult ... 1999). "Neuron-specific expression of cationic amino acid transporter 3 in the adult rat brain". Brain Res. 838 (1-2): 158-65. ... 2006). "Activation of classical protein kinase C reduces the expression of human cationic amino acid transporter 3 (hCAT-3) in ...
"Entrez Gene: SLC7A8 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 8". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994 ... an L-type amino acid transport activity with broad specificity for small and large zwitterionic amino acids". J Biol Chem. 274 ... Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A8 gene. Heterodimeric ... 2000). "LAT2, a new basolateral 4F2hc/CD98-associated amino acid transporter of kidney and intestine". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (49 ...
High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A1 gene. Solute carrier ... Hammermann R, Brunn G, Racké K (2002). "Analysis of the genomic organization of the human cationic amino acid transporters CAT- ... Schnorr O, Suschek CV, Kolb-Bachofen V (June 2003). "The importance of cationic amino acid transporter expression in human skin ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A1 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 1". Yoshimoto T, Yoshimoto E, ...
Solute carrier family 7 member 6 also known as cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system or Y+L amino acid transporter 2 is a ... cationic amino acid transporter". Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kühn L, Verrey F (January 1999). "Amino acid ... L amino acid transporter-1) that associates with 4F2hc to encode the amino acid transport activity y+L. A candidate gene for ... Bröer A, Wagner CA, Lang F, Bröer S (August 2000). "The heterodimeric amino acid transporter 4F2hc/y+LAT2 mediates arginine ...
... is processed from hcr mRNA and may downregulate the high affinity cationic amino acid transporter CAT-1". RNA Biol. 1 (2): 106- ... 5 (2): e9355. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009355. PMC 2826396 . PMID 20186319. Corbi N, Batassa EM, Pisani C, Onori A, Di Certo ... 25 (2): 201-203. Bibcode:1999CG.....25..201B. doi:10.1016/S0098-3004(98)00117-4. ISSN 0098-3004. Corbi N, Bruno T, De Angelis R ... 87 (2): 127-34. doi:10.2340/00015555-0184. PMID 17340018. Elomaa O, Majuri I, Suomela S, Asumalahti K, Jiao H, Mirzaei Z, ...
... is processed from hcr mRNA and mat downregulate the high affinity cationic amino acid transporter CAT-1". RNA Biology. 1 (2): ... miR-122 is highly expressed in the liver, where it has been implicated as a regulator of fatty-acid metabolism in mouse studies ... This change is noted before increased amino-transferase activity, making it a early indicator of liver disease and ... Santaris Pharma are developing miravirsen, a locked nucleic acid-based antisense oligonucleotide that is delivered to the liver ...
Currents of Opposite Polarity Evoked by Neutral and Cationic Amino Acids in Neutral and Basic Amino Acid Transporter cRNA- ... amino acid transport on substrate affinity of the heteromeric b(0,+) amino acid transporter". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (19): 14331- ... "Effects of truncation of the COOH-terminal region of a Na+-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter on amino acid ... dibasic and neutral amino acid transporters, activator of cystine, dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 1". Pras E ...
... cationic amino acid transporter". Kaira K, Oriuchi N, Imai H, et al. (2009). "Prognostic significance of L-type amino acid ... 2009). "L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is frequently expressed in thymic carcinomas but is absent in thymomas". J Surg ... 2009). "L-type amino-acid transporter 1 as a novel biomarker for high-grade malignancy in prostate cancer". Pathol. Int. 59 (1 ... 2006). "L-type amino acid transporter 1 as a potential molecular target in human astrocytic tumors". Int. J. Cancer. 119 (3): ...
... heavy subunits of heteromeric amino acid transporters (6) Bacterial Leucine Transporter (LeuT) (7) cationic amino acid ... Solute carrier family Amino acid transport Amino acid transport, acidic Amino acid transport, basic Amino acid transport ... proton-coupled amino acid transporter (38) System A & N, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter Vesicular inhibitory ... An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids. They are mainly of the solute carrier ...
