A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
A family of light chains that bind to the CD98 heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) to form a heterodimer. They convey functional specificity to the protein.
A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in cerebellar PURKINJE CELLS on postsynaptic DENDRITIC SPINES.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in the RETINA.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
An inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of CYSTINE and other BASIC AMINO ACIDS by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This form of aminoaciduria is characterized by the abnormally high urinary levels of cystine; LYSINE; ARGININE; and ORNITHINE. Mutations involve the amino acid transport protein gene SLC3A1.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A metabolic disease characterized by the defective transport of CYSTINE across the lysosomal membrane due to mutation of a membrane protein cystinosin. This results in cystine accumulation and crystallization in the cells causing widespread tissue damage. In the KIDNEY, nephropathic cystinosis is a common cause of RENAL FANCONI SYNDROME.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A group of inherited kidney disorders characterized by the abnormally elevated levels of AMINO ACIDS in URINE. Genetic mutations of transport proteins result in the defective reabsorption of free amino acids at the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. Renal aminoaciduria are classified by the specific amino acid or acids involved.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defective absorption of NEUTRAL AMINO ACIDS by both the intestine and the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The abnormal urinary loss of TRYPTOPHAN, a precursor of NIACIN, leads to a NICOTINAMIDE deficiency, PELLAGRA-like light-sensitive rash, CEREBELLAR ATAXIA, emotional instability, and aminoaciduria. Mutations involve the neurotransmitter transporter gene SLC6A19.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
Disorders characterized by defective transport of amino acids across cell membranes. These include deficits in transport across brush-border epithelial cell membranes of the small intestine (MICROVILLI) and KIDNEY TUBULES; transport across the basolateral membrane; and transport across the membranes of intracellular organelles. (From Nippon Rinsho 1992 Jul;50(7):1587-92)
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Two-way arginine transport in human endothelial cells: TNF-alpha stimulation is restricted to system y(+). (1/75)

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells transport arginine through two Na(+)-independent systems. System y(+)L is insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), inhibited by L-leucine in the presence of Na(+), and referable to the expression of SLC7A6/y(+)LAT2, SLC7A7/y(+)LAT1, and SLC3A2/4F2hc. System y(+) is referable to the expression of SLC7A1/CAT1 and SLC7A2/CAT2B. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide induce a transient stimulation of arginine influx and efflux through system y(+). Increased expression of SLC7A2/CAT2B is detectable from 3 h of treatment, while SLC7A1 expression is inhibited at later times of incubation. System y(+)L activity and expression remain unaltered. Nitric oxide synthase type 2 mRNA is not detected in the absence or presence of TNF-alpha, while the latter condition lowers nitric oxide synthase type 3 expression at the mRNA and the protein level. Nitrite accumulation is comparable in cytokine-treated and control cells up to 48 h of treatment. It is concluded that modulation of endothelial arginine transport by TNF-alpha or lipopolysaccharide occurs exclusively through changes in CAT2B and CAT1 expression and is dissociated from stimulation of nitric oxide production.  (+info)

Fv1-like restriction of N-tropic replication-competent murine leukaemia viruses in mCAT-1-expressing human cells. (2/75)

To study the replication of murine leukaemia viruses in human cells we have used full-length as well as EGFP-tagged ecotropic viruses in combination with mCAT-1-expressing human cells. We present results showing that N-tropic murine leukaemia viruses are restricted in both infection and replication in such cells while B-tropic viruses, modified at capsid position 110, escape restriction. These results support a recently reported Fv1-like restriction in mammalian cells. We extend the analysis of Fv1-like restriction by demonstrating that NB-tropic viruses also escape restriction and human mCAT-1-expressing cells are thus similar to murine Fv1(b) cells with respect to infection though the ecotropic receptor pathway.  (+info)

Garlic attenuates nitric oxide production in rat cardiac myocytes through inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the arginine transporter CAT-2 (cationic amino acid transporter-2). (3/75)

It is now accepted that allicin, the main biologically active compound in garlic, exhibits antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the antioxidant activity of garlic can be partially attributed to the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by cytokine-induced NO synthase (iNOS). Cardiac myocytes cultured from neonatal Wistar rats were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated for 24 h with various concentrations of allicin. This resulted in marked inhibition of nitrite production. Interestingly, a low concentration of allicin (10 microM) was significantly more potent in abrogating the effect of LPS on nitrite production than a higher concentration (40 microM). Allicin decreased steady-state iNOS mRNA levels, and this effect was maximal when a lower concentration was used (10 microM compared with 40 microM). In order to explore additional effects of allicin on NO generation that might counteract the effect on iNOS, we assessed the effects of higher allicin concentrations on arginine transport. Allicin inhibited the uptake of 1 mM extracellular arginine in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression of the two arginine transporters that are expressed in cardiac myocytes [CAT-1 (cationic amino acid transporter-1) and CAT-2] was studied using reverse transcription-PCR. A concentration of 200 microM allicin abolished the expression of CAT-2 mRNA, 100 microM significantly attenuated it, whereas 50 microM had no effect. Allicin had no effect on steady-state CAT-1 mRNA levels. Our results suggest that allicin inhibits iNOS activity through two different mechanisms: at lower concentrations it decreases iNOS mRNA levels, whereas at higher concentrations it inhibits arginine transport through down-regulation of CAT-2 mRNA.  (+info)

Intrauterine growth retardation is associated with reduced activity and expression of the cationic amino acid transport systems y+/hCAT-1 and y+/hCAT-2B and lower activity of nitric oxide synthase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (4/75)

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with vascular complications leading to hypoxia and abnormal fetal development. The effect of IUGR on L-arginine transport and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was investigated in cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). IUGR was associated with membrane depolarization and reduced L-arginine transport (V(max)= 5.8+/-0.2 versus 3.3+/-0.1 pmol/microg protein per minute), with no significant changes in transport affinity (K(m)=159+/-15 versus 137+/-14 micromol/L). L-Arginine transport was trans-stimulated (8- to 9-fold) in cells from normal and IUGR pregnancies. IUGR was associated with reduced production of L-[3H]citrulline from L-[3H] arginine, lower nitrite and intracellular L-arginine, L-citrulline, and cGMP. IUGR decreased hCAT-1 and hCAT-2B mRNA, and increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels. IUGR-associated inhibition of L-arginine transport and NO synthesis, and membrane depolarization were reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-L,D-penicillamine. In summary, endothelium from fetuses with IUGR exhibit altered L-arginine transport and NO synthesis (L-arginine/NO pathway), reduced expression and activity of hCAT-1 and hCAT-2B and reduced eNOS activity. Alterations in L-arginine/NO pathway could be critical for the physiological processes involved in the etiology of IUGR in human pregnancies.  (+info)

Nutritional control of mRNA stability is mediated by a conserved AU-rich element that binds the cytoplasmic shuttling protein HuR. (5/75)

The cationic amino acid transporter, Cat-1, is a high affinity transporter of the essential amino acids, arginine and lysine. Expression of the cat-1 gene increases during nutritional stress as part of the adaptive response to starvation. Amino acid limitation induces coordinate increases in stability and translation of the cat-1 mRNA, at a time when global protein synthesis decreases. It is shown here that increased cat-1 mRNA stability requires an 11 nucleotide AU-rich element within the distal 217 bases of the 3'-untranslated region. When this 217-nucleotide nutrient sensor AU-rich element (NS-ARE) is present in a chimeric mRNA it confers mRNA stabilization during amino acid starvation. HuR is a member of the ELAV family of RNA-binding proteins that has been implicated in regulating the stability of ARE-containing mRNAs. We show here that the cytoplasmic concentration of HuR increases during amino acid starvation, at a time when total cellular HuR levels decrease. In addition, RNA gel shift experiments in vitro demonstrated that HuR binds to the NS-ARE and binding was dependent on the 11 residue AU-rich element. Moreover, HuR binding to the NS-ARE in extracts from amino acid-starved cells increased in parallel with the accumulation of cytoplasmic HuR. It is proposed that an adaptive response of cells to nutritional stress results in increased mRNA stability mediated by HuR binding to the NS-ARE.  (+info)

