A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in cerebellar PURKINJE CELLS on postsynaptic DENDRITIC SPINES.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in the RETINA.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A metabolic disease characterized by the defective transport of CYSTINE across the lysosomal membrane due to mutation of a membrane protein cystinosin. This results in cystine accumulation and crystallization in the cells causing widespread tissue damage. In the KIDNEY, nephropathic cystinosis is a common cause of RENAL FANCONI SYNDROME.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Cytokine treatment increases arginine metabolism and uptake in bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. (1/44)

L-Arginine (L-Arg) is metabolized to nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase (NOS) or to urea by arginase (AR). L-Arg is transported into bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (BPAECs) by cationic amino acid transporter-2 (CAT-2). We hypothesized that cytokine treatment would increase L-Arg metabolism and increase CAT-2 mRNA expression. BPAECs were incubated for 24 h in medium (control) or medium with lipopolysaccharide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (L-T). L-T increased nitrite production (3.1 +/- 0.4 nmol/24 h vs. 1.8 +/- 0.1 nmol/24 h for control; P < 0.01) and urea production (83.5 +/- 29.5 nmol/24 h vs. 17.8 +/- 8.6 nmol/24 h for control; P < 0.05). L-T-treated BPAECs had greater endothelial and inducible NOS mRNA expression compared with control cells. Increasing the medium L-Arg concentration resulted in increased nitrite and urea production in both the control and the L-T-treated BPAECs. L-T treatment resulted in measurable CAT-2 mRNA. L-T increased L-[(3)H]Arg uptake (5.78 +/- 0.41 pmol vs. 4.45 +/- 0.10 pmol for control; P < 0.05). In summary, L-T treatment increased L-Arg metabolism to both NO and urea in BPAECs and resulted in increased levels of CAT-2 mRNA. This suggests that induction of NOS and/or AR is linked to induction of CAT-2 in BPAECs and may represent a mechanism for maintaining L-Arg availability to NOS and/or AR.  (+info)

Two-way arginine transport in human endothelial cells: TNF-alpha stimulation is restricted to system y(+). (2/44)

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells transport arginine through two Na(+)-independent systems. System y(+)L is insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), inhibited by L-leucine in the presence of Na(+), and referable to the expression of SLC7A6/y(+)LAT2, SLC7A7/y(+)LAT1, and SLC3A2/4F2hc. System y(+) is referable to the expression of SLC7A1/CAT1 and SLC7A2/CAT2B. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide induce a transient stimulation of arginine influx and efflux through system y(+). Increased expression of SLC7A2/CAT2B is detectable from 3 h of treatment, while SLC7A1 expression is inhibited at later times of incubation. System y(+)L activity and expression remain unaltered. Nitric oxide synthase type 2 mRNA is not detected in the absence or presence of TNF-alpha, while the latter condition lowers nitric oxide synthase type 3 expression at the mRNA and the protein level. Nitrite accumulation is comparable in cytokine-treated and control cells up to 48 h of treatment. It is concluded that modulation of endothelial arginine transport by TNF-alpha or lipopolysaccharide occurs exclusively through changes in CAT2B and CAT1 expression and is dissociated from stimulation of nitric oxide production.  (+info)

Garlic attenuates nitric oxide production in rat cardiac myocytes through inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the arginine transporter CAT-2 (cationic amino acid transporter-2). (3/44)

It is now accepted that allicin, the main biologically active compound in garlic, exhibits antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant activity of garlic can be partially attributed to the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by cytokine-induced NO synthase (iNOS). Cardiac myocytes cultured from neonatal Wistar rats were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated for 24 h with various concentrations of allicin. This resulted in marked inhibition of nitrite production. Interestingly, a low concentration of allicin (10 microM) was significantly more potent in abrogating the effect of LPS on nitrite production than a higher concentration (40 microM). Allicin decreased steady-state iNOS mRNA levels, and this effect was maximal when a lower concentration was used (10 microM compared with 40 microM). In order to explore additional effects of allicin on NO generation that might counteract the effect on iNOS, we assessed the effects of higher allicin concentrations on arginine transport. Allicin inhibited the uptake of 1 mM extracellular arginine in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of the two arginine transporters that are expressed in cardiac myocytes [CAT-1 (cationic amino acid transporter-1) and CAT-2] was studied using reverse transcription-PCR. A concentration of 200 microM allicin abolished the expression of CAT-2 mRNA, 100 microM significantly attenuated it, whereas 50 microM had no effect. Allicin had no effect on steady-state CAT-1 mRNA levels. Our results suggest that allicin inhibits iNOS activity through two different mechanisms: at lower concentrations it decreases iNOS mRNA levels, whereas at higher concentrations it inhibits arginine transport through down-regulation of CAT-2 mRNA.  (+info)

Intrauterine growth retardation is associated with reduced activity and expression of the cationic amino acid transport systems y+/hCAT-1 and y+/hCAT-2B and lower activity of nitric oxide synthase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (4/44)

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with vascular complications leading to hypoxia and abnormal fetal development. The effect of IUGR on L-arginine transport and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was investigated in cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). IUGR was associated with membrane depolarization and reduced L-arginine transport (V(max)= 5.8+/-0.2 versus 3.3+/-0.1 pmol/microg protein per minute), with no significant changes in transport affinity (K(m)=159+/-15 versus 137+/-14 micromol/L). L-Arginine transport was trans-stimulated (8- to 9-fold) in cells from normal and IUGR pregnancies. IUGR was associated with reduced production of L-[3H]citrulline from L-[3H] arginine, lower nitrite and intracellular L-arginine, L-citrulline, and cGMP. IUGR decreased hCAT-1 and hCAT-2B mRNA, and increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels. IUGR-associated inhibition of L-arginine transport and NO synthesis, and membrane depolarization were reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-L,D-penicillamine. In summary, endothelium from fetuses with IUGR exhibit altered L-arginine transport and NO synthesis (L-arginine/NO pathway), reduced expression and activity of hCAT-1 and hCAT-2B and reduced eNOS activity. Alterations in L-arginine/NO pathway could be critical for the physiological processes involved in the etiology of IUGR in human pregnancies.  (+info)

L-Arginine transport is augmented through up-regulation of tubular CAT-2 mRNA in ischemic acute renal failure in rats. (5/44)

BACKGROUND: Ischemic acute renal failure (iARF) is associated with increased nitric oxide (NO) production during the reperfusion period, as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is maximally activated, and renal tubular inducible NOS (iNOS) is stimulated. Increased NO production leads to augmented tubular injury, probably through the formation of peroxynitrite. l-Arginine (l-Arg), the only precursor for NO, is transported into cells by cationic amino acid transporters, CAT-1 and CAT-2. We hypothesized that the increased NO production observed in iARF may result from increased l-Arg uptake, which would be reflected in the augmented expression of l-Arg transporter(s). METHODS: Ischemic acute renal failure was induced in rats by right nephrectomy + left renal artery clamping for 60 minutes. l-Arg uptake was examined in freshly harvested glomeruli and tubuli from control, sham operated, and animals subjected to 15, 30, and 60 minutes, and 24 hours of reperfusion, following 60 minutes of ischemia. Using RT-PCR, renal tissues were examined further for the expression of iNOS, CAT-1, CAT-2, arginase I and arginase II. RESULTS: Tubular expression of iNOS mRNA was initiated by ischemia, continued to increase after 60 minutes of reperfusion, and decreased after 24 hours. l-Arg transport into glomeruli was similar in all experimental groups. l-Arg uptake into tubuli was markedly augmented following the 60-minute reperfusion, while it moderately increased after 24 hours of reperfusion. This was accompanied by a parallel, preferential increase in tubular CAT-2 mRNA expression at 60 minutes of reperfusion. CAT-1 mRNA expression was unchanged, as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, the expression of arginase II and arginase I mRNA was attenuated by 30 minutes and one hour of reperfusion, and returned to baseline values after 24 hours of reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic ARF is associated with augmented tubular CAT-2 mRNA expression, which leads to enhanced l-Arg transport and increased NO production. This may contribute to the renal injury exhibited in iARF.  (+info)

Regulation of the S100B gene by alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation in cardiac myocytes. (6/44)

