K-Cl cotransporter ubiquitously expressed with higher expression levels in ERYTHROCYTES of ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL. It mediates active potassium and chloride cotransport across the plasma membrane and contributes to cell volume homeostasis
Na-Cl cotransporter in the convoluted segments of the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium and chloride and is inhibited by THIAZIDE DIURETICS.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.

Two-way arginine transport in human endothelial cells: TNF-alpha stimulation is restricted to system y(+). (1/75)

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells transport arginine through two Na(+)-independent systems. System y(+)L is insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), inhibited by L-leucine in the presence of Na(+), and referable to the expression of SLC7A6/y(+)LAT2, SLC7A7/y(+)LAT1, and SLC3A2/4F2hc. System y(+) is referable to the expression of SLC7A1/CAT1 and SLC7A2/CAT2B. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide induce a transient stimulation of arginine influx and efflux through system y(+). Increased expression of SLC7A2/CAT2B is detectable from 3 h of treatment, while SLC7A1 expression is inhibited at later times of incubation. System y(+)L activity and expression remain unaltered. Nitric oxide synthase type 2 mRNA is not detected in the absence or presence of TNF-alpha, while the latter condition lowers nitric oxide synthase type 3 expression at the mRNA and the protein level. Nitrite accumulation is comparable in cytokine-treated and control cells up to 48 h of treatment. It is concluded that modulation of endothelial arginine transport by TNF-alpha or lipopolysaccharide occurs exclusively through changes in CAT2B and CAT1 expression and is dissociated from stimulation of nitric oxide production.  (+info)

Fv1-like restriction of N-tropic replication-competent murine leukaemia viruses in mCAT-1-expressing human cells. (2/75)

To study the replication of murine leukaemia viruses in human cells we have used full-length as well as EGFP-tagged ecotropic viruses in combination with mCAT-1-expressing human cells. We present results showing that N-tropic murine leukaemia viruses are restricted in both infection and replication in such cells while B-tropic viruses, modified at capsid position 110, escape restriction. These results support a recently reported Fv1-like restriction in mammalian cells. We extend the analysis of Fv1-like restriction by demonstrating that NB-tropic viruses also escape restriction and human mCAT-1-expressing cells are thus similar to murine Fv1(b) cells with respect to infection though the ecotropic receptor pathway.  (+info)

Garlic attenuates nitric oxide production in rat cardiac myocytes through inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the arginine transporter CAT-2 (cationic amino acid transporter-2). (3/75)

It is now accepted that allicin, the main biologically active compound in garlic, exhibits antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant activity of garlic can be partially attributed to the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by cytokine-induced NO synthase (iNOS). Cardiac myocytes cultured from neonatal Wistar rats were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated for 24 h with various concentrations of allicin. This resulted in marked inhibition of nitrite production. Interestingly, a low concentration of allicin (10 microM) was significantly more potent in abrogating the effect of LPS on nitrite production than a higher concentration (40 microM). Allicin decreased steady-state iNOS mRNA levels, and this effect was maximal when a lower concentration was used (10 microM compared with 40 microM). In order to explore additional effects of allicin on NO generation that might counteract the effect on iNOS, we assessed the effects of higher allicin concentrations on arginine transport. Allicin inhibited the uptake of 1 mM extracellular arginine in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of the two arginine transporters that are expressed in cardiac myocytes [CAT-1 (cationic amino acid transporter-1) and CAT-2] was studied using reverse transcription-PCR. A concentration of 200 microM allicin abolished the expression of CAT-2 mRNA, 100 microM significantly attenuated it, whereas 50 microM had no effect. Allicin had no effect on steady-state CAT-1 mRNA levels. Our results suggest that allicin inhibits iNOS activity through two different mechanisms: at lower concentrations it decreases iNOS mRNA levels, whereas at higher concentrations it inhibits arginine transport through down-regulation of CAT-2 mRNA.  (+info)

Intrauterine growth retardation is associated with reduced activity and expression of the cationic amino acid transport systems y+/hCAT-1 and y+/hCAT-2B and lower activity of nitric oxide synthase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (4/75)

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with vascular complications leading to hypoxia and abnormal fetal development. The effect of IUGR on L-arginine transport and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was investigated in cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). IUGR was associated with membrane depolarization and reduced L-arginine transport (V(max)= 5.8+/-0.2 versus 3.3+/-0.1 pmol/microg protein per minute), with no significant changes in transport affinity (K(m)=159+/-15 versus 137+/-14 micromol/L). L-Arginine transport was trans-stimulated (8- to 9-fold) in cells from normal and IUGR pregnancies. IUGR was associated with reduced production of L-[3H]citrulline from L-[3H] arginine, lower nitrite and intracellular L-arginine, L-citrulline, and cGMP. IUGR decreased hCAT-1 and hCAT-2B mRNA, and increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels. IUGR-associated inhibition of L-arginine transport and NO synthesis, and membrane depolarization were reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-L,D-penicillamine. In summary, endothelium from fetuses with IUGR exhibit altered L-arginine transport and NO synthesis (L-arginine/NO pathway), reduced expression and activity of hCAT-1 and hCAT-2B and reduced eNOS activity. Alterations in L-arginine/NO pathway could be critical for the physiological processes involved in the etiology of IUGR in human pregnancies.  (+info)

Nutritional control of mRNA stability is mediated by a conserved AU-rich element that binds the cytoplasmic shuttling protein HuR. (5/75)

The cationic amino acid transporter, Cat-1, is a high affinity transporter of the essential amino acids, arginine and lysine. Expression of the cat-1 gene increases during nutritional stress as part of the adaptive response to starvation. Amino acid limitation induces coordinate increases in stability and translation of the cat-1 mRNA, at a time when global protein synthesis decreases. It is shown here that increased cat-1 mRNA stability requires an 11 nucleotide AU-rich element within the distal 217 bases of the 3'-untranslated region. When this 217-nucleotide nutrient sensor AU-rich element (NS-ARE) is present in a chimeric mRNA it confers mRNA stabilization during amino acid starvation. HuR is a member of the ELAV family of RNA-binding proteins that has been implicated in regulating the stability of ARE-containing mRNAs. We show here that the cytoplasmic concentration of HuR increases during amino acid starvation, at a time when total cellular HuR levels decrease. In addition, RNA gel shift experiments in vitro demonstrated that HuR binds to the NS-ARE and binding was dependent on the 11 residue AU-rich element. Moreover, HuR binding to the NS-ARE in extracts from amino acid-starved cells increased in parallel with the accumulation of cytoplasmic HuR. It is proposed that an adaptive response of cells to nutritional stress results in increased mRNA stability mediated by HuR binding to the NS-ARE.  (+info)

L-Arginine transport is augmented through up-regulation of tubular CAT-2 mRNA in ischemic acute renal failure in rats. (6/75)

BACKGROUND: Ischemic acute renal failure (iARF) is associated with increased nitric oxide (NO) production during the reperfusion period, as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is maximally activated, and renal tubular inducible NOS (iNOS) is stimulated. Increased NO production leads to augmented tubular injury, probably through the formation of peroxynitrite. l-Arginine (l-Arg), the only precursor for NO, is transported into cells by cationic amino acid transporters, CAT-1 and CAT-2. We hypothesized that the increased NO production observed in iARF may result from increased l-Arg uptake, which would be reflected in the augmented expression of l-Arg transporter(s). METHODS: Ischemic acute renal failure was induced in rats by right nephrectomy + left renal artery clamping for 60 minutes. l-Arg uptake was examined in freshly harvested glomeruli and tubuli from control, sham operated, and animals subjected to 15, 30, and 60 minutes, and 24 hours of reperfusion, following 60 minutes of ischemia. Using RT-PCR, renal tissues were examined further for the expression of iNOS, CAT-1, CAT-2, arginase I and arginase II. RESULTS: Tubular expression of iNOS mRNA was initiated by ischemia, continued to increase after 60 minutes of reperfusion, and decreased after 24 hours. l-Arg transport into glomeruli was similar in all experimental groups. l-Arg uptake into tubuli was markedly augmented following the 60-minute reperfusion, while it moderately increased after 24 hours of reperfusion. This was accompanied by a parallel, preferential increase in tubular CAT-2 mRNA expression at 60 minutes of reperfusion. CAT-1 mRNA expression was unchanged, as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, the expression of arginase II and arginase I mRNA was attenuated by 30 minutes and one hour of reperfusion, and returned to baseline values after 24 hours of reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic ARF is associated with augmented tubular CAT-2 mRNA expression, which leads to enhanced l-Arg transport and increased NO production. This may contribute to the renal injury exhibited in iARF.  (+info)

System y+ localizes to different membrane subdomains in the basolateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells. (7/75)

We report here that the system y+ cationic amino acid transporter ATRC1 localized to clusters within the basolateral membrane of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, suggesting that the transporters are restricted to discrete membrane microdomains in epithelial cells. Based on solubility in nonionic detergents, two populations of ATRC1 molecules existed: approximately half of the total ATRC1 in HEK cells associated with the actin membrane cytoskeleton, whereas another one-fourth resided in detergent-resistant membranes (DRM). In agreement with these findings, cytochalasin D reduced the amount of ATRC1 associated with the actin membrane cytoskeleton. Although some ATRC1 clusters in HEK cells colocalized with caveolin, the majority of ATRC1 did not colocalize with this marker protein for a type of DRM called caveolae. This distribution of ATRC1 is somewhat different from that reported for pulmonary artery endothelial cells in which transporters cluster predominantly in caveolae, suggesting that differences in the proportion of ATRC1 in specific membrane microdomains correlate with differences in the physiological role of the transporter in polarized kidney epithelial vs. vascular endothelial cells.  (+info)