L-Arginine transport is augmented through up-regulation of tubular CAT-2 mRNA in ischemic acute renal failure in rats. (6/75)

BACKGROUND: Ischemic acute renal failure (iARF) is associated with increased nitric oxide (NO) production during the reperfusion period, as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is maximally activated, and renal tubular inducible NOS (iNOS) is stimulated. Increased NO production leads to augmented tubular injury, probably through the formation of peroxynitrite. l-Arginine (l-Arg), the only precursor for NO, is transported into cells by cationic amino acid transporters, CAT-1 and CAT-2. We hypothesized that the increased NO production observed in iARF may result from increased l-Arg uptake, which would be reflected in the augmented expression of l-Arg transporter(s). METHODS: Ischemic acute renal failure was induced in rats by right nephrectomy + left renal artery clamping for 60 minutes. l-Arg uptake was examined in freshly harvested glomeruli and tubuli from control, sham operated, and animals subjected to 15, 30, and 60 minutes, and 24 hours of reperfusion, following 60 minutes of ischemia. Using RT-PCR, renal tissues were examined further for the expression of iNOS, CAT-1, CAT-2, arginase I and arginase II. RESULTS: Tubular expression of iNOS mRNA was initiated by ischemia, continued to increase after 60 minutes of reperfusion, and decreased after 24 hours. l-Arg transport into glomeruli was similar in all experimental groups. l-Arg uptake into tubuli was markedly augmented following the 60-minute reperfusion, while it moderately increased after 24 hours of reperfusion. This was accompanied by a parallel, preferential increase in tubular CAT-2 mRNA expression at 60 minutes of reperfusion. CAT-1 mRNA expression was unchanged, as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, the expression of arginase II and arginase I mRNA was attenuated by 30 minutes and one hour of reperfusion, and returned to baseline values after 24 hours of reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic ARF is associated with augmented tubular CAT-2 mRNA expression, which leads to enhanced l-Arg transport and increased NO production. This may contribute to the renal injury exhibited in iARF.  (+info)

System y+ localizes to different membrane subdomains in the basolateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells. (7/75)

We report here that the system y+ cationic amino acid transporter ATRC1 localized to clusters within the basolateral membrane of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, suggesting that the transporters are restricted to discrete membrane microdomains in epithelial cells. Based on solubility in nonionic detergents, two populations of ATRC1 molecules existed: approximately half of the total ATRC1 in HEK cells associated with the actin membrane cytoskeleton, whereas another one-fourth resided in detergent-resistant membranes (DRM). In agreement with these findings, cytochalasin D reduced the amount of ATRC1 associated with the actin membrane cytoskeleton. Although some ATRC1 clusters in HEK cells colocalized with caveolin, the majority of ATRC1 did not colocalize with this marker protein for a type of DRM called caveolae. This distribution of ATRC1 is somewhat different from that reported for pulmonary artery endothelial cells in which transporters cluster predominantly in caveolae, suggesting that differences in the proportion of ATRC1 in specific membrane microdomains correlate with differences in the physiological role of the transporter in polarized kidney epithelial vs. vascular endothelial cells.  (+info)

Regulation of the S100B gene by alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation in cardiac myocytes. (8/75)

We previously reported that S100B, a 20-kDa Ca(2+)-binding homodimer, inhibited the postinfarct myocardial hypertrophic response mediated by alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation through the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway. In the present study, we examined whether the same pathway induced the S100B gene, supporting the hypothesis that S100B is a feedback negative regulator of this pathway. We transfected cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes with a luciferase reporter gene driven by the maximal human S100B promoter and progressively shorter segments of this promoter sequentially deleted from the 5' end. We identified a basic promoter essential for transcription spanning 162 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site and positive (at -782/-162 and -6,689/-4,463) and negative (at -4,463/-782) myocyte-selective regulatory elements. We showed that the basic and maximal S100B promoters were activated specifically by alpha(1)-adrenergic agonists through the alpha(1A)-adrenergic receptor, but not by any other trophic hormonal stimuli. The activation of the S100B promoter was mediated through the PKC signaling pathway. Transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) and related to TEF-1 (RTEF-1) influenced transcription from the maximal, but not the basic, promoter implicating active MCAT elements upstream from the basic promoter. Acting in opposing fashions, TEF-1 transrepressed the S100B promoter and RTEF-1 transactivated the promoter. Our results suggest that alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation induces the S100B gene after myocardial infarction through the PKC signaling pathway and that this induction is modulated by TEF-1 and RTEF-1.  (+info)