We previously reported that S100B, a 20-kDa Ca(2+)-binding homodimer, inhibited the postinfarct myocardial hypertrophic response mediated by alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation through the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. In the present study, we examined whether the same pathway induced the S100B gene, supporting the hypothesis that S100B is a feedback negative regulator of this pathway. We transfected cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes with a luciferase reporter gene driven by the maximal human S100B promoter and progressively shorter segments of this promoter sequentially deleted from the 5' end. We identified a basic promoter essential for transcription spanning 162 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site and positive (at -782/-162 and -6,689/-4,463) and negative (at -4,463/-782) myocyte-selective regulatory elements. We showed that the basic and maximal S100B promoters were activated specifically by alpha(1)-adrenergic agonists through the alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptor, but not by any other trophic hormonal stimuli. The activation of the S100B promoter was mediated through the PKC signaling pathway. Transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) and related to TEF-1 (RTEF-1) influenced transcription from the maximal, but not the basic, promoter implicating active MCAT elements upstream from the basic promoter. Acting in opposing fashions, TEF-1 transrepressed the S100B promoter and RTEF-1 transactivated the promoter. Our results suggest that alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation induces the S100B gene after myocardial infarction through the PKC signaling pathway and that this induction is modulated by TEF-1 and RTEF-1.  (+info)

Hypothermia attenuates iNOS, CAT-1, CAT-2, and nitric oxide expression in lungs of endotoxemic rats. (7/44)

Endotoxemia stimulates endogenous nitric oxide formation, induces transcription of arginine transporters, and causes lung injury. Hypothermia inhibits nitric oxide formation and is used as a means of organ preservation. We hypothesized that hypothermia inhibits endotoxin-induced intrapulmonary nitric oxide formation and that this inhibition is associated with attenuated transcription of enzymes that regulate nitric oxide formation, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the cationic amino acid transporters 1 (CAT-1) and 2 (CAT-2). Rats were anesthetized and randomized to treatment with hypothermia (18-24 degrees C) or normothermia (36-38 degrees C). Endotoxin was administered intravascularly. Concentrations of iNOS, CAT-1, CAT-2 mRNA, iNOS protein, and nitrosylated proteins were measured in lung tissue homogenates. We found that hypothermia abrogated the endotoxin-induced increase in exhaled nitric oxide and lung tissue nitrotyrosine concentrations. Western blot analyses revealed that hypothermia inhibited iNOS, but not endothelial nitric oxide synthase, protein expression in lung tissues. CAT-1, CAT-2, and iNOS mRNA concentrations were lower in the lungs of hypothermic animals. These findings suggest that hypothermia protects against intrapulmonary nitric oxide overproduction and nitric oxide-mediated lung injury by inhibiting transcription of iNOS, CAT-1, and CAT-2.  (+info)

Differential regulation of glomerular arginine transporters (CAT-1 and CAT-2) in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats. (8/44)

The decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that is characteristic of sepsis has been shown to result from inhibition of glomerular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by nitric oxide (NO) generated from the inducible isoform of NOS (iNOS). Although l-arginine is the sole precursor for NO biosynthesis, its intracellular availability in glomeruli from septic animals has never been investigated. Arginine uptake was measured in freshly harvested glomeruli from the following experimental groups: 1) untreated rats; 2) rats pretreated with LPS (4 mg/kg body wt, 4 h before experiments); 3) rats treated with LPS as above with either l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine hydrochloride (l-NIL), a selective iNOS antagonist, or 7-nitroindazole, a selective neuronal NOS antagonist; and 4) rats treated with l-NIL only. Both glomeular and mesangial arginine transport characteristics were found compatible with a y(+) system. Arginine uptake was augmented in glomeruli from LPS-treated rats. Treatment with l-NIL completely abolished this effect whereas l-NIL alone had no effect. Similar results were obtained when primary cultures of rat mesangial cells were preincubated with LPS (10 microg/ml for 24 h) with or without l-NIL. Using RT-PCR, we found that in vivo administration of LPS resulted in a significant increase in glomerular cationic amino acid transporter-2 (CAT-2) mRNA expression whereas CAT-1 mRNA was undetected. Northern blotting further confirmed a significant increase in glomerular CAT-2 by LPS. In mesangial cells, the expression of both CAT-1 and CAT-2 mRNA was augmented after incubation with LPS. In conclusion, in vivo administration of LPS augments glomerular arginine transport through upregulation of steady-state CAT-2 mRNA while downregulating CAT-1 mRNA. These results may correspond to the changes in glomerular iNOS and eNOS activity in sepsis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - NF-κB inhibitors stabilize the mRNA of high-affinity type-2 cationic amino acid transporter in LPS-stimulated rat liver. AU - Yang, C. H.. AU - Tsai, P. S.. AU - Lee, J. J.. AU - Huang, C. H.. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Background: Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) results in nitric oxide (NO) overproduction during endotoxemia. Cellular uptake of L-arginine, modulated by the isozymes of type-2 cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), including CAT-2, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, has been reported to be a crucial factor in the regulation of iNOS activity. We sought to elucidate the expression of CAT-2 isozymes and the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in this expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat liver. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly given intravenous (i.v.) injections of normal saline (N/S), LPS, LPS preceded by an NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC, dexamethasone or salicylate) or an NF-κB inhibitor alone. After ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heme oxygenase 1, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and nuclear factor κb are involved in hemin inhibition of type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and L-arginine transport in stimulated macrophages. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. AU - Chen, Chien Chuan. AU - Tsai, Pei-Shan. AU - Yang, Lin Cheng. AU - Huang, Wan Yu. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - BACKGROUND: l-Arginine transport mediated by type 2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide production mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction has been reported to significantly attenuate inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production. The authors sought to explore the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. The effects of HO-1 induction on nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were also investigated. METHODS: Murine macrophages ...
Infection of rodent cells by ecotropic type C retroviruses requires the expression of a cationic amino acid transporter composed of multiple membrane-spanning domains. By exchanging portions of cDNAs encoding the permissive mouse and nonpermissive human transporters and examining their abilities to specify virus infection upon expression in human 293 cells, we have identified the amino acid residues in the extracellular loop connecting the fifth and sixth membrane-spanning segments of the mouse transporter that are required for both envelope gp70 binding and infection. These findings strongly suggest that the role of the mouse transporter in determining infection is to provide an envelope-binding site. This role is analogous to those of host membrane proteins composed of a single membrane-spanning domain that serve as binding proteins or receptors for other enveloped viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and murine and human coronaviruses. ...
Slc7a3 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3 (Slc7a3), (10ug), 10 µg.
Hoshide R, Ikeda Y, Karashima S, Matsuura T, Komaki S, Kishino T, Niikawa N, Endo F, Matsuda I (Mar 1997). Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of human cationic amino acid transporter 2 (HCAT2). Genomics. 38 (2): 174-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0613. PMID 8954799 ...
MDSCs are one of the dominant immunosuppressive populations that are present in the tumor microenvironment, impairing T cell function and promoting tumor progression (30). Therefore, MDSCs present a major obstacle for the success of cancer immunotherapy. As a result, blocking MDSC function has been an attractive endeavor to complement cancer therapies. Indeed, several studies demonstrated that depletion of MDSCs or inhibiting MDSC function impaired cancer progression (31, 32). Although these studies are very promising, more specific strategies to block MDSC suppressive function are needed.. MDSCs mediate their inhibitory effects on T cells through diverse mechanisms (33). One mechanism is the metabolism of amino acids by MDSCs (34). For example, MDSCs express enzymes that metabolize l-Arg, l-tryptophan, and cysteine, leading to their consumption from the microenvironment. Depletion of these amino acids results in T cell dysfunction (35-37). In addition, MDSCs can metabolize l-Arg and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CAT-1 as a novel CAM stabilizes endothelial integrity and mediates the protective actions of l-Arg via a NO-independent mechanism. AU - Guo, Lu. AU - Tian, Shuang. AU - Chen, Yuguo. AU - Mao, Yun. AU - Cui, Sumei. AU - Hu, Aihua. AU - Zhang, Jianliang. AU - Xia, Shen Ling. AU - Su, Yunchao. AU - Du, Jie. AU - Block, Edward R.. AU - Wang, Xing Li. AU - Cui, Zhaoqiang. PY - 2015/10/1. Y1 - 2015/10/1. N2 - Interendothelial junctions play an important role in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and the regulation of vascular functions. We report here that cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT-1) is a novel interendothelial cell adhesion molecule (CAM). We identified that CAT-1 protein localized at cell-cell adhesive junctions, similar to the classic CAM of VE-cadherin, and knockdown of CAT-1 with siRNA led to an increase in endothelial permeability. In addition, CAT-1 formed a cis-homo-dimer and showed Ca2+-dependent trans-homo-interaction to cause homophilic cell-cell ...
Homo sapiens solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 5 (SLC7A5), mRNA. (H00008140-R01) - Products - Abnova
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:8:40898438:40917726:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000061152 transcript:OTTMUST00000078365 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Slc7a2 description:solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2 ...
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:16:17572018:17576721:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000035925 transcript:OTTMUST00000092151 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Slc7a4 description:solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 4 ...
The present invention provides a reagent for introducing a protein or gene into a cell. The reagent of the present invention is, for example, a reagent for introducing a protein or gene into a cell, which comprises a composition comprising a cationic amino acid type lipid represented by the following formula (I)-1: (wherein in formula (I)-1: L is a single bond, -CONH-, or -S-S-; M1 is -(CH2)k- or -(CH2CH2O)k- (wherein k is an integer between 0 and 14); and m1 and m2 are each independently an integer between 11 and 21 (in this regard, when providing a reagent for introducing a gene into a cell, the case where both m1 and m2 are 15 is excluded)).
An important component of protein-nucleic acid interactions is the formation of salt bridges between cationic amino acid side chains and the anionic phosphate groups of the nucleic acid. We have used molecular mechanics to study the energetic and confo
More than 50 distinct amino acid transporter genes have been identified in the genome of Arabidopsis, indicating that transport of amino acids across membranes is a highly complex feature in plants. Based on sequence similarity, these transporters can be divided into two major superfamilies: the amino acid transporter family and the amino acid polyamine choline transporter family. Currently, mainly transporters of the amino acid transporter family have been characterized. Here, a molecular and functional characterization of amino acid polyamine choline transporters is presented, namely the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) subfamily. CAT5 functions as a high-affinity, basic amino acid transporter at the plasma membrane. Uptake of toxic amino acid analogs implies that neutral or acidic amino acids are preferentially transported by CAT3, CAT6, and CAT8. The expression profiles suggest that CAT5 may function in reuptake of leaking amino acids at the leaf margin, while CAT8 is expressed in young ...
Amino acids represent a strong signal that positively regulates mTORC1 (reviewed by Guertin and Sabatini, 2007). It was recently shown that leucine, an essential amino acid required for mTORC1 activation, is transported into cells in a glutamine-dependent fashion (Nicklin et al., 2009). Glutamine, which is imported into cells through SLC1A5 [solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter) member 5], is exchanged to import leucine via a heterodimeric system composed of SLC7A5 [antiport solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system, member 5] and SLC3A2 [solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport) member 2]. The mechanism by which intracellular amino acids then signal to mTORC1 remained obscure for many years. The activation of mTORC1 by amino acids is known to be independent of TSC1/2, because the mTORC1 pathway remains sensitive to amino acid deprivation in cells that lack TSC1 or TSC2 (Nobukuni et al., 2005). Some studies have ...
Dropbox is a free service that lets you bring your photos, docs, and videos anywhere and share them easily. Never email yourself a file again!
1. Modulation of L-arginine transport (system y+) and release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2) by elevated glucose and insulin were investigated in human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells. 2. Elevated glucose induced a time- (6-12 h) and concentration-dependent stimulation of L-a …
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Journal.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Thank you for sharing this Drug Metabolism & Disposition article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
