High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.

A transfection compound series based on a versatile Tris linkage. (1/108)

The family of cationic lipid transfection reagents described here demonstrates a modular design that offers potential for the ready synthesis of a wide variety of molecular variants. The key feature of these new molecules is the use of Tris as a linker for joining the hydrophobic domain to a cationic head group. The molecular design offers the opportunity to conveniently synthesise compounds differing in charge, the number and nature of hydrophobic groups in the hydrophobic domain and the characteristics of the spacer between the cationic and hydrophobic moieties. We show that prototype reagents of this design can deliver reporter genes into cultured cells with efficiencies rivaling those of established cationic lipid transfection reagents. A feature of these reagents is that they are not dependent on formulation with a neutral lipid for activity.  (+info)

Non-viral neuronal gene delivery mediated by the HC fragment of tetanus toxin. (2/108)

Many inherited neurological diseases and cancers could potentially benefit from efficient targeted gene delivery to neurons of the central nervous system. The nontoxic fragment C (HC) of tetanus toxin retains the specific nerve cell binding and transport properties of tetanus holotoxin. The HC fragment has previously been used to promote the uptake of attached proteins such as horseradish peroxidase, beta-galactosidase and superoxide dismutase into neuronal cells in vitro and in vivo. We report the use of purified recombinant HC fragment produced in yeast and covalently bound to polylysine [poly(K)] to enable binding of DNA. We demonstrate that when used to transfect cells, this construct results in nonviral gene delivery and marker gene expression in vitro in N18 RE 105 cells (a neuroblastoma x glioma mouse/rat hybrid cell line) and F98 (a glioma cell line). Transfection was dependent on HC and was neuronal cell type specific. HC may prove a useful targeting ligand for future neuronal gene therapy.  (+info)

In vitro cytotoxicity of poly(amidoamine)s: relevance to DNA delivery. (3/108)

We have examined the cytotoxicity of a number of poly(amidoamine) polymers which have been proposed for use as DNA delivery systems and compared them to the charged polyamino acid polylysine. Most of the poly(amidoamine)s tested were shown to be remarkably non-toxic to both HepG2 and HL60 cell lines. However, one of the structures (NG30, co-monomers methylene bisacrylamide, dimethylethylene diamine) did show cytotoxicity similar to that of polylysine. A second PAA structure (NG37, NG38, NG39, co-monomers bisacryloyl piperazine, 2-methyl piperazine) showed mild cytotoxicity towards both cell lines, related to the degree of polymerisation. The results support the idea that the cytotoxicity of polycations has a strong structural basis rather than being an effect due only to charge. As a consequence of their general reduced level of cytotoxicity, poly(amidoamine)s appear to have possible advantages for complexation with DNA over some other cationic polymers as a key component of DNA delivery systems.  (+info)

Oligonucleotide uptake in cultured keratinocytes: influence of confluence, cationic liposomes, and keratinocyte cell type. (4/108)

The success of anti-sense strategies has been limited, at least in part, by the poor uptake of these agents into the target cells. In keratinocytes, there is conflicting evidence as to the amount and location of oligonucleotide uptake into these cells, with variable proportions of cells reported to take up oligodeoxynucleotide, and also cytoplasmic and nuclear localization reported. In this study, the uptake of oligodeoxynucleotides in cultured normal human keratinocytes and the HaCaT cell line was quantitated in the presence of various lipids designed to enhance uptake and in varying culture conditions. About 12% of cells in a confluent normal human keratinocyte culture showed nuclear uptake, with a small and variable proportion showing cytoplasmic localization after 24 h incubation with 1 microM oligodeoxynucleotide. Uptake of oligodeoxynucleotide was found to be increased by liposome encapsulation (to a maximum of 28.1% +/- 2.1% of cells), low confluence (39.5% +/- 2.5%), and further increased by a combination of the two conditions (55.4% +/- 4.3%). HaCaT cell populations showed sparse but consistent uptake of oligodeoxynucleotide, with about 1% of cells showing nuclear localization in the presence of 1 microM oligodeoxynucleotide, increasing to 13.5% +/- 4.9% in the presence of cationic lipid (Tfx-50) in low confluence HaCaT monolayers. We conclude that normal keratinocytes exhibit reliable, substantial uptake of oligonucleotides in conditions controlled for confluence and aided by liposome encapsulation.  (+info)

Molecular correlates of the calcium-independent, depolarization-activated K+ currents in rat atrial myocytes. (5/108)

