Organic Cation Transport Proteins
Cation Transport Proteins
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Biological Transport, Active
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Fatty Acid Transport Proteins
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Membrane Transport Proteins
Organic Cation Transporter 1
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Amino Acid Sequence
Anion Transport Proteins
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Cell Membrane Permeability
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.
Kidney Tubules, Proximal
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Vesicular Transport Proteins
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Escherichia coli Proteins
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative
Organic Anion Transporters
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Amino Acid Transport Systems
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Nucleotide Transport Proteins
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
Nucleoside Transport Proteins
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Periplasmic Binding Proteins
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
TRPM Cation Channels
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins
Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters
TRPV Cation Channels
GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
TRPC Cation Channels
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Folate Receptors, GPI-Anchored
Cell surface receptors that bind to and transport FOLIC ACID, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and a variety of folic acid derivatives. The receptors are essential for normal NEURAL TUBE development and transport folic acid via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Glucose Transporter Type 1
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 1
Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
Genetic Complementation Test
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters
Drug Resistance, Multiple
Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Protein Structure, Secondary
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Membrane Transport Modulators
Amino Acid Transport System X-AG
Gene Expression Regulation
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Organic Anion Transport Polypeptide C
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Role of iron in Nramp1-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial growth. (1/3516)Innate resistance to mycobacterial growth is mediated by a gene, Nramp1. We have previously reported that Nramp1 mRNA from macrophages of Mycobacterium bovis BCG-resistant (Bcgr) mice is more stable than Nramp1 mRNA from macrophages of BCG-susceptible (Bcgs) mice. Based on these observations and on reports that show that the closely related Nramp2 gene is a metal ion transporter, we evaluated the effect of iron on the growth of Mycobacterium avium within macrophages as well as on the stability of Nramp1 mRNA. The addition of iron to macrophages from Bcgs mice resulted in a stimulation of mycobacterial growth. In contrast, iron increased the capacity of macrophages from Bcgr mice to control the growth of M. avium. When we treated recombinant gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-activated macrophages with iron, we found that iron abrogated the growth inhibitory effect of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages from Bcgs mice but that it did not affect the capacity of macrophages from Bcgr mice to control microbial growth. A more detailed examination of the effect of iron on microbial growth showed that the addition of small quantities of iron to resident macrophages from Bcgr mice stimulated antimicrobial activity within a very narrow dose range. The effect of iron on the growth inhibitory activity of macrophages from Bcgr mice was abrogated by the addition of catalase or mannitol to the culture medium. These results are consistent with an Fe(II)-mediated stimulation of the Fenton/Haber-Weiss reaction and hydroxyl radical-mediated inhibition of mycobacterial growth. (+info)
Characterisation of copper-binding to the second sub-domain of the Menkes protein ATPase (MNKr2). (2/3516)The Menkes ATPase (MNK) has an essential role in the translocation of copper across cellular membranes. In a complementary manner, the intracellular concentration of copper regulates the activity and cellular location of the ATPase through its six homologous amino-terminal domains. The roles of the six amino-terminal domains in the activation and cellular trafficking processes are unknown. Understanding the role of these domains relies on the development of an understanding of their metal-binding properties and structural properties. The second conserved sub-domain of MNK was over-expressed, purified and its copper-binding properties characterised. Reconstitution studies demonstrate that copper binds to MNKr2 as Cu(I) with a stoichiometry of one copper per domain. This is the first direct evidence of copper-binding to the MNK amino-terminal repeats. Circular dichroism studies suggest that the binding or loss of copper to MNKr2 does not cause substantial changes to the secondary structure of the protein. (+info)
The iron transport protein NRAMP2 is an integral membrane glycoprotein that colocalizes with transferrin in recycling endosomes. (3/3516)The natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) gene family is composed of two members in mammals, Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed primarily in macrophages and mutations at this locus cause susceptibility to infectious diseases. Nramp2 has a much broader range of tissue expression and mutations at Nramp2 result in iron deficiency, indicating a role for Nramp2 in iron metabolism. To get further insight into the function and mechanism of action of Nramp proteins, we have generated isoform specific anti-Nramp1 and anti-Nramp2 antisera. Immunoblotting experiments indicate that Nramp2 is present in a number of cell types, including hemopoietic precursors, and is coexpressed with Nramp1 in primary macrophages and macrophage cell lines. Nramp2 is expressed as a 90-100-kD integral membrane protein extensively modified by glycosylation (>40% of molecular mass). Subcellular localization studies by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy indicate distinct and nonoverlapping localization for Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed in the lysosomal compartment, whereas Nramp2 is not detectable in the lysosomes but is expressed primarily in recycling endosomes and also, to a lower extent, at the plasma membrane, colocalizing with transferrin. These findings suggest that Nramp2 plays a key role in the metabolism of transferrin-bound iron by transporting free Fe2+ across the endosomal membrane and into the cytoplasm. (+info)