... cationic amino acid transporter 1 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.600.300 -- cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776. ... excitatory amino acid transporter 1 MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.625.147.750 -- excitatory amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776. ... excitatory amino acid transporter 3 MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.625.147.937 -- excitatory amino acid transporter 4 MeSH D12.776. ... excitatory amino acid transporter 1 MeSH D12.776.157.530.562.374.781.750 -- excitatory amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776. ...
... cationic amino acid transporter/glycoprotein-associatedcationic amino acid transporters (SLC7A1, SLC7A2, SLC7A3, SLC7A4) ... copper transporter(SLC31A1, SLC31A2) (32) vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter(SLC32A1) (33) Acetyl-CoA transporter( ... Ammonia transporter(RhAG, RhBG, RhCG) (43) Na+-independent, system-L like amino acid transporter (SLC43A1, SLC43A2, SLC43A3) ( ... heavy subunits of heterodimeric amino acid transporters(SLC3A1, SLC3A2) (4) bicarbonate transporter(SLC4A1, SLC4A2, SLC4A3, ...
... a cationic amino acid transporter. When cells became stressed, the nuclear non-coding RNA levels were reduced, coupled with an ... 4 (2): E35. doi:10.1038/ncb0202-e35. PMID 11835055. Myojin R, Kuwahara S, Yasaki T, et al. (2004). "Expression and Functional ... 123 (2): 249-63. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.033. PMID 16239143. The Nuclear Compartments:Paraspeckle page on the Nuclear ...
3.A.1.3 Polar Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (PAAT) 3.A.1.4 Hydrophobic Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (HAAT) 3.A.1.5 Peptide/ ... Pgp is known to transport organic cationic or neutral compounds. A few ABCC family members, also known as MRP, have also been ... Opine/Nickel Uptake Transporter (PepT) 3.A.1.6 Sulfate/Tungstate Uptake Transporter (SulT) 3.A.1.7 Phosphate Uptake Transporter ... Siderophore-Fe3+ Uptake Transporter (SIUT) Nickel Uptake Transporter (NiT) Methionine Uptake Transporter (MUT) 2.A.52 Nickel/ ...
... dependent neutral and cationic amino acid transporter B(0+)". J Biol Chem. 274 (34): 23740-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.34.23740. ... dependent neurotransmitter transporter family and transports both neutral and cationic amino acids in an Na+- and Cl−-dependent ... "Polymorphisms in the amino acid transporter solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter) member 14 gene contribute to ... Sloan JL, Grubb BR, Mager S (2003). "Expression of the amino acid transporter ATB 0+ in lung: possible role in luminal protein ...
The Cationic Amino Acid Transporter (CAT) Family 2.A.3.4: The Amino Acid/Choline Transporter (ACT) Family 2.A.3.5: The ... "The amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily of transporters specific for amino acids, polyamines and organocations ... are amino acid receptors rather than transporters and are truncated at their C-termini, relative to the transporters, having 10 ... Schweikhard, ES; Ziegler, CM (2012). "Amino acid secondary transporters: toward a common transport mechanism". Current Topics ...
"Entrez Gene: SLC7A11 solute carrier family 7, (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11". Lutgen V, Resch J, ... This amino acid is a rate limiting substrate used in the SLC7A11 cystine/glutamate transporter and is usually imported into the ... An example is amino acid deprivation, which triggers up regulation of the transporter. A key regulator is extracellular ... The antiporter is a heterodimeric amino acid transporter. The structure of this protein includes a specific light chain, xCT, ...
"Entrez Gene: SLC7A7 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 7". Pfeiffer, R; Rossier G; ... L amino acid transporter-1) that associates with 4F2hc to encode the amino acid transport activity y+L. A candidate gene for ... 1999). "Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid ... Y+L amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A7 gene. SLC7A7 has been shown to interact with ...
"Amino Acid Residues in the Putative Transmembrane Domain 11 of Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1B1 Dictate ... and less frequently neutral or cationic drugs), such as bromosulfobromophthalein, prostaglandins, conjugated and unconjugated ... These transporters have been characterized in mammals, but homologues are present in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae ... Members of the Organo Anion Transporter (OAT) Family (TC# 2.A.60) catalyze electrogenic anion uniport or more frequently, anion ...
