A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of SHARKS in the family SQUALIDAE, comprised of many different species. They travel in large groups and are bottom dwellers that feed mostly on bony fishes.
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and transport FOLIC ACID, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and a variety of folic acid derivatives. The receptors are essential for normal NEURAL TUBE development and transport folic acid via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
An organic anion transporter found in human liver. It is capable of transporting a variety organic anions and mediates sodium-independent uptake of bile in the liver.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.

Role of iron in Nramp1-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial growth. (1/3516)

Innate resistance to mycobacterial growth is mediated by a gene, Nramp1. We have previously reported that Nramp1 mRNA from macrophages of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-resistant (Bcgr) mice is more stable than Nramp1 mRNA from macrophages of BCG-susceptible (Bcgs) mice. Based on these observations and on reports that show that the closely related Nramp2 gene is a metal ion transporter, we evaluated the effect of iron on the growth of Mycobacterium avium within macrophages as well as on the stability of Nramp1 mRNA. The addition of iron to macrophages from Bcgs mice resulted in a stimulation of mycobacterial growth. In contrast, iron increased the capacity of macrophages from Bcgr mice to control the growth of M. avium. When we treated recombinant gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-activated macrophages with iron, we found that iron abrogated the growth inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages from Bcgs mice but that it did not affect the capacity of macrophages from Bcgr mice to control microbial growth. A more detailed examination of the effect of iron on microbial growth showed that the addition of small quantities of iron to resident macrophages from Bcgr mice stimulated antimicrobial activity within a very narrow dose range. The effect of iron on the growth inhibitory activity of macrophages from Bcgr mice was abrogated by the addition of catalase or mannitol to the culture medium. These results are consistent with an Fe(II)-mediated stimulation of the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reaction and hydroxyl radical-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial growth.  (+info)

Characterisation of copper-binding to the second sub-domain of the Menkes protein ATPase (MNKr2). (2/3516)

The Menkes ATPase (MNK) has an essential role in the translocation of copper across cellular membranes. In a complementary manner, the intracellular concentration of copper regulates the activity and cellular location of the ATPase through its six homologous amino-terminal domains. The roles of the six amino-terminal domains in the activation and cellular trafficking processes are unknown. Understanding the role of these domains relies on the development of an understanding of their metal-binding properties and structural properties. The second conserved sub-domain of MNK was over-expressed, purified and its copper-binding properties characterised. Reconstitution studies demonstrate that copper binds to MNKr2 as Cu(I) with a stoichiometry of one copper per domain. This is the first direct evidence of copper-binding to the MNK amino-terminal repeats. Circular dichroism studies suggest that the binding or loss of copper to MNKr2 does not cause substantial changes to the secondary structure of the protein.  (+info)

The iron transport protein NRAMP2 is an integral membrane glycoprotein that colocalizes with transferrin in recycling endosomes. (3/3516)

The natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) gene family is composed of two members in mammals, Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed primarily in macrophages and mutations at this locus cause susceptibility to infectious diseases. Nramp2 has a much broader range of tissue expression and mutations at Nramp2 result in iron deficiency, indicating a role for Nramp2 in iron metabolism. To get further insight into the function and mechanism of action of Nramp proteins, we have generated isoform specific anti-Nramp1 and anti-Nramp2 antisera. Immunoblotting experiments indicate that Nramp2 is present in a number of cell types, including hemopoietic precursors, and is coexpressed with Nramp1 in primary macrophages and macrophage cell lines. Nramp2 is expressed as a 90-100-kD integral membrane protein extensively modified by glycosylation (>40% of molecular mass). Subcellular localization studies by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy indicate distinct and nonoverlapping localization for Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed in the lysosomal compartment, whereas Nramp2 is not detectable in the lysosomes but is expressed primarily in recycling endosomes and also, to a lower extent, at the plasma membrane, colocalizing with transferrin. These findings suggest that Nramp2 plays a key role in the metabolism of transferrin-bound iron by transporting free Fe2+ across the endosomal membrane and into the cytoplasm.  (+info)

Genetic selection of mutations in the high affinity K+ transporter HKT1 that define functions of a loop site for reduced Na+ permeability and increased Na+ tolerance. (4/3516)