1. In adult rat atrial myocytes, three kinetically distinct Ca2+-independent depolarization-activated outward K+ currents, IK, fast, IK,slow and Iss, have been separated and characterized. 2. To test directly the hypothesis that different voltage-dependent K+ channel (Kv channel) alpha subunits underlie rat atrial IK,fast, IK, slow and Iss, the effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AsODNs) targeted against the translation start sites of the Kv alpha subunits Kv1.2, Kv1.5, Kv4.2, Kv4.3, Kv2.1 and KvLQT1 were examined. 3. Control experiments on heterologously expressed Kv alpha subunits revealed that each AsODN is selective for the subunit against which it was targeted. 4. Peak outward K+ currents were attenuated significantly in rat atrial myocytes exposed to AsODNs targeted against Kv4.2, Kv1.2 and Kv1.5, whereas AsODNs targeted against Kv2.1, Kv4.3 and KvLQT1 were without effects. 5. No measurable effects on inwardly rectifying K+ currents (IK1) were observed in atrial cells exposed to any of the Kv alpha subunit AsODNs. 6. Kinetic analysis of the currents evoked during long (10 s) depolarizing voltage steps revealed that AsODNs targeted against Kv4.2, Kv1.2 and Kv1.5 selectively attenuate rat atrial IK,fast, IK, slow and Iss, respectively, thus demonstrating that the molecular correlates of rat atrial IK,fast, IK,slow and Iss are distinct. 7. The lack of effect of the Kv4.3 AsODNs on peak outward K+ currents reveals that Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 do not heteromultimerize in rat atria in vivo. In addition, the finding that Kv1.2 and Kv1.5 contribute to distinct K+ currents in rat atrial myocytes demonstrates that Kv1.2 and Kv1.5 also do not associate in rat atria in vivo.  (+info)

Gene transfer mediated by YKS-220 cationic particles: convenient and efficient gene delivery reagent. (6/108)

A monocationic lipid, YKS-220, with a symmetrical and biodegradable structure can be used as an effective gene transfer vector in a cationic particle form (not a cationic liposome form), and is obtained by diluting an ethanol solution of YKS-220 and DOPE (1:5, molar ratio) with an aqueous medium. This preparation method is more convenient than that for cationic liposomes. YKS-220 cationic particles showed a heterogeneous large mean diameter of 4.4 microm. An obvious size change was not observed when plasmid DNA was added. The transfection activity of YKS-220 cationic particles was comparable to those of YKS-220 liposomes and DOSPA liposomes (LipofectAMINE), and even higher than that of DOGS (TRNSFECTAM). Interestingly, the YKS-220 cationic particle/DNA complexes were resistant to the neutralizing effect of serum. All of these findings indicate that YKS-220 cationic particles are a convenient and efficient gene delivery reagent.  (+info)

Differential behaviour of lipid based and polycation based gene transfer systems in transfecting primary human fibroblasts: a potential role of polylysine in nuclear transport. (7/108)

DNA delivery systems for gene therapy applications have to be able to trigger the uptake of plasmid DNA into the nucleus. We have tested two types of non-viral vector systems, lipofection (cationic lipid-based, using Lipofectamine) and polyfection (cationic polymer-based, using glycerol enhanced transferrinfection), for their ability to transfect confluent, contact inhibited primary human fibroblasts. While both systems worked well with growing fibroblasts, polyfection was superior with confluent cells. A slight reduction in cell associated plasmid DNA was observed with resting cells, but it was similar for both types of complexes. Lipofectamine showed a prevalence for transfecting cycling cells as judged by costaining transfected cells with cell cycle markers. No such bias was observed when glycerol enhanced transferrinfection was used. Microinjection of plasmid DNA/polylysine complexes into the cytoplasm of fibroblasts resulted in a higher percentage of expressing cells than injection of plasmid DNA, offering an explanation for the higher transfection levels obtained with transferrinfection in non-growing cells.  (+info)

Method of transfection affects the cAMP-mediated induction of the RIIbeta subunit of protein kinase A in Sertoli cells: inhibition of response by increase in intracellullar calcium. (8/108)

mRNA for the regulatory subunit RIIbeta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is stimulated more than 50-fold by cAMP in primary cultures of rat Sertoli cells. We have previously shown that this induction involves regulation of transcriptional activation as well as mRNA stabilization. The rat RIIbeta gene contains no cAMP response element (CRE), and the induction of RIIbeta mRNA is slow and requires on-going protein synthesis. When a construct containing the 5'-flanking region of the RIIbeta gene upstream of a CAT reporter was transfected into Sertoli cells by the calcium phosphate method, low and variable responses to cAMP (three- to fivefold) were observed, whereas a 15- to 20-fold increase in reporter activity by cAMP was observed after lipofectamine transfection. Interestingly, when a vector containing CRE elements upstream of a reporter gene was transfected into Sertoli cells, the responses to cAMP were similar regardless of the transfection method used. We have also demonstrated that increased intracellular levels of calcium by A23187 and thapsigargin dramatically inhibit cAMP-mediated induction of RIIbeta mRNA, but not the mRNA for the CRE-containing RIalpha gene. Furthermore, decreased cAMP responsiveness of endogenous RIIbetamRNA (but not RIalpha) was also observed in calcium phosphate-transfected Sertoli cells but not in lipofectamine-transfected cells. Thus, calcium-mediated reduction in cAMP response appears to be a gene-specific phenomenon.  (+info)