Genetic selection of mutations in the high affinity K+ transporter HKT1 that define functions of a loop site for reduced Na+ permeability and increased Na+ tolerance. (4/3516)Potassium is an important macronutrient required for plant growth, whereas sodium (Na+) can be toxic at high concentrations. The wheat K+ uptake transporter HKT1 has been shown to function in yeast and oocytes as a high affinity K+-Na+ cotransporter, and as a low affinity Na+ transporter at high external Na+. A previous study showed that point mutations in HKT1, which confer enhancement of Na+ tolerance to yeast, can be isolated by genetic selection. Here we report on the isolation of mutations in new domains of HKT1 showing further large increases in Na+ tolerance. By selection in a Na+ ATPase deletion mutant of yeast that shows a high Na+ sensitivity, new HKT1 mutants at positions Gln-270 and Asn-365 were isolated. Several independent mutations were isolated at the Asn-365 site. N365S dramatically increased Na+ tolerance in yeast compared with all other HKT1 mutants. Cation uptake experiments in yeast and biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes showed that the mechanisms underlying the Na+ tolerance conferred by the N365S mutant were: reduced inhibition of high affinity Rb+ (K+) uptake at high Na+ concentrations, reduced low affinity Na+ uptake, and reduced Na+ to K+ content ratios in yeast. In addition, the N365S mutant could be clearly distinguished from less Na+-tolerant HKT1 mutants by a markedly decreased relative permeability for Na+ at high Na+ concentrations. The new mutations contribute to the identification of new functional domains and an amino acid in a loop domain that is involved in cation specificity of a plant high affinity K+ transporter and will be valuable for molecular analyses of Na+ transport mechanisms and stress in plants. (+info)
Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis gene related to putative zinc-transporter genes from animals can lead to enhanced zinc resistance and accumulation. (5/3516)We describe the isolation of an Arabidopsis gene that is closely related to the animal ZnT genes (Zn transporter). The protein encoded by the ZAT (Zn transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana) gene has 398 amino acid residues and is predicted to have six membrane-spanning domains. To obtain evidence for the postulated function of the Arabidopsis gene, transgenic plants with the ZAT coding sequence under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were analyzed. Plants obtained with ZAT in the sense orientation exhibited enhanced Zn resistance and strongly increased Zn content in the roots under high Zn exposure. Antisense mRNA-producing plants were viable, with a wild-type level of Zn resistance and content, like plants expressing a truncated coding sequence lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the protein. The availability of ZAT can lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of Zn homeostasis and resistance in plants. (+info)
Ion channels: structure of a molecular brake. (6/3516)A combination of crystallographic and mutagenesis studies on the HERG K+ channel, a key determinant of cardiac excitability, has suggested how the protein's extramembraneous amino-terminal domain might act as a 'molecular brake' that slows down channel deactivation. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of the transport modifier RS1 from rabbit which was previously assumed to be specific for Na+-D-glucose cotransport. (7/3516)Previously we cloned membrane associated polypeptides from pig and man (pRS1, hRS1) which altered rate and glucose dependence of Na+-d-glucose cotransport expressed by SGLT1 from rabbit and man. This paper describes the cloning of a related cDNA sequence from rabbit intestine (rbRS1) which encodes a gene product with about 65% amino acid identity to pRS1 and hRS1. Hybridization of endonuclease-restricted genomic DNA with cDNA fragments of rbRS1 showed that there is only one gene with similarity to rbRS1 in rabbit, and genomic PCR amplifications revealed that the rbRS1 gene is intronless. Comparing the transcription of rbRS1 and rbSGLT1 in various tissues and cell types, different mRNA patterns were obtained for both genes. In Xenopus oocytes the Vmax of expressed Na+-d-glucose cotransport was increased or decreased when rbRS1 was coexpressed with rbSGLT1 or hSGLT1, respectively. After coexpression with hSGLT1 the glucose dependence of the expressed transport was changed. By coexpression of rbRS1 with the human organic cation transporter hOCT2 the expressed cation uptake was not altered; however, the expressed cation uptake was drastically decreased when hRS1 was coexpressed with hOCT2. The data show that RS1 can modulate the function of transporters with non-homologous primary structures. (+info)
Mechanism of increased iron absorption in murine model of hereditary hemochromatosis: increased duodenal expression of the iron transporter DMT1. (8/3516)Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by tissue iron deposition secondary to excessive dietary iron absorption. We recently reported that HFE, the protein defective in HH, was physically associated with the transferrin receptor (TfR) in duodenal crypt cells and proposed that mutations in HFE attenuate the uptake of transferrin-bound iron from plasma by duodenal crypt cells, leading to up-regulation of transporters for dietary iron. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HFE-/- mice have increased duodenal expression of the divalent metal transporter (DMT1). By 4 weeks of age, the HFE-/- mice demonstrated iron loading when compared with HFE+/+ littermates, with elevated transferrin saturations (68.4% vs. 49.8%) and elevated liver iron concentrations (985 micrograms vs. 381 micrograms). By using Northern blot analyses, we quantitated duodenal expression of both classes of DMT1 transcripts: one containing an iron responsive element (IRE), called DMT1(IRE), and one containing no IRE, called DMT1(non-IRE). The positive control for DMT1 up-regulation was a murine model of dietary iron deficiency that demonstrated greatly increased levels of duodenal DMT1(IRE) mRNA. HFE-/- mice also demonstrated an increase in duodenal DMT1(IRE) mRNA (average 7.7-fold), despite their elevated transferrin saturation and hepatic iron content. Duodenal expression of DMT1(non-IRE) was not increased, nor was hepatic expression of DMT1 increased. These data support the model for HH in which HFE mutations lead to inappropriately low crypt cell iron, with resultant stabilization of DMT1(IRE) mRNA, up-regulation of DMT1, and increased absorption of dietary iron. (+info)
Mn tolerance in rice is mediated by MTP8.1, a member of the cation diffusion facilitator family<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mn tolerance in rice is mediated by MTP8.1, a member of the cation diffusion facilitator family. AU - Chen, Zonghui. AU - Fujii, Yumi. AU - Yamaji, Naoki. AU - Masuda, Sakine. AU - Takemoto, Yuma. AU - Kamiya, Takehiro. AU - Yusuyin, Yusufujiang. AU - Iwasaki, Kozo. AU - Kato, Shin Ichiro. AU - Maeshima, Masayoshi. AU - Ma, Jian Feng. AU - Ueno, Daisei. PY - 2013/11. Y1 - 2013/11. N2 - Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for plants, but is toxic when present in excess. The rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) accumulates high concentrations of Mn in the aerial parts; however, the molecular basis for Mn tolerance is poorly understood. In the present study, genes encoding Mn tolerance were screened for by expressing cDNAs of genes from rice shoots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A gene encoding a cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family member, OsMTP8.1, was isolated, and its expression was found to enhance Mn accumulation and tolerance in S. cer-evisiae. In plants, OsMTP8.1 and its ...