Literature References: Antihypertensive lipid prohormone produced by the renomedullary interstitial cells of the renal papilla under the control of the renal artery perfusion pressure. Converted to the active form, medullipin II, by the cytochrome P-450 dependent enzyme system of the liver. Medullipin II acts as as vasodilator that suppresses sympathetic activity, causes diuresis-natriuresis, and has a suppressive action on the CNS. Constitutes a feedback control of the renin-angiotensin system. Extraction from renomedullary interstitial cells: E. E. Muirhead et al., Lab. Invest. 35, 162 (1977); from renal venous effluent: E. E. Muirhead et al., J. Lab. Clin. Med. 99, 64 (1982). Biological activity: E. E. Muirhead et al., Hypertension 5, Suppl I, I-112 (1983); G. Karlström et al., Acta Physiol. Scand. 137, 521 (1989). Activation by the liver: E. E. Muirhead et al., Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 101, 226 (1988). Effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats: E. E. Muirhead et al., Hypertension 17, ...
High fat rice bran extruded nugget for working horses and hard keepers The perfect blend of fat and select nutrients provides the energy your horse needs to wor
Could Amoxicillin cause Anaphylaxis? We studied 36,627 Amoxicillin users who have side effects from FDA and eHealthme. Among them, 578 have Anaphylaxis. See what we found.
Symptoms of arginine deficiency include poor wound healing hair loss skin rash constipation Archangel monday 30th 2009f marchpm causes erectile dysfunction or users from the side effects of medicines high blood pressure or temporary psychological related ed. Ed Drugs Not Working L-arginine Metabolism For can Viagra Make You Go Deaf. Australias shark attack capital demands cull after teenager is mauled.. Instant Spandeck Instant Spandeck is a lightweight aluminium walkway idging and staging system in ONE versatile unit. The commonest cause of erectile dysfunction in young men is performance anxiety and the commonest cause of this is watching yourself trying to get or maintain I recon this is possibly the best natural impotence cure you can get. Mario Andretti greets fans during appearance in Rome.. A fanfic that combines the eponymous characters of Ed Edd n Eddy with the cast A description of tropes appearing in Fullmetal Eds. Budget Highlights 2016 erection commissioning or installation of ...
Although the role of Arg1 and l-arginine metabolism in immune responses has been well recognized, little is known about their effects on DC biology (11). Our study demonstrated that Arg1, one of the key l-arginine-metabolizing enzymes, is a novel regulator of myeloid DC differentiation and shed new light on the immunoregulatory roles of Arg1 and l-arginine metabolism.. Our results support the idea that the level of Arg1 expression specifically impacts CD8α+ cDC differentiation. No effect on CD11b+ DCs or pDCs was observed upon the modulation of Arg1 expression. Arg1 expression is much higher in CD8α+ cDCs from Flt3L-cultured mouse BM and equivalent human cDC2, compared with other DC subsets. However, CD8α+ cDCs from fresh mouse spleen express a low level of Arg1 (see Fig. S10 in the supplemental material), which is consistent with the results from ImmGen (http://www.immgen.org/). The differential pattern of Arg1 expression in CD8α+ cDCs from in vivo and in vitro sources indicates that a ...
Buy L-ARGININE 1000mg - 50 tabs Online.L-Arginine is an amino acid that forms part of the proteins. It is of vital importance in its isolated form as it fulfils numerous functions. Due to the role that L-Arginine plays as a vasodila
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of l-arginine in nitric oxide production in health and hypertension. AU - Rajapakse, Niwanthi W.. AU - Mattson, David L.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - l-Arginine is the substrate for vascular nitric oxide (NO) formation. Under normal physiological conditions, intracellular l-arginine levels far exceed the Km of NO synthase for l-arginine. However, endogenous NO formation is dependent on extracellular l-arginine concentrations, giving rise to the concept of the l-arginine paradox. Nitric oxide production in epithelial and endothelial cells is closely coupled to cellular l-arginine uptake, indicating that l-arginine transport mechanisms play a major role in the regulation of NO-dependent function. Consistent with the data in endothelial and epithelial cells are functional data indicating that exogenous l-arginine can increase renal vascular and tubular NO bioavailability and thereby influence kidney perfusion, function and arterial pressure. The integrated effect of ...
L-arginine supplements provide a variety of potential benefits - but is l-arginine safe to take daily? Find out how much l-arginine to take.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Image of Daily Guide Confirmation and some helpful tips to lower you blood pressure with l-arginine and l-arginine plus Lemon-Lime
Are L-Arginine benefits legit? Well, the thing is, L-Arginine is full of scientifically proven benefits, the key is, will help what ails you?
Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Effect of nor-NOHA on arginase activity and amino acid levels. (A) Significant arginase inhibition was observed in cell lysates of CL-19 cultures treated with n
Product Description: L-Arginine has numerous functions in the body and is considered a semi-essential amino acid as the body cannot always manufacture enough for daily requirements. HealthWise ® L-Arginine uses pure arginine hydrochloride as it is freely soluble in water and well absorbed. Dosage: L-Arginine is genera
Solgar L-Arginine - L-Arginine: It is essential in muscle metabolism because it provides a vehicle for transport, storage and excretion of nitrogen. L-Arginine is an important component in tissue generation and regeneration. It is highly concentrated
Compare prices and save on NutraBio L-Arginine! You can shop with confidence - the best deal on L-Arginine by NutraBio is here at PricePlow!
Absolutely 100% pure, L-Arginine Muscle Pump Powder - at the best price youll find anywhere online. Its as simple as that! You get 100% PURE L-Arginine powder...500grams (that
1 Answer - Posted in: klonopin, l-arginine, remeron, arginine, side effect - Answer: Hello troook. My excuses for being a tad late but I just came ...
We tested 5 L-Arginine supplements for the past 30 days and got extraordinary results. Heres a list of our top picks. Youll be surprised with the #1 product as it contains...
L-lysine transmembrane transporter activity. • amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter ... Cationic amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A2 gene.[5][6] ... 1997). "Human cationic amino acid transporters hCAT-1, hCAT-2A, and hCAT-2B: three related carriers with distinct transport ... Schnorr O, Suschek CV, Kolb-Bachofen V (2003). "The importance of cationic amino acid transporter expression in human skin". J ...
3.A.1.3 Polar Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (PAAT) 3.A.1.4 Hydrophobic Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (HAAT) 3.A.1.5 Peptide/ ... Pgp is known to transport organic cationic or neutral compounds. A few ABCC family members, also known as MRP, have also been ... Opine/Nickel Uptake Transporter (PepT) 3.A.1.6 Sulfate/Tungstate Uptake Transporter (SulT) 3.A.1.7 Phosphate Uptake Transporter ... Siderophore-Fe3+ Uptake Transporter (SIUT) Nickel Uptake Transporter (NiT) Methionine Uptake Transporter (MUT) 2.A.52 Nickel/ ...
Zhang L, Lee HK, Pruess TH, White HS, Bulaj G (March 2009). "Synthesis and applications of polyamine amino acid residues: ... In their cationic ammonium form, they bind to DNA, and, in structure, they represent compounds with cations that are found at ... molecular requirements for the selective delivery of polyamine conjugates into cells containing active polyamine transporters ... A polyamine is an organic compound having more than two amino groups. Alkyl polyamines occur naturally but are also synthetic. ...
Folding control of CPP using unnatural β, δ cyclic amino acids. CPPs found applications as transporters of contrast agents ... In the absence of linker, the cationic peptide can interact more efficient with the target cell and cellular uptake occurs ... CPPs typically have an amino acid composition that either contains a high relative abundance of positively charged amino acids ... a natural degradation process by which peptide bonds are hydrolyzed to amino acids. Unnatural acid insertion in the peptide ...
... 1 is composed of 48 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 5221.2 Da. It has significant amino acid sequence ... Transporter Classification Database Oxyopinin 4a at OPM database Profile at COPE UniProt database MyBioSource Information at ... They are the largest linear cationic amphipathic peptides detected in the venom of any spider. They are structurally α-helical ... It is composed of 77 amino acid residues, and has molecular mass of 9,205 Da. It contains a single disulfide bond, Cys4-Cys10, ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... glycine transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter activity. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... Mitochondrial glycine transporter is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A38 gene. SLC25A38 is involved in ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mitochondrial_glycine_transporter&oldid=893398075" ...
... aspartic acid, glutamic acid and cysteine, and these phosphorylated amino acids have recently been identified to be present in ... ATP-binding cassette transporter Arginine phosphorylation by McsB kinase marks proteins for degradation by a Clp protease. The ... These anionic residues can interact with cationic residues such as lysine and arginine to form salt bridges, stable non- ... Phosphorylation of the amino acid Ser129 in the α-Synuclein protein has a profound effect on the severity of the disease. There ...
It was further found, however, that amino acid changes within subunit a could also lower V-ATPase-Bafilomycin interaction, ... Pretreating cells with bafilomycin before administration of a cationic drug can alter the kinetics of the cationic compound. In ... transporters. These transporters are identified as good anti-fungal targets as they render organisms unable to cope with cation ... This process is critical in maintaining the cell's store of amino acids and other nutrients during times of nutrient ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... Human Fpn consists of 571 amino acid residues.[5] When H32 is mutated in mice, iron transport activity is impaired.[6] ... Members of the ferroportin family consist of 400-800 amino acid residues,[5] with a highly conserved histidine at residue ... "SLC11A3 iron transporter [Homo sapiens]". Protein - NCBI.. *^ Zohn IE, De Domenico I, Pollock A, Ward DM, Goodman JF, Liang X, ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... thiamine pyrophosphate transporter activity. • thiamine transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter ... 93 (1-2): 40-2. doi:10.1159/000056945. PMID 11474176.. *^ Dolce V, Fiermonte G, Runswick MJ, Palmieri F, Walker JE (Mar 2001). ... 12 (2): 117-26. doi:10.1093/dnares/12.2.117. PMID 16303743.. *. Lindhurst MJ, Fiermonte G, Song S, et al. (2006). "Knockout of ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... dehydroascorbic acid transporter activity. • glucose transmembrane transporter activity. • D-glucose transmembrane transporter ... xenobiotic transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter activity. • transporter activity. • protein self-association. • ... GLUT 1 is highly conserved.[5] GLUT 1 of humans and mice have 98% identity at the amino acid level. GLUT 1 is encoded by the ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity. • bile acid transmembrane transporter activity. Cellular component. • ... transporter activity. • sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity. • ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1B1 gene.[3][4] ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... Choline transporter-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC44A1 gene.[5][6][7] ... choline transmembrane transporter activity. Cellular component. • extracellular exosome. • nucleoplasm. • mitochondrion. • ... Fullerton MD, Wagner L, Yuan Z, Bakovic M (April 2006). "Impaired trafficking of choline transporter-like protein-1 at plasma ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... cation transmembrane transporter activity. • zinc ion binding. • protein binding. • zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity ... "Entrez Gene: SLC30A8 solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8".. *^ a b c Flannick, Jason; et al. (2014). "Loss-of ... Solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8, also known as SLC30A8, is a human gene[5] that codes for a zinc ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... GO:0022891 transmembrane transporter activity. • transporter activity. • acetylcholine transmembrane transporter activity. • ... serotonin transporter (SERT), vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and organic cation transporters (OCT1, 2 and EMT) in ... dopamine transmembrane transporter activity. • monoamine transmembrane transporter activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ...