Regulation of the S100B gene by alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation in cardiac myocytes. (8/75)

We previously reported that S100B, a 20-kDa Ca(2+)-binding homodimer, inhibited the postinfarct myocardial hypertrophic response mediated by alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation through the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. In the present study, we examined whether the same pathway induced the S100B gene, supporting the hypothesis that S100B is a feedback negative regulator of this pathway. We transfected cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes with a luciferase reporter gene driven by the maximal human S100B promoter and progressively shorter segments of this promoter sequentially deleted from the 5' end. We identified a basic promoter essential for transcription spanning 162 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site and positive (at -782/-162 and -6,689/-4,463) and negative (at -4,463/-782) myocyte-selective regulatory elements. We showed that the basic and maximal S100B promoters were activated specifically by alpha(1)-adrenergic agonists through the alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptor, but not by any other trophic hormonal stimuli. The activation of the S100B promoter was mediated through the PKC signaling pathway. Transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) and related to TEF-1 (RTEF-1) influenced transcription from the maximal, but not the basic, promoter implicating active MCAT elements upstream from the basic promoter. Acting in opposing fashions, TEF-1 transrepressed the S100B promoter and RTEF-1 transactivated the promoter. Our results suggest that alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation induces the S100B gene after myocardial infarction through the PKC signaling pathway and that this induction is modulated by TEF-1 and RTEF-1.  (+info)