Hoshide R, Ikeda Y, Karashima S, Matsuura T, Komaki S, Kishino T, Niikawa N, Endo F, Matsuda I (Mar 1997). Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of human cationic amino acid transporter 2 (HCAT2). Genomics. 38 (2): 174-8. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0613. PMID 8954799 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heme oxygenase 1, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and nuclear factor κb are involved in hemin inhibition of type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and L-arginine transport in stimulated macrophages. AU - Tsai, Pei Shan. AU - Chen, Chien Chuan. AU - Tsai, Pei-Shan. AU - Yang, Lin Cheng. AU - Huang, Wan Yu. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - BACKGROUND: l-Arginine transport mediated by type 2 cationic amino acid transporter (CAT-2) is one crucial mechanism that regulates nitric oxide production mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction has been reported to significantly attenuate inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production. The authors sought to explore the effects of HO-1 induction on CAT-2 expression and l-arginine transport. The effects of HO-1 induction on nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were also investigated. METHODS: Murine macrophages ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NF-κB inhibitors stabilize the mRNA of high-affinity type-2 cationic amino acid transporter in LPS-stimulated rat liver. AU - Yang, C. H.. AU - Tsai, P. S.. AU - Lee, J. J.. AU - Huang, C. H.. AU - Huang, Chun Jen. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Background: Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) results in nitric oxide (NO) overproduction during endotoxemia. Cellular uptake of L-arginine, modulated by the isozymes of type-2 cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), including CAT-2, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, has been reported to be a crucial factor in the regulation of iNOS activity. We sought to elucidate the expression of CAT-2 isozymes and the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in this expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat liver. Methods: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly given intravenous (i.v.) injections of normal saline (N/S), LPS, LPS preceded by an NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC, dexamethasone or salicylate) or an NF-κB inhibitor alone. After ...
Infection of rodent cells by ecotropic type C retroviruses requires the expression of a cationic amino acid transporter composed of multiple membrane-spanning domains. By exchanging portions of cDNAs encoding the permissive mouse and nonpermissive human transporters and examining their abilities to specify virus infection upon expression in human 293 cells, we have identified the amino acid residues in the extracellular loop connecting the fifth and sixth membrane-spanning segments of the mouse transporter that are required for both envelope gp70 binding and infection. These findings strongly suggest that the role of the mouse transporter in determining infection is to provide an envelope-binding site. This role is analogous to those of host membrane proteins composed of a single membrane-spanning domain that serve as binding proteins or receptors for other enveloped viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and murine and human coronaviruses. ...
Slc7a3 (untagged) - Mouse solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3 (Slc7a3), (10ug), 10 µg.
TY - JOUR. T1 - CAT-1 as a novel CAM stabilizes endothelial integrity and mediates the protective actions of l-Arg via a NO-independent mechanism. AU - Guo, Lu. AU - Tian, Shuang. AU - Chen, Yuguo. AU - Mao, Yun. AU - Cui, Sumei. AU - Hu, Aihua. AU - Zhang, Jianliang. AU - Xia, Shen Ling. AU - Su, Yunchao. AU - Du, Jie. AU - Block, Edward R.. AU - Wang, Xing Li. AU - Cui, Zhaoqiang. PY - 2015/10/1. Y1 - 2015/10/1. N2 - Interendothelial junctions play an important role in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and the regulation of vascular functions. We report here that cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT-1) is a novel interendothelial cell adhesion molecule (CAM). We identified that CAT-1 protein localized at cell-cell adhesive junctions, similar to the classic CAM of VE-cadherin, and knockdown of CAT-1 with siRNA led to an increase in endothelial permeability. In addition, CAT-1 formed a cis-homo-dimer and showed Ca2+-dependent trans-homo-interaction to cause homophilic cell-cell ...
MDSCs are one of the dominant immunosuppressive populations that are present in the tumor microenvironment, impairing T cell function and promoting tumor progression (30). Therefore, MDSCs present a major obstacle for the success of cancer immunotherapy. As a result, blocking MDSC function has been an attractive endeavor to complement cancer therapies. Indeed, several studies demonstrated that depletion of MDSCs or inhibiting MDSC function impaired cancer progression (31, 32). Although these studies are very promising, more specific strategies to block MDSC suppressive function are needed.. MDSCs mediate their inhibitory effects on T cells through diverse mechanisms (33). One mechanism is the metabolism of amino acids by MDSCs (34). For example, MDSCs express enzymes that metabolize l-Arg, l-tryptophan, and cysteine, leading to their consumption from the microenvironment. Depletion of these amino acids results in T cell dysfunction (35-37). In addition, MDSCs can metabolize l-Arg and ...
Cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) is responsible for the bulk of the uptake of cationic amino acids in most mammalian cells. and endocytosis in phorbol ester-stimulated porcine aorthic endothelial and HEK293 cells were inhibited by siRNA knockdown of NEDD4-2 and NEDD4-1 E3 ubiquitin ligases, respectively. In contrast, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the dopamine transporter was dependent on NEDD4-2 in all cell types tested. Altogether, our data suggest that ubiquitination mediated by NEDD4-2 or NEDD4-1 leading to clathrin-mediated endocytosis is usually the common mode of regulation of various transporter proteins by PKC. of 0.1C0.2 mm, Na+ and pH independence, and strong trans-stimulation. CAT-1 is usually ubiquitously expressed and the main portal of entry for cationic amino acids into mammalian cells. Homozygous knockout of CAT-1 in mice is usually postnatally lethal (4). CAT-1 activity has been reported to be regulated through activation of protein kinase C (PKC) (5, 6). Even ...
Homo sapiens solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 5 (SLC7A5), mRNA. (H00008140-R01) - Products - Abnova
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:16:17572018:17576721:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000035925 transcript:OTTMUST00000092151 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Slc7a4 description:solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 4 ...
pep:novel chromosome:VEGA66:8:40898438:40917726:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000061152 transcript:OTTMUST00000078365 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Slc7a2 description:solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2 ...
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9.A.5 The Putative Arginine Transporter (ArgW) Family. The putative arginine transporter (ArgW) of Shewanella oneidensis contains 452aas with 10 putative TMSs in a 4+2+4 arrangement and N- and C- termini predicted inside. The Geobacillus homologue, HisW, contains 441aas with 10 or 11 putative TMSs; both N- and C- termini are inside. It is called the COG3314 family or GATE Superfamily (Rodionov et al., 2009).. The reaction believed to be catalyzed by ArgW is:. arginine (out) → arginine (in) ...
An important component of protein-nucleic acid interactions is the formation of salt bridges between cationic amino acid side chains and the anionic phosphate groups of the nucleic acid. We have used molecular mechanics to study the energetic and confo
The present invention provides a reagent for introducing a protein or gene into a cell. The reagent of the present invention is, for example, a reagent for introducing a protein or gene into a cell, which comprises a composition comprising a cationic amino acid type lipid represented by the following formula (I)-1: (wherein in formula (I)-1: L is a single bond, -CONH-, or -S-S-; M1 is -(CH2)k- or -(CH2CH2O)k- (wherein k is an integer between 0 and 14); and m1 and m2 are each independently an integer between 11 and 21 (in this regard, when providing a reagent for introducing a gene into a cell, the case where both m1 and m2 are 15 is excluded)).
More than 50 distinct amino acid transporter genes have been identified in the genome of Arabidopsis, indicating that transport of amino acids across membranes is a highly complex feature in plants. Based on sequence similarity, these transporters can be divided into two major superfamilies: the amino acid transporter family and the amino acid polyamine choline transporter family. Currently, mainly transporters of the amino acid transporter family have been characterized. Here, a molecular and functional characterization of amino acid polyamine choline transporters is presented, namely the cationic amino acid transporter (CAT) subfamily. CAT5 functions as a high-affinity, basic amino acid transporter at the plasma membrane. Uptake of toxic amino acid analogs implies that neutral or acidic amino acids are preferentially transported by CAT3, CAT6, and CAT8. The expression profiles suggest that CAT5 may function in reuptake of leaking amino acids at the leaf margin, while CAT8 is expressed in young ...
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Amino acids represent a strong signal that positively regulates mTORC1 (reviewed by Guertin and Sabatini, 2007). It was recently shown that leucine, an essential amino acid required for mTORC1 activation, is transported into cells in a glutamine-dependent fashion (Nicklin et al., 2009). Glutamine, which is imported into cells through SLC1A5 [solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter) member 5], is exchanged to import leucine via a heterodimeric system composed of SLC7A5 [antiport solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system, member 5] and SLC3A2 [solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid transport) member 2]. The mechanism by which intracellular amino acids then signal to mTORC1 remained obscure for many years. The activation of mTORC1 by amino acids is known to be independent of TSC1/2, because the mTORC1 pathway remains sensitive to amino acid deprivation in cells that lack TSC1 or TSC2 (Nobukuni et al., 2005). Some studies have ...