Potassium is an important macronutrient required for plant growth, whereas sodium (Na+) can be toxic at high concentrations. The wheat K+ uptake transporter HKT1 has been shown to function in yeast and oocytes as a high affinity K+-Na+ cotransporter, and as a low affinity Na+ transporter at high external Na+. A previous study showed that point mutations in HKT1, which confer enhancement of Na+ tolerance to yeast, can be isolated by genetic selection. Here we report on the isolation of mutations in new domains of HKT1 showing further large increases in Na+ tolerance. By selection in a Na+ ATPase deletion mutant of yeast that shows a high Na+ sensitivity, new HKT1 mutants at positions Gln-270 and Asn-365 were isolated. Several independent mutations were isolated at the Asn-365 site. N365S dramatically increased Na+ tolerance in yeast compared with all other HKT1 mutants. Cation uptake experiments in yeast and biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes showed that the mechanisms underlying the Na+ tolerance conferred by the N365S mutant were: reduced inhibition of high affinity Rb+ (K+) uptake at high Na+ concentrations, reduced low affinity Na+ uptake, and reduced Na+ to K+ content ratios in yeast. In addition, the N365S mutant could be clearly distinguished from less Na+-tolerant HKT1 mutants by a markedly decreased relative permeability for Na+ at high Na+ concentrations. The new mutations contribute to the identification of new functional domains and an amino acid in a loop domain that is involved in cation specificity of a plant high affinity K+ transporter and will be valuable for molecular analyses of Na+ transport mechanisms and stress in plants.  (+info)

Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis gene related to putative zinc-transporter genes from animals can lead to enhanced zinc resistance and accumulation. (5/3516)

We describe the isolation of an Arabidopsis gene that is closely related to the animal ZnT genes (Zn transporter). The protein encoded by the ZAT (Zn transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana) gene has 398 amino acid residues and is predicted to have six membrane-spanning domains. To obtain evidence for the postulated function of the Arabidopsis gene, transgenic plants with the ZAT coding sequence under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were analyzed. Plants obtained with ZAT in the sense orientation exhibited enhanced Zn resistance and strongly increased Zn content in the roots under high Zn exposure. Antisense mRNA-producing plants were viable, with a wild-type level of Zn resistance and content, like plants expressing a truncated coding sequence lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. The availability of ZAT can lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of Zn homeostasis and resistance in plants.  (+info)

Ion channels: structure of a molecular brake. (6/3516)

A combination of crystallographic and mutagenesis studies on the HERG K+ channel, a key determinant of cardiac excitability, has suggested how the protein's extramembraneous amino-terminal domain might act as a 'molecular brake' that slows down channel deactivation.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of the transport modifier RS1 from rabbit which was previously assumed to be specific for Na+-D-glucose cotransport. (7/3516)

Previously we cloned membrane associated polypeptides from pig and man (pRS1, hRS1) which altered rate and glucose dependence of Na+-d-glucose cotransport expressed by SGLT1 from rabbit and man. This paper describes the cloning of a related cDNA sequence from rabbit intestine (rbRS1) which encodes a gene product with about 65% amino acid identity to pRS1 and hRS1. Hybridization of endonuclease-restricted genomic DNA with cDNA fragments of rbRS1 showed that there is only one gene with similarity to rbRS1 in rabbit, and genomic PCR amplifications revealed that the rbRS1 gene is intronless. Comparing the transcription of rbRS1 and rbSGLT1 in various tissues and cell types, different mRNA patterns were obtained for both genes. In Xenopus oocytes the Vmax of expressed Na+-d-glucose cotransport was increased or decreased when rbRS1 was coexpressed with rbSGLT1 or hSGLT1, respectively. After coexpression with hSGLT1 the glucose dependence of the expressed transport was changed. By coexpression of rbRS1 with the human organic cation transporter hOCT2 the expressed cation uptake was not altered; however, the expressed cation uptake was drastically decreased when hRS1 was coexpressed with hOCT2. The data show that RS1 can modulate the function of transporters with non-homologous primary structures.  (+info)

Mechanism of increased iron absorption in murine model of hereditary hemochromatosis: increased duodenal expression of the iron transporter DMT1. (8/3516)