Hoshide R, Ikeda Y, Karashima S, Matsuura T, Komaki S, Kishino T, Niikawa N, Endo F, Matsuda I (Mar 1997). Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of human cationic amino acid transporter 2 (HCAT2). Genomics. 38 (2): 174-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0613. PMID 8954799 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heme oxygenase 1, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and nuclear factor κb are involved in hemin inhibition of type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and L-arginine transport in stimulated macrophages. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. AU - Chen, Chien Chuan. AU - Tsai, Pei-Shan. AU - Yang, Lin Cheng. AU - Huang, Wan Yu. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - BACKGROUND: l-Arginine transport mediated by type 2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide production mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction has been reported to significantly attenuate inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production. The authors sought to explore the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. The effects of HO-1 induction on nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were also investigated. METHODS: Murine macrophages ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NF-κB inhibitors stabilize the mRNA of high-affinity type-2 cationic amino acid transporter in LPS-stimulated rat liver. AU - Yang, C. H.. AU - Tsai, P. S.. AU - Lee, J. J.. AU - Huang, C. H.. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Background: Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) results in nitric oxide (NO) overproduction during endotoxemia. Cellular uptake of L-arginine, modulated by the isozymes of type-2 cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), including CAT-2, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, has been reported to be a crucial factor in the regulation of iNOS activity. We sought to elucidate the expression of CAT-2 isozymes and the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in this expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat liver. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly given intravenous (i.v.) injections of normal saline (N/S), LPS, LPS preceded by an NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC, dexamethasone or salicylate) or an NF-κB inhibitor alone. After ...
Infection of rodent cells by ecotropic type C retroviruses requires the expression of a cationic amino acid transporter composed of multiple membrane-spanning domains. By exchanging portions of cDNAs encoding the permissive mouse and nonpermissive human transporters and examining their abilities to specify virus infection upon expression in human 293 cells, we have identified the amino acid residues in the extracellular loop connecting the fifth and sixth membrane-spanning segments of the mouse transporter that are required for both envelope gp70 binding and infection. These findings strongly suggest that the role of the mouse transporter in determining infection is to provide an envelope-binding site. This role is analogous to those of host membrane proteins composed of a single membrane-spanning domain that serve as binding proteins or receptors for other enveloped viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and murine and human coronaviruses. ...
Slc7a3 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3 (Slc7a3), (10ug), 10 µg.
TY - JOUR. T1 - CAT-1 as a novel CAM stabilizes endothelial integrity and mediates the protective actions of l-Arg via a NO-independent mechanism. AU - Guo, Lu. AU - Tian, Shuang. AU - Chen, Yuguo. AU - Mao, Yun. AU - Cui, Sumei. AU - Hu, Aihua. AU - Zhang, Jianliang. AU - Xia, Shen Ling. AU - Su, Yunchao. AU - Du, Jie. AU - Block, Edward R.. AU - Wang, Xing Li. AU - Cui, Zhaoqiang. PY - 2015/10/1. Y1 - 2015/10/1. N2 - Interendothelial junctions play an important role in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and the regulation of vascular functions. We report here that cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT-1) is a novel interendothelial cell adhesion molecule (CAM). We identified that CAT-1 protein localized at cell-cell adhesive junctions, similar to the classic CAM of VE-cadherin, and knockdown of CAT-1 with siRNA led to an increase in endothelial permeability. In addition, CAT-1 formed a cis-homo-dimer and showed Ca2+-dependent trans-homo-interaction to cause homophilic cell-cell ...
MDSCs are one of the dominant immunosuppressive populations that are present in the tumor microenvironment, impairing T cell function and promoting tumor progression (30). Therefore, MDSCs present a major obstacle for the success of cancer immunotherapy. As a result, blocking MDSC function has been an attractive endeavor to complement cancer therapies. Indeed, several studies demonstrated that depletion of MDSCs or inhibiting MDSC function impaired cancer progression (31, 32). Although these studies are very promising, more specific strategies to block MDSC suppressive function are needed.. MDSCs mediate their inhibitory effects on T cells through diverse mechanisms (33). One mechanism is the metabolism of amino acids by MDSCs (34). For example, MDSCs express enzymes that metabolize l-Arg, l-tryptophan, and cysteine, leading to their consumption from the microenvironment. Depletion of these amino acids results in T cell dysfunction (35-37). In addition, MDSCs can metabolize l-Arg and ...
Homo sapiens solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 5 (SLC7A5), mRNA. (H00008140-R01) - Products - Abnova
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:16:17572018:17576721:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000035925 transcript:OTTMUST00000092151 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Slc7a4 description:solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 4 ...
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:8:40898438:40917726:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000061152 transcript:OTTMUST00000078365 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Slc7a2 description:solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2 ...
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An important component of protein-nucleic acid interactions is the formation of salt bridges between cationic amino acid side chains and the anionic phosphate groups of the nucleic acid. We have used molecular mechanics to study the energetic and confo
The present invention provides a reagent for introducing a protein or gene into a cell. The reagent of the present invention is, for example, a reagent for introducing a protein or gene into a cell, which comprises a composition comprising a cationic amino acid type lipid represented by the following formula (I)-1: (wherein in formula (I)-1: L is a single bond, -CONH-, or -S-S-; M1 is -(CH2)k- or -(CH2CH2O)k- (wherein k is an integer between 0 and 14); and m1 and m2 are each independently an integer between 11 and 21 (in this regard, when providing a reagent for introducing a gene into a cell, the case where both m1 and m2 are 15 is excluded)).
More than 50 distinct amino acid transporter genes have been identified in the genome of Arabidopsis, indicating that transport of amino acids across membranes is a highly complex feature in plants. Based on sequence similarity, these transporters can be divided into two major superfamilies: the amino acid transporter family and the amino acid polyamine choline transporter family. Currently, mainly transporters of the amino acid transporter family have been characterized. Here, a molecular and functional characterization of amino acid polyamine choline transporters is presented, namely the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) subfamily. CAT5 functions as a high-affinity, basic amino acid transporter at the plasma membrane. Uptake of toxic amino acid analogs implies that neutral or acidic amino acids are preferentially transported by CAT3, CAT6, and CAT8. The expression profiles suggest that CAT5 may function in reuptake of leaking amino acids at the leaf margin, while CAT8 is expressed in young ...
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Amino acids represent a strong signal that positively regulates mTORC1 (reviewed by Guertin and Sabatini, 2007). It was recently shown that leucine, an essential amino acid required for mTORC1 activation, is transported into cells in a glutamine-dependent fashion (Nicklin et al., 2009). Glutamine, which is imported into cells through SLC1A5 [solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter) member 5], is exchanged to import leucine via a heterodimeric system composed of SLC7A5 [antiport solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system, member 5] and SLC3A2 [solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport) member 2]. The mechanism by which intracellular amino acids then signal to mTORC1 remained obscure for many years. The activation of mTORC1 by amino acids is known to be independent of TSC1/2, because the mTORC1 pathway remains sensitive to amino acid deprivation in cells that lack TSC1 or TSC2 (Nobukuni et al., 2005). Some studies have ...
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Arginase, Arginine Uptake and their Role in Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Physiology. Lucile Floeter-Winter, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil ...
Top 10 tissues for 218892_at (Homo sapiens, Affymetrix Probeset): cerebral cortex astrocyte, ovarian stroma cell, coronary artery endothelium cell, embryonic cell, embryonic prechondrocyte, fetal chondrocyte, dermal papilla, fetal retina pigment epithelium, umbilical vein endothelium cell, sural nerve
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
This website is run by the accessibility program of the Accessible with a Click company and is run via a designated accessibility server. The program allows the website to follow the guidelines for internet content accessibility WCAG 2.0 to level AA. The program is subject to the conditions of use of the manufacturer. Warrantee of use applies to the website owners and/or their representative, including the content displayed in the website, as subject to the conditions of use ...
This study has focused on the in vitro and in vivo characterization of a second-generation CD22-targeted immunotoxin, CAT-8015. The results from the in vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that CAT-8015 is highly effective in killing B cells from a variety of tumor cell lines. In addition, CAT-8015 was found to be up to approximately 12-fold more potent than CAT-3888 in cell survival-based assays. In vitro binding studies with human or monkey PBMCs showed that when used at an equal concentration, a higher relative mean fluorescence intensity signal was observed for CAT-8015 compared with CAT-3888, suggesting that the increase in the affinity of the targeting scFv for CD22 results in an increase in receptor occupancy. The pharmacokinetic profiles of CAT-8015 were evaluated in single dose studies in mice, rats, and monkeys. These studies estimated the plasma clearance to be 0.04, 0.23, and approximately 2.0 to 4.0 mL/min in mice, rats, and monkeys, respectively. Although a single administration of ...
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Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of l-arginine in nitric oxide production in health and hypertension. AU - Rajapakse, Niwanthi W.. AU - Mattson, David L.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - l-Arginine is the substrate for vascular nitric oxide (NO) formation. Under normal physiological conditions, intracellular l-arginine levels far exceed the Km of NO synthase for l-arginine. However, endogenous NO formation is dependent on extracellular l-arginine concentrations, giving rise to the concept of the l-arginine paradox. Nitric oxide production in epithelial and endothelial cells is closely coupled to cellular l-arginine uptake, indicating that l-arginine transport mechanisms play a major role in the regulation of NO-dependent function. Consistent with the data in endothelial and epithelial cells are functional data indicating that exogenous l-arginine can increase renal vascular and tubular NO bioavailability and thereby influence kidney perfusion, function and arterial pressure. The integrated effect of ...
Arginine uptake and degradation systems are common throughout bacteria and archaea. The genome of human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae encodes three proteins now called AaxA, AaxB, and AaxC which function together to take ...
1. Modulation of L-arginine transport (system y+) and release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2) by elevated glucose and insulin were investigated in human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells. 2. Elevated glucose induced a time- (6-12 h) and concentration-dependent stimulation of L-a …
Find SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research area related information and SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