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The heterodimeric amino acid transporter family is a subfamily of SLC7 solute transporter family which includes 14-transmembrane cationic amino acid transporters and 12-transmembrane heterodimeric amino acid transporters. The members of heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are linked via a disulfide bond to single membrane spanning glycoproteins such as 4F2hc (4F2 heavy chain) and rBAT |TEX|$(related\;to\;b^0,\;^+-amino\;acid\;transporter)$|/TEX|. Six members are associated with 4F2hc and one is linked to rBAT. Two additional members were identified as ones associated with unknown heavy chains. The members of heterodimeric amino acid transporter family exhibit diverse substrate selectivity and are expressed in variety of tissues. They play variety of physiological roles including epithelial transport of amino acids as well as the roles to provide cells in general with amino acids for cellular nutrition. The dysfunction or hyperfunction of the members of the heterodimeric amino acid
Arginase, Arginine Uptake and their Role in Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Physiology. Lucile Floeter-Winter, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil ...
Top 10 tissues for 218892_at (Homo sapiens, Affymetrix Probeset): cerebral cortex astrocyte, ovarian stroma cell, coronary artery endothelium cell, embryonic cell, embryonic prechondrocyte, fetal chondrocyte, dermal papilla, fetal retina pigment epithelium, umbilical vein endothelium cell, sural nerve
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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This study has focused on the in vitro and in vivo characterization of a second-generation CD22-targeted immunotoxin, CAT-8015. The results from the in vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that CAT-8015 is highly effective in killing B cells from a variety of tumor cell lines. In addition, CAT-8015 was found to be up to approximately 12-fold more potent than CAT-3888 in cell survival-based assays. In vitro binding studies with human or monkey PBMCs showed that when used at an equal concentration, a higher relative mean fluorescence intensity signal was observed for CAT-8015 compared with CAT-3888, suggesting that the increase in the affinity of the targeting scFv for CD22 results in an increase in receptor occupancy. The pharmacokinetic profiles of CAT-8015 were evaluated in single dose studies in mice, rats, and monkeys. These studies estimated the plasma clearance to be 0.04, 0.23, and approximately 2.0 to 4.0 mL/min in mice, rats, and monkeys, respectively. Although a single administration of ...
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Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 (SNAT2), the ubiquitous member of SLC38 family, accounts for the activity of transport system A for neutral amino acids in most mammalian tissues. As the transport process performed by SNAT2 is highly
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of l-arginine in nitric oxide production in health and hypertension. AU - Rajapakse, Niwanthi W.. AU - Mattson, David L.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - l-Arginine is the substrate for vascular nitric oxide (NO) formation. Under normal physiological conditions, intracellular l-arginine levels far exceed the Km of NO synthase for l-arginine. However, endogenous NO formation is dependent on extracellular l-arginine concentrations, giving rise to the concept of the l-arginine paradox. Nitric oxide production in epithelial and endothelial cells is closely coupled to cellular l-arginine uptake, indicating that l-arginine transport mechanisms play a major role in the regulation of NO-dependent function. Consistent with the data in endothelial and epithelial cells are functional data indicating that exogenous l-arginine can increase renal vascular and tubular NO bioavailability and thereby influence kidney perfusion, function and arterial pressure. The integrated effect of ...
Arginine uptake and degradation systems are common throughout bacteria and archaea. The genome of human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae encodes three proteins now called AaxA, AaxB, and AaxC which function together to take ...
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1. Modulation of L-arginine transport (system y+) and release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2) by elevated glucose and insulin were investigated in human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells. 2. Elevated glucose induced a time- (6-12 h) and concentration-dependent stimulation of L-a …
Find SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research area related information and SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
And in the unfortunate case that you do believe that you are running short of choline, because you dont eat all the good choline containing foods out of ethical or whatever other reasons, and thus insist on supplementing, I suggest you yourself a 500g container of choline bitartrate powder (dont let that become wet, though! It will stink like rotten fish ;-). Those 500g of choline bitartrate (40% choline, 60% tartate) will cost you about as much as 60x300mg caps of the overpriced GPC and has been scientifically proven (not in supplement company terms, but in SuppVersity terms) to safely increase circulating and brain choline levels and its metabolites after oral ingestion, as well (Stoll. 1996; Babb. 2004). And lets be honest, even if the effects on growth hormone were GPC specific - even on the boards, people have meanwhile realized none of those arginine + lysine GH boosters does make a difference and not because they would not produce transient increases in GH, but simply because those ...
l-Arginine did not produce the anticipated reversal of insulin resistance produced byl-NAME, but, rather,l-arginine by itself caused insulin resistance (48.8 ± 8.2%) (Fig. 5).l-NAME not only blocks NOS but also blocks arginine uptake across the hepatocyte plasma membrane (8).l-Arginine is metabolized by NOS to NO and by arginase to urea andl-ornithine (6). Because the liver has a very high arginase activity, it is possible that mostl-arginine administered is converted to l-ornithine by the liver, although l-arginine can reverse the vascular effects ofl-NAME in the liver (12).l-Arginine also causes release of growth hormone (7, 14) and glucagon; both hormones reduce insulin sensitivity. This may explain why we could not reverse insulin resistance caused by l-NAME withl-arginine and whyl-arginine caused insulin resistance.. Reduction in blood flow to the nerves in diabetes leads to neuropathy (3, 4, 9, 17, 25) and has been suggested to result from a decrease in NO production in the vasculature ...
Low prices on Arginine! Improve heart health, lower blood pressure and speed up wound healing*. L-arginine is an amino acid shown to have many benefits on health. Studies have shown significant improvement of symptoms as well as objective measurements of heart function. L-arginine improves the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), a naturally occurring substance in the body.
In this study we report that 8-iso-PGF2α, a major and stable product of lipid peroxidation, was potent in causing cell death of cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells as well as of ex vivo preparation of microvessels but not of human umbilical vein endothelium, smooth muscle, or astroglia; another related isoprostane, 8-iso-PGE2, did not trigger endothelial cell death. 8-Iso-PGF2α-induced cytotoxicity was TXA2 dependent and mostly of oncotic nature. Associated with these effects, intraventricular injection of 8-iso-PGF2α caused cystlike formations in the periventricular area.. The nature of cell death induced by 8-iso-PGF2α seems to be primarily oncotic rather than apoptotic necrosis (Figure 2). This inference is supported by the data that 8-iso-PGF2α caused ,8% of cell DNA fragmentation, a time-dependent increase in PI incorporation and LDH release, indicative of membrane disruption (Figure 2), and its effects, as well as those of its mediator TXA2, were unaltered by caspase ...
Outer membrane porin D is a protein family containing bacterial outer membrane porins which are involved in transport of cationic amino acids, peptides, antibiotics and other compounds. It was also described as having some serine protease activity. However many of these proteins are not peptidases and are classified as non-peptidase homologues as they either have been found experimentally to be without peptidase activity, or lack amino acid residues that are believed to be essential for the catalytic activity of peptidases in the S43 family. Yoshihara E, Yoneyama H, Ono T, Nakae T (June 1998). Identification of the catalytic triad of the protein D2 protease in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 247 (1): 142-5. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8745. PMID 9636669. This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro ...
Buy L-ARGININE 1000mg - 50 tabs Online.L-Arginine is an amino acid that forms part of the proteins. It is of vital importance in its isolated form as it fulfils numerous functions. Due to the role that L-Arginine plays as a vasodila
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Odds are we don t all have the same underlying issue. My dentist & I think my case was viral due to the timing of the onset and the dramatic response to the L-lysine. The research on herpes & lysine suggest that it s the balance of arginine & lysine which impacts viral replication. High arginine to lysine encourages replication. High lysine to arginine stops replication. Peeling lips can also be symptom of riboflavin deficiency. (there are over 40 things that have peeling lips as a symptom on wrongdiagnosis.com) There is also always the possibility that it s an eczema/dermat ...
Are L-Arginine benefits legit? Well, the thing is, L-Arginine is full of scientifically proven benefits, the key is, will help what ails you?