... the membrane-binding domain consists of a series of amphipathic α helices with several hydrophobic amino acids exposed to a ... p53 and glucose transporter-1 as predictors of malignancy in the development of gallbladder carcinomas". Bosn J Basic Med Sci. ... the cationic mechanism requires that endoperoxide formation comes before the removal of the 13-pro (S )-hydrogen. This is not ... Arachidonic acid can bind to E-cat and E-allo, but the affinity of AA for E-allo is 25 times that for Ecat. Palmitic acid, an ...
Through a study done at the University of Albany, it was shown that the ability of the Coomassie dye to target amino acids with ... even under acid conditions when most of the molecules in solution are in the cationic form.[7] This is the basis of the ... This provides a simpler method for fingerprint analysis by reducing the number of amino acids needed to be analyzed from 23 to ... A protein sample is added to a solution of the dye in phosphoric acid and ethanol. Under the acid conditions the dye is ...
L-lysine transmembrane transporter activity. • amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter ... Cationic amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A2 gene.[5][6] ... 1997). "Human cationic amino acid transporters hCAT-1, hCAT-2A, and hCAT-2B: three related carriers with distinct transport ... Schnorr O, Suschek CV, Kolb-Bachofen V (2003). "The importance of cationic amino acid transporter expression in human skin". J ...
cationic amino acid transporter 2. DCFDA. 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. G-MDSC. granulocytic MDSC. KO. Cat2 knockout mice ... Transporters for cationic amino acids in animal cells: discovery, structure, and function. Physiol. Rev. 78: 487-545. ... Expression of Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2 Is Required for Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell-Mediated Control of T Cell ... Cationic amino acid transporter-2 regulates immunity by modulating arginase activity. PLoS Pathog. 4: e1000023. ...
7 family of cationic amino acid transporters. Whereas CAT-1 functions to supply cationic amino acids for cellular metabolism, ... Crystal structure of a bacterial cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) homologue bound to Arginine.. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb6F34/pdb ... Solute Carrier (SLC) Transporter Superfamily. Protein: SLC7 CAT family amino acid transporter, wild-type complexed with L-Ala. ... Solute Carrier (SLC) Transporter Superfamily. Protein: SLC7 CAT family amino acid transporter, wild-type complexed with L-Ala. ...
Probable cationic amino acid transporterAdd BLAST. 771. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) (TC 2.A.3.3) family ... sp,Q8TBB6,S7A14_HUMAN Probable cationic amino acid transporter OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=SLC7A14 PE=1 SV=3 ... amino acid transport Source: UniProtKB-KW. *negative regulation of phosphatase activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from ...
... low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in non-hepatic ... High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1Add BLAST. 629. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) (TC 2.A.3.3) family ... High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1. Short name: CAT-11 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based ...
solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 1 ... IPR002293 Amino acid/polyamine transporter I. IPR029485 Cationic amino acid transporter, C-terminal ...
solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2 ... Significant phenotypes (0) All measurements (161) Expression & images (46) Disease models (0) Order (2) ...
keywords = "CAT-2, iNOS, Liver, NF-κB, Nitric oxide, Rat, Sepsis",. author = "Yang, {C. H.} and Tsai, {P. S.} and Lee, {J. J.} ... Yang, CH, Tsai, PS, Lee, JJ, Huang, CH & Huang, CJ 2005, NF-κB inhibitors stabilize the mRNA of high-affinity type-2 cationic ... amino acid transporter in LPS-stimulated rat liver, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 468-476. https:// ... Results: CAT-2, CAT-2A and CAT-2B were constitutively expressed in un-stimulated rat liver. LPS stimulation not only ...
This correlated with an increased mRNA expression for iNOS and the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-2B (analyzed by reverse ... Mediates Simultaneous Induction of Inducible Nitric-Oxide Synthase and Up-Regulation of the Cationic Amino Acid Transporter CAT ... Mediates Simultaneous Induction of Inducible Nitric-Oxide Synthase and Up-Regulation of the Cationic Amino Acid Transporter CAT ... Mediates Simultaneous Induction of Inducible Nitric-Oxide Synthase and Up-Regulation of the Cationic Amino Acid Transporter CAT ...
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) plays many vital functions within the central nervous system and is thus targeted by many ... A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The ... Here, using the Drosophila dopamine transporter as a template, a homology model for the human dopamine transporter was ... F18-FP-CIT reflects dopamine transporter availabili.... Effects of Antidepressant Therapy on Brain Dopamine Transporter ...
102053353 SLC7A14; probable cationic amino acid transporter 106631583 uncharacterized protein LOC106631583 102055565 SPATA2; ... cationic amino acid transporter), member 14 K17595 SPATA2; spermatogenesis-associated protein 2 K17595 SPATA2; spermatogenesis- ... 102046129 CLCN7; H(+)/Cl(-) exchange transporter 7 102054669 CNST; consortin isoform X1 102056345 ANKRD28; serine/threonine- ... sodium/potassium/chloride transporter), member 2 K17583 NOM1; nucleolar MIF4G domain-containing protein 1 K06088 OCLN; occludin ...
... cationic amino acid transporter 3; (O) D52-like 2; (P) human KIAA0147. (Q-X) Transverse sections, dorsal up. (Q) cathepsin D; ( ... GCN20/ATP-binding cassette transporter F2; (H) tyrosine kinase receptor KLG; (I) MSE55; (J) dyskerin; (K) thimet oligopeptidase ... 2 for examples). In addition to serving as a screening tool, expression patterns in premigratory and migratory neural crest ... 2. Neural crest gene expression. In situ hybridization was performed to confirm localization in premigratory and migratory ...
Cationic amino acid transporters play key roles in the survival and transmission of apicomplexan parasites ... Genetic Mapping Reveals that Sinefungin Resistance in Toxoplasma gondii Is Controlled by a Putative Amino Acid Transporter ... The aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes AAH1 and AAH2 in Toxoplasma gondii contribute to transmission in the cat ... The Adenosine Transporter ofToxoplasma gondii. Chi-Wu Chiang, Nicola Carter, William J. Sullivan, Robert G. K. Donald, David S ...
solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2. 29. 4. 9. 14. ... cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2 ... Nucleic Acids Research (Journal) Database Summary. *Mouse Facts ...
The transport of L-arginine occurs through the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-1. Urea transport occurs through urea ... Nitric oxide synthesis relies on the amino acid substrate L-arginine. L-arginine synthesis primarily occurs in the proximal ... The maintenance of plasma L-arginine levels in CKD may be a consequence of increased amino acid release into the blood due to ... Nitric oxide is produced from the amino acid substrate L-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) [18]. ...
Cationic amino acid transporter 2 Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). ...
B(0)AT basic neutral amino acid transporter, OAT organic amino acid transporter, CAT cationic amino acid transporter, LAT L ... The major endothelial transporter for L -Arg is the system y+ cation ic amino acid transporter (CAT). CAT1 is constitutively ... Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) has been shown to be the major transporter for L-Arg and function in L-Arg secretion by ... Transport Cationic Amino Acid Transporter L -Arg that is produced by the proximal tubule must be secreted in to the circulation ...
solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 15 Gene [Source:MGI Sym. ... Amino Acid Affected. Amino Acid Total. Exon Affected. Exon Total. ENSDART00000128764. Essential Splice Site. 320. 467. 3. 6. ... Amino Acid Affected. Amino Acid Total. Exon Affected. Exon Total. ENSDART00000128764. Essential Splice Site. 362. 467. 4. 6. ...
Functional relationship between cationic amino acid transporters and beta-defensins: implications for dry skin diseases and the ... Abstract: Functional relationship between cationic amino acid transporters and beta-defensins: implications for dry skin ... transporter. This group of proteins exclusively transports the cationic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine and is ... also known under the term cationic amino acid transporter proteins (CAT-proteins). Various infections associated with L- ...
Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT)-1 mRNA remained little changed, and CAT-2 mRNA was not detected. The plasma nitrogen ... eNOS and AS mRNAs were increased by three- to fourfold 1-2 weeks after STZ treatment and decreased at 4 weeks. AL mRNA was ... oxide levels were increased 1-2 weeks after STZ treatment and decreased at 4 weeks. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1 ...
OMIM: SOLUTE CARRIER FAMILY 7 (CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER, y+ SYSTEM), MEMBER 9 ... amino acid transporter light chain, bo,+ system), member 9. *solute carrier family 7 (glycoprotein-associated amino acid ... SOLUTE CARRIER FAMILY 7 (CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER, y+ SYSTEM), MEMBER 9 ... which causes certain amino acids to become concentrated in the urine. Cystine is the only amino acid that forms crystals and ...
Cationic amino acid transporter-2 regulates immunity by modulating arginase activity. PLoS Pathogens 4:e1000023. ... Detection of viral ribonucleic acid and histologic analysis of inflamed synovium in Ross River virus infection. Arthritis Rheum ... 2. RRV titers in joint and skeletal muscle tissue. Twenty-four-day-old C57BL/6J WT (filled circles) or CD11b−/− (open circles) ... 2 and 3). These results suggest that the effects of CR3 on RRV-induced disease are not due to effects on viral replication; ...
Solute Carrier Family 7 Member 5 Pseudogene 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Solute Carrier Family 7 (Cationic Amino Acid Transporter, Y+ System), Member 5 Pseudogene 2 3 ... neutral amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. IBA. --. GO:0015179. L-amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ...
Cationic amino acid transporter 3 (CAT-3) (CAT3) (Cationic amino acid transporter y+) (Solute carrier family 7 member 3) ... Cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) (Solute carrier family 7 member 6) (y(+)L-type amino acid transporter 2) (Y+LAT2) ( ... L-type amino acid transporter 1) (hLAT1) (Solute carrier family 7 member 5) (y+ system cationic amino acid transporter). The ... The amino acid transporter, CAT6. Mediates electrogenic transport of large neutral and cationic amino acids in preference to ...