And in the unfortunate case that you do believe that you are running short of choline, because you dont eat all the good choline containing foods out of ethical or whatever other reasons, and thus insist on supplementing, I suggest you yourself a 500g container of choline bitartrate powder (dont let that become wet, though! It will stink like rotten fish ;-). Those 500g of choline bitartrate (40% choline, 60% tartate) will cost you about as much as 60x300mg caps of the overpriced GPC and has been scientifically proven (not in supplement company terms, but in SuppVersity terms) to safely increase circulating and brain choline levels and its metabolites after oral ingestion, as well (Stoll. 1996; Babb. 2004). And lets be honest, even if the effects on growth hormone were GPC specific - even on the boards, people have meanwhile realized none of those arginine + lysine GH boosters does make a difference and not because they would not produce transient increases in GH, but simply because those ...
l-Arginine did not produce the anticipated reversal of insulin resistance produced byl-NAME, but, rather,l-arginine by itself caused insulin resistance (48.8 ± 8.2%) (Fig. 5).l-NAME not only blocks NOS but also blocks arginine uptake across the hepatocyte plasma membrane (8).l-Arginine is metabolized by NOS to NO and by arginase to urea andl-ornithine (6). Because the liver has a very high arginase activity, it is possible that mostl-arginine administered is converted to l-ornithine by the liver, although l-arginine can reverse the vascular effects ofl-NAME in the liver (12).l-Arginine also causes release of growth hormone (7, 14) and glucagon; both hormones reduce insulin sensitivity. This may explain why we could not reverse insulin resistance caused by l-NAME withl-arginine and whyl-arginine caused insulin resistance.. Reduction in blood flow to the nerves in diabetes leads to neuropathy (3, 4, 9, 17, 25) and has been suggested to result from a decrease in NO production in the vasculature ...
Low prices on Arginine! Improve heart health, lower blood pressure and speed up wound healing*. L-arginine is an amino acid shown to have many benefits on health. Studies have shown significant improvement of symptoms as well as objective measurements of heart function. L-arginine improves the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), a naturally occurring substance in the body.
In this study we report that 8-iso-PGF2α, a major and stable product of lipid peroxidation, was potent in causing cell death of cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells as well as of ex vivo preparation of microvessels but not of human umbilical vein endothelium, smooth muscle, or astroglia; another related isoprostane, 8-iso-PGE2, did not trigger endothelial cell death. 8-Iso-PGF2α-induced cytotoxicity was TXA2 dependent and mostly of oncotic nature. Associated with these effects, intraventricular injection of 8-iso-PGF2α caused cystlike formations in the periventricular area.. The nature of cell death induced by 8-iso-PGF2α seems to be primarily oncotic rather than apoptotic necrosis (Figure 2). This inference is supported by the data that 8-iso-PGF2α caused ,8% of cell DNA fragmentation, a time-dependent increase in PI incorporation and LDH release, indicative of membrane disruption (Figure 2), and its effects, as well as those of its mediator TXA2, were unaltered by caspase ...
Outer membrane porin D is a protein family containing bacterial outer membrane porins which are involved in transport of cationic amino acids, peptides, antibiotics and other compounds. It was also described as having some serine protease activity. However many of these proteins are not peptidases and are classified as non-peptidase homologues as they either have been found experimentally to be without peptidase activity, or lack amino acid residues that are believed to be essential for the catalytic activity of peptidases in the S43 family. Yoshihara E, Yoneyama H, Ono T, Nakae T (June 1998). Identification of the catalytic triad of the protein D2 protease in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 247 (1): 142-5. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8745. PMID 9636669. This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro ...
Buy L-ARGININE 1000mg - 50 tabs Online.L-Arginine is an amino acid that forms part of the proteins. It is of vital importance in its isolated form as it fulfils numerous functions. Due to the role that L-Arginine plays as a vasodila
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Odds are we don t all have the same underlying issue. My dentist & I think my case was viral due to the timing of the onset and the dramatic response to the L-lysine. The research on herpes & lysine suggest that it s the balance of arginine & lysine which impacts viral replication. High arginine to lysine encourages replication. High lysine to arginine stops replication. Peeling lips can also be symptom of riboflavin deficiency. (there are over 40 things that have peeling lips as a symptom on wrongdiagnosis.com) There is also always the possibility that it s an eczema/dermat ...
Are L-Arginine benefits legit? Well, the thing is, L-Arginine is full of scientifically proven benefits, the key is, will help what ails you?
L-Arginine 500 mg Caps Each capsule provides 500 mg of L-Arginine (from L-arginine hydrochloride, L-arginine). As an Amino Acid, L-Arginine acts as one of the building blocks for protein.
... is processed from hcr mRNA and mat downregulate the high affinity cationic amino acid transporter CAT-1". RNA Biology. 1 (2): ... miR-122 is highly expressed in the liver, where it has been implicated as a regulator of fatty-acid metabolism in mouse studies ... Fabani MM, Gait MJ (2008). "miR-122 targeting with LNA/2′-O-methyl oligonucleotide mixmers, peptide nucleic acids (PNA), and ... This change is noted before increased amino-transferase activity, making it an early indicator of liver disease and ...
... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.600.200 - cationic amino acid transporter 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... excitatory amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.249.500.500.875 - excitatory amino acid transporter 3 MeSH D12.776 ... excitatory amino acid transporter 4 MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.249.500.500.968 - excitatory amino acid transporter 5 MeSH D12.776 ...
This gene is predicted to encode a glycosylated, cationic amino acid transporter protein with 14 transmembrane domains. This ... and primary endothelial cells and its protein is predicted to mediate lysosomal uptake of cationic amino acids. Mutations in ... "Docking motif-guided mapping of the interactome of protein phosphatase-1". Chemistry & Biology. 16 (4): 365-71. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... cationic amino acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated cationic amino acid transporters (SLC7A1, SLC7A2, SLC7A3, SLC7A4) ... copper transporter (SLC31A1, SLC31A2) vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (SLC32A1) Acetyl-CoA transporter (SLC33A1) ... NPC-type cholesterol transporters (NPC1(SLC65A1), NPC1L1(SLC65A2)) Cationic amino acid exporters (SLC66A1, SLC66A2, SLC66A3, ... Ammonia transporter (RHAG(SLC42A1), RHBG(SLC42A2), RHCG(SLC42A3)) Na+-independent, system-L like amino acid transporter ( ...
Folding control of CPP using unnatural β, δ cyclic amino acids. CPPs found applications as transporters of contrast agents ... In the absence of linker, the cationic peptide can interact more efficient with the target cell and cellular uptake occurs ... CPPs typically have an amino acid composition that either contains a high relative abundance of positively charged amino acids ... a natural degradation process by which peptide bonds are hydrolyzed to amino acids. Unnatural acid insertion in the peptide ...
The attachment of the amino acid lysine slows down the relative amount of dextroamphetamine available to the blood stream. ... VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... Conversely, an acidic pH means the drug is predominantly in a water-soluble cationic (salt) form, and less is absorbed. ... Chemically, lisdexamfetamine is composed of the amino acid L-lysine, attached to dextroamphetamine. Lisdexamfetamine was ...
3.A.1.3 Polar Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (PAAT) 3.A.1.4 Hydrophobic Amino Acid Uptake Transporter (HAAT) 3.A.1.5 Peptide/ ... Pgp is known to transport organic cationic or neutral compounds. A few ABCC family members, also known as MRP, have also been ... Opine/Nickel Uptake Transporter (PepT) 3.A.1.6 Sulfate/Tungstate Uptake Transporter (SulT) 3.A.1.7 Phosphate Uptake Transporter ... Nickel Uptake Transporter (NiT) Methionine Uptake Transporter (MUT) 2.A.52 Nickel/Cobalt Uptake Transporter (NiCoT) 3.A.1.106 ...
M3). A cationic amino acid at position 2 is largely responsible for the inhibiting effect of S107. The ratio of S105 to S107 ... Biology portal As of 10 March 2016, this article is derived in whole or in part from Transporter Classification Database (TCDB ... The latter protein, S107, is a 2-amino acid extension of the former protein, S105, due to a different translational initiation ... Like the N-terminal 2 amino acid extension in S107, they influence the timing of lysis by a charge dependent mechanism. ...
Zhang L, Lee HK, Pruess TH, White HS, Bulaj G (March 2009). "Synthesis and applications of polyamine amino acid residues: ... In their cationic ammonium form, they bind to DNA, and, in structure, they represent compounds with cations that are found at ... molecular requirements for the selective delivery of polyamine conjugates into cells containing active polyamine transporters ... A polyamine is an organic compound having more than two amino groups. Alkyl polyamines occur naturally but are also synthetic. ...
... of amino acid residues belong to niches bound to a δ+ group, while another 7% have the conformation but no single cationic ... A major cation transporter in cells is calcium ATPase. In the Ca++-bound crystal structures the two calcium ions side-by-side ... In the area of protein structural motifs, niches are three or four amino acid residue features in which main-chain CO groups ... Torrance, GM; Leader DP (2009). "A Novel Main Chain Motif in Proteins Bridged by Cationic Groups: The Niche". Journal of ...
Their amino acid composition, amphipathicity, cationic charge and size allow them to attach to and insert into membrane ... ATP-binding cassette transporters import antimicrobial peptides and the resistance-nodulation cell-division efflux pump exports ... It contains hydrophilic amino acid residues aligned along one side and hydrophobic amino acid residues aligned along the ... Other mechanisms like the introduction of D-amino acids and fluorinated amino acids in the hydrophobic phase are believed to ...
... histatin mainly possess a cationic charge due to the primary structure consisting mostly of basic amino acids. An amino acid ... They also work against yeast, by binding to the potassium transporter and facilitating in the loss of azole-resistant species. ... and 24 amino acids, respectively. Histatin 2 is a degradation product of histatin 1, and all other histatins are degradation ... Histatins are histidine-rich (cationic) antimicrobial proteins found in saliva. Histatin's involvement in antimicrobial ...
It has significant amino acid sequence similarity to other venoms of other animals. For example, it has 20% sequence similarity ... Transporter Classification Database Oxyopinin 4a at OPM database Profile at COPE UniProt database MyBioSource Information at ... They are the largest linear cationic amphipathic peptides detected in the venom of any spider. They are structurally α-helical ... It is composed of 77 amino acid residues, and has molecular mass of 9,205 Da. It contains a single disulfide bond, Cys4-Cys10, ...
... aspartic acid, glutamic acid and cysteine, and these phosphorylated amino acids have recently been identified to be present in ... ATP-binding cassette transporter Arginine phosphorylation by McsB kinase marks proteins for degradation by a Clp protease. The ... These anionic residues can interact with cationic residues such as lysine and arginine to form salt bridges, stable non- ... Phosphorylation of the amino acid Ser129 in the α-Synuclein protein has a profound effect on the severity of the disease. There ...
L-lysine transmembrane transporter activity. • amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter ... Cationic amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A2 gene.[5][6] ... 1997). "Human cationic amino acid transporters hCAT-1, hCAT-2A, and hCAT-2B: three related carriers with distinct transport ... Schnorr O, Suschek CV, Kolb-Bachofen V (2003). "The importance of cationic amino acid transporter expression in human skin". J ...