L-Arginine 500 mg Caps Each capsule provides 500 mg of L-Arginine (from L-arginine hydrochloride, L-arginine). As an Amino Acid, L-Arginine acts as one of the building blocks for protein.
This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene is predicted to encode a glycosylated, cationic amino acid transporter ... solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 14. ... and primary endothelial cells and its protein is predicted to mediate lysosomal uptake of cationic amino acids. Mutations in ...
... which competes with L-arginine for uptake by the cationic amino acid transporter-2 [1].. 2. Results and Discussion 2.1. Patient ... 1. 0 0. 10. 20. r=0.504 p=0.0048. 30. 0. 10. 20. 30. FeNO. FeNO. Figure 5. Arginase activity in COPD sputum correlates ... References 1.. North, M.L.; Scott, J.A. L-Arginine metabolism in the lung: Reciprocal regulation of the NOS and arginase ... 6065 Table 1. Patient demographics. Mean ± SEM n 62.3 ± 2.6 174.0 ± 1.8 76.4 ± 3.0 8/2 4/6 37 ± 5 7 ± 2.6 6/4 1.90 ± 0.04. ...
Metabolism Transport and binding proteins Amino acids, peptides and amines L-type amino acid transporter (TIGR00911; HMM-score ... Metabolism Transport and binding proteins Amino acids, peptides and amines cationic amino acid transport permease (TIGR00906; ... Metabolism Transport and binding proteins Amino acids, peptides and amines amino acid transporter (TIGR00909; HMM-score: 113.8 ... Metabolism Transport and binding proteins Amino acids, peptides and amines amino acid permease (yeast) (TIGR00913; HMM-score: ...
... amino acid transporter, APC family amino acid-polyamine-organocation transporter, cationic amino acid transporter; orthologs: ... amino acid permease, amino acid permease family protein, ... amino acid transporter. *APC family amino acid-polyamine- ... description?: amino acid permease. descriptions from strain specific annotations: *amino acid permease ...
Targeting the transporters of cationic amino acids for cancer radiotheranostics: experimental and computational chemistry ... Hot spots-A review of the protein-protein interface determinant amino-acid residues ... Understanding the importance of the aromatic amino-acid residues as hot-spots ... Solvent Accessible Surface Area-Based Hot-Spot Detection Methods for Protein-Protein and Protein-Nucleic Acid Interfaces ...
... genetic abnormality of a single amino acid, transporter translucent sections of human tissues and organsвЂ"that molecule, or ... often requiring extraceosinophil proteins corresponding to eosinophil cationic protein tion. Use of peripheral blocks for ... The value of monitoring myco- to these immunosuppressive agents are identi?ed within the phenolic acid levels to guide dosing ... Thefi subunits carry insulin binding websites, while to fatty acids and triglycerides, however this course of thefi subunits ...
Effects of local delivery of D-amino acids from biofilm-dispersive scaffolds on infection in contaminated rat segmental defects ... Dendritic molecular transporters provide control of delivery to intracellular compartments.. Huang K, Voss B, Kumar D, Hamm HE ... An anionic, endosome-escaping polymer to potentiate intracellular delivery of cationic peptides, biomacromolecules, and ... 2006) Nucleic Acids Res 34: 1900-11. *Development of an integrated genomic classifier for a novel agent in colorectal cancer: ...
Thiolated Chitosan Thiolation may be the reaction of major amino sets of chitosan Fissinolide with coupling reagents which ... which is considered one of the strongest mucoadhesive polymers due to its cationic nature (M Ways et al., 2018). That is why it ... poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) (Tong et al., 2017), poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) (Wang S. et al., 2018), ... Methylation consists in the introduction of various alkyl groups at the amino groups of chitosan. The most common product of ...
15-PGDH 3-PGDH 5 Alpha Reductase ACAT ACC ACE Adenosine Kinase Adenosylhomocysteinase PKM2 Galactosidases ACS D-amino acid ... IBAT TRP Channel AChR SLC Glutamate transporter UCP ENT GABA transporter Glycine transporter Kainate receptor ABC Transporter ... Intermediate and Others Biochemical Assay Reagent Dye Reagent Cationic & Neutral Lipids * PROTAC E1/E2/E3 Enzyme Others-PROTAC ... Membrane Transporter/Ion Channel AMPAR ATPase BCRP Calcium Channel CFTR Chloride Channel CRAC Channel CRM1 EAAT2 GABA Receptor ...
  • High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase C activation promotes the internalization of the human cationic amino acid transporter hCAT-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cationic amino acid transporter 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC7A2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three of the genes, RelA, cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), and a dominant-negative mutant of TNF receptor 1 arising through CPR afforded strong protection against apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • The derepression requires binding of HuR, an AU-rich-element binding protein, to the 3'UTR of CAT-1 mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • Huntington's disease (HD) is a lethal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of glutamine repeats in the protein huntingtin (Htt) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is of great challenge to predict human brain penetration for substrates of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and/or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), two major efflux transporters at blo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We have also shown in the remnant model and a podocyte injury induced model (puromycin aminonucleoside, PAN) that the protein abundance of the transporter involved in L-Arg secretion is reduced in addition to impaired uptake by endothelial cells. (ufl.edu)
  • The SLC7A7 gene provides instructions for producing a protein called y+L amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT-1), which is involved in transporting certain building blocks of protein (amino acids), namely lysine, arginine, and ornithine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The y+LAT-1 protein forms one part (the light subunit) of a complex called the heterodimeric cationic amino acid transporter. (medlineplus.gov)
  • T) disrupts the way the gene's instructions are used to make the y+LAT-1 protein, causing the protein to be misplaced in the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the y+LAT-1 protein disrupt the transportation of amino acids, leading to a shortage of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in the body and an abnormally large amount of these amino acids in urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The abnormal transportation and shortage of these amino acids in various tissues of the body leads to the signs and symptoms of lysinuric protein intolerance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • SLC7A1 (AAH69358.1, 1 a.a. ~ 629 a.a) full-length human protein. (abnova.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cationic amino acid transporter and a member of the APC (amino acid-polyamine-organocation) family of transporters. (genecards.org)
  • These tracers target protein synthesis or amino acid (AA) transport, and their uptake mechanism mainly involves AA transport. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is a disulfide linked heterodimer with the amino acid transport protein SLC3A1. (abcam.com)
  • Indeed, the protein expression of the primary placental glucose transporter isoform GLUT1 as well as glucose transport activity has been shown to be increased in BM in type 1 diabetes ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the case of ecotropic MLV, the process is initiated by interaction with the 622 amino acid transmembrane receptor protein mouse cationic amino acid transporter (mCAT-1) located on the cell surface. (hubpages.com)
  • miR-122 regulates the synthesis of the protein CAT-1 by binding to sites in the mRNA 3'UTR such that translation is repressed and the mRNA is targeted to P bodies . (mirbase.org)
  • This repression can be relieved by the protein HuR , which is released from the nucleus under conditions of cell stress and binds to the CAT-1 3'UTR. (mirbase.org)
  • NO production by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is dependent in part on the relative bioavailability of arginine, the NOS substrate, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous NOS inhibitor released during hydrolysis of proteins that have been methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase [ 14 - 16 ] ( Fig 1 ). (prolekare.cz)
  • Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid required for numerous cellular processes such as protein synthesis and arginylation, polyamine production, metabolism of other amino acids and nucleotides, as well as creatine, urea, and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the light subunit of a cationic amino acid transporter. (mybiosource.com)
  • This sodium-independent transporter is formed when the light subunit encoded by this gene dimerizes with the heavy subunit transporter protein SLC3A2. (mybiosource.com)
  • Endogenous leucine flux, an index of whole-body protein breakdown rate, was measured in 13 critically ill patients with sepsis or septic shock and seven healthy controls using an intravenous infusion of [1- 13 C]leucine. (portlandpress.com)
  • mTOR nucleates at least two distinct multi-protein complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) (reviewed by Guertin and Sabatini, 2007 ). (biologists.org)
  • The expression of endothelial NOS, protein arginine methyltransferases 1 and 3, and cationic transporter were also unaffected. (ahajournals.org)