NH2-terminal sequence of macrophage-expressed natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) encodes a proline/serine...
The Lsh/Ity/Bcg locus on mouse chromosome 1 regulates macrophage (m phi) priming/activation for antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens. A candidate Bcg gene, designated natural resistance-associated m phi protein (Nramp), recently isolated from a pre-B cell cDNA library encodes a polytopic integral membrane protein with structural features common to prokaryotic and eukaryotic transporters. In the present study, an activated m phi cDNA library yielded new Nramp clones that differ in the 5 region from the published pre-B cell-derived clone sequence, resulting in addition of 64 amino acids at the NH2 terminus of the predicted protein. This new domain is rich in proline, serine, and basic amino acids, and includes three protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and a putative Src homology 3 binding domain. RNAs containing this domain are the only form found in the m phi. Hence, the protein encoded by this RNA is the candidate molecule mediating natural resistance to intra-m phi ...
Medicago truncatula Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein1 Is Required for Iron Uptake by Rhizobia-Infected Nodule...
Legumes are key to world agriculture (Graham and Vance, 2003). They are the main protein source in many areas of the world and, because of SNF, a viable alternative to the use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture (Smil, 1999). As in any plant, iron uptake and systemic distribution is critical in legumes. Like in other nongraminaceous plants, in legumes, iron uptake from soil follows what is known as Strategy I, i.e. Fe3+ solubility is increased by acidification of the surrounding soil and then Fe3+ is reduced by a ferroreductase to Fe2+, which is imported into plants via specific transporters in the root epidermis (Andaluz et al., 2009). Once inside the plant, iron is used in legumes as in other plants, with one exception; in addition to the shoot, there is an extra iron sink during vegetative stages of growth, namely the root nodule (Tang et al., 1990).. Nodulation requires relatively large amounts of iron to synthesize the key enzymes involved in SNF (Brear et al., 2013; González-Guerrero ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Expresses Three Functionally Distinct Homologues of the Nramp Family of Metal Transporters | Molecular...
Nramp (for natural resistance-associated macrophage protein) represents a family of evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of heavy metal ions (5, 6, 15, 17, 31). Members of the Nramp family have been found in mammals, birds, insects, plants, fungi, and bacteria (3, 5, 9, 15, 16, 22, 40). Among the best studied are the Nramp1 and Nramp2 transporters of rodents. Although these proteins share 61% homology at the amino acid level, they exhibit distinct functions. Mouse Nramp1 plays an important role in the control of infection against intracellular parasites and is exclusively expressed in monocytes/macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (2, 15). Nramp2 (also known as DCT1 or DMT1) is more ubiquitously expressed in most tissues (17) and acts as a divalent metal transporter capable of transporting iron, manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead (17). Mutations inNramp2 have been associated with defects in duodenal iron uptake and cellular iron utilization in ...
Comparative study of the genomic organization of DNA repeats within the 5′-flanking region of the natural resistance-associated...
Read Comparative study of the genomic organization of DNA repeats within the 5′-flanking region of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene (NRAMP1) between humans and great apes, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
CP000386.PE586 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS complement(625625..626515) FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag=Rxyl_0596 FT /product=cation diffusion facilitator family transporter FT /note=TIGRFAM: cation diffusion facilitator family FT transporter; PFAM: cation efflux protein; KEGG: mbo:Mb2050c FT possible conserved membrane protein FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Rxyl_0596 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ABG03567 FT /db_xref=GOA:Q1AYG1 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR002524 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR027469 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR036837 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:Q1AYG1 FT /protein_id=ABG03567.1 FT /translation=MRDRDALEASEQGIRAVKLSFAVLALTAVLQLAVALVSGSAALLA FT DTAHNFGDALTALPLWLAFALSRRPPSRTHTYGYGRAEDLAGAAIVGIILLSALVCGYE FT SATKLLEGSGVRGAGWVALAAAAGFAGNELAARLRISVGRRIGSAALVADGQHARTDGL FT TSLAVLAGAAGAWLGYPVVDPLVGLGITAAILHIVRDSARPVWRRLMDAVEPGTVEALE FT EAASGMPEVLRVEEVRARWTGHSLQAEVRVRVEPDLPAGRLGDLSGRLAAAARKRLPRL FT ERVLLEPVPDRPGDV MRDRDALEAS EQGIRAVKLS FAVLALTAVL QLAVALVSGS ...
DIGITAL.CSIC: Cloning and functional characterization of the high-affinity K+ transporter HAK1 of pepper
High-affinity K+ uptake in plants plays a crucial role in K+ nutrition and different systems have been postulated to contribute to the high-affinity K+ uptake. The results presented here with pepper (Capsicum annum) demonstrate that a HAK1-type transporter greatly contributes to the high-affinity K+ uptake observed in roots. Pepper plants starved of K+ for 3 d showed high-affinity K+ uptake (K m of 6 mgrM K+) that was very sensitive to NH and their roots expressed a high-affinity K+ transporter, CaHAK1, which clusters in group I of the KT/HAK/KUP family of transporters. When expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), CaHAK1 mediated high-affinity K+ and Rb+ uptake with K m values of 3.3 and 1.9 mgr M, respectively. Rb+ uptake was competitively inhibited by micromolar concentrations of NH and Cs+, and by millimolar concentrations of Na+ ...