It was further found, however, that amino acid changes within subunit a could also lower V-ATPase-Bafilomycin interaction, ... Pretreating cells with bafilomycin before administration of a cationic drug can alter the kinetics of the cationic compound. In ... transporters. These transporters are identified as good anti-fungal targets as they render organisms unable to cope with cation ... This process is critical in maintaining the cell's store of amino acids and other nutrients during times of nutrient ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... cation transmembrane transporter activity. • zinc ion binding. • protein binding. • zinc ion transmembrane transporter activity ... "Entrez Gene: SLC30A8 solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8".. *^ a b c Flannick, Jason; et al. (2014). "Loss-of ... Solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8, also known as SLC30A8, is a human gene[5] that codes for a zinc ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... dehydroascorbic acid transporter activity. • glucose transmembrane transporter activity. • D-glucose transmembrane transporter ... xenobiotic transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter activity. • transporter activity. • protein self-association. • ... GLUT1 behaves as a Michaelis-Menten enzyme and contains 12 membrane-spanning alpha helices, each containing 20 amino acid ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... GO:0022891 transmembrane transporter activity. • transporter activity. • acetylcholine transmembrane transporter activity. • ... serotonin transporter (SERT), vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and organic cation transporters (OCT1, 2 and EMT) in ... dopamine transmembrane transporter activity. • monoamine transmembrane transporter activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... glycine transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter activity. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... Mitochondrial glycine transporter is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A38 gene. SLC25A38 is involved in ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mitochondrial_glycine_transporter&oldid=893398075" ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... thiamine pyrophosphate transporter activity. • thiamine transmembrane transporter activity. • transmembrane transporter ... 93 (1-2): 40-2. doi:10.1159/000056945. PMID 11474176.. *^ Dolce V, Fiermonte G, Runswick MJ, Palmieri F, Walker JE (Mar 2001). ... 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.. *. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The Status, Quality, ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... Human Fpn consists of 571 amino acid residues.[5] When H32 is mutated in mice, iron transport activity is impaired.[6] ... Members of the ferroportin family consist of 400-800 amino acid residues,[5] with a highly conserved histidine at residue ... "SLC11A3 iron transporter [Homo sapiens]". Protein - NCBI.. *^ Zohn IE, De Domenico I, Pollock A, Ward DM, Goodman JF, Liang X, ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity. • bile acid transmembrane transporter activity. Cellular component. • ... transporter activity. • sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity. • ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1B1 gene.[3][4] ...
cationic amino-acid transporter/glycoprotein-associated *SLC7A1. *SLC7A2. *SLC7A3. *SLC7A4. *glycoprotein-associated/light or ... Choline transporter-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC44A1 gene.[5][6][7] ... choline transmembrane transporter activity. Cellular component. • extracellular exosome. • nucleoplasm. • mitochondrion. • ... Fullerton MD, Wagner L, Yuan Z, Bakovic M (April 2006). "Impaired trafficking of choline transporter-like protein-1 at plasma ...
... the membrane-binding domain consists of a series of amphipathic α helices with several hydrophobic amino acids exposed to a ... Legan M (August 2010). "Cyclooxygenase-2, p53 and glucose transporter-1 as predictors of malignancy in the development of ... the cationic mechanism requires that endoperoxide formation comes before the removal of the 13-pro (S )-hydrogen. This is not ... Arachidonic acid can bind to E-cat and E-allo, but the affinity of AA for E-allo is 25 times that for Ecat. Palmitic acid, an ...
Through a study done at the University of Albany, it was shown that the ability of the Coomassie dye to target amino acids with ... even under acid conditions when most of the molecules in solution are in the cationic form.[7] This is the basis of the ... This provides a simpler method for fingerprint analysis by reducing the number of amino acids needed to be analyzed from 23 to ... A protein sample is added to a solution of the dye in phosphoric acid and ethanol. Under the acid conditions the dye is ...
Each receptive site has two subsites, an anionic site that binds to the cationic ammonium head and a site that binds to the ... Transporter [Reuptake vs Efflux]: Enhancer (RE). *Inhibitor (RI). *Releaser (RA). *♦ Miscellaneous: Precursor ... 36 (1): 177-184. PMID 2747625.. *^ Beers, W.H; E. Reich (1970). "Structure and Activity of Acetylcholine". Nature. 228 (5275): ... Fig.1 A simple illustration of how two acetylcholine molecules bind to its receptive sites on the nicotinic receptor ...
... low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in non-hepatic ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) (TC 2.A.3.3) family ... High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1Add BLAST. 629. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1. Short name: CAT-11 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based ...
solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 1 ... IPR002293 Amino acid/polyamine transporter I. IPR029485 Cationic amino acid transporter, C-terminal ... 1 human;1 mouse;1 rat;1 chimpanzee;1 cattle;1 dog;1 chicken;1 zebrafish;1 frog, western clawed;1 macaque, rhesus. ... 12 phenotypes from 1 allele in 1 genetic background 10 phenotype references ...
Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Hund, Meerschweinchen and more. 57 verschiedene SLC7A1 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
HCA RNA Cell Line for High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1. ... High-affinity, low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in ... Compartment GO Terms for High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1. Cell 16,178 ... Amino acid and oligopeptide SLC transpor... 52 Amino acid transport across the plasma m... 32 ...
... in one well of a 6-well plate was used to transduce 105 Jurkat T cells expressing the murine cationic amino acid transporter 1 ... Although the Dbs clone isolated was N-terminally truncated from amino acids 1-529, others have shown that amino acids 525-1097 ... After extensive washing, Jurkat cells were treated with 3 ng/ml phorbol myristic acid (Sigma) and 12.5 nM ionomycin (Sigma) for ... TNF receptor 1;. FADD,. Fas-associated death domain protein;. c-FLIP,. cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein;. GFP,. green ...
high affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1. Names. CAT1. amino acid transporter, cationic 1. ecotropic retroviral leukemia ... L-homoarginine is a substrate of the cationic amino acid transporters CAT1, CAT2A and CAT2B. Title: The prognostic biomarker L- ... Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary microvascular ... Title: Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary ...
... cationic amino acid transporter (L-arginine transporter); ASC, sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (L-cysteine ... depriving the environment of amino acids (top right), releasing oxidizing molecules (bottom left), and/or altering T cell ... Gabrilovich DI1, Ostrand-Rosenberg S, Bronte V.. Author information. 1. H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, ... transporter); IFNγ, interferon-γ; IL, interleukin; MYD88, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88; HIF-1α, hypoxia ...
Here we show that cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) mRNA and reporters bearing its 3UTR can be relieved from the ... Suvendra N Bhattacharyya 1 , Regula Habermacher, Ursula Martine, Ellen I Closs, Witold Filipowicz ... The derepression requires binding of HuR, an AU-rich-element binding protein, to the 3UTR of CAT-1 mRNA. We propose that ... The derepression of CAT-1 mRNA is accompanied by its release from cytoplasmic processing bodies and its recruitment to ...
RecName: Full=High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1; Short=CAT-1 {ECO:0000250,UniProtKB:P30825}; Short=CAT1;AltName: ... solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 1. 21. 4. 9. 94. ... J:11385 Kim JW, et al., Transport of cationic amino acids by the mouse ecotropic retrovirus receptor [see comments]. Nature. ... The Mitochondrial Metallochaperone SCO1 Is Required to Sustain Expression of the High-Affinity Copper Transporter CTR1 and ...
... cystine transporter, cationic amino acid transporter 1, and large amino acid transporter 1, respectively, were monitored by ... ATF4 is the master regulator of amino acid metabolism and is activated by amino acid deprivation (18). Levels of amino acids ... a transporter for positively charged amino acids; and LAT1, a transporter for large amino acids. Similar to CSE, these genes ... We monitored transcriptional targets of ATF4, such as the genes for xCT, the transporter for cystine; cationic amino acid ...
Putative vacuolar membrane transporter for cationic amino acids; likely contributes to amino acid homeostasis by exporting ... Basic amino acid transmembrane transporter involved in vacuolar export; localizes to vacuolar membrane. View computational ... cationic amino acids from the vacuole; member of the PQ-loop family, with seven transmembrane domains; mutant phenotype is ... Yeast PQ-loop protein 1 Comparative Info. Sequence Details Sequence The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from ...
... is processed from hcr mRNA and mat downregulate the high affinity cationic amino acid transporter CAT-1". RNA Biology. 1 (2): ... miR-122 is highly expressed in the liver, where it has been implicated as a regulator of fatty-acid metabolism in mouse studies ... Fabani MM, Gait MJ (2008). "miR-122 targeting with LNA/2′-O-methyl oligonucleotide mixmers, peptide nucleic acids (PNA), and ... This change is noted before increased amino-transferase activity, making it an early indicator of liver disease and ...
y+ system cationic amino acid transporter. Gene Name. SLC7A5. Organism. Humans. Amino acid sequence. ,lcl,BSEQ0010207,Large ... Expression of LAT1 and LAT2 amino acid transporters in human and rat intestinal epithelial cells. Amino Acids. 2005 Nov;29(3): ... amino acid transmembrane transporter activity / antiporter activity / L-leucine transmembrane transporter activity / L- ... Involved in cellular amino acid uptake. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood- ...
... cationic amino acid transporter 3; (O) D52-like 2; (P) human KIAA0147. (Q-X) Transverse sections, dorsal up. (Q) cathepsin D; ( ... but only neuropilin-2 functions as a receptor for the 145-amino acid form of VEGF. J. Biol. Chem. 275,18040 -18045. ... GCN20/ATP-binding cassette transporter F2; (H) tyrosine kinase receptor KLG; (I) MSE55; (J) dyskerin; (K) thimet oligopeptidase ... 1. Neural crest induction in vitro. (A) Non-neural ectoderm (open blue rectangle) and intermediate neural plate (solid blue ...
AA 1-50 for FACS, ICC, IF, IHC, IHC (p), SimWes, WB. Published in 20 Pubmed References. Order this anti-SLC7A11 antibody. , ... Cationic Amino Acid Transporter,... SLC7A11 antibody (Solute Carrier Family 7, (Cationic Amino Acid Transporter, Y+ System) ... cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system) member 11 * solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), ... Cationic Amino Acid Transporter, Y+ System), Member 9 Antibodies * anti-Solute Carrier Family 7 (Cationic Amino Acid ...
The transport of L-arginine occurs through the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-1. Urea transport occurs through urea ... Nitric oxide synthesis relies on the amino acid substrate L-arginine. L-arginine synthesis primarily occurs in the proximal ... The maintenance of plasma L-arginine levels in CKD may be a consequence of increased amino acid release into the blood due to ... Nitric oxide is produced from the amino acid substrate L-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) [18]. ...
B(0)AT basic neutral amino acid transporter, OAT organic amino acid transporter, CAT cationic amino acid transporter, LAT L ... The major endothelial transporter for L -Arg is the system y+ cation ic amino acid transporter (CAT). CAT1 is constitutively ... Cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) has been shown to be the major transporter for L-Arg and function in L-Arg secretion by ... Transport Cationic Amino Acid Transporter L -Arg that is produced by the proximal tubule must be secreted in to the circulation ...
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) plays many vital functions within the central nervous system and is thus targeted by many ... Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2. A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to ... CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. ... Organic Cation Transporter 2. Organic cation transporter consisting of twelve transmembrane domains and expressed primarily in ...
Solute Carrier Family 7 (Cationic Amino Acid Transporter, Y+ System), Member 5 3 ... amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. ISS. --. GO:0015179. L-amino acid transmembrane transporter activity. IEA,IBA. ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ...
Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide. ... Sodium independent neutral amino acid transporter LAT1 antibody. *Solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter y+ ... Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) (TC 2.A.3.8) family. ... Involved in cellular amino acid uptake. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood- ...
Role of cationic amino acids in the Na+/dicarboxylate co-transporter NaDC-1 Biochem J (September,2000) ... Cysteine residues in the Na + /dicarboxylate co-transporter, NaDC-1 Biochem J (November,1999) ... but had little effect on blood acid-base status. After both loads, urinary specific activity of 47Ca significantly correlated ... 1Mineral Metabolism and Endocrine Research Laboratory, Departments of Surgery and Urology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, F. ...