  • Benz A, Shajari M, Peruzki N, Dehghani F, Maronde E (2010) A novel mechanism for transient Egr-1 protein induction via FGF-1-induced MAPK phosphorylation and PKB/Akt-dephosphorylation in hippocampal neurons. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • To measure NO production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), HO-1 expression and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation we used hemin as an HO-1 inducer and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) IX as an inhibitor of HO-1 activity in human astrocyte cultures prior to IL-1β exposure. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • IL-1β treatment of astrocytes alone induced undetectable amounts of HO-1 protein by western blot. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pretreatment with hemin alone substantially induced both HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, and HO-1 mRNA expression was further enhanced when hemin was combined with IL-1β treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HO-1, which is the inducible isoform of the stress response protein HO that detoxifies heme, can be induced by many stimuli and is considered a therapeutic funnel because its activity appears to be required by other therapeutic molecules [ 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These pathways are initiated by the activation of three ER membrane‐associated proteins, PERK (double‐stranded RNA‐activated protein kinase (PKR)‐like ER kinase), ATF6 (activating transcription factor‐6), and IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1). (embopress.org)
  • CAT-1 activity has been reported to be regulated through activation of protein kinase C (PKC) (5, 6). (johnstoncassel.com)
  • OAT1 cDNA consists of 2294 nucleotides and contains an open reading frame encoding a 551-amino acid residue protein with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains ( 18 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • In this study, we provided several lines of evidence suggesting that IFN-γ-mediated parasite growth enhancement was associated with L-arginine transport via mouse cationic amino acid transporter 2B (mCAT-2B). (utmb.edu)
  • Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) at the BBB by prodrug approach. (springer.com)
  • The prodrug with phenylalanine derivative as the promoiety had both higher affinity for LAT1 and better brain uptake properties than those with an alkyl amino acid -mimicking promoiety. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that attachment of phenylalanine to a cationic drug via an amide bond from the meta-position of its aromatic ring could be highly applicable in prodrug design for LAT1-mediated CNS-delivery of not only anionic but also cationic polar drugs. (springer.com)
  • 3 , 7 Similarly, in endothelial cells, collectrin regulates L-arginine (L-Arg) uptake, likely through its control of the plasma membrane expression of the L-Arg transporters CAT-1 and y+LAT1. (asnjournals.org)
  • Cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) is responsible for the bulk of the uptake of cationic amino acids in most mammalian cells. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include amino acid transmembrane transporter activity and basic amino acid transmembrane transporter activity . (genecards.org)
  • Collectrin ( Tmem27 or Nx-17 ) is a 222-amino acid transmembrane glycoprotein with approximately 50% sequence identity with the angiotensin converting enzyme isoform 2 (ACE2). (asnjournals.org)
  • Solute carrier (SLC) drug transporters exchange various molecules without energy from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, indicating an association with anticancer drug resistance. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In mammals, cellular arginine availability is determined by members of the solute carrier (SLC) 7 family of cationic amino acid transporters. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • SLC7A9 is involved in the high affinity, sodium independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids (system b(0,+)-like activity). (abcam.com)
  • CSNU arises from impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids through the epithelial cells of the renal tubule and gastrointestinal tract. (abcam.com)
  • SLC7A7: Involved in the sodium-independent uptake of dibasic amino acids and sodium-dependent uptake of some neutral amino acids. (mybiosource.com)
  • Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. (drugbank.ca)
  • Mediates blood-to-retina L-leucine transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier which in turn may play a key role in maintaining large neutral amino acids as well as neurotransmitters in the neural retina. (drugbank.ca)
  • This transporter is found in epithelial cell membranes where it transfers cationic and large neutral amino acids from the cell to the extracellular space. (mybiosource.com)
  • Interaction of the cardiovascular risk marker asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) with the human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1). (nih.gov)
  • The encoding gene is adjacent to a paralogue ( serP2 ) with broad specificity for D- and L-small semipolar amino acids and glycine (see TC# 2.A.3.1.20). (tcdb.org)
  • In linkage disequilibrium of highly associated markers are a number of known nitrate transporters and sensors, including a gene thought to mediate expression of the major nitrate transporter NRT1.1. (frontiersin.org)
  • Wiebking N, Maronde E, Rami A (2013) Increased neuronal injury in clock gene Per-1 deficient-mice after cerebral ischemia. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Molecular cloning of the gene for the human prostaglandin transporter hPGT: Gene organization, promoter activity, and chromosomal localization. (yu.edu)
  • High-affinity, low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in non-hepatic tissues. (uniprot.org)
  • Isoform 1 functions as permease that mediates the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine), and it has much higher affinity for arginine than isoform 2. (genecards.org)
  • Treatment with rapamycin mimics starvation for nitrogen in S. cerevisiae despite availability of nutrients, resulting in endocytosis and degradation of specific permeases and their substitution by the general amino acid permease, Gap1 ( C respo and H all 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • L-homoarginine is a substrate of the cationic amino acid transporters CAT1, CAT2A and CAT2B. (nih.gov)
  • We studied the activity of the syncytiotrophoblast amino acid transporter system A and the transport of the essential amino acids leucine, lysine, and taurine. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • L-Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. (drugbank.ca)
  • Proteins of the herpes simplex virus are rich in L-arginine, and tissue culture studies indicate an enhancing effect on viral replication when the amino acid ratio of L-arginine to L-lysine is high in the tissue culture media. (drugbank.ca)
  • When we competed for L-arginine influx via the cationic amino acid transporters by addition of L-lysine, we find a 60-70% inhibition of arginase activity without significant loss of NOS-2 activity. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptome Analysis and Expression of Selected Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in the Liver of Broiler Chicken Fed Diets with Varying Concentrations of Lysine. (helsinki.fi)
  • These transporters have multispecificity for substrates and mediate the transport of various anionic substances in the liver ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • mRNA for these hepatic organic anion transporters has also been detected in the kidney, and the transporters may have roles in the transport of the anionic conjugates of lipophilic compounds ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • However, HO-1 mRNA expression was modestly up-regulated in response to IL-1β stimulation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast, IL-1β-induced iNOS mRNA expression and NO production were markedly inhibited by hemin treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This subunit is responsible for binding to the amino acids that are transported. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 8 Recently, collectrin was shown to bind B 0 -like amino acid transporters and is required for both their trafficking and catalytic activity, suggesting that collectrin is an essential subunit of this heteromultimeric secondary active transporter, rather than serving solely as a chaperone. (asnjournals.org)
  • Aberrant amino acid metabolism has been reported in Huntington's disease (HD), but its molecular origins are unknown. (pnas.org)
  • Disturbances in amino acid metabolism, which have been observed in Huntington's disease (HD), may account for the profound inanition of HD patients. (pnas.org)
  • This signaling cascade may be relevant to other diseases involving redox imbalance and deficits in amino acid metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Abnormalities in amino acid metabolism have been frequently reported in HD, which may explain the weight loss and inanition observed during disease progression ( 5 ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of globus pallidus internus (GPi) -Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in dopamine and dopamine transporter metabolism, and to explore the regulatory rol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 1 Mineral Metabolism and Endocrine Research Laboratory, Departments of Surgery and Urology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, F.R.G. (portlandpress.com)
  • We suggest that these changes result in an increased uptake of neutral amino acids across MVM, which may be used in placental metabolism or be delivered to the fetus. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • miR-122 expression is specific to the liver, where it has been implicated as a regulator of fatty-acid metabolism in mouse studies. (mirbase.org)
  • IDH2 Deficiency Is Critical in Myogenesis and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Mice Skeletal Muscle. (helsinki.fi)