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by tissue iron deposition secondary to excessive dietary iron absorption. We recently reported that HFE, the protein defective in HH, was physically associated with the transferrin receptor (TfR) in duodenal crypt cells and proposed that mutations in HFE attenuate the uptake of transferrin-bound iron from plasma by duodenal crypt cells, leading to up-regulation of transporters for dietary iron. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HFE-/- mice have increased duodenal expression of the divalent metal transporter (DMT1). By 4 weeks of age, the HFE-/- mice demonstrated iron loading when compared with HFE+/+ littermates, with elevated transferrin saturations (68.4% vs. 49.8%) and elevated liver iron concentrations (985 micrograms vs. 381 micrograms). By using Northern blot analyses, we quantitated duodenal expression of both classes of DMT1 transcripts: one containing an iron responsive element (IRE), called DMT1(IRE), and one containing no IRE, called DMT1(non-IRE). The positive control for DMT1 up-regulation was a murine model of dietary iron deficiency that demonstrated greatly increased levels of duodenal DMT1(IRE) mRNA. HFE-/- mice also demonstrated an increase in duodenal DMT1(IRE) mRNA (average 7.7-fold), despite their elevated transferrin saturation and hepatic iron content. Duodenal expression of DMT1(non-IRE) was not increased, nor was hepatic expression of DMT1 increased. These data support the model for HH in which HFE mutations lead to inappropriately low crypt cell iron, with resultant stabilization of DMT1(IRE) mRNA, up-regulation of DMT1, and increased absorption of dietary iron.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Mn tolerance in rice is mediated by MTP8.1, a member of the cation diffusion facilitator family. AU - Chen, Zonghui. AU - Fujii, Yumi. AU - Yamaji, Naoki. AU - Masuda, Sakine. AU - Takemoto, Yuma. AU - Kamiya, Takehiro. AU - Yusuyin, Yusufujiang. AU - Iwasaki, Kozo. AU - Kato, Shin Ichiro. AU - Maeshima, Masayoshi. AU - Ma, Jian Feng. AU - Ueno, Daisei. PY - 2013/11. Y1 - 2013/11. N2 - Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for plants, but is toxic when present in excess. The rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) accumulates high concentrations of Mn in the aerial parts; however, the molecular basis for Mn tolerance is poorly understood. In the present study, genes encoding Mn tolerance were screened for by expressing cDNAs of genes from rice shoots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A gene encoding a cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family member, OsMTP8.1, was isolated, and its expression was found to enhance Mn accumulation and tolerance in S. cer-evisiae. In plants, OsMTP8.1 and its ...
The Lsh/Ity/Bcg locus on mouse chromosome 1 regulates macrophage (m phi) priming/activation for antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens. A candidate Bcg gene, designated natural resistance-associated m phi protein (Nramp), recently isolated from a pre-B cell cDNA library encodes a polytopic integral membrane protein with structural features common to prokaryotic and eukaryotic transporters. In the present study, an activated m phi cDNA library yielded new Nramp clones that differ in the 5 region from the published pre-B cell-derived clone sequence, resulting in addition of 64 amino acids at the NH2 terminus of the predicted protein. This new domain is rich in proline, serine, and basic amino acids, and includes three protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and a putative Src homology 3 binding domain. RNAs containing this domain are the only form found in the m phi. Hence, the protein encoded by this RNA is the candidate molecule mediating natural resistance to intra-m phi ...
Legumes are key to world agriculture (Graham and Vance, 2003). They are the main protein source in many areas of the world and, because of SNF, a viable alternative to the use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture (Smil, 1999). As in any plant, iron uptake and systemic distribution is critical in legumes. Like in other nongraminaceous plants, in legumes, iron uptake from soil follows what is known as Strategy I, i.e. Fe3+ solubility is increased by acidification of the surrounding soil and then Fe3+ is reduced by a ferroreductase to Fe2+, which is imported into plants via specific transporters in the root epidermis (Andaluz et al., 2009). Once inside the plant, iron is used in legumes as in other plants, with one exception; in addition to the shoot, there is an extra iron sink during vegetative stages of growth, namely the root nodule (Tang et al., 1990).. Nodulation requires relatively large amounts of iron to synthesize the key enzymes involved in SNF (Brear et al., 2013; González-Guerrero ...
Nramp (for natural resistance-associated macrophage protein) represents a family of evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of heavy metal ions (5, 6, 15, 17, 31). Members of the Nramp family have been found in mammals, birds, insects, plants, fungi, and bacteria (3, 5, 9, 15, 16, 22, 40). Among the best studied are the Nramp1 and Nramp2 transporters of rodents. Although these proteins share 61% homology at the amino acid level, they exhibit distinct functions. Mouse Nramp1 plays an important role in the control of infection against intracellular parasites and is exclusively expressed in monocytes/macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (2, 15). Nramp2 (also known as DCT1 or DMT1) is more ubiquitously expressed in most tissues (17) and acts as a divalent metal transporter capable of transporting iron, manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead (17). Mutations inNramp2 have been associated with defects in duodenal iron uptake and cellular iron utilization in ...