... amino acids), namely lysine, arginine, and ornithine. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... L amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT-1), which is involved in transporting certain building blocks of protein ( ... of a complex called the heterodimeric cationic amino acid transporter. This subunit is responsible for binding to the amino ... SOLUTE CARRIER FAMILY 7 (CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER, y+ SYSTEM), MEMBER 7 ...
112918646 SLC7A1; high affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1 112926540 CCNG1; cyclin-G1 112910878 cyclin-G1 112929075 ... cationic amino acid transporter), member 1 K10145 CCNG1; cyclin G1 K10145 CCNG1; cyclin G1 K00510 HMOX1; heme oxygenase 1 [EC: ... 112924822 GABARAP; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein 112915678 GABARAPL2; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor- ... 112917289 GABARAPL1; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 1 ...
Solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 5. SLC7A5. 32186_at. 1.6. ... Lipase A, lysosomal acid, cholesterol esterase (Wolman disease). LIPA. 38745_at. nc. ... Solute carrier family 31 (copper transporters), member 2. SLC31A2. 34749_at. nc. ... Leukocyte-specific transcript 1. LST1. 37967_at. −1.6. Endothelial cell growth factor 1 (platelet-derived). ECGF1. 36879_at. − ...
... cationic amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750 - amino acid transport system y+l MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... amino acid transport system y+ MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.600.200 - cationic amino acid transporter 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585. ... excitatory amino acid transporter 2 MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.249.500.500.875 - excitatory amino acid transporter 3 MeSH D12.776 ... excitatory amino acid transporter 4 MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.249.500.500.968 - excitatory amino acid transporter 5 MeSH D12.776 ...
Cationic amino acid transporters and lung NO production, National Institutes of Health, HLBI ... Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary microvascular ... Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary microvascular ... Cytokine-induced L-arginine metabolism depends on cationic amino acid transporter activity. FASEB JOURNAL. Vol. 21, no. 6. ( ...
I. Iino, H. Kikuchi, S. Miyazaki et al., "Effect of miR-122 and its target gene cationic amino acid transporter 1 on colorectal ... ABCG2 is an ABC transporter; an inhibition of ABCG2 may reverse drug resistance of cancer cells, suggesting that miR-328 is a ... Jian Wang,1,2 Yong Du,1,2 Xiaoming Liu,1 William C. Cho,3 and Yinxue Yang1,2 ... 1. Introduction. Colon cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. ...
A caveolar complex between the cationic amino acid transporter 1 and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase may explain the ... Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the enzyme that catalyzes the production of NO from the amino acid arginine in ... They proposed that the arginine utilized by eNOS might, at least in part, be maintained by the CAT1 transporter. Another ... Voltage coupling of primary H+ V-ATPases to secondary Na+- or K+-dependent transporters ...
The putative cationic Amino acid transporter 9 is targeted to vesicles and may be involved in plant amino acid homeostasis.. ... Root phloem-specific expression of the plasma membrane amino acid proton co-transporter AAP3.. J. Experimental Botany, 55, 2155 ... Characterization of the putative amino acid transporter genes AtCAT2, 3 and 4: the tonoplast localized AtCAT2 regulates soluble ... leaf amino acids.. J. Plant Physiology, 171, 594-601.. Jan Dettmer, Robertas Ursache, Ana Campiljo, Shunsuke Miyashima, Ilya ...
Currents of Opposite Polarity Evoked by Neutral and Cationic Amino Acids in Neutral and Basic Amino Acid Transporter cRNA- ... amino acid transport on substrate affinity of the heteromeric b(0,+) amino acid transporter , journal = J. Biol. Chem. , volume ... dibasic and neutral amino acid transporters, activator of cystine, dibasic and neutral amino acid transport), member 1, url = ... Effects of truncation of the COOH-terminal region of a Na+-independent neutral and basic amino acid transporter on amino acid ...
  • Three of the genes, RelA, cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), and a dominant-negative mutant of TNF receptor 1 arising through CPR afforded strong protection against apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • The derepression requires binding of HuR, an AU-rich-element binding protein, to the 3'UTR of CAT-1 mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • Huntington's disease (HD) is a lethal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of glutamine repeats in the protein huntingtin (Htt) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • miR-122 regulates the synthesis of the protein CAT-1 by binding to sites in the mRNA 3'UTR such that translation is repressed and the mRNA is targeted to P bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This repression can be relieved by the protein HuR, which is released from the nucleus under conditions of cell stress and binds to the CAT-1 3'UTR. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have also shown in the remnant model and a podocyte injury induced model (puromycin aminonucleoside, PAN) that the protein abundance of the transporter involved in L-Arg secretion is reduced in addition to impaired uptake by endothelial cells. (ufl.edu)
  • It is of great challenge to predict human brain penetration for substrates of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and/or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), two major efflux transporters at blo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The SLC7A7 gene provides instructions for producing a protein called y+L amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT-1), which is involved in transporting certain building blocks of protein (amino acids), namely lysine, arginine, and ornithine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The y+LAT-1 protein forms one part (the light subunit) of a complex called the heterodimeric cationic amino acid transporter. (medlineplus.gov)
  • T) disrupts the way the gene's instructions are used to make the y+LAT-1 protein, causing the protein to be misplaced in the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the y+LAT-1 protein disrupt the transportation of amino acids, leading to a shortage of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in the body and an abnormally large amount of these amino acids in urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The abnormal transportation and shortage of these amino acids in various tissues of the body leads to the signs and symptoms of lysinuric protein intolerance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • SLC7A1 (AAH69358.1, 1 a.a. ~ 629 a.a) full-length human protein. (abnova.com)
  • It is a disulfide linked heterodimer with the amino acid transport protein SLC3A1. (abcam.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cationic amino acid transporter and a member of the APC (amino acid-polyamine-organocation) family of transporters. (genecards.org)
  • These tracers target protein synthesis or amino acid (AA) transport, and their uptake mechanism mainly involves AA transport. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, the protein expression of the primary placental glucose transporter isoform GLUT1 as well as glucose transport activity has been shown to be increased in BM in type 1 diabetes ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the case of ecotropic MLV, the process is initiated by interaction with the 622 amino acid transmembrane receptor protein mouse cationic amino acid transporter (mCAT-1) located on the cell surface. (hubpages.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the light subunit of a cationic amino acid transporter. (mybiosource.com)
  • This sodium-independent transporter is formed when the light subunit encoded by this gene dimerizes with the heavy subunit transporter protein SLC3A2. (mybiosource.com)
  • Endogenous leucine flux, an index of whole-body protein breakdown rate, was measured in 13 critically ill patients with sepsis or septic shock and seven healthy controls using an intravenous infusion of [1- 13 C]leucine. (portlandpress.com)
  • Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid required for numerous cellular processes such as protein synthesis and arginylation, polyamine production, metabolism of other amino acids and nucleotides, as well as creatine, urea, and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Benz A, Shajari M, Peruzki N, Dehghani F, Maronde E (2010) A novel mechanism for transient Egr-1 protein induction via FGF-1-induced MAPK phosphorylation and PKB/Akt-dephosphorylation in hippocampal neurons. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • To measure NO production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), HO-1 expression and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation we used hemin as an HO-1 inducer and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) IX as an inhibitor of HO-1 activity in human astrocyte cultures prior to IL-1β exposure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • IL-1β treatment of astrocytes alone induced undetectable amounts of HO-1 protein by western blot. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pretreatment with hemin alone substantially induced both HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, and HO-1 mRNA expression was further enhanced when hemin was combined with IL-1β treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HO-1, which is the inducible isoform of the stress response protein HO that detoxifies heme, can be induced by many stimuli and is considered a therapeutic funnel because its activity appears to be required by other therapeutic molecules [ 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • mTOR nucleates at least two distinct multi-protein complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) (reviewed by Guertin and Sabatini, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • The expression of endothelial NOS, protein arginine methyltransferases 1 and 3, and cationic transporter were also unaffected. (ahajournals.org)
  • These pathways are initiated by the activation of three ER membrane‐associated proteins, PERK (double‐stranded RNA‐activated protein kinase (PKR)‐like ER kinase), ATF6 (activating transcription factor‐6), and IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1). (embopress.org)
  • TOR signals, which couple amino acid supplies to translational efficiency, are in part conveyed through ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • High-affinity, low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in non-hepatic tissues. (uniprot.org)
  • Estradiol augments while progesterone inhibits arginine transport in human endothelial cells through modulation of cationic amino acid transporter-1. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of arginine transporter CAT-1 is associated with accumulation of L-arginine and cell growth in human colorectal cancer tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Estradiol increases arginine transport and CAT-1 activity through modulation of constitutive signaling transduction pathways involving ERK. (nih.gov)
  • Progesterone inhibits arginine transport and CAT-1 via both PKCalpha and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. (drugbank.ca)
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the enzyme that catalyzes the production of NO from the amino acid arginine in endothelial cells, plays a key role in vasoregulation as well as in other important physiological processes such as angiogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Intracellular levels of arginine have been estimated to range from 100 μmol l -1 to 800 μmol l -1 , which is well above the K m value of 5μ mol l -1 for eNOS ( Harrison, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • As illustrated in Fig. 1 , arginine has a number of metabolic roles in addition to NO production, including production of major metabolites such as urea, polyamines, creatine, ornithine and methylarginine derivatives. (biologists.org)
  • Isoform 1 functions as permease that mediates the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine), and it has much higher affinity for arginine than isoform 2. (genecards.org)
  • Before and after treatment, we measured in serum and urine samples the concentration of amino acids and metabolites of l -arginine-related pathways and the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA). (springer.com)
  • Arginine is a simple amino acid that is found in many foods and is part of the proteins in a human's body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients with sickle cell disease have low levels of the amino acid arginine and these low levels may be related to pain episodes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • examined HO-1 induction on type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and l-arginine transport in murine macrophages. (asahq.org)
  • Among the results observed by the team was that lipopolysaccharide significantly induced nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 activation and HO-1 expression, nuclear factor κB activation, type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression, and l-arginine transport. (asahq.org)
  • HO-1 induction significantly inhibited type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and l-arginine transport in macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. (asahq.org)