  • Whereas CAT-1 functions to supply cationic amino acids for cellular metabolism, CAT-2A and -2B are required for macrophage activation and play important roles in regulating inflammation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Amino acid transport was assessed using radio-labeled substrates and rapid filtration techniques. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • NEDD4 family ligases typically recognize their substrates through the conversation of their WW domains with the PPoocytes, the complete coding sequence of hCAT-1 and hCAT-1-HA-GFP was cloned into pSGEM. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • COX-2 is naturally inhibited by calcitriol (the active form of Vitamin D). Both the peroxidase and PTGS activities are inactivated during catalysis by mechanism-based, first-order processes, which means that PGHS-2 peroxidase or PTGS activities fall to zero within 1-2 minutes, even in the presence of sufficient substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol augments while progesterone inhibits arginine transport in human endothelial cells through modulation of cationic amino acid transporter-1. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the enzyme that catalyzes the production of NO from the amino acid arginine in endothelial cells, plays a key role in vasoregulation as well as in other important physiological processes such as angiogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Sobrevia, Luis 2018-04-01 00:00:00 l-Arginine is taken up via the cationic amino acid transporters (system y+/CATs) and system y+L in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). (deepdyve.com)
  • The results show that a unique subpopulation of mature tumor-associated myeloid cells but not tumor cells or immature myeloid cells express arginase I and cationic amino acid transporter 2B. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As they compete for the same substrate, L-arginine, an interdependence of NOS-2 and arginase-1 has been repeatedly observed in cells where arginase-1 is cytokine-inducible. (nih.gov)
  • We show here that the master regulator of amino acid homeostasis, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), is dysfunctional in HD, reflecting oxidative stress generated by impaired cysteine biosynthesis and transport. (pnas.org)
  • We show here that the master regulator of amino acid homeostasis, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), is dysfunctional in HD because of oxidative stress contributed by aberrant cysteine biosynthesis and transport. (pnas.org)
  • The Mitochondrial Metallochaperone SCO1 Is Required to Sustain Expression of the High-Affinity Copper Transporter CTR1 and Preserve Copper Homeostasis. (jax.org)
  • In order to derive better insight into the biological mechanisms related to the differentially expressed genes, the lists of significant genes were subjected to pathway analysis and target prioritization indicating various processes such as calcium ion homeostasis, positive regulation of apoptotic process and cellular response to retinoic acid. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cells must regulate the abundance and activity of numerous nutrient transporters in different organelle membranes to achieve nutrient homeostasis. (rupress.org)
  • At the cellular level, nutrient homeostasis is achieved by regulating numerous transporters in different organelle membranes. (rupress.org)
  • In yeast, the vacuole (counterpart of the mammalian lysosome) is essential for maintaining nutrient homeostasis because it is the recycling center and the major storage organelle for nutrients, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and metal ions ( Blaby-Haas and Merchant, 2014 ). (rupress.org)
  • Despite their importance in maintaining nutrient homeostasis and regulating signaling pathways, little is known about the regulation of the quantity and quality of these lysosomal membrane transporters. (rupress.org)
  • The kidney not only plays a key role in maintaining electrolyte, acid-base, sodium and water homeostasis, but also in metabolising hormones and excreting toxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transportation of amino acids from the small intestines and kidneys to the rest of the body is necessary for the body to be able to use proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Arginine is a simple amino acid that is found in many foods and is part of the proteins in a human's body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Altogether, our data suggest that ubiquitination mediated by NEDD4-2 or NEDD4-1 leading to clathrin-mediated endocytosis is usually the common mode of regulation of various transporter proteins by PKC. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • A high quality homology model for the human dopamine transporter validated for drug design purposes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) plays many vital functions within the central nervous system and is thus targeted by many pharmaceutical agents. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here, using the Drosophila dopamine transporter as a template, a homology model for the human dopamine transporter was developed and validated. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Presynaptic regulation of dopamine release: Role of the DAT and VMAT2 transporters. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of the study is to investigate the functional state of dopamine cells and the dopamine transporter in ADHD subjects and controls to assess the effects of chronic methylphenidat. (bioportfolio.com)
  • F18-FP-CIT reflects dopamine transporter availabili. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This study will examine changes in brain dopamine transporter activity before and after antidepressant therapy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Three amino acid prodrugs of dopamine were synthesized and their prodrug properties were examined in vitro . (springer.com)
  • In terms of exogenous models, the most widely used compound for induction of dopamine insufficiency to mimic that seen in PD is the systemic administration of the tertiary amine, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). (iospress.com)
  • In contrast, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the dopamine transporter was dependent on NEDD4-2 in all cell types tested. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • The activity of several mammalian transporters of the SLC6 family, such as dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine, 65-28-1 and serotonin transporters, 65-28-1 has also been shown to be inhibited by PKC through down-regulation of the surface pool of these transporters (8,C13). (johnstoncassel.com)
  • The genes identified in the screen include both modifiers that only partially protected RelA −/− cells against TNFα and a dominant-negative mutant of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) that was generated during the process of CPR. (pnas.org)
  • Transport of cationic amino acids by the mouse ecotropic retrovirus receptor [see comments]. (jax.org)
  • We show that NMDA receptor activation markedly reduces arginine transport by decreasing surface expression of the cationic amino acid transporters (CAT) 1 and 3. (elsevier.com)
  • In WT mice, administration of angiotensin II for 2 weeks downregulated collectrin expression in a type 1 angiotensin II receptor-dependent manner. (asnjournals.org)
  • Structural requirements for binding of prostaglandins to the prostaglandin FP receptor versus the prostaglandin transporter PGT. (yu.edu)
  • In this trait, up-regulation of IL-1-receptor enemy (IL-1Ra), a naturally occurring antagonist of IL-1, has been described after sharp-witted seizures, pre-eminence epilepticus and in kindling (Avignone et al. (wgc2010.sk)
  • a 16 amino acid sequence at the C-terminal end that is cleaved off by the viral protease (PR) after the virion has been released from the cell. (hubpages.com)
  • Transfection of astrocyte cultures was performed using a pLEX expression vector carrying the human HO-1 sequence prior to IL-1β treatment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 19 ) also identified a renal organic anion transporter, the amino acid sequence of which is 100% identical to that of OAT1. (asnjournals.org)
  • There was no significant sequence homology between OAT1 and the organic anion-transporting polypeptide, but OAT1 showed weak identity (38%) to organic cation transporter 1 ( 20 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • RT-PCR analysis confirmed that HCMV induced the expression of ICAM-1, integrin β 8 , integrin α 1 , IL-1β, TNF-α, and CCL2. (jimmunol.org)
  • examined HO-1 induction on type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and l-arginine transport in murine macrophages. (asahq.org)
  • Among the results observed by the team was that lipopolysaccharide significantly induced nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 activation and HO-1 expression, nuclear factor κB activation, type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression, and l-arginine transport. (asahq.org)
  • Adding hemin to the preparations, they found, enhanced the lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 activation and HO-1 expression, in a dose-dependent manner. (asahq.org)
  • HO-1 induction significantly inhibited type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and l-arginine transport in macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. (asahq.org)
  • Carbon monoxide, they noted, partially mediated the effects of HO-1 induction on type 2 cationic amino acid transporter expression and l-arginine transport. (asahq.org)
  • Alterations in the activity and expression of placental nutrient transporters could represent an additional level of complexity to the relationship between maternal substrate levels and fetal growth in diabetes in pregnancy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Die Expression von mRNA für iNOS und CAT-2B in Rattenalveolarmakrophagen ist durch AP-1 und LREAA-decoy-ODN verschieden beeinflußt. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Thus, stimuli inducing iNOS expression allways cause an upregulation of L-arginine transport and enhance the expression of the cationic amino acid transporter CAT-2B. (uni-bonn.de)
  • l -Arg depletion by tumor-associated myeloid cells blocked the re-expression of CD3ζ in stimulated T cells and inhibited antigen-specific proliferation of OT-1 and OT-2 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When pretreated with SnPP, the inhibitory effect of hemin on IL-1β-induced NO production and iNOS expression was reversed, suggesting the involvement of HO-1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These findings support the hypothesis that up-regulation of HO-1 in astrocytes is associated with down-regulation of iNOS expression and thereby NO production, an effect that involves the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, which suggests that this glial cell response could play an important protective role against oxidative stress in the brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Induction of HO-1 expression within the central nervous system (CNS) has been demonstrated in rodent astrocytes, microglia/macrophages and neurons [ 6 - 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 In renal proximal tubule and collecting duct epithelia, collectrin is thought to function as a chaperone for the trafficking of amino acid transporters, because deletion of collectrin results in reduced expression of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters and severe generalized urinary amino acid wasting. (asnjournals.org)