Read Comparative study of the genomic organization of DNA repeats within the 5′-flanking region of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene (NRAMP1) between humans and great apes, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
CP000386.PE586 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS complement(625625..626515) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag=Rxyl_0596 FT /product=cation diffusion facilitator family transporter FT /note=TIGRFAM: cation diffusion facilitator family FT transporter; PFAM: cation efflux protein; KEGG: mbo:Mb2050c FT possible conserved membrane protein FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Rxyl_0596 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABG03567 FT /db_xref=GOA:Q1AYG1 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR002524 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR027469 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR036837 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:Q1AYG1 FT /protein_id=ABG03567.1 FT /translation=MRDRDALEASEQGIRAVKLSFAVLALTAVLQLAVALVSGSAALLA FT DTAHNFGDALTALPLWLAFALSRRPPSRTHTYGYGRAEDLAGAAIVGIILLSALVCGYE FT SATKLLEGSGVRGAGWVALAAAAGFAGNELAARLRISVGRRIGSAALVADGQHARTDGL FT TSLAVLAGAAGAWLGYPVVDPLVGLGITAAILHIVRDSARPVWRRLMDAVEPGTVEALE FT EAASGMPEVLRVEEVRARWTGHSLQAEVRVRVEPDLPAGRLGDLSGRLAAAARKRLPRL FT ERVLLEPVPDRPGDV MRDRDALEAS EQGIRAVKLS FAVLALTAVL QLAVALVSGS ...
High-affinity K+ uptake in plants plays a crucial role in K+ nutrition and different systems have been postulated to contribute to the high-affinity K+ uptake. The results presented here with pepper (Capsicum annum) demonstrate that a HAK1-type transporter greatly contributes to the high-affinity K+ uptake observed in roots. Pepper plants starved of K+ for 3 d showed high-affinity K+ uptake (K m of 6 mgrM K+) that was very sensitive to NH and their roots expressed a high-affinity K+ transporter, CaHAK1, which clusters in group I of the KT/HAK/KUP family of transporters. When expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), CaHAK1 mediated high-affinity K+ and Rb+ uptake with K m values of 3.3 and 1.9 mgr M, respectively. Rb+ uptake was competitively inhibited by micromolar concentrations of NH and Cs+, and by millimolar concentrations of Na+ ...
NRAMPs (natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins) have been characterized in mammals as divalent transition metal transporters involved in iron metabolism and host resistance to certain pathogens. The mechanism of pathogen resistance is proposed to involve sequestration of Fe2+ and Mn2+, co …
View mouse Slc11a2 Chr15:100387898-100424214 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
My lab is broadly interested in the mechanisms of signaling and transport across cellular membranes. Our research encompasses several protein families: Nramp transporters that use a proton gradient to facilitate the entry of divalent ions (iron and manganese in particular) into cells; non-classical cadherins involved in cellular adhesion and signaling; ABC transporters that use ATP to fuel substrate transport; and TRP channels important to sensing temperature and painful stimuli. We use a variety of cell-based and in vitro biochemical assays, x-ray crystallography, and computational techniques (molecular dynamics simulations and bioinformatics analyses) to discover how these important proteins function in cells. Below are brief descriptions that illustrate our approaches and goals for specific projects.. Nramp transporters. Metals like iron and manganese are essential to physiological processes such as oxygen transport and energy metabolism. Nramps (Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage ...
Metal ions are a requirement for life due to their function as key cofactors in numerous cellular processes. However, these essential ions become an intracellular threat when present in excess. Their intracellular levels must therefore be carefully maintained. Many different studies have revealed how metal homeostasis mechanisms can be controlled (1-3). Typically, microbes sense intracellular metal concentrations through the action of metal-sensing regulatory (metalloregulatory) proteins. However, additional studies have identified at least two examples of RNA elements that also regulate the expression of metal ion transporter genes (4-6). In general, these RNA- and protein-based regulatory factors act together to maintain the correct balance of intracellular metals by controlling the expression of genes responsible for the uptake, efflux, and sequestration of target ions.. In general, divalent ions are maintained at relatively low concentrations in the cytoplasm, in part through the combined ...