Cationic amino acid transporter 3 (CAT-3) (CAT3) (Cationic amino acid transporter y+) (Solute carrier family 7 member 3) ... Cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) (Solute carrier family 7 member 6) (y(+)L-type amino acid transporter 2) (Y+LAT2) ( ... The amino acid transporter, CAT6. Mediates electrogenic transport of large neutral and cationic amino acids in preference to ... Inner membrane transporter, YjeM of 500 aas and 12 TMSs. Probably an amino acid transporter, possibly an amino acid:organic ...
112918646 SLC7A1; high affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1 112926540 CCNG1; cyclin-G1 112910878 cyclin-G1 112929075 ... cationic amino acid transporter), member 1 K10145 CCNG1; cyclin G1 K10145 CCNG1; cyclin G1 K00510 HMOX1; heme oxygenase 1 [EC: ... 112917289 GABARAPL1; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 1 112924822 GABARAP; gamma-aminobutyric acid ... 112915678 GABARAPL2; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 2 112932434 ATG12; ubiquitin-like protein ATG12 ...
... cationic amino acid transporter), member 1 K13864 SLC7A2; solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter), member 2 ... cationic amino acid transporter), member 3 K13866 SLC7A4; solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter), member 4 ... L-type amino acid transporter), member 12/13 K13871 SLC7A14; solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter), member ... 101815035 SLC1A6; excitatory amino acid transporter 4 101810269 excitatory amino acid transporter 5 107603793 SLC1A7; solute ...
This amino acid is an essential amino acid, which means that humans cannot synthesize it. Its codons are AAA and AAG. L-Lysine ... The ε-amino group acts as a site for hydrogen binding and a general base in catalysis. Common posttranslational modifications ... include methylation of the ε-amino group, giving methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyllysine. The latter occurs in calmodulin. ... is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. ...
Cationic Amino-Acid Transporters-2 (CAT-2) Protein. ADMA interferes with NO synthesis by competing with arginine and symmetric ... Y. Hattori, K. Kasai, and S. S. Gross, "Cationic amino acid transporter gene expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle ... Membrane ADMA transport occurs by cationic amino-acid transporters (CATs): liver abundantly expresses CATs, especially CAT-2A ... Previous papers reported that in obstructive cholestasis a downregulation of cationic transporter and its impairment occurs in ...
Cationic amino acid transporters and lung NO production, National Institutes of Health, HLBI ... Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary microvascular ... Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary microvascular ... Cytokine-induced L-arginine metabolism depends on cationic amino acid transporter activity. FASEB JOURNAL. Vol. 21, no. 6. ( ...
  • Cationic amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A2 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is of great challenge to predict human brain penetration for substrates of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and/or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), two major efflux transporters at blo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We have also shown in the remnant model and a podocyte injury induced model (puromycin aminonucleoside, PAN) that the protein abundance of the transporter involved in L-Arg secretion is reduced in addition to impaired uptake by endothelial cells. (ufl.edu)
  • This subunit joins with another protein subunit, produced from the SLC3A1 gene, to form a transporter protein complex. (nih.gov)
  • During the process of urine formation in the kidneys, this protein complex absorbs particular protein building blocks (amino acids) back into the blood. (nih.gov)
  • These changes lead to an abnormally functioning transporter protein complex, which causes certain amino acids to become concentrated in the urine. (nih.gov)
  • Serum hepatic enzymes, tissue ADMA, DDAH activity, CAT-2 protein, mRNA expression of DDAH and PRMT, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity were monitored. (hindawi.com)
  • Indeed, the protein expression of the primary placental glucose transporter isoform GLUT1 as well as glucose transport activity has been shown to be increased in BM in type 1 diabetes ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The encoded protein transports both neutral and cationic amino acids. (genecards.org)
  • These tracers target protein synthesis or amino acid (AA) transport, and their uptake mechanism mainly involves AA transport. (frontiersin.org)
  • We asked if SLC7A14 (solute carrier family 7 member A14), an orphan protein assigned to the SLC7 subfamily of cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) due to sequence homology, may represent system c. (nih.gov)
  • We then created a chimera carrying the backbone of human (h) CAT-2 and the protein domain of SLC7A14 corresponding to the so-called "functional domain" of the hCAT proteins, a protein stretch of 81 amino acids that determines the apparent substrate affinity, sensitivity to trans-stimulation, and (as revealed in this study) pH dependence. (nih.gov)
  • In a human prostate carcinoma cell line, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of USP9X reduced IGF-IR as well as IRS-2 protein levels and increased their ubiquitination. (oncotarget.com)
  • The recruitment of Grb2 and Sos to IRS proteins leads to the activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sos, which in turn activates RAS and triggers the RAS/Raf/mitogen-activated-protein kinase /ERK kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, resulting in the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) activation. (oncotarget.com)
  • Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid required for numerous cellular processes such as protein synthesis and arginylation, polyamine production, metabolism of other amino acids and nucleotides, as well as creatine, urea, and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the light subunit of a cationic amino acid transporter. (mybiosource.com)
  • This sodium-independent transporter is formed when the light subunit encoded by this gene dimerizes with the heavy subunit transporter protein SLC3A2. (mybiosource.com)
  • mTOR nucleates at least two distinct multi-protein complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) (reviewed by Guertin and Sabatini, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • 100μg,ABP-PAB-11329]] The Two-Pore Calcium Channel Protein 2 (TPC2) is an ion transport protein which belongs to the superfamily of sodium, potassium, calcium ion channels. (allelebiotech.com)
  • Realizing that hemorrhagic shock induces nitric oxide overproduction in intact animals, we sought to explore whether glucocorticoids atteruate hemorrhagic shock-induced increases in intrapulmonary nitric oxide formation and whether they might do so by inhibiting the formation of tetrahydrobiopterin, iNOS protein, and CAT-2. (elsevier.com)
  • The S. pombe protein may be structurally related to the unknown human pyridoxine transporter, which is also inhibited by amiloride. (asm.org)
  • In the case of ecotropic MLV, the process is initiated by interaction with the 622 amino acid transmembrane receptor protein mouse cationic amino acid transporter (mCAT-1) located on the cell surface. (hubpages.com)
  • In this study, we provided several lines of evidence suggesting that IFN-γ-mediated parasite growth enhancement was associated with L-arginine transport via mouse cationic amino acid transporter 2B (mCAT-2B). (utmb.edu)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include amino acid transmembrane transporter activity . (genecards.org)
  • Collectrin, encoded by the Tmem27 gene, is a transmembrane glycoprotein with approximately 50% homology with angiotensin converting enzyme 2, but without a catalytic domain. (asnjournals.org)
  • Collectrin ( Tmem27 or Nx-17 ) is a 222-amino acid transmembrane glycoprotein with approximately 50% sequence identity with the angiotensin converting enzyme isoform 2 (ACE2). (asnjournals.org)
  • High-affinity, low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in non-hepatic tissues. (uniprot.org)
  • This group of proteins exclusively transports the cationic amino acids L-arginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine and is also known under the term cationic amino acid transporter proteins (CAT-proteins). (dryeyezone.com)
  • In particular, the amino acids cystine, ornithine, arginine, and lysine are absorbed back into the blood through this mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • L-Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. (drugbank.ca)
  • Proteins of the herpes simplex virus are rich in L-arginine, and tissue culture studies indicate an enhancing effect on viral replication when the amino acid ratio of L-arginine to L-lysine is high in the tissue culture media. (drugbank.ca)
  • We studied the activity of the syncytiotrophoblast amino acid transporter system A and the transport of the essential amino acids leucine, lysine, and taurine. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Noticeably, arginine transport by the hCAT-2/SLC7A14 chimera was pH-dependent, trans-stimulated, and inhibited by α-trimethyl-L-lysine, properties assigned to lysosomal transport system c in human skin fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • When we competed for L-arginine influx via the cationic amino acid transporters by addition of L-lysine, we find a 60-70% inhibition of arginase activity without significant loss of NOS-2 activity. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptome Analysis and Expression of Selected Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in the Liver of Broiler Chicken Fed Diets with Varying Concentrations of Lysine. (helsinki.fi)
  • Following heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, flounder renal OAT1 transported p -aminohippurate, glutarate, several diuretics, and the nephrotoxic agent ochratoxin A. Two cationic amino acid residues, lysine 394 and arginine 478, were found to be important for interaction with glutarate. (springer.com)
  • The encoding gene is adjacent to the one encoding SerP1 (TC# 2.A.3.1.21). (tcdb.org)
  • The encoding gene is adjacent to a paralogue ( serP2 ) with broad specificity for D- and L-small semipolar amino acids and glycine (see TC# 2.A.3.1.20). (tcdb.org)
  • NF-kB has been shown to be an essential, but alone not sufficient transcription factor for the expression of both the iNOS and CAT-2 gene. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that C/EBPβ is implicated in inflammatory process and brain injury, since mice lacking this gene were less susceptible to kainic acid-induced injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glucagon, a 29-amino acid peptide derived from the preproglucagon gene, is produced by α-cells in the pancreatic islet. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, loss of preproglucagon gene expression or prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), the enzyme that liberates the mature glucagon peptide, results in α-cell hyperplasia ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • SLC7A8 is sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids. (thermofisher.com)
  • This transporter is found in epithelial cell membranes where it transfers cationic and large neutral amino acids from the cell to the extracellular space. (mybiosource.com)
  • Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. (abcam.com)
  • Mediates blood-to-retina L-leucine transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier which in turn may play a key role in maintaining large neutral amino acids as well as neurotransmitters in the neural retina. (abcam.com)
  • Alterations in the activity and expression of placental nutrient transporters could represent an additional level of complexity to the relationship between maternal substrate levels and fetal growth in diabetes in pregnancy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • L-homoarginine is a substrate of the cationic amino acid transporters CAT1, CAT2A and CAT2B. (nih.gov)