The attachment of the amino acid lysine slows down the relative amount of dextroamphetamine available to the blood stream. ... especially the dopamine transporter (DAT) and less so the norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporter. The mechanism of ... Conversely, an acidic pH means the drug is predominantly in a water-soluble cationic (salt) form, and less is absorbed. ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ...
Folding control of CPP using unnatural β, δ cyclic amino acids. CPPs found applications as transporters of contrast agents ... In the absence of linker, the cationic peptide can interact more efficient with the target cell and cellular uptake occurs ... CPPs typically have an amino acid composition that either contains a high relative abundance of positively charged amino acids ... a natural degradation process by which peptide bonds are hydrolyzed to amino acids. Unnatural acid insertion in the peptide ...
CPPs typically have an amino acid composition that either contains a high relative abundance of positively charged amino acids ... This feature requires the orientation of cationic -hydrophilic on one side, and hydrophobic residues on the other side of the ... CPPs found applications as transporters of contrast agents across plasma membranes. These contrast agents are able to label the ... a natural degradation process by which peptide bonds are hydrolyzed to amino acids. Unnatural acid insertion in the peptide ...
M3). A cationic amino acid at position 2 is largely responsible for the inhibiting effect of S107. The ratio of S105 to S107 ... Molecular and Cellular Biology portal As of 10 March 2016, this article is derived in whole or in part from Transporter ... Members of this family generally consist of the characteristic three transmembrane segments (TMSs) and are of 110 amino acyl ... A representative list of members belonging to this family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. Lambda holin ...
SLC1A1 is excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), a glutamate transporter located in neurons, SLC22A3 is an extraneuronal ... Conversely, an acidic pH means the drug is predominantly in a water-soluble cationic (salt) form, and less is absorbed. ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ... The human serotonin transporter and norepinephrine transporter do not contain zinc binding sites. 4-Hydroxyamphetamine has been ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... glycine transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter activity. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... Mitochondrial glycine transporter is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A38 gene. SLC25A38 is involved in ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mitochondrial_glycine_transporter&oldid=893398075" ...
Through a study done at the University of Albany, it was shown that the ability of the Coomassie dye to target amino acids with ... even under acid conditions when most of the molecules in solution are in the cationic form.[7] This is the basis of the ... This provides a simpler method for fingerprint analysis by reducing the number of amino acids needed to be analyzed from 23 to ... A protein sample is added to a solution of the dye in phosphoric acid and ethanol. Under the acid conditions the dye is ...
... of amino acid residues belong to niches bound to a δ+ group, while another 7% have the conformation but no single cationic ... A major cation transporter in cells is calcium ATPase. In the Ca++-bound crystal structures the two calcium ions side-by-side ... In the area of protein structural motifs, niches are three or four amino acid residue features in which main-chain CO groups ... Torrance, GM; Leader DP (2009). "A Novel Main Chain Motif in Proteins Bridged by Cationic Groups: The Niche". Journal of ...
Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2 NF-E2-Related Factor 2 Hemin Heme Oxygenase-1 ... Tsai, PS, Chen, CC, Tsai, P-S, Yang, LC, Huang, WY & Huang, CJ 2006, Heme oxygenase 1, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and ... The authors sought to explore the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. The effects of HO-1 ... The authors sought to explore the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. The effects of HO-1 ...
... namely the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) subfamily. CAT5 functions as a high-affinity, basic amino acid transporter at ... the amino acid transporter family and the amino acid polyamine choline transporter family. Currently, mainly transporters of ... Uptake of toxic amino acid analogs implies that neutral or acidic amino acids are preferentially transported by CAT3, CAT6, and ... the amino acid transporter family have been characterized. Here, a molecular and functional characterization of amino acid ...