Ferroportin1 is a newly discovered transmembrane iron export protein. It plays a key role in Fe2+transport across the basal membrane of enterocytes in the gut. It has been suggested that this protein might have the same role in Fe2+transport across the abluminal membrane of the blood-brain barrier as it works in enterocytes. However, the presence of ferroportin1 in the brain has not been well determined. In the present study, we investigated expression of ferroportin1 protein in different brain regions, including cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra, in developing male Sprague-Dawley rats. The results provided direct evidence for the existence of ferroportin1 protein in the rat brain. All brain areas examined have the ability to synthesize ferroportin1 protein. The findings also showed that age has a significant effect on the expression of ferroportin1 protein in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra of the rat brain ...
Earlier studies have indicated that sensitivity to the Pt drugs can be regulated by the Cu influx transporter CTR1 (3 , 4) and the Cu exporter ATP7B (5 , 10) . The results reported here indicate that another Cu transporter, ATP7A, is also capable of modulating sensitivity to this class of drugs and that this effect is observable in ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the results document that even a quite modest change in ATP7A level is pharmacodynamically significant. These findings provide additional support for the concept that the Cu transporters are important to the pharmacodynamics of the Pt-containing drugs and specifically identify small changes in ATP7A expression as being of relevance in ovarian cancer.. Western blot analysis of ovarian carcinoma cell lines selected in vitro for acquired resistance to DDP (10) and immunohistochemical analysis of ovarian carcinoma samples from patients failing DDP and/or CBDCA-containing primary chemotherapy (20) have demonstrated only modest changes in ...
Absorption of dietary iron in the doudenum determines overall body iron levels as no active excretory systems exist. As such, this process must be tightly contr...
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Chlosta, Sabine et al The Iron Efflux Protein Ferroportin Regulates the Intracellular Growth of Salmonella enterica. Infection and Immunity 74.5 (2006): 3065-3067. Web. 12 Nov. 2019. ...
A - Tilt: 8° - Segments: 1( 11- 35), 2( 44- 65), 3( 78- 98), 4( 110- 135), 5( 155- 176), 6( 188- 206), 7( 244- 255), 8( 281- 301), 9( 310- 331), 10( 336- 359), 11( 375- 396), 12( 401- 421 ...
The results can, in a large part, be transferred to the Rhesus proteins from mammals, says Andrade as Amt proteins bear a close resemblance to the Rhesus proteins found in humans. They are produced in the blood, in the kidney, and in the liver, where they regulate the intake of ammonium and thus the bodys pH.. The researchers tested three Amt proteins that are present in the bacteria and also determined the speed with which they allow ammonium to pass through the membrane. In the future, we want to modify individual components of the transporter to improve our understanding of the exact molecular details involved explains Andrade.. The scientific debate on Amt/Rh proteins stems from the difficulty of distinguishing between ammonia and ammonium in measurements, as the two molecules are transformed into each other in a continuous state of balance with protons. Our in vitro method gives us a level of precision that finally allows us to draw valid conclusions concerning the transport process, ...
Heavy metal (Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+) ion:H+ symporter, Nramp2 or divalent metal transporter, DMT1 (Garrick et al. 2003). A 12 TMS topology with intracellular N- and C- termini is established. Two-fold structural symmetry in the arrangement of membrane helices for TM1-5 and TM6-10 (conserved Slc11 hydrophobic core) is suggested (Czachorowski et al., 2009). A conserved motif in a central flexible region of TMS1 (DPGN) binds the metal ion (Wang et al. 2011). Upregulated by iron deficiency and downregulated by iron loading (Nam et al. 2013). NRAMP2 also serves as the Sindbis alpha virus receptor (Rose et al. 2011). DMT1 interacts with the iron chaparone protein, PCBP2 (Q15366), in an iron-dependent fashion, and may be essential for iron uptake (Lane and Richardson 2014). Mutations cause a syndrome of congenital microcytic hypochromic anemia, poorly responsive to oral iron treatment, with liver iron overload associated paradoxically with normal to moderately elevated serum ...
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Zn2+ homeostasis in bacteria is achieved by export systems and uptake systems which are separately regulated by their own regulators. Three types of Zn2+ export systems that protect cells from high toxic concentrations of Zn2+ have been identified: RND multi-drug efflux transporters, P-type ATPases, …
Kit Component:- KN202646G1, SLC30A2 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202646G2, SLC30A2 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202646D, donor…
Kit Component:- KN202646G1, SLC30A2 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202646G2, SLC30A2 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202646D, donor…
Komite Independen Sadar Pemilu (KISP) merilis Discussion Summary #2 yang merupakan hasil kajian dari Ngaji Pemilu #2: Menjaga Hak Konstitusi Untuk Mewujudkan Keadilan Pemilu Di Tengah Pandemi Covid-19 yang dilaksanakan pada 09 Mei 2020.. Discussion Summary #2 ini berisi analisis terkait dengan konsep keadilan pemilu; sengketa pemilu, pilkada dan penegakan hukum; serta problematika pilkada di tengah pandemi Covid-19.. Lebih lengkapnya, Discussion Summary #2 dapat diunduh pada link di bawah ini: ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