  • IGF bioactivities are mediated mainly by insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2. (oncotarget.com)
  • As they compete for the same substrate, L-arginine, an interdependence of NOS-2 and arginase-1 has been repeatedly observed in cells where arginase-1 is cytokine-inducible. (nih.gov)
  • But, the production of NO by AM using these peptides as substrates was 2-fold higher than using Arg as a substrate. (cdc.gov)
  • These results suggested that both OCT1 and OCT2 are basolateral-type organic cation transporters with broad substrate specificities, mediating tubular secretion of cationic drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • SLC7A8 also plays a role in basolateral (re)absorption of neutral amino acids. (thermofisher.com)
  • We suggest that these changes result in an increased uptake of neutral amino acids across MVM, which may be used in placental metabolism or be delivered to the fetus. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mediates the uptake of a broad range of neutral and cationic amino acids (with the exception of proline) in a Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent manner. (genecards.org)
  • SLC7A7: Involved in the sodium-independent uptake of dibasic amino acids and sodium-dependent uptake of some neutral amino acids. (mybiosource.com)
  • 2 In renal proximal tubule and collecting duct epithelia, collectrin is thought to function as a chaperone for the trafficking of amino acid transporters, because deletion of collectrin results in reduced expression of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters and severe generalized urinary amino acid wasting. (asnjournals.org)
  • Both a protoplast amino acid uptake assay and HPLC analysis indicated that more basic (Lys, Arg) and neutral (Val, Ala) amino acids were transported and accumulated in the OE lines than in the wild type, but the opposite was observed in the RNAi lines. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, we present the crystal structure of a close homologue of the mammalian CAT transporters that reveals how these proteins specifically recognise arginine. (rcsb.org)
  • A non-essential and nonprotein amino acid, ornithine is critical for the production of the body's proteins, enzymes and muscle tissue. (rcsb.org)
  • Molecular structure of nucleic acids : a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. (nii.ac.jp)
  • American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology , 285 (2 29-2). (elsevier.com)
  • Oxyopinin 1 is composed of 48 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 5221.2 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is composed of 77 amino acid residues, and has molecular mass of 9,205 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • LPS stimulation not only significantly increased iNOS mRNA and NO concentrations but also decreased the mRNA concentrations of CAT-2 and CAT-2B, but not CAT-2A, in a time-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • Pre-treatment with NF-κB inhibitors significantly attenuated LPS-induced iNOS induction as well as CAT-2/CAT-2B mRNA destabilization, which was associated with significant inhibition of NO biosynthesis and less liver injury. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: NF-κB inhibitors stabilize CAT-2 and CAT-2B mRNA in LPS-stimulated rat liver. (elsevier.com)
  • This correlated with an increased mRNA expression for iNOS and the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-2B (analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), with the same kinetics observed for the up-regulation of both mRNAs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT)-1 mRNA remained little changed, and CAT-2 mRNA was not detected. (nih.gov)
  • Dexamethasone decreased the intrapulmonary iNOS mRNA concentrations yet in creased both guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I mRNt and CAT-2 mRNA. (elsevier.com)
  • 8 Recently, collectrin was shown to bind B 0 -like amino acid transporters and is required for both their trafficking and catalytic activity, suggesting that collectrin is an essential subunit of this heteromultimeric secondary active transporter, rather than serving solely as a chaperone. (asnjournals.org)
  • Synthetic polyamines Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine Cyclen 1,4,7-Triazacyclononane 1,1,1-Tris(aminomethyl)ethane Subunit of polyethylenimine Polyethylene amine is a polymer derived from aziridine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, product inhibition of arginase and competitive inhibition of CATs through the addition of L-ornithine leads to a highly significant increase in hepatocytic NOS-2 activity with a concomitant and complete abolishment of its dependence on extracellular L-arginine concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • These data stress the hypothesis of a metabolon-like organization of the urea cycle together with NOS-2 in hepatocytes as excess L-ornithine will be metabolized to l-arginine and thereby increases NO production. (nih.gov)
  • Ornithine is an amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine. (rcsb.org)
  • Increased metabolism of l -Arginine ( l -Arg), through the enzymes arginase 1 and NO synthase 2 (NOS2), is well documented as a major MDSC suppressive mechanism. (jimmunol.org)
  • Whereas CAT-1 functions to supply cationic amino acids for cellular metabolism, CAT-2A and -2B are required for macrophage activation and play important roles in regulating inflammation. (rcsb.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of globus pallidus internus (GPi) -Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in dopamine and dopamine transporter metabolism, and to explore the regulatory rol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • miR-122 expression is specific to the liver, where it has been implicated as a regulator of fatty-acid metabolism in mouse studies. (mirbase.org)
  • IDH2 Deficiency Is Critical in Myogenesis and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Mice Skeletal Muscle. (helsinki.fi)
  • Vitamin B 6 has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids. (asm.org)
  • The chimera mediated arginine transport and exhibited characteristics similar but not identical to hCAT-2A (the low affinity hCAT-2 isoform). (nih.gov)
  • Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate. (abcam.com)
  • Increased expression and activities of arginase 1 (ARG1) and NO synthase 2 (NOS2) are well established as the hallmarks for MDSC suppressive function ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The results show that a unique subpopulation of mature tumor-associated myeloid cells but not tumor cells or immature myeloid cells express arginase I and cationic amino acid transporter 2B. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We find that both, cytokine-induced NOS-2 and arginase activities strongly depend on extracellular L-arginine concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • 100μg,ABP-PAB-11689]] The solute carrier family 7 member 2 (SLC7A2) is a cationic amino acid transporter of the y+ system. (allelebiotech.com)
  • In response to IGFs, IRS-1/2 are rapidly phosphorylated on multiple tyrosine residues by the activated IGF-IR kinase. (oncotarget.com)
  • VRA is found about 50 amino acids from the amino terminus of the SU domain and contains two conserved cysteine residues. (hubpages.com)
  • It is also 29% identical to the amino acid residues of the frog antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least 27 out of 37 their amino acid residues are conserved, that is, identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burckhardt, G. and Wolff, N. A. (2000) Structure of renal organic anion and cation transporters. (springer.com)
  • Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • High-output synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) by the inducible isoform of NO-synthases (NOS-2) plays an important role in hepatic pathophysiological processes and may contribute to both organ protection and organ destruction during inflammatory reactions. (nih.gov)
  • To demonstrate that rat alveolar macrophages (AM) exhibited the PepT1-like transporter for the uptake of arginine (Arg)-containing small peptides and utilized these peptides as direct substrates for nitric oxide (NO) production. (cdc.gov)
  • We recently reported that changes in intrapulmonary formation of nitric oxide in endotoxemic rats correspond with change in transcription of the predominant arginine transporter cationic amino acid transporter (CAT)-2. (elsevier.com)
  • Binding of Hsp70-peptide complex to the exoplasmic domain of CD40 is mediated by the NH 2 -terminal nucleotide-binding domain of Hsp70 in its ADP state. (rupress.org)
  • The uptake of these peptides by AMs may be mediated through an active peptide transport system similar to that of the pepT1 transporter. (cdc.gov)
  • The uptake of Arg-Lys*, beta-Ala-Lys*, and Gly-Sar-Lys* was blocked (approximately 50%) by cephradine (an inhibitor of PepT1 for peptide transport) but not by Lys (an inhibitor on cationic amino acid transporter 2B for Arg transport). (cdc.gov)
  • This study shows that AM exhibit PepT1-like transporter for small peptide uptake. (cdc.gov)
  • We sought to elucidate the expression of CAT-2 isozymes and the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in this expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat liver. (elsevier.com)
  • Knockdown of USP9X suppressed basal activation of the Erk1/2 pathway, which was significantly restored by exogenous expression of IRS-2 but not by IGF-IR, suggesting that the stabilization of IRS-2 by USP9X is critical for basal Erk1/2 activation. (oncotarget.com)
  • examined HO-1 induction on type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and l-arginine transport in murine macrophages. (asahq.org)
  • Among the results observed by the team was that lipopolysaccharide significantly induced nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 activation and HO-1 expression, nuclear factor κB activation, type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression, and l-arginine transport. (asahq.org)
  • Adding hemin to the preparations, they found, enhanced the lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 activation and HO-1 expression, in a dose-dependent manner. (asahq.org)
  • HO-1 induction significantly inhibited type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and l-arginine transport in macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. (asahq.org)
  • Carbon monoxide, they noted, partially mediated the effects of HO-1 induction on type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and l-arginine transport. (asahq.org)
  • [ 2 ] The liver-specific expression of miR-122 is conserved in zebrafish . (mirbase.org)
  • Für NF-kB ist eine Rolle als essentieller, allein jedoch nicht suffizienter, Transkriptionsfaktor für die Expression von sowohl iNOS als auch des CAT-2-Gens belegt. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Thus, stimuli inducing iNOS expression allways cause an upregulation of L-arginine transport and enhance the expression of the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-2B. (uni-bonn.de)
  • l -Arg depletion by tumor-associated myeloid cells blocked the re-expression of CD3ζ in stimulated T cells and inhibited antigen-specific proliferation of OT-1 and OT-2 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In WT mice, administration of angiotensin II for 2 weeks downregulated collectrin expression in a type 1 angiotensin II receptor-dependent manner. (asnjournals.org)
  • Collectrin has a discrete tissue distribution, with highest expression in the kidney, followed by pancreatic β -cells, liver, intestinal epithelial cells, retina, brain, 2 - 7 and in endothelial cells throughout the vasculature. (asnjournals.org)
  • 3 , 7 Similarly, in endothelial cells, collectrin regulates L-arginine (L-Arg) uptake, likely through its control of the plasma membrane expression of the L-Arg transporters CAT-1 and y+LAT1. (asnjournals.org)