The NRAMP proteins of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli are selective manganese transporters involved in the response...
NRAMPs (natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins) have been characterized in mammals as divalent transition metal transporters involved in iron metabolism and host resistance to certain pathogens. The mechanism of pathogen resistance is proposed to involve sequestration of Fe2+ and Mn2+, co …
Slc11a2 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:1345279 - solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters), member...
View mouse Slc11a2 Chr15:100387898-100424214 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
SLC11A1 (solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters), member 1) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Rachelle Gaudet - Harvard University - Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology
My lab is broadly interested in the mechanisms of signaling and transport across cellular membranes. Our research encompasses several protein families: Nramp transporters that use a proton gradient to facilitate the entry of divalent ions (iron and manganese in particular) into cells; non-classical cadherins involved in cellular adhesion and signaling; ABC transporters that use ATP to fuel substrate transport; and TRP channels important to sensing temperature and painful stimuli. We use a variety of cell-based and in vitro biochemical assays, x-ray crystallography, and computational techniques (molecular dynamics simulations and bioinformatics analyses) to discover how these important proteins function in cells. Below are brief descriptions that illustrate our approaches and goals for specific projects.. Nramp transporters. Metals like iron and manganese are essential to physiological processes such as oxygen transport and energy metabolism. Nramps (Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage ...
Assessment of the Requirements for Magnesium Transporters in Bacillus subtilis | Journal of Bacteriology
Metal ions are a requirement for life due to their function as key cofactors in numerous cellular processes. However, these essential ions become an intracellular threat when present in excess. Their intracellular levels must therefore be carefully maintained. Many different studies have revealed how metal homeostasis mechanisms can be controlled (1-3). Typically, microbes sense intracellular metal concentrations through the action of metal-sensing regulatory (metalloregulatory) proteins. However, additional studies have identified at least two examples of RNA elements that also regulate the expression of metal ion transporter genes (4-6). In general, these RNA- and protein-based regulatory factors act together to maintain the correct balance of intracellular metals by controlling the expression of genes responsible for the uptake, efflux, and sequestration of target ions.. In general, divalent ions are maintained at relatively low concentrations in the cytoplasm, in part through the combined ...
Distribution of ferroportin1 protein in different regions of developing rat brain | PolyU Institutional Research Archive
Ferroportin1 is a newly discovered transmembrane iron export protein. It plays a key role in Fe2+transport across the basal membrane of enterocytes in the gut. It has been suggested that this protein might have the same role in Fe2+transport across the abluminal membrane of the blood-brain barrier as it works in enterocytes. However, the presence of ferroportin1 in the brain has not been well determined. In the present study, we investigated expression of ferroportin1 protein in different brain regions, including cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra, in developing male Sprague-Dawley rats. The results provided direct evidence for the existence of ferroportin1 protein in the rat brain. All brain areas examined have the ability to synthesize ferroportin1 protein. The findings also showed that age has a significant effect on the expression of ferroportin1 protein in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra of the rat brain ...
Earlier studies have indicated that sensitivity to the Pt drugs can be regulated by the Cu influx transporter CTR1 (3 , 4) and the Cu exporter ATP7B (5 , 10) . The results reported here indicate that another Cu transporter, ATP7A, is also capable of modulating sensitivity to this class of drugs and that this effect is observable in ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the results document that even a quite modest change in ATP7A level is pharmacodynamically significant. These findings provide additional support for the concept that the Cu transporters are important to the pharmacodynamics of the Pt-containing drugs and specifically identify small changes in ATP7A expression as being of relevance in ovarian cancer.. Western blot analysis of ovarian carcinoma cell lines selected in vitro for acquired resistance to DDP (10) and immunohistochemical analysis of ovarian carcinoma samples from patients failing DDP and/or CBDCA-containing primary chemotherapy (20) have demonstrated only modest changes in ...
Molecular Mechanisms of Intestinal Metal Ion Transport During Iron Deficiency - James Collins
Suunto Spartan Sport Wrist HR - Referensi - Pemberitahuan mengenai hak paten
Produk ini dilindungi oleh hak paten dan permohonan hak paten yang masih dalam proses serta semua hak nasional lain yang terkait: FI 20155573, US 7,324,002, US 7,271,774, US 13/794,468, US 13/833,755, US 13/827,418, US 14/195,670, US 14/331,268, US 14/839,928, US 14/882,487.. Permohonan hak paten tambahan telah diajukan.. Sensor optik detak jantung Valencell yang digunakan di dalam produk ini dilindungi oleh hak paten dan permohonan hak paten yang sedang dalam proses serta hukum nasional lain terkait. Untuk informasi lebih jauh, harap kunjungi valencell.com/patents/.. ...
Citation tools | Infection and Immunity
Chlosta, Sabine et al The Iron Efflux Protein Ferroportin Regulates the Intracellular Growth of Salmonella enterica. Infection and Immunity 74.5 (2006): 3065-3067. Web. 12 Nov. 2019. ...
5ayn » Iron-regulated transporter, outward-facing state - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database
A - Tilt: 8° - Segments: 1( 11- 35), 2( 44- 65), 3( 78- 98), 4( 110- 135), 5( 155- 176), 6( 188- 206), 7( 244- 255), 8( 281- 301), 9( 310- 331), 10( 336- 359), 11( 375- 396), 12( 401- 421 ...