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CVID is an immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a low level of antibodies, making it difficult for the childs body to fight diseases. The child then becomes sick with recurrent infections. The disease may become evident during infancy, during childhood or puberty, or even later into adulthood. The symptoms of the disease are very different for each child affected, which is why it is called a variable group of disorders.. ...
Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes abortion and infertility in food animals and a chronic debilitating febrile disease in humans known as brucellosis. As with all pathogenic bacteria, the Brucella spp. require sufficient metal nutrition during the course of an infection. Host-mediated metal withdrawal defenses actively restrict the bioavailability of metals which requires invading bacteria to employ high affinity metal acquisition systems to overcome these metal-limiting conditions. While obtaining sufficient metals during host infection is critical to the survival of these bacteria, avoiding metal toxicity is equally important. Excess accumulation of one metal relative to others can lead to protein mis-metallation when surplus metal ions outcompete other metal species for their native binding sites. To prevent metal toxicity, bacteria respond to high intracellular metal concentrations by means of metal-responsive transcriptional regulators that downregulate metal import ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of the high-affinity copper transporter (hCtr1) expression by cisplatin and heavy metals. AU - Liang, Zheng Dong. AU - Long, Yan. AU - Chen, Helen H W. AU - Savaraj, Niramol. AU - Kuo, Macus Tien. PY - 2014/1/14. Y1 - 2014/1/14. N2 - Platinum-based antitumor agents have been the mainstay in cancer chemotherapy for many human malignancies. Drug resistance is an important obstacle to achieving the maximal therapeutic efficacy of these drugs. Understanding how platinum drugs enter cells is of great importance in improving therapeutic efficacy. It has been demonstrated that human high-affinity copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) is involved in transporting cisplatin into cells to elicit cytotoxic effects, although other mechanisms may exist. In this communication, we demonstrate that cisplatin transcriptionally induces the expression of hCtr1 in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Cisplatin functions as a competitor for hCtr1-mediated copper transport, resulting in reduced ...
PubMedID: 23039265 | Long-term sustained autoimmune response to beta cell specific zinc transporter (ZnT8, W, R, Q) in young adult patients with preserved beta cell function at diagnosis of diabetes. | Autoimmunity | 2/1/2013
Cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) proteins are a conserved family of transmembrane transporters that ensure cellular homeostasis of divalent transition metal cations. Metal cations bind to CDF proteins cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (CTD), leading to closure from its apo open V-shaped dimer to a tighter packed structure, followed by a conformational change of the transmembrane domain thus enabling transport of the metal cation. By implementing a comprehensive range of biochemical and biophysical methods, we studied the molecular mechanism of metal binding to the magnetotactic bacterial CDF protein MamM CTD. Our results reveal that the CTD is rather dynamic in its apo form, and that two dependent metal binding sites, a single central binding site and two symmetrical, peripheral sites, are available for metal binding. However, only cation binding to the peripheral sites leads to conformational changes that lock the protein in a compact state. Thus, this work reveals how metal binding is ...
Zinc Transporter ZIP14 Functions in Hepatic Zinc, Iron and Glucose Homeostasis during the Innate Immune Response Endotoxemia. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Copper transporter 1 (CTR1) is a transmembrane protein that imports copper(i) into yeast and mammalian cells. Surprisingly, the protein also mediates the uptake of platinum anticancer drugs, e.g. cisplatin and carboplatin. To study the effects of several metal-binding residues/motifs of hCTR1 on the transpor Metals and Genetics
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The overall aim of this grant is to elucidate the novel linkage between copper transport protein Antioxidant1 (Atox1) and NADPH oxidase involved in inflammatory angiogenesis. Ischemic disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in worldwide. Neovascularization is an important repair process in response to ischemia, which depends on angiogenesis, inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Copper (Cu), an essential micronutrient, is involved in physiological repair processes such as wound healing and angiogenesis as well as in various pathophysiologies including tumor growth, atherosclerosis and inflammatory diseases. Since excess Cu is toxic, bioavailability of intracellular Cu is tightly controlled by Cu transport proteins such as Cu chaperone Atox1. Our laboratories provided the first evidence that Atox1 functions as a Cu-dependent transcription factor to regulate Cu-induced cell growth. Furthermore, we are one of the first to demonstrate that ...