  • Carbon monoxide, they noted, partially mediated the effects of HO-1 induction on type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and l-arginine transport. (asahq.org)
  • We show that NMDA receptor activation markedly reduces arginine transport by decreasing surface expression of the cationic amino acid transporters (CAT) 1 and 3. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, stimuli inducing iNOS expression allways cause an upregulation of L-arginine transport and enhance the expression of the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-2B. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Proteins of the herpes simplex virus are rich in L-arginine, and tissue culture studies indicate an enhancing effect on viral replication when the amino acid ratio of L-arginine to L-lysine is high in the tissue culture media. (drugbank.ca)
  • Tumor-associated myeloid cells also expressed high levels of cationic amino acid transporter 2B, which allowed them to rapidly incorporate l -Arginine ( l -Arg) and deplete extracellular l -Arg in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • As they compete for the same substrate, L-arginine, an interdependence of NOS-2 and arginase-1 has been repeatedly observed in cells where arginase-1 is cytokine-inducible. (nih.gov)
  • However, in hepatocytes, arginases are constitutively expressed and thus, their impact on hepatic NOS-2-derived NO synthesis as well as the influence of L-arginine influx via cationic amino acid transporters during inflammatory reactions are still under debate. (nih.gov)
  • When we competed for L-arginine influx via the cationic amino acid transporters by addition of L-lysine, we find a 60-70% inhibition of arginase activity without significant loss of NOS-2 activity. (nih.gov)
  • Sobrevia, Luis 2018-04-01 00:00:00 l-Arginine is taken up via the cationic amino acid transporters (system y+/CATs) and system y+L in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). (deepdyve.com)
  • In this study, we provided several lines of evidence suggesting that IFN-γ-mediated parasite growth enhancement was associated with L-arginine transport via mouse cationic amino acid transporter 2B (mCAT-2B). (utmb.edu)
  • 3 , 7 Similarly, in endothelial cells, collectrin regulates L-arginine (L-Arg) uptake, likely through its control of the plasma membrane expression of the L-Arg transporters CAT-1 and y+LAT1. (asnjournals.org)
  • In other words, L-arginine would not be expected to be rate-limiting for the enzyme, and it would not appear that supraphysiological levels of L-arginine which could occur with oral supplementation of the amino acid^would make any difference with regard to NO production. (drugbank.com)
  • L-arginine not metabolized in the enterocytes enters the portal circulation from whence it is transported to the liver, where again some portion of the amino acid is metabolized. (drugbank.com)
  • In mammals, cellular arginine availability is determined by members of the solute carrier (SLC) 7 family of cationic amino acid transporters. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • BACKGROUND: l-Arginine transport mediated by type 2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide production mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase. (elsevier.com)
  • The authors sought to explore the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: HO-1 induction significantly inhibited CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, possibly through mechanisms involved activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NF-κB. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, carbon monoxide mediated, at least in part, the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. (elsevier.com)
  • Interaction of the cardiovascular risk marker asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) with the human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). (nih.gov)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include amino acid transmembrane transporter activity and basic amino acid transmembrane transporter activity . (genecards.org)
  • Collectrin ( Tmem27 or Nx-17 ) is a 222-amino acid transmembrane glycoprotein with approximately 50% sequence identity with the angiotensin converting enzyme isoform 2 (ACE2). (asnjournals.org)
  • Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) at the BBB by prodrug approach. (springer.com)
  • The prodrug with phenylalanine derivative as the promoiety had both higher affinity for LAT1 and better brain uptake properties than those with an alkyl amino acid -mimicking promoiety. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that attachment of phenylalanine to a cationic drug via an amide bond from the meta-position of its aromatic ring could be highly applicable in prodrug design for LAT1-mediated CNS-delivery of not only anionic but also cationic polar drugs. (springer.com)
  • Solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters exchange various molecules without energy from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, indicating an association with anticancer drug resistance. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • SLC7A9 is involved in the high affinity, sodium independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids (system b(0,+)-like activity). (abcam.com)
  • CSNU arises from impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids through the epithelial cells of the renal tubule and gastrointestinal tract. (abcam.com)
  • SLC7A7: Involved in the sodium-independent uptake of dibasic amino acids and sodium-dependent uptake of some neutral amino acids. (mybiosource.com)
  • Mediates blood-to-retina L-leucine transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier which in turn may play a key role in maintaining large neutral amino acids as well as neurotransmitters in the neural retina. (drugbank.ca)
  • This transporter is found in epithelial cell membranes where it transfers cationic and large neutral amino acids from the cell to the extracellular space. (mybiosource.com)
  • The genes identified in the screen include both modifiers that only partially protected RelA −/− cells against TNFα and a dominant-negative mutant of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) that was generated during the process of CPR. (pnas.org)
  • Transport of cationic amino acids by the mouse ecotropic retrovirus receptor [see comments]. (jax.org)
  • Structural requirements for binding of prostaglandins to the prostaglandin FP receptor versus the prostaglandin transporter PGT. (yu.edu)
  • In WT mice, administration of angiotensin II for 2 weeks downregulated collectrin expression in a type 1 angiotensin II receptor-dependent manner. (asnjournals.org)
  • Thus, the current study gave new insights both to the ET-1-induced signal transduction and the internalization mechanism of ET-1/receptor complexes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Treatment with rapamycin mimics starvation for nitrogen in S. cerevisiae despite availability of nutrients, resulting in endocytosis and degradation of specific permeases and their substitution by the general amino acid permease, Gap1 ( C respo and H all 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • Lane 1: SLC7A1 transfected lysate(69.19 KDa). (abnova.com)
  • The results show that a unique subpopulation of mature tumor-associated myeloid cells but not tumor cells or immature myeloid cells express arginase I and cationic amino acid transporter 2B. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sies, H. Arginase-1 overexpression induces cationic amino acid transporter-1 in psoriasis. (alpnutrition.de)
  • Kolb-Bachofen, V. Arginase 1 overexpression in psoriasis: limitation of inducible nitric oxide synthase activity as a molecular mechanism for keratinocyte hyperproliferation. (alpnutrition.de)
  • This subunit is responsible for binding to the amino acids that are transported. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 8 Recently, collectrin was shown to bind B 0 -like amino acid transporters and is required for both their trafficking and catalytic activity, suggesting that collectrin is an essential subunit of this heteromultimeric secondary active transporter, rather than serving solely as a chaperone. (asnjournals.org)
  • Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. (abcam.com)
  • We studied the activity of the syncytiotrophoblast amino acid transporter system A and the transport of the essential amino acids leucine, lysine, and taurine. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • L-Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. (drugbank.ca)
  • Transcriptome Analysis and Expression of Selected Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in the Liver of Broiler Chicken Fed Diets with Varying Concentrations of Lysine. (helsinki.fi)
  • The Mitochondrial Metallochaperone SCO1 Is Required to Sustain Expression of the High-Affinity Copper Transporter CTR1 and Preserve Copper Homeostasis. (jax.org)
  • RT-PCR analysis confirmed that HCMV induced the expression of ICAM-1, integrin β 8 , integrin α 1 , IL-1β, TNF-α, and CCL2. (jimmunol.org)
  • Adding hemin to the preparations, they found, enhanced the lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 activation and HO-1 expression, in a dose-dependent manner. (asahq.org)
  • Alterations in the activity and expression of placental nutrient transporters could represent an additional level of complexity to the relationship between maternal substrate levels and fetal growth in diabetes in pregnancy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In linkage disequilibrium of highly associated markers are a number of known nitrate transporters and sensors, including a gene thought to mediate expression of the major nitrate transporter NRT1.1. (frontiersin.org)
  • miR-122 expression is specific to the liver, where it has been implicated as a regulator of fatty-acid metabolism in mouse studies. (mirbase.org)
  • Die Expression von mRNA für iNOS und CAT-2B in Rattenalveolarmakrophagen ist durch AP-1 und LREAA-decoy-ODN verschieden beeinflußt. (uni-bonn.de)
  • l -Arg depletion by tumor-associated myeloid cells blocked the re-expression of CD3ζ in stimulated T cells and inhibited antigen-specific proliferation of OT-1 and OT-2 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transfection of astrocyte cultures was performed using a pLEX expression vector carrying the human HO-1 sequence prior to IL-1β treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, HO-1 mRNA expression was modestly up-regulated in response to IL-1β stimulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast, IL-1β-induced iNOS mRNA expression and NO production were markedly inhibited by hemin treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When pretreated with SnPP, the inhibitory effect of hemin on IL-1β-induced NO production and iNOS expression was reversed, suggesting the involvement of HO-1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These findings support the hypothesis that up-regulation of HO-1 in astrocytes is associated with down-regulation of iNOS expression and thereby NO production, an effect that involves the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, which suggests that this glial cell response could play an important protective role against oxidative stress in the brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Induction of HO-1 expression within the central nervous system (CNS) has been demonstrated in rodent astrocytes, microglia/macrophages and neurons [ 6 - 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 In renal proximal tubule and collecting duct epithelia, collectrin is thought to function as a chaperone for the trafficking of amino acid transporters, because deletion of collectrin results in reduced expression of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters and severe generalized urinary amino acid wasting. (asnjournals.org)
  • In the current study, we focused on the ET-1-activated signal transduction pathways in cancer cells and found that ET-1, via activation of ETB receptors, induced expression of p53 and apoptotic cell death of A375 melanoma cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, the expression and role of SLC transporters in malignant tumors has not yet been fully elucidated. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Therefore, in the current study, the expression of SLC37A family genes was evaluated in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and it was revealed that SLC family 37 member 1 (SLC37A1) expression was significantly increased in tumorous tissues compared with that in non-tumorous tissues. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Consistent with the phenotypic similarities, Atf4 null mice have reduced expression of genes that regulate intracellular amino acid concentrations and lower intracellular concentration of amino acids, a key TOR input. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction has been reported to significantly attenuate inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production. (elsevier.com)
  • RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide significantly induced Nrf2 activation and HO-1 expression. (elsevier.com)
  • In a dose-dependent manner, hemin enhanced the lipopolysaccharide-induced Nrf2 activation and HO-1 expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Kolb-Bachofen, V. The importance of cationic amino acid transporter expression in human skin. (alpnutrition.de)