Rhesus Proteins Transport Ions, not Gas
The results can, in a large part, be transferred to the Rhesus proteins from mammals, says Andrade as Amt proteins bear a close resemblance to the Rhesus proteins found in humans. They are produced in the blood, in the kidney, and in the liver, where they regulate the intake of ammonium and thus the bodys pH.. The researchers tested three Amt proteins that are present in the bacteria and also determined the speed with which they allow ammonium to pass through the membrane. In the future, we want to modify individual components of the transporter to improve our understanding of the exact molecular details involved explains Andrade.. The scientific debate on Amt/Rh proteins stems from the difficulty of distinguishing between ammonia and ammonium in measurements, as the two molecules are transformed into each other in a continuous state of balance with protons. Our in vitro method gives us a level of precision that finally allows us to draw valid conclusions concerning the transport process, ...
TCDB » SEARCH
Heavy metal (Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+) ion:H+ symporter, Nramp2 or divalent metal transporter, DMT1 (Garrick et al. 2003). A 12 TMS topology with intracellular N- and C- termini is established. Two-fold structural symmetry in the arrangement of membrane helices for TM1-5 and TM6-10 (conserved Slc11 hydrophobic core) is suggested (Czachorowski et al., 2009). A conserved motif in a central flexible region of TMS1 (DPGN) binds the metal ion (Wang et al. 2011). Upregulated by iron deficiency and downregulated by iron loading (Nam et al. 2013). NRAMP2 also serves as the Sindbis alpha virus receptor (Rose et al. 2011). DMT1 interacts with the iron chaparone protein, PCBP2 (Q15366), in an iron-dependent fashion, and may be essential for iron uptake (Lane and Richardson 2014). Mutations cause a syndrome of congenital microcytic hypochromic anemia, poorly responsive to oral iron treatment, with liver iron overload associated paradoxically with normal to moderately elevated serum ...
Ferroportin/SLC40A1 Antibodies: Novus Biologicals
Ferroportin/SLC40A1 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Ferroportin/SLC40A1 Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+.
Ferroportin/SLC40A1 Antibodies: Novus Biologicals
Ferroportin/SLC40A1 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Ferroportin/SLC40A1 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Bacterial zinc transporters and regulators
Zn2+ homeostasis in bacteria is achieved by export systems and uptake systems which are separately regulated by their own regulators. Three types of Zn2+ export systems that protect cells from high toxic concentrations of Zn2+ have been identified: RND multi-drug efflux transporters, P-type ATPases, …
Zinc transporter 2 / SLC30A2 antibody | acris-antibodies.com
Kit Component:- KN202646G1, SLC30A2 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202646G2, SLC30A2 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202646D, donor…
Zinc transporter 2 / SLC30A2 antibody | acris-antibodies.com
Kit Component:- KN202646G1, SLC30A2 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202646G2, SLC30A2 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202646D, donor…
Discussion Summary #2: Menjaga Hak Konstitusi Untuk Mewujudkan Keadilan Pemilu Di Tengah Pandemi Covid-19 - KOMITE INDEPENDEN...
Komite Independen Sadar Pemilu (KISP) merilis Discussion Summary #2 yang merupakan hasil kajian dari Ngaji Pemilu #2: Menjaga Hak Konstitusi Untuk Mewujudkan Keadilan Pemilu Di Tengah Pandemi Covid-19 yang dilaksanakan pada 09 Mei 2020.. Discussion Summary #2 ini berisi analisis terkait dengan konsep keadilan pemilu; sengketa pemilu, pilkada dan penegakan hukum; serta problematika pilkada di tengah pandemi Covid-19.. Lebih lengkapnya, Discussion Summary #2 dapat diunduh pada link di bawah ini: ...
Ferroportin /SLC40A1 | ALZFORUM
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Gentaur Molecular :SBI \ miRZip 30b anti miR 30b microRNA construct \ MZIP30b-PA-1
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , SBI \ miRZip_30b anti_miR_30b microRNA construct \ MZIP30b-PA-1 for more molecular products just contact us
Gentaur Molecular :SBI \ miRZip 486 3p anti miR 486 3p microRNA construct \ MZIP486-3p-PA-1
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , SBI \ miRZip_486_3p anti_miR_486_3p microRNA construct \ MZIP486-3p-PA-1 for more molecular products just contact us
vynechanie HAK | Zdravý svet
dobry den, rok som uzivala antikoncepciu Chloe a lekar mi ju potom vymenil za Zenadeu a pocas jej uzivania som nedostala ani raz menzes ( su tomu...
REXNORD ZNT6511512 Take Up Unit Bearings | ZNT6511512 Bearing
How do I place an EMERGENCY order for a REXNORD ZNT6511512 Take Up Unit Bearings that I want to pick 120x260x55 up at a our store?
Hak cipta Indah Fitriani desainwebsite. net Aplikasi Northern Blotting Northern Blotting telah telah sering digunakan bersamaan juga PCR dan
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)
CVID is an immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a low level of antibodies, making it difficult for the childs body to fight diseases. The child then becomes sick with recurrent infections. The disease may become evident during infancy, during childhood or puberty, or even later into adulthood. The symptoms of the disease are very different for each child affected, which is why it is called a variable group of disorders.. ...
The cation diffusion facilitator family protein EmfA confers resistance to manganese toxicity in Brucella abortus 2308 and is...
Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes abortion and infertility in food animals and a chronic debilitating febrile disease in humans known as brucellosis. As with all pathogenic bacteria, the Brucella spp. require sufficient metal nutrition during the course of an infection. Host-mediated metal withdrawal defenses actively restrict the bioavailability of metals which requires invading bacteria to employ high affinity metal acquisition systems to overcome these metal-limiting conditions. While obtaining sufficient metals during host infection is critical to the survival of these bacteria, avoiding metal toxicity is equally important. Excess accumulation of one metal relative to others can lead to protein mis-metallation when surplus metal ions outcompete other metal species for their native binding sites. To prevent metal toxicity, bacteria respond to high intracellular metal concentrations by means of metal-responsive transcriptional regulators that downregulate metal import ...