This gene encodes a member of the SLC39 family of solute-carrier genes, which show structural characteristics of zinc transporters. The encoded protein is glycosylated and found in the plasma membrane and mitochondria, and functions in the cellular import of zinc at the onset of inflammation. It is also thought to be the primary transporter of the toxic cation cadmium, which is found in cigarette smoke. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008 ...
Our present findings suggest that the ferroportin Q248H mutant is resistant to physiological concentrations of hepcidin (0.01-0.03 μM),12-15 despite bioinformatic predictions suggesting that it is a neutral polymorphism. We observed this with both human myc-tagged ferroportin and ferroportin fused to EGFP that were expressed in 293T cells treated with hepcidin and detected by immunoblotting or EGFP fluorescence. These observations were further supported by analysis of intracellular ferritin that reflects the amount of iron stored within the cells. The hepcidin-mediated increase of ferritin was less pronounced in 293T cells that expressed ferroportin Q248H compared to cells that expressed WT ferroportin. Analysis of ferritin levels in primary macrophages differentiated from primary human monocytes after incubation with iron and a short exposure to hepcidin showed a dose-dependent association with ferroportin genotype. No increase in macrophage ferritin was observed with homozygous ferroportin ...
118 68. Tchernitchko D, Bourgeois M, Martin ME, Beaumont C. Expression of the two mRN A isoforms of the iron transporter Nramp2/DMTI in mice and function of the iron responsive element. Biochem J. 2002;363:449 55. 69. Canonne Hergaux F, Gruenheid S, Ponka P, Gros P. Cellular and subcellular localization of the Nramp2 iron transporter in the intestinal brush border and regulation by dietary iron. Blood. 1999;93:4406 17. 70. Canonne Hergaux F, Zhang AS, Ponka P, Gros P. Characterization of the iron transporter DMT1 (NRAMP2/DCT1) in red blood cells of normal and anemic mk/mk mice. Blood. 2001;9 8:3823 30. 71. Gruenheid S, Canonne Hergaux F, Gauthier S, Hackam DJ, Grinstein S, Gros P. The iron transport protein NRAMP2 is an integral membrane glycoprotein that colocalizes with transferrin in recycling endosomes. J Exp Med. 1999;189:831 41. 72. Su M A, Trenor CC, Fleming JC, Fleming MD, Andrews NC. The G185R mutation disrupts function of the iron transporter Nramp2. Blood. 1998;92:2157 63. 73. Trinder ...
allele distribution of the SLC31A1 was not different between group N and O, and out of the 11 SNPs of the SLC22A2 gene only the allele distribution of the nonsynonymous SNP was significantly different between patients who experienced ...
Background: We studied the association between iron intake and polymorphisms in the iron transporter gene, SLC40A1, and the risk of tuberculosis. Methods: We compared iron intake, the frequency of SLC40A1 mutations, and interactions between these variables among 98 TB patients and 125 controls in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Results: Four SLC40A1 SNPs were associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis and one with reduced risk. We also found a gene-environment interaction for four non-exonic SNPs and iron intake. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in SLC40A1 and tuberculosis and provided evidence for an interaction between dietary iron and SLC40A1 ...
Ammonium transport (Amt) proteins are ubiquitous integral membrane proteins that transport NH4+ across cell membranes. Amt proteins involved in the uptake of NH4+ as direct N-source for biosynthesis are present in prokaryotes, archaea and plants [1]. In mammals, Rhesus proteins are the Amt homologs and their presence in erythrocyte, kidney and liver cell membranes can be directly related to NH3/NH4+ detoxification and pH homeostasis processes [2]. Long recognized for their immunogenic characteristics and involvement in hemolytic diseases of infants, a number of genetic diseases have been associated with the inability to correctly express Rh proteins [2,3]. Understanding the molecular details of transport and regulation of Amt proteins is therefore highly relevant to help treat and solve many human Rh-related diseases.. A significant amount of our research has focused on the archaea homologs, in particular on the Af-Amt1 protein from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. We have solved the crystal structures ...
The zinc transporter ZIP13, also known as SLC39A13, is a member of a family of divalent ion transporters. Zinc is an essential ion for cells and plays significant roles in the growth, development, and differentiation. The zinc transporter family is divided into four subfamilies (I, II, LIV-1 and gufA). ZIP13 is a multipass membrane protein that belongs to the ZIP transporter subfamily LIV-1. Mutations in ZIP13 have recently been shown to cause a spondylocheiro dysplastic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (SCD-EDS), a generalized skeletal dysplasia involving mainly the spine with clinical abnormalities of the hands in addition to EDS-like features. Other experiments have shown that ZIP13 is required for proper connective tissue development and is involved in BMP/TGF- signaling pathways ...