1998) Transporters for cationic amino acids in animal cells: discovery, structure, and function Physiol Rev 78,487-545 [PubMed] ... large neutral amino acid transporter, LAT1 and LAT2 (L-type amino acid transporter 1 and 2 respectively), have recently been ... 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 System L is a major amino acid transporter that transports large neutral amino acids in a Na+- ... Uchino, H, Kanai, Y, Kim, DK, et al (2002) Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter ...
urinary excretion of cationic amino acids (lysine, arginine, ornithine) decreased blood levels of cationic amino acids ... amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. GO:0015171 9.1. SLC3A1 SLC7A2 SLC7A5 SLC7A6 SLC7A7 SLC7A8 ... L-amino acid transport. GO:0015807 9.56. SLC7A5 SLC7A6 SLC7A7 SLC7A8 4. L-alpha-amino acid transmembrane transport. GO:1902475 ... amino acid transmembrane transport. GO:0003333 9.49. SLC7A2 SLC7A7 8. neutral amino acid transport. GO:0015804 9.48. SLC7A5 ...
Thrombin stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell polyamine synthesis by inducing cationic amino acid transporter and ornithine ... Platelet-derived growth factor regulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by inducing cationic amino acid transporter ... Lysophosphatidylcholine regulates cationic amino acid transport and metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells: role in ... VSMCs were treated with serum (5%) in the presence or absence of L-OHNA (2 mmol/L) or BEC (2 mmol/L) for 24 hours. In some ...
L-lysine transmembrane transporter activity. • amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter ... Cationic amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A2 gene.[5][6] ... 1997). "Human cationic amino acid transporters hCAT-1, hCAT-2A, and hCAT-2B: three related carriers with distinct transport ... Schnorr O, Suschek CV, Kolb-Bachofen V (2003). "The importance of cationic amino acid transporter expression in human skin". J ...
cationic amino acid transporter 2. DCFDA. 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. G-MDSC. granulocytic MDSC. KO. Cat2 knockout mice ... Transporters for cationic amino acids in animal cells: discovery, structure, and function. Physiol. Rev. 78: 487-545. ... Expression of Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2 Is Required for Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell-Mediated Control of T Cell ... Cationic amino acid transporter-2 regulates immunity by modulating arginase activity. PLoS Pathog. 4: e1000023. ...
Probable cationic amino acid transporterAdd BLAST. 771. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) (TC 2.A.3.3) family ... sp,Q8TBB6,S7A14_HUMAN Probable cationic amino acid transporter OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=SLC7A14 PE=1 SV=3 ... amino acid transport Source: UniProtKB-KW. *negative regulation of phosphatase activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from ...
... low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in non-hepatic ... High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1Add BLAST. 629. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) (TC 2.A.3.3) family ... High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1. Short name: CAT-11 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based ...
solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 1 ... IPR002293 Amino acid/polyamine transporter I. IPR029485 Cationic amino acid transporter, C-terminal ...
solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2 ... Significant phenotypes (0) All measurements (161) Expression & images (46) Disease models (0) Order (2) ...
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) plays many vital functions within the central nervous system and is thus targeted by many ... A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The ... Here, using the Drosophila dopamine transporter as a template, a homology model for the human dopamine transporter was ... F18-FP-CIT reflects dopamine transporter availabili.... Effects of Antidepressant Therapy on Brain Dopamine Transporter ...
... cationic amino acid transporter 3; (O) D52-like 2; (P) human KIAA0147. (Q-X) Transverse sections, dorsal up. (Q) cathepsin D; ( ... GCN20/ATP-binding cassette transporter F2; (H) tyrosine kinase receptor KLG; (I) MSE55; (J) dyskerin; (K) thimet oligopeptidase ... 2 for examples). In addition to serving as a screening tool, expression patterns in premigratory and migratory neural crest ... 2. Neural crest gene expression. In situ hybridization was performed to confirm localization in premigratory and migratory ...
Cationic amino acid transporters play key roles in the survival and transmission of apicomplexan parasites ... Genetic Mapping Reveals that Sinefungin Resistance in Toxoplasma gondii Is Controlled by a Putative Amino Acid Transporter ... The aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes AAH1 and AAH2 in Toxoplasma gondii contribute to transmission in the cat ... The Adenosine Transporter ofToxoplasma gondii. Chi-Wu Chiang, Nicola Carter, William J. Sullivan, Robert G. K. Donald, David S ...
solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2. 29. 4. 9. 14. ... cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2 ... Nucleic Acids Research (Journal) Database Summary. *Mouse Facts ...