Regulation of the high-affinity copper transporter (hCtr1) expression by cisplatin and heavy metals<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of the high-affinity copper transporter (hCtr1) expression by cisplatin and heavy metals. AU - Liang, Zheng Dong. AU - Long, Yan. AU - Chen, Helen H W. AU - Savaraj, Niramol. AU - Kuo, Macus Tien. PY - 2014/1/14. Y1 - 2014/1/14. N2 - Platinum-based antitumor agents have been the mainstay in cancer chemotherapy for many human malignancies. Drug resistance is an important obstacle to achieving the maximal therapeutic efficacy of these drugs. Understanding how platinum drugs enter cells is of great importance in improving therapeutic efficacy. It has been demonstrated that human high-affinity copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) is involved in transporting cisplatin into cells to elicit cytotoxic effects, although other mechanisms may exist. In this communication, we demonstrate that cisplatin transcriptionally induces the expression of hCtr1 in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Cisplatin functions as a competitor for hCtr1-mediated copper transport, resulting in reduced ...
Long-term sustained autoimmune response to beta cell specific zinc transporter (ZnT8, W, R, Q) in young adult patients with...
PubMedID: 23039265 | Long-term sustained autoimmune response to beta cell specific zinc transporter (ZnT8, W, R, Q) in young adult patients with preserved beta cell function at diagnosis of diabetes. | Autoimmunity | 2/1/2013
Metal binding to the dynamic cytoplasmic domain of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) protein MamM induces a locked-in...
Cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) proteins are a conserved family of transmembrane transporters that ensure cellular homeostasis of divalent transition metal cations. Metal cations bind to CDF proteins cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (CTD), leading to closure from its apo open V-shaped dimer to a tighter packed structure, followed by a conformational change of the transmembrane domain thus enabling transport of the metal cation. By implementing a comprehensive range of biochemical and biophysical methods, we studied the molecular mechanism of metal binding to the magnetotactic bacterial CDF protein MamM CTD. Our results reveal that the CTD is rather dynamic in its apo form, and that two dependent metal binding sites, a single central binding site and two symmetrical, peripheral sites, are available for metal binding. However, only cation binding to the peripheral sites leads to conformational changes that lock the protein in a compact state. Thus, this work reveals how metal binding is ...
Zinc Transporter ZIP14 Functions in Hepatic Zinc, Iron and Glucose Homeostasis during the Innate Immune Response Endotoxemia -...
Zinc Transporter ZIP14 Functions in Hepatic Zinc, Iron and Glucose Homeostasis during the Innate Immune Response Endotoxemia. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Comparison between copper and cisplatin transport mediated by human copper transporter 1 (hCTR1) - Metallomics (RSC Publishing)
Copper transporter 1 (CTR1) is a transmembrane protein that imports copper(i) into yeast and mammalian cells. Surprisingly, the protein also mediates the uptake of platinum anticancer drugs, e.g. cisplatin and carboplatin. To study the effects of several metal-binding residues/motifs of hCTR1 on the transpor Metals and Genetics
Copper transport protein and inflammatory angiogenesis - Augusta University Research Profiles
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The overall aim of this grant is to elucidate the novel linkage between copper transport protein Antioxidant1 (Atox1) and NADPH oxidase involved in inflammatory angiogenesis. Ischemic disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in worldwide. Neovascularization is an important repair process in response to ischemia, which depends on angiogenesis, inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Copper (Cu), an essential micronutrient, is involved in physiological repair processes such as wound healing and angiogenesis as well as in various pathophysiologies including tumor growth, atherosclerosis and inflammatory diseases. Since excess Cu is toxic, bioavailability of intracellular Cu is tightly controlled by Cu transport proteins such as Cu chaperone Atox1. Our laboratories provided the first evidence that Atox1 functions as a Cu-dependent transcription factor to regulate Cu-induced cell growth. Furthermore, we are one of the first to demonstrate that ...
Zinc transporter ZIP8
This gene encodes a member of the SLC39 family of solute-carrier genes, which show structural characteristics of zinc transporters. The encoded protein is glycosylated and found in the plasma membrane and mitochondria, and functions in the cellular import of zinc at the onset of inflammation. It is also thought to be the primary transporter of the toxic cation cadmium, which is found in cigarette smoke. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008 ...
Reduced sensitivity of the ferroportin Q248H mutant to physiological concentrations of hepcidin | Haematologica
Our present findings suggest that the ferroportin Q248H mutant is resistant to physiological concentrations of hepcidin (0.01-0.03 μM),12-15 despite bioinformatic predictions suggesting that it is a neutral polymorphism. We observed this with both human myc-tagged ferroportin and ferroportin fused to EGFP that were expressed in 293T cells treated with hepcidin and detected by immunoblotting or EGFP fluorescence. These observations were further supported by analysis of intracellular ferritin that reflects the amount of iron stored within the cells. The hepcidin-mediated increase of ferritin was less pronounced in 293T cells that expressed ferroportin Q248H compared to cells that expressed WT ferroportin. Analysis of ferritin levels in primary macrophages differentiated from primary human monocytes after incubation with iron and a short exposure to hepcidin showed a dose-dependent association with ferroportin genotype. No increase in macrophage ferritin was observed with homozygous ferroportin ...