The cop operon of Enterococcus hirae controls cytoplasmic copper levels. It encodes two copper ATPases, a repressor, and the CopZ metallo-chaperone. Transcription of these genes is induced by copper. However, at higher copper concentrations, CopZ is degraded by a copper-activated proteolytic activity. This specific proteolysis of CopZ can also be demonstrated in vitro with E. hirae extracts. Growth of the cells in copper increases the copper-inducible proteolytic activity in extracts. Zymography reveals the presence of a copper-dependent protease in crude cell lysates. Copper-stimulated proteolysis of CopZ appears to play an important role in copper homoeostasis by E. hirae. ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Autoantibodies to zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A) are associated with risk of type 1 diabetes. Apart from the SLC30A8 gene itself, little is known about the genetic basis of ZnT8A. We hypothesise that other loci in addition to SLC30A8 are associated with ZnT8A. METHODS: The levels of ZnT8A were measured in 2,239 British type 1 diabetic individuals diagnosed before age 17 years, with a median duration of diabetes of 4 years. Cases were tested at over 775,000 loci genome wide (including 53 type 1 diabetes associated regions) for association with positivity for ZnT8A. ZnT8A were also measured in an independent dataset of 855 family members with type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: Only FCRL3 on chromosome 1q23.1 and the HLA class I region were associated with positivity for ZnT8A. rs7522061T|C was the most associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the FCRL3 region (p = 1.13 × 10(-16)). The association was confirmed in the family dataset (p ≤ 9.20 × 10(-4)). rs9258750A|G was the most
Species, Publications, Genomes and Genes, Research Topics, Scientific Experts about Ferroportin and iron export from the macrophage
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As one of the essential macronutrients, potassium (K) plays crucial roles in plant development and growth by regulating cell electroneutrality, membrane potential, osmolality, and enzyme activity (Clarkson and Hanson, 1980; Leigh and Wyn Jones, 1984). K is present in plant cells in the cation (K+) form, the concentration of which is approximately 100 mm in the cytoplasm and even higher in vacuoles. However, available free K+ for plants is limited in soils, and the concentration is typically within the micromolar range (Schroeder et al., 1994; Maathuis, 2009). Therefore, plants evolved mechanisms to adapt to a suboptimal availability of K, including morphological and physiological alterations (Schachtman and Shin, 2007; Wang and Wu, 2013).. Under limited K+ conditions (below 0.5 mm), plants absorb K+ through high-affinity K+ transporters as well as some K+ channels (Epstein et al., 1963; Maathuis and Sanders, 1997; Véry et al., 2014). In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the high-affinity K+ ...
Genetic and biochemical studies lend strong support to the idea that the CTR-family of membrane proteins mediate cellular copper uptake. Similarly, the roles of...
Learn more about Wilson Disease at Grand Strand Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
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DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Disclaimer: The information contained in this site is intended for general reference purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice or a medical exam. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health professional before starting any new treatment ...
Sang Hak Lee is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Limagerie de fluorescence avec un nanomètre Précision (FIONA)
Cytokine and laboratory values will be compared to baseline to test the hypothesis that TM will affect the level of TNF alpha, IL-1, C-protein, and TGF ...
The Wilson Disease Association (WDA) is a volunteer organization striving to promote the well being of patients with Wilson disease and their families and friends. WDA Conference
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For the die-hards. I taped the Buzsaki and Wilson lectures at the Visualizing and Recording Large-Scale Ensembles short course at SFN. Quality isnt really great and a lot of it doesnt make sense without the slides, but, hey, its there if you want it ...
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To continually meet the needs of our communities, the Cardiovascular Cath Lab at Wilson Memorial Hospital offers both diagnostic and treatment options for patients, close to home.
Cora is off bypass and her heart is beating on its own! They are gonna leave her open to make sure all is well before starting to close her up, but things look good so far. They estimate an hour before shell be closed up and the doctor should come to talk to us ...
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SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; Wikipedia: List of countries by system of government (Alphabetical list of countries); CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: List of national legal systems (Civil law); Bertelsmann Transformation Index online, 2006; Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; Polity IV Project, University of Maryland, at Polity IV Project; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database , United Nations Statistics Division; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003; 2012 Freedom of the Press Data , Freedom House, 1 May 2012; ...

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