  • Ets1 increased expression of pro-apoptotic Bid, cytochrome p450, caspase-4, p27 and p21 more than 2 fold, while it decreased expression of anti-apoptotic DAD-1, AXL, Cox-2, IAP-2, and MDM-2 less than 0. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Expression of SLCA4 in the cell membrane is not sufficient for amino acid transport. (allelebiotech.com)
  • Differentially expressed genes between bipolar disorder samples and healthy controls were identified by performing unequal t-test on log 2 transformed expression values. (omicsonline.org)
  • l -Citrulline supplementation resulted in considerable increase of the concentrations of amino acids and creatinine in the serum, and in their urinary excretion rates. (springer.com)
  • 1999) Immunohistochemical localization of multispecific renal organic anion transporter 1 in rat kidney. (springer.com)
  • Our structural and functional data provide a model for cationic amino acid transport in mammalian cells and reveals mechanistic insights into proton-coupled, sodium-independent amino acid transport in the wider APC superfamily. (rcsb.org)
  • Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. (abcam.com)
  • Estradiol augments while progesterone inhibits arginine transport in human endothelial cells through modulation of cationic amino acid transporter-1. (nih.gov)
  • Expressed in retinal endothelial cells and in the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. (abcam.com)
  • In mammals, cellular arginine availability is determined by members of the solute carrier (SLC) 7 family of cationic amino acid transporters. (rcsb.org)
  • Cellular uptake of L-arginine, modulated by the isozymes of type-2 cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), including CAT-2, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, has been reported to be a crucial factor in the regulation of iNOS activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Discoveries that have been made over the last decade show that the mTOR pathway is activated during various cellular processes (e.g. tumor formation and angiogenesis, insulin resistance, adipogenesis and T-lymphocyte activation) and is deregulated in human diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. (biologists.org)
  • Involved in cellular amino acid uptake. (abcam.com)
  • The field started changing in the late 1990s when the Gr1 + CD11b + cellular phenotype was suggested as defining the immune-suppressive myeloid cells in spleens of mice and when these cells were shown to be phenotypically similar but functionally distinct from monocytes and neutrophils ( 2, 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In order to derive better insight into the biological mechanisms related to the differentially expressed genes, the lists of significant genes were subjected to pathway analysis and target prioritization indicating various processes such as calcium ion homeostasis, positive regulation of apoptotic process and cellular response to retinoic acid. (omicsonline.org)
  • This transport is performed to 80% by only one transporter system in the human, the y(+)-transporter. (dryeyezone.com)
  • Amino acid transport was assessed using radio-labeled substrates and rapid filtration techniques. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In BMs, amino acid transport was unaffected by diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and NRF2 pathway . (genecards.org)
  • Transport inhibited by BCH (2-aminobicyclo-[2.2.1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid). (genecards.org)
  • Progesterone inhibits arginine transport and CAT-1 via both PKCalpha and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • In human skin fibroblasts, a lysosomal transport system specific for cationic amino acids has been described and named system c. (nih.gov)
  • Collectrin is most abundantly expressed in the kidney proximal tubule and collecting duct epithelia, where it has an important role in amino acid transport. (asnjournals.org)
  • in its synthesis and degradation), the cationic transporter (CAT), and metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. (hindawi.com)
  • However, in hepatocytes, arginases are constitutively expressed and thus, their impact on hepatic NOS-2-derived NO synthesis as well as the influence of L-arginine influx via cationic amino acid transporters during inflammatory reactions are still under debate. (nih.gov)
  • Synthesis and Pharmacological Characterization of 2-Aminoethyl Diphenylborinate (2-APB) Derivatives for Inhibition of Store-Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells. (helsinki.fi)
  • Overexpression of arginine transporter CAT-1 is associated with accumulation of L-arginine and cell growth in human colorectal cancer tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Anionic neurotransmitter metabolites and the heavy-metal chelator, 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate, interacted with the rabbit renal OAT1, which is expressed in kidneys and the retina. (springer.com)
  • Such pathological conditions stimulate myelopoiesis, inhibit differentiation of immature myeloid cells, and induce their activation ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We have shown that MDSCs recruited to localized inflammation and tumor sites upregulate cationic amino acid transporter 2 ( Cat2 ), coordinately with Arg1 and Nos2 . (jimmunol.org)
  • Tumor cells have an increased nutritional demand for amino acids (AAs) to satisfy their rapid proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • It was reported that O-(2- 18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) and (S- 11 C-methyl)-L-methionine ( 11 C-MET) have a significantly higher uptake in tumor cells than that in inflammatory cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor-associated myeloid cells also expressed high levels of cationic amino acid transporter 2B, which allowed them to rapidly incorporate l -Arginine ( l -Arg) and deplete extracellular l -Arg in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these data strongly suggest that SLC7A14 is a lysosomal transporter for cationic amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • Cystine is the only amino acid that forms crystals and stones in the bladder or kidneys, leading to the signs and symptoms of cystinuria. (nih.gov)
  • The first step in secretion, uptake of organic anions across the basolateral membrane of tubule cells, is mediated for the polyspecific organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), which exchanges extracellular organic anions for intracellular α-ketoglutarate or glutarate. (springer.com)
  • Aromatic amino acid:H + symporter, AroP of 457 aas and 12 TMSs ( Cosgriff and Pittard 1997 ). (tcdb.org)
  • 100μg,ABP-PAB-11690]] The solute carrier family 7 member 4 (SLC7A4) is a cationic amino acid transporter of the y+ system. (allelebiotech.com)
  • Investigation of the mechanism for α-cell proliferation led to the description of a conserved liver-α-cell axis where glucagon is a critical regulator of amino acid homeostasis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A high quality homology model for the human dopamine transporter validated for drug design purposes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) plays many vital functions within the central nervous system and is thus targeted by many pharmaceutical agents. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here, using the Drosophila dopamine transporter as a template, a homology model for the human dopamine transporter was developed and validated. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cholestasis, an impairment in bile formation that occurs in a wide variety of human liver diseases [ 1 ], is characterized by retention of bile salts which is associated with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and oxidative stress [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The transporters of primary interest are localized in the plasma membranes of the syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interaction of the cardiovascular risk marker asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) with the human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). (nih.gov)
  • Schaedlich K, Gebauer S, Hunger L, Beier LS, Koch HM, Wabitsch M, Fischer B, Ernst J. (2018) DEHP deregulates adipokine levels and impairs fatty acid storage in human SGBS-adipocytes. (uni-halle.de)
  • and (2) treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin (3 × 500 mg/d) which activates nNOS in human skeletal muscle. (springer.com)
  • These observations suggest that the carbohydrate-binding specificity of a virus can dramatically alter disease in the host and highlight the need for epidemiologic studies focusing on infection by sialic acid-binding reovirus strains as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of neonatal biliary atresia. (jci.org)
  • Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT)-2 was induced in macrophages, but not in C6 and PC12 cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A polyamine is an organic compound having more than two amino groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shimada, H., Moewes, B., and Burckhardt G. (1987) Indirect coupling to Na + of p -aminohippuric acid uptake into rat renal basolateral membrane vesicles. (springer.com)
  • The liver is the primary organ in xenobiotic disposition, through a complex system involving a variety of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PL phosphate (PLP) is the cofactor of amino acid transaminases and decarboxylases and enzymes involved in elimination and replacement reactions ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Alternative splicing within exon 9 gives rise to four variants, two of which (OAT1-1 and OAT1-2) are functional. (springer.com)
  • The tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1/2 is recognized by the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing molecules, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Grb2. (oncotarget.com)
  • Results: CAT-2, CAT-2A and CAT-2B were constitutively expressed in un-stimulated rat liver. (elsevier.com)
  • In conclusion, after cholestasis an increase in hepatic ADMA in RL and ML was detected as well as tissue MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation in RL, supporting the evidence of functional heterogeneity among the liver lobes also occurring in an obstructive cholestasis model. (hindawi.com)
  • Acts as the major transporter of tyrosine in fibroblasts. (abcam.com)
  • These are: 1) models induced by exogenous administration of substances, i.e. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine or paraquat, and 2) models generated through manipulation of the genome. (iospress.com)
  • Taken together, our data show that S. pombe and S. cerevisiae possess unrelated plasma membrane pyridoxine transporters. (asm.org)
  • Amino acids are more potent stimulators of fetal insulin release than glucose ( 17 - 19 ), and changes in amino acid delivery to the fetus may have profound effects on fetal growth rate. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are major targets of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) tyrosine kinase activated by IGFs, and are known to play important roles in the activation of downstream signaling pathways, such as the Erk1/2 pathway. (oncotarget.com)
  • Glucagon was first described independently in 1923 as a "toxic fraction" and "hyperglycemic substance" in attempts to purify insulin from pancreatic extracts ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • independently as a "hyperglycemic glycogenolytic" contaminant of insulin-containing pancreatic extracts and was purified by Sutherland a year later ( 2 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The purpose of the study is to investigate the functional state of dopamine cells and the dopamine transporter in ADHD subjects and controls to assess the effects of chronic methylphenidat. (bioportfolio.com)