118 68. Tchernitchko D, Bourgeois M, Martin ME, Beaumont C. Expression of the two mRN A isoforms of the iron transporter Nramp2/DMTI in mice and function of the iron responsive element. Biochem J. 2002;363:449 55. 69. Canonne Hergaux F, Gruenheid S, Ponka P, Gros P. Cellular and subcellular localization of the Nramp2 iron transporter in the intestinal brush border and regulation by dietary iron. Blood. 1999;93:4406 17. 70. Canonne Hergaux F, Zhang AS, Ponka P, Gros P. Characterization of the iron transporter DMT1 (NRAMP2/DCT1) in red blood cells of normal and anemic mk/mk mice. Blood. 2001;9 8:3823 30. 71. Gruenheid S, Canonne Hergaux F, Gauthier S, Hackam DJ, Grinstein S, Gros P. The iron transport protein NRAMP2 is an integral membrane glycoprotein that colocalizes with transferrin in recycling endosomes. J Exp Med. 1999;189:831 41. 72. Su M A, Trenor CC, Fleming JC, Fleming MD, Andrews NC. The G185R mutation disrupts function of the iron transporter Nramp2. Blood. 1998;92:2157 63. 73. Trinder ...
High affinity copper uptake protein 1
allele distribution of the SLC31A1 was not different between group N and O, and out of the 11 SNPs of the SLC22A2 gene only the allele distribution of the nonsynonymous SNP was significantly different between patients who experienced ...
Polymorphisms in the Gene That Encodes the Iron Transport Protein Ferroportin 1 Influence Susceptibility to Tuberculosis
Background: We studied the association between iron intake and polymorphisms in the iron transporter gene, SLC40A1, and the risk of tuberculosis. Methods: We compared iron intake, the frequency of SLC40A1 mutations, and interactions between these variables among 98 TB patients and 125 controls in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Results: Four SLC40A1 SNPs were associated with an increased risk of tuberculosis and one with reduced risk. We also found a gene-environment interaction for four non-exonic SNPs and iron intake. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in SLC40A1 and tuberculosis and provided evidence for an interaction between dietary iron and SLC40A1 ...
Unusual Ammonium Transporters - Transport across and into membranes
Ammonium transport (Amt) proteins are ubiquitous integral membrane proteins that transport NH4+ across cell membranes. Amt proteins involved in the uptake of NH4+ as direct N-source for biosynthesis are present in prokaryotes, archaea and plants . In mammals, Rhesus proteins are the Amt homologs and their presence in erythrocyte, kidney and liver cell membranes can be directly related to NH3/NH4+ detoxification and pH homeostasis processes . Long recognized for their immunogenic characteristics and involvement in hemolytic diseases of infants, a number of genetic diseases have been associated with the inability to correctly express Rh proteins [2,3]. Understanding the molecular details of transport and regulation of Amt proteins is therefore highly relevant to help treat and solve many human Rh-related diseases.. A significant amount of our research has focused on the archaea homologs, in particular on the Af-Amt1 protein from Archaeoglobus fulgidus. We have solved the crystal structures ...
ZIP13 Antibody | Abbiotec
The zinc transporter ZIP13, also known as SLC39A13, is a member of a family of divalent ion transporters. Zinc is an essential ion for cells and plays significant roles in the growth, development, and differentiation. The zinc transporter family is divided into four subfamilies (I, II, LIV-1 and gufA). ZIP13 is a multipass membrane protein that belongs to the ZIP transporter subfamily LIV-1. Mutations in ZIP13 have recently been shown to cause a spondylocheiro dysplastic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (SCD-EDS), a generalized skeletal dysplasia involving mainly the spine with clinical abnormalities of the hands in addition to EDS-like features. Other experiments have shown that ZIP13 is required for proper connective tissue development and is involved in BMP/TGF- signaling pathways ...
Role of proteolysis in copper homoeostasis | Biochemical Society Transactions
The cop operon of Enterococcus hirae controls cytoplasmic copper levels. It encodes two copper ATPases, a repressor, and the CopZ metallo-chaperone. Transcription of these genes is induced by copper. However, at higher copper concentrations, CopZ is degraded by a copper-activated proteolytic activity. This specific proteolysis of CopZ can also be demonstrated in vitro with E. hirae extracts. Growth of the cells in copper increases the copper-inducible proteolytic activity in extracts. Zymography reveals the presence of a copper-dependent protease in crude cell lysates. Copper-stimulated proteolysis of CopZ appears to play an important role in copper homoeostasis by E. hirae. ...
Genetic association of zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes cases. - Nuffield Department of Medicine
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Autoantibodies to zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A) are associated with risk of type 1 diabetes. Apart from the SLC30A8 gene itself, little is known about the genetic basis of ZnT8A. We hypothesise that other loci in addition to SLC30A8 are associated with ZnT8A. METHODS: The levels of ZnT8A were measured in 2,239 British type 1 diabetic individuals diagnosed before age 17 years, with a median duration of diabetes of 4 years. Cases were tested at over 775,000 loci genome wide (including 53 type 1 diabetes associated regions) for association with positivity for ZnT8A. ZnT8A were also measured in an independent dataset of 855 family members with type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: Only FCRL3 on chromosome 1q23.1 and the HLA class I region were associated with positivity for ZnT8A. rs7522061T|C was the most associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the FCRL3 region (p = 1.13 × 10(-16)). The association was confirmed in the family dataset (p ≤ 9.20 × 10(-4)). rs9258750A|G was the most
Ferroportin and iron export from the macrophage
Species, Publications, Genomes and Genes, Research Topics, Scientific Experts about Ferroportin and iron export from the macrophage
Best Wilson Disease Clinic in Mumbai, India - Kokilaben Hospital
Wilson Disease Clinic is one of the best clinic in Mumbai at Kokilaben Hospital. Team of Expert doctors at Wilson Disease Clinic provides world-class treatments, care and services with best outcome and affordable charges.