The transport of L-arginine occurs through the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-1. Urea transport occurs through urea ... Nitric oxide synthesis relies on the amino acid substrate L-arginine. L-arginine synthesis primarily occurs in the proximal ... The maintenance of plasma L-arginine levels in CKD may be a consequence of increased amino acid release into the blood due to ... Nitric oxide is produced from the amino acid substrate L-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) [18]. ...
Cationic amino acid transporter 2 Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). ...
B(0)AT basic neutral amino acid transporter, OAT organic amino acid transporter, CAT cationic amino acid transporter, LAT L ... The major endothelial transporter for L -Arg is the system y+ cation ic amino acid transporter (CAT). CAT1 is constitutively ... Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) has been shown to be the major transporter for L-Arg and function in L-Arg secretion by ... Transport Cationic Amino Acid Transporter L -Arg that is produced by the proximal tubule must be secreted in to the circulation ...
solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 15 Gene [Source:MGI Sym. ... Amino Acid Affected. Amino Acid Total. Exon Affected. Exon Total. ENSDART00000128764. Essential Splice Site. 320. 467. 3. 6. ... Amino Acid Affected. Amino Acid Total. Exon Affected. Exon Total. ENSDART00000128764. Essential Splice Site. 362. 467. 4. 6. ...
This correlated with an increased mRNA expression for iNOS and the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-2B (analyzed by reverse ... Mediates Simultaneous Induction of Inducible Nitric-Oxide Synthase and Up-Regulation of the Cationic Amino Acid Transporter CAT ... Mediates Simultaneous Induction of Inducible Nitric-Oxide Synthase and Up-Regulation of the Cationic Amino Acid Transporter CAT ... Mediates Simultaneous Induction of Inducible Nitric-Oxide Synthase and Up-Regulation of the Cationic Amino Acid Transporter CAT ...
Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT)-1 mRNA remained little changed, and CAT-2 mRNA was not detected. The plasma nitrogen ... eNOS and AS mRNAs were increased by three- to fourfold 1-2 weeks after STZ treatment and decreased at 4 weeks. AL mRNA was ... oxide levels were increased 1-2 weeks after STZ treatment and decreased at 4 weeks. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1 ...
OMIM: SOLUTE CARRIER FAMILY 7 (CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER, y+ SYSTEM), MEMBER 9 ... amino acid transporter light chain, bo,+ system), member 9. *solute carrier family 7 (glycoprotein-associated amino acid ... SOLUTE CARRIER FAMILY 7 (CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER, y+ SYSTEM), MEMBER 9 ... which causes certain amino acids to become concentrated in the urine. Cystine is the only amino acid that forms crystals and ...
Cationic amino acid transporter 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A4 gene. SLC7A4 protein, human at the US ... Hammermann R, Brunn G, Racke K (Oct 2001). "Analysis of the genomic organization of the human cationic amino acid transporters ... "Entrez Gene: SLC7A4 solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 4". Muñoz L, Lasa A, ... "The gene encoding a cationic amino acid transporter (SLC7A4) maps to the region deleted in the velocardiofacial syndrome". ...
Cationic amino acid transporter-2 regulates immunity by modulating arginase activity. PLoS Pathogens 4:e1000023. ... Detection of viral ribonucleic acid and histologic analysis of inflamed synovium in Ross River virus infection. Arthritis Rheum ... 2. RRV titers in joint and skeletal muscle tissue. Twenty-four-day-old C57BL/6J WT (filled circles) or CD11b−/− (open circles) ... 2 and 3). These results suggest that the effects of CR3 on RRV-induced disease are not due to effects on viral replication; ...
Solute Carrier Family 7 Member 5 Pseudogene 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Solute Carrier Family 7 (Cationic Amino Acid Transporter, Y+ System), Member 5 Pseudogene 2 3 ... neutral amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. IBA. --. GO:0015179. L-amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ...