  • Aberrant amino acid metabolism has been reported in Huntington's disease (HD), but its molecular origins are unknown. (pnas.org)
  • Disturbances in amino acid metabolism, which have been observed in Huntington's disease (HD), may account for the profound inanition of HD patients. (pnas.org)
  • This signaling cascade may be relevant to other diseases involving redox imbalance and deficits in amino acid metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Abnormalities in amino acid metabolism have been frequently reported in HD, which may explain the weight loss and inanition observed during disease progression ( 5 ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • miR-122 is highly expressed in the liver, where it has been implicated as a regulator of fatty-acid metabolism in mouse studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of globus pallidus internus (GPi) -Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in dopamine and dopamine transporter metabolism, and to explore the regulatory rol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 1 Mineral Metabolism and Endocrine Research Laboratory, Departments of Surgery and Urology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, F.R.G. (portlandpress.com)
  • We suggest that these changes result in an increased uptake of neutral amino acids across MVM, which may be used in placental metabolism or be delivered to the fetus. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IDH2 Deficiency Is Critical in Myogenesis and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Mice Skeletal Muscle. (helsinki.fi)
  • Whereas CAT-1 functions to supply cationic amino acids for cellular metabolism, CAT-2A and -2B are required for macrophage activation and play important roles in regulating inflammation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We show here that the master regulator of amino acid homeostasis, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), is dysfunctional in HD, reflecting oxidative stress generated by impaired cysteine biosynthesis and transport. (pnas.org)
  • We show here that the master regulator of amino acid homeostasis, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), is dysfunctional in HD because of oxidative stress contributed by aberrant cysteine biosynthesis and transport. (pnas.org)
  • In order to derive better insight into the biological mechanisms related to the differentially expressed genes, the lists of significant genes were subjected to pathway analysis and target prioritization indicating various processes such as calcium ion homeostasis, positive regulation of apoptotic process and cellular response to retinoic acid. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cells must regulate the abundance and activity of numerous nutrient transporters in different organelle membranes to achieve nutrient homeostasis. (rupress.org)
  • At the cellular level, nutrient homeostasis is achieved by regulating numerous transporters in different organelle membranes. (rupress.org)
  • In yeast, the vacuole (counterpart of the mammalian lysosome) is essential for maintaining nutrient homeostasis because it is the recycling center and the major storage organelle for nutrients, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and metal ions ( Blaby-Haas and Merchant, 2014 ). (rupress.org)
  • Despite their importance in maintaining nutrient homeostasis and regulating signaling pathways, little is known about the regulation of the quantity and quality of these lysosomal membrane transporters. (rupress.org)
  • The ability to sense nutrient availability and regulate energy homeostasis is an ancient and fundamental process that, when disturbed, leads to significant metabolic derangements ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The kidney not only plays a key role in maintaining electrolyte, acid-base, sodium and water homeostasis, but also in metabolising hormones and excreting toxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A high quality homology model for the human dopamine transporter validated for drug design purposes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) plays many vital functions within the central nervous system and is thus targeted by many pharmaceutical agents. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here, using the Drosophila dopamine transporter as a template, a homology model for the human dopamine transporter was developed and validated. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Presynaptic regulation of dopamine release: Role of the DAT and VMAT2 transporters. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of the study is to investigate the functional state of dopamine cells and the dopamine transporter in ADHD subjects and controls to assess the effects of chronic methylphenidat. (bioportfolio.com)
  • F18-FP-CIT reflects dopamine transporter availabili. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study will examine changes in brain dopamine transporter activity before and after antidepressant therapy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Three amino acid prodrugs of dopamine were synthesized and their prodrug properties were examined in vitro . (springer.com)
  • In terms of exogenous models, the most widely used compound for induction of dopamine insufficiency to mimic that seen in PD is the systemic administration of the tertiary amine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). (iospress.com)
  • Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • 1 Substantial evidence from preclinical studies and human research indicates that impairment of the endothelial NO synthase (NOS) pathway accelerates vascular disease and increases the risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. (ahajournals.org)
  • Scharf, R. E. Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 enhances the antifibrinolytic and prothrombotic state of growing endothelial cells in a cell cycle-specific manner. (alpnutrition.de)
  • Mutations in these transporters lead to many diseases or even lethality in humans and other mammals. (rupress.org)
  • This amino acid is an essential amino acid, which means that humans cannot synthesize it. (drugbank.ca)
  • In a recent study hemin was used to induce HO-1 in humans [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Overexpression of Ca 2+ pump SERCA1, Ca 2+ /H + antiporter Vcx1, or a Mn 2+ transporting mutant of Vcx1 (Vcx1-M1) failed to restore rapamycin sensitivity, and loss of Pmr1 but not other transporters of Ca 2+ or Mn 2+ results in rapamycin resistance. (genetics.org)
  • Overexpression of Ccc1, a Fe 2+ and Mn 2+ transporter that has been localized to Golgi and the vacuole, does restore rapamycin sensitivity to pmr1 Δ. (genetics.org)
  • Retroviral cDNA libraries have been used in a number of functional screens to identify unique mammalian genes that regulate cellular responses ( 1 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we describe an alternative method called cyclical packaging rescue (CPR) that uses direct repackaging of retroviral RNAs into new infectious virions to identify genes regulating functional responses in mammalian cells (Fig. 1 A ). In CPR, stably integrated helper-free retroviral libraries are recovered rapidly from mammalian cells as infectious helper-free retroviral supernatants 24 h after infection with adenoviruses expressing retroviral gag-pol and env genes. (pnas.org)
  • L-homoarginine is a substrate of the cationic amino acid transporters CAT1, CAT2A and CAT2B. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium-dependent amino acids transporter that has a broad substrate specificity, with a preference for zwitterionic amino acids. (uniprot.org)
  • Cloning of mouse prostaglandin transporter PGT cDNA: species-specific substrate affinities. (yu.edu)
  • Mapping the substrate binding site of the prostaglandin transporter PGT by cysteine scanning mutagenesis. (yu.edu)
  • Identification of lactate as a substrate and a driving force for prostanoid transport by the prostaglandin transporter PGT. (yu.edu)
  • l -Citrulline supplementation resulted in considerable increase of the concentrations of amino acids and creatinine in the serum, and in their urinary excretion rates. (springer.com)
  • Most tumor cells exhibit obligatory demands for essential amino acids (EAAs), but the regulatory mechanisms whereby tumor cells take up EAAs and EAAs promote malignant transformation remain to be determined. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The transportation of amino acids from the small intestines and kidneys to the rest of the body is necessary for the body to be able to use proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aromatic amino acid:H + symporter, AroP of 457 aas and 12 TMSs ( Cosgriff and Pittard 1997 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Amino acid transport was assessed using radio-labeled substrates and rapid filtration techniques. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here we show that cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) mRNA and reporters bearing its 3'UTR can be relieved from the microRNA miR-122-induced inhibition in human hepatocarcinoma cells subjected to different stress conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The derepression of CAT-1 mRNA is accompanied by its release from cytoplasmic processing bodies and its recruitment to polysomes. (nih.gov)
  • AGO2, miRNAs, and target mRNAs have all been found to localize to processing bodies (P bodies), the cytoplasmic sites for mRNA degradation ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Acts as an amino acid exchanger. (drugbank.ca)
  • Functions as an amino acid exchanger (PubMed:11557028, PubMed:12117417, PubMed:12225859, PubMed:30867591). (genecards.org)
  • We identify a molecular link between amino acid disposition and oxidative stress that underlies multiple degenerative processes in HD. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings establish a molecular link between amino acid disposition and oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity. (pnas.org)
  • Molecular structure of nucleic acids : a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Molecular cloning of the gene for the human prostaglandin transporter hPGT: Gene organization, promoter activity, and chromosomal localization. (yu.edu)
  • The PPR domain is found downstream of VRB and is approximately 50 amino acids long. (hubpages.com)
  • Glucose promoiety enables glucose transporter mediated brain uptake of ketoprofen and indomethacin prodrugs in rats. (springer.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: SLC7A5 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 13752-1-AP. (thermofisher.com)
  • a 16 amino acid sequence at the C-terminal end that is cleaved off by the viral protease (PR) after the virion has been released from the cell. (hubpages.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Amino acid transport across the plasma membrane . (genecards.org)
  • For example, three Zn 2+ transporters exist on the vacuole membrane. (rupress.org)
  • We also found that ET-1/ETA complexes can be internalized both via clathrin-coated pits and caveolae and that the pathway selection was controlled by cholesterol contents of the plasma membrane. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Downregulation of cell membrane transporters predisposes to alterations in neurotransmitter secretion and uptake, coupled with drug accumulation increasing the risk of encephalopathy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall . (genecards.org)
  • All of these mutations impair the y+LAT-1 protein's ability to transport amino acids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In BMs, amino acid transport was unaffected by diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Collectrin is most abundantly expressed in the kidney proximal tubule and collecting duct epithelia, where it has an important role in amino acid transport. (asnjournals.org)
  • Dr. Schuster's research laboratory discovered the prostaglandin (PG) transporter PGT and extended the work to human and mouse genetics and drug discovery. (yu.edu)
  • The liver is the primary organ in xenobiotic disposition, through a complex system involving a variety of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Not surprisingly, numerous nutrient transporters have been identified on the vacuole surface. (rupress.org)
  • Tumor cells have an increased nutritional demand for amino acids (AAs) to satisfy their rapid proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, two Zn 2+ transporter families exist in eukaryotes, including fungi, plants, and mammals, to regulate the level of Zn 2+ in the cytoplasm. (rupress.org)
  • To ensure that positive cDNA clones are successfully isolated from complex libraries in a single round of selection, functional screens using mammalian cells have been restricted to cellular assays in which the background of false-positive cells meeting a selection criterion is low, typically 1 in 10 5 false-positive cells. (pnas.org)
  • We reported a substantial depletion of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the primary biosynthetic enzyme for the amino acid cysteine, in HD ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cysteine is a semiessential amino acid with multifaceted cellular functions ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • VRA is found about 50 amino acids from the amino terminus of the SU domain and contains two conserved cysteine residues. (hubpages.com)
  • VRB is found about 40 amino acids downstream of VRA and contains one conserved cysteine residue. (hubpages.com)