As one of the essential macronutrients, potassium (K) plays crucial roles in plant development and growth by regulating cell electroneutrality, membrane potential, osmolality, and enzyme activity (Clarkson and Hanson, 1980; Leigh and Wyn Jones, 1984). K is present in plant cells in the cation (K+) form, the concentration of which is approximately 100 mm in the cytoplasm and even higher in vacuoles. However, available free K+ for plants is limited in soils, and the concentration is typically within the micromolar range (Schroeder et al., 1994; Maathuis, 2009). Therefore, plants evolved mechanisms to adapt to a suboptimal availability of K, including morphological and physiological alterations (Schachtman and Shin, 2007; Wang and Wu, 2013).. Under limited K+ conditions (below 0.5 mm), plants absorb K+ through high-affinity K+ transporters as well as some K+ channels (Epstein et al., 1963; Maathuis and Sanders, 1997; Véry et al., 2014). In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the high-affinity K+ ...
Structural Biology of Copper Homeostasis - Vinzenz Unger
Wilson Disease | Grand Strand Health
Learn more about Wilson Disease at Grand Strand Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
5ah3 » Ammonium transporter MEP2, structure 2 - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database
A - Tilt: 7° - Segments: 1( 29- 49), 2( 61- 86), 3( 116- 138), 4( 144- 166), 5( 184- 201), 6( 223- 244), 7( 251- 275), 8( 283- 305), 9( 306- 324), 10( 336- 357), 11( 378- 406 ...
DI-fusion Screening for insulinoma antigen 2 and zinc transporter 8...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
CLF announces free workshops on Art and Craft for Wilson Disease patients | Childrens Liver Foundation
Disclaimer: The information contained in this site is intended for general reference purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice or a medical exam. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health professional before starting any new treatment ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Sang Hak Lee (Translated to French)
Sang Hak Lee is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Limagerie de fluorescence avec un nanomètre Précision (FIONA)
Search of: Wilson Disease - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
Cytokine and laboratory values will be compared to baseline to test the hypothesis that TM will affect the level of TNF alpha, IL-1, C-protein, and TGF ...
The Wilson Disease Association (WDA) is a volunteer organization striving to promote the well being of patients with Wilson disease and their families and friends. WDA Conference
Articles about Wilson Betemit - tribunedigital-baltimoresun
Wilson Betemit News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Wilson Betemit From The tribunedigital-baltimoresun
Neuromuscular Stimulator Therapy - Neuromuscular Stimulator Therapy Exporter, Importer & Manufacturer, Chennai, India
DIABETIK FOOT CARE INDIA PVT LIMITED - Exporter, Importer & Manufacturer of Neuromuscular Stimulator Therapy based in Chennai, India
Hak Cipta © 2017 Goal.com Hak cipta dilindungi oleh undang-undang. Dilarang menerbitkan, menyiarkan, menulis ulang, atau menyebarkan informasi dari situs ini tanpa meminta izin tertulis dari GOAL.com.. ...
Electronic Rim Lock Exporters, Electronic Rim Lock Selling Leads - EC21
Electronic Rim Lock Exporters ☆ Search here electronic rim lock selling leads from electronic rim lock exporters at EC21 ☆ Choose quality electronic rim lock exporters now - EC21
Filtro De Aceite Exporters, Filtro De Aceite Selling Leads - EC21
Filtro De Aceite Exporters ☆ Search here 1 filtro de aceite selling leads from 1 filtro de aceite exporters at EC21 ☆ Choose quality filtro de aceite exporters now - EC21
Gene Expression: Buzsaki and Wilson
For the die-hards. I taped the Buzsaki and Wilson lectures at the Visualizing and Recording Large-Scale Ensembles short course at SFN. Quality isnt really great and a lot of it doesnt make sense without the slides, but, hey, its there if you want it ...
Strategic Partners | Training & Development | Wilson Learning Worldwide
Wilson Learning maintains ongoing relationships with some of the best minds in business development. Learn more about our partners today.
Cardiovascular Cath Lab | Wilson Health
To continually meet the needs of our communities, the Cardiovascular Cath Lab at Wilson Memorial Hospital offers both diagnostic and treatment options for patients, close to home.
Our Cora Bean: 11:00 am Update
Cora is off bypass and her heart is beating on its own! They are gonna leave her open to make sure all is well before starting to close her up, but things look good so far. They estimate an hour before shell be closed up and the doctor should come to talk to us ...
Axepta Manufacturer,Axepta Exporter From India
WAGHESHWARI IMPEX PRIVATE LIMITED - Manufacturer and Exporter of Axepta at reasonable prices. Inquire us for 100% safe and effective Axepta. We export worldwide.
GILLIAN WILSON: In September
I am part of a group show at Parts Gallery this month which you can check out until the 21st of September. Take a look at their website ...
DMT Diafold Magna-Guide Sharpening System, 3-Piece Set<...
DMT Diafold Magna-Guide Sharpening System, 3-Piece Set from category Honing guides with 30-day right of return, 3-year warranty at Dictum
Bulgaria Government Stats: NationMaster.com
SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; Wikipedia: List of countries by system of government (Alphabetical list of countries); CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: List of national legal systems (Civil law); Bertelsmann Transformation Index online, 2006; Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; Polity IV Project, University of Maryland, at Polity IV Project; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database , United Nations Statistics Division; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003; 2012 Freedom of the Press Data , Freedom House, 1 May 2012; ...