  • BACKGROUND: l-Arginine transport mediated by type 2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide production mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase. (elsevier.com)
  • The authors sought to explore the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. (elsevier.com)
  • Lipopolysaccharide also significantly induced NF-κB activation, CAT-2 expression, and l-arginine transport. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, hemin, also in a dose-dependent manner, significantly attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation, CAT-2 expression, and l-arginine transport. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: HO-1 induction significantly inhibited CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, possibly through mechanisms involved activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NF-κB. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, carbon monoxide mediated, at least in part, the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. (elsevier.com)
  • Increased expression and activities of arginase 1 (ARG1) and NO synthase 2 (NOS2) are well established as the hallmarks for MDSC suppressive function ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The results show that a unique subpopulation of mature tumor-associated myeloid cells but not tumor cells or immature myeloid cells express arginase I and cationic amino acid transporter 2B. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pathogenic microbes are known to affect the expression of these enzymes, especially arginase 1 and 2 . (nih.gov)
  • In response to IGFs, IRS-1/2 are rapidly phosphorylated on multiple tyrosine residues by the activated IGF-IR kinase. (oncotarget.com)
  • VRA is found about 50 amino acids from the amino terminus of the SU domain and contains two conserved cysteine residues. (hubpages.com)
  • Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are major targets of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) tyrosine kinase activated by IGFs, and are known to play important roles in the activation of downstream signaling pathways, such as the Erk1/2 pathway. (oncotarget.com)
  • The tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1/2 is recognized by the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing molecules, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Grb2. (oncotarget.com)
  • Acts as the major transporter of tyrosine in fibroblasts. (abcam.com)
  • The presence of PepT1-like transporter on AM was evaluated using anti-PepT1 antisera and Western blot analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of a PepT1-like transporter on AM was confirmed by Western blotting. (cdc.gov)
  • l -Citrulline supplementation resulted in considerable increase of the concentrations of amino acids and creatinine in the serum, and in their urinary excretion rates. (springer.com)
  • Such pathological conditions stimulate myelopoiesis, inhibit differentiation of immature myeloid cells, and induce their activation ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Expressed in retinal endothelial cells and in the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. (abcam.com)
  • Cystine is the only amino acid that forms crystals and stones in the bladder or kidneys, leading to the signs and symptoms of cystinuria. (nih.gov)
  • a 16 amino acid sequence at the C-terminal end that is cleaved off by the viral protease (PR) after the virion has been released from the cell. (hubpages.com)
  • PGHS-2 is a sequence homodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absence of endoperoxide-containing products derived from 10,10-difluoroarachidonic acid has been thought to indicate the importance of a C-10 carbocation in PGG2 synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aromatic amino acid:H + symporter, AroP of 457 aas and 12 TMSs ( Cosgriff and Pittard 1997 ). (tcdb.org)
  • The purpose of the study is to investigate the functional state of dopamine cells and the dopamine transporter in ADHD subjects and controls to assess the effects of chronic methylphenidat. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Alternative splicing within exon 9 gives rise to four variants, two of which (OAT1-1 and OAT1-2) are functional. (springer.com)
  • Since it is now increasingly evident that transporters are pharmacokinetically significant, functional alteration of transporters by this stress condition may have therapeutic relevance. (ndsl.kr)
  • In this review, experimental techniques that are used to study both in vivo and in vitro nitrosative stress are summarized and discussed, along with available literature information on the functional implication of transporters under conditions of nitrosative stress conditions. (ndsl.kr)
  • In the literature, both functional induction and impa irment were apparently present for both drug transporter families [i.e. (ndsl.kr)
  • Furthermore, a change in the function of a certain transporter appears to have temporal dependency by impairment in the early phase of nitrosative stress and induction thereafter, suggesting that the role of nitrosative stress is complex in terms of functional implications of the transporters. (ndsl.kr)
  • Interestingly, functional induction under conditions of nitrosative stress has not been observed for SLC transporters while such impairment has been documented for both ABC and SLC transporters. (ndsl.kr)
  • Figure 2) While metabolizing arachidonic acid primarily to PGG2, COX-2 also converts this fatty acid to small amounts of a racemic mixture of 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acids (i.e., 15-HETEs) composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE stereoisomers as well as a small amount of 11(R)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of arachidonic acid to PGG2 can be shown as a series of radical reactions analogous to polyunsaturated fatty acid autoxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • the membrane-binding domain consists of a series of amphipathic α helices with several hydrophobic amino acids exposed to a membrane monolayer. (wikipedia.org)