  • However, the expression and role of SLC transporters in malignant tumors has not yet been fully elucidated. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Therefore, in the current study, the expression of SLC37A family genes was evaluated in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and it was revealed that SLC family 37 member 1 (SLC37A1) expression was significantly increased in tumorous tissues compared with that in non-tumorous tissues. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Lane 1: SLC7A1 transfected lysate(69.19 KDa). (abnova.com)
  • Orthologs of three ABC-transporters involved in suberin synthesis in roots also co-localize with association peaks for both leaf nitrate and phosphorus. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, in hepatocytes, arginases are constitutively expressed and thus, their impact on hepatic NOS-2-derived NO synthesis as well as the influence of L-arginine influx via cationic amino acid transporters during inflammatory reactions are still under debate. (nih.gov)
  • The absence of endoperoxide-containing products derived from 10,10-difluoroarachidonic acid has been thought to indicate the importance of a C-10 carbocation in PGG2 synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acts as an amino acid exchanger. (drugbank.ca)
  • Functions as an amino acid exchanger (PubMed:11557028, PubMed:12117417, PubMed:12225859, PubMed:30867591). (genecards.org)
  • Organic anions, including para -aminohippurate (PAH), are taken up into proximal tubule cells from the peritubular plasma by an organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger on the basal membrane ( 1 , 2 , 13 , 14 , 15 ) and are excreted into the urinary fluid through the apical membrane ( 1 , 2 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • We identify a molecular link between amino acid disposition and oxidative stress that underlies multiple degenerative processes in HD. (pnas.org)
  • Our findings establish a molecular link between amino acid disposition and oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity. (pnas.org)
  • Molecular structure of nucleic acids : a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This amino acid is an essential amino acid, which means that humans cannot synthesize it. (drugbank.ca)
  • Mutations in these transporters lead to many diseases or even lethality in humans and other mammals. (rupress.org)
  • In a recent study hemin was used to induce HO-1 in humans [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • l -Citrulline supplementation resulted in considerable increase of the concentrations of amino acids and creatinine in the serum, and in their urinary excretion rates. (springer.com)
  • Most tumor cells exhibit obligatory demands for essential amino acids (EAAs), but the regulatory mechanisms whereby tumor cells take up EAAs and EAAs promote malignant transformation remain to be determined. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Aromatic amino acid:H + symporter, AroP of 457 aas and 12 TMSs ( Cosgriff and Pittard 1997 ). (tcdb.org)
  • To ensure that positive cDNA clones are successfully isolated from complex libraries in a single round of selection, functional screens using mammalian cells have been restricted to cellular assays in which the background of false-positive cells meeting a selection criterion is low, typically 1 in 10 5 false-positive cells. (pnas.org)
  • Here we describe an alternative method called cyclical packaging rescue (CPR) that uses direct repackaging of retroviral RNAs into new infectious virions to identify genes regulating functional responses in mammalian cells (Fig. 1 A ). In CPR, stably integrated helper-free retroviral libraries are recovered rapidly from mammalian cells as infectious helper-free retroviral supernatants 24 h after infection with adenoviruses expressing retroviral gag-pol and env genes. (pnas.org)
  • CAT-1 is usually ubiquitously expressed and the main portal of entry for cationic amino acids into mammalian cells. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • The Sphingosine Kinase 1 Inhibitor, PF543, Mitigates Pulmonary Fibrosis by Reducing Lung Epithelial Cell mtDNA Damage and Recruitment of Fibrogenic Monocytes. (helsinki.fi)
  • Intracellular levels of arginine have been estimated to range from 100 μmol l -1 to 800 μmol l -1 , which is well above the K m value of 5μ mol l -1 for eNOS ( Harrison, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • All of these mutations impair the y+LAT-1 protein's ability to transport amino acids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies of CAT-1 phosphorylation and mutations of the PKC phosphorylation consensus sites in CAT-1 suggested Rabbit Polyclonal to DHRS4 that CAT-1 inhibition by PKC is usually not due to CAT-1 phosphorylation (7). (johnstoncassel.com)
  • Retroviral cDNA libraries have been used in a number of functional screens to identify unique mammalian genes that regulate cellular responses ( 1 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The PPR domain is found downstream of VRB and is approximately 50 amino acids long. (hubpages.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: SLC7A5 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 13752-1-AP. (thermofisher.com)
  • Estradiol increases arginine transport and CAT-1 activity through modulation of constitutive signaling transduction pathways involving ERK. (nih.gov)
  • Progesterone inhibits arginine transport and CAT-1 via both PKCalpha and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall . (genecards.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Amino acid transport across the plasma membrane . (genecards.org)
  • In BMs, amino acid transport was unaffected by diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Collectrin is most abundantly expressed in the kidney proximal tubule and collecting duct epithelia, where it has an important role in amino acid transport. (asnjournals.org)
  • Identification of lactate as a substrate and a driving force for prostanoid transport by the prostaglandin transporter PGT. (yu.edu)
  • Hence, PKC activity may regulate amino acid transport through CAT-1 indirectly. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • These are: 1) models induced by exogenous administration of substances, i.e. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine or paraquat, and 2) models generated through manipulation of the genome. (iospress.com)
  • For example, two Zn 2+ transporter families exist in eukaryotes, including fungi, plants, and mammals, to regulate the level of Zn 2+ in the cytoplasm. (rupress.org)
  • Dr. Schuster's research laboratory discovered the prostaglandin (PG) transporter PGT and extended the work to human and mouse genetics and drug discovery. (yu.edu)
  • Sodium-dependent amino acids transporter that has a broad substrate specificity, with a preference for zwitterionic amino acids. (uniprot.org)
  • E3 typically determines 65-28-1 substrate specificity of the ubiquitination reaction. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • The basolateral renal organic anion transporter (PAH transporter) of the proximal tubules also has wide substrate specificity, including drugs and toxins ( 1 , 2 , 16 , 17 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • As illustrated in Fig. 1 , arginine has a number of metabolic roles in addition to NO production, including production of major metabolites such as urea, polyamines, creatine, ornithine and methylarginine derivatives. (biologists.org)
  • The liver is the primary organ in xenobiotic disposition, through a complex system involving a variety of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Not surprisingly, numerous nutrient transporters have been identified on the vacuole surface. (rupress.org)
  • Tumor cells have an increased nutritional demand for amino acids (AAs) to satisfy their rapid proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor-associated myeloid cells also expressed high levels of cationic amino acid transporter 2B, which allowed them to rapidly incorporate l -Arginine ( l -Arg) and deplete extracellular l -Arg in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, GDM appears not to be associated with changes in placental glucose transporters ( 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily. (abcam.com)
  • Syncytiotrophoblast microvillous plasma membranes (MVMs) and basal plasma membranes (BMs) were isolated from placentas obtained from normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 1 diabetes, with and without large-for-gestational-age (LGA) fetuses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The transporters of primary interest are localized in the plasma membranes of the syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of the human placenta. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • MBS7228917 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Y+L amino acid transporter 1 (SLC7A7) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Your search returned 3 CAT2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • We reported a substantial depletion of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the primary biosynthetic enzyme for the amino acid cysteine, in HD ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cysteine is a semiessential amino acid with multifaceted cellular functions ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • VRA is found about 50 amino acids from the amino terminus of the SU domain and contains two conserved cysteine residues. (hubpages.com)
  • VRB is found about 40 amino acids downstream of VRA and contains one conserved cysteine residue. (hubpages.com)
  • Mapping the substrate binding site of the prostaglandin transporter PGT by cysteine scanning mutagenesis. (yu.edu)