Cation exchange resins are a type of ion exchange resin that are positively charged and used to remove cations (positively charged ions) from aqueous solutions. They are often used in water treatment to soften water by removing calcium and magnesium ions, which can cause scale buildup in pipes and appliances. Cation exchange resins can also be used to remove heavy metals and other contaminants from water.

The resin itself is typically made of a cross-linked polymer matrix, such as polystyrene or polyacrylate, which contains functional groups that give the resin its ion exchange properties. The most common type of cation exchange resin is the sulfonated styrene divinylbenzene copolymer (SSDVB), in which the functional group is a sulfonic acid (-SO3H) group. When this resin comes into contact with a solution containing cations, such as a water supply, the cations in the solution will replace the hydrogen ions on the resin, causing the resin to become positively charged and the solution to become deionized.

Cation exchange resins can be regenerated by washing them with a strong acid, which replaces the captured cations with hydrogen ions, allowing the resin to be reused. The regeneration process must be done carefully to avoid damaging the resin and to ensure that it is properly rinsed of any residual acid before being put back into service.

Cation exchange resins are widely used in various industries such as pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, power generation, chemical processing and metal finishing for purification of water and wastewater treatment.

Ion exchange resins are insoluble, cross-linked polymeric materials that contain functional groups which can exchange ions with surrounding solutions. These resins are typically used in water treatment and purification processes to remove unwanted dissolved ions, molecules, or gases. They operate through the principle of ion exchange, where ions held on the resin are exchanged for ions in the solution. The process can be used to soften water, remove heavy metals, treat wastewater, and deionize water, among other applications.

The resins consist of a three-dimensional network of cross-linked polymer chains, providing a large surface area for ion exchange. They are often made from styrene and divinylbenzene monomers, which form a rigid structure that can withstand repeated ion exchange cycles without losing its shape or functionality. The functional groups on the resins can be cationic (positively charged) or anionic (negatively charged), allowing them to attract and retain ions of opposite charge from the surrounding solution.

Cation exchange resins are used to remove positively charged ions, such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium, while anion exchange resins are used to remove negatively charged ions, such as chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and bicarbonate. The resins can be regenerated by washing them with a strong solution of the ion to be recovered, allowing them to be reused multiple times before they need to be replaced.

Anion exchange resins are a type of ion exchange resin that are positively charged and used to remove anions (negatively charged ions) from aqueous solutions. These resins contain functional groups such as quaternary ammonium or tertiary amine groups, which can attract and retain anions like chloride, sulfate, or nitrate ions.

Anion exchange resins are commonly used in water treatment to remove excess dissolved salts, heavy metals, and other impurities from drinking water, industrial wastewater, and process water. They can also be used in the pharmaceutical industry for the purification of drugs and biomolecules, as well as in research and analytical applications.

When anions come into contact with the resin, they are attracted to the positively charged functional groups and exchanged for hydroxide ions (OH-) present on the resin surface. This exchange results in the formation of water and the release of the anion from the resin. The resin can then be regenerated by washing it with a strong base, which replaces the hydroxide ions and restores its ability to exchange anions.

Overall, anion exchange resins are important tools for removing unwanted anions from various types of solutions, including water, biological samples, and industrial process streams.

Ion exchange chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used to separate and analyze charged molecules (ions) based on their ability to exchange bound ions in a solid resin or gel with ions of similar charge in the mobile phase. The stationary phase, often called an ion exchanger, contains fixed ated functional groups that can attract counter-ions of opposite charge from the sample mixture.

In this technique, the sample is loaded onto an ion exchange column containing the charged resin or gel. As the sample moves through the column, ions in the sample compete for binding sites on the stationary phase with ions already present in the column. The ions that bind most strongly to the stationary phase will elute (come off) slower than those that bind more weakly.

Ion exchange chromatography can be performed using either cation exchangers, which exchange positive ions (cations), or anion exchangers, which exchange negative ions (anions). The pH and ionic strength of the mobile phase can be adjusted to control the binding and elution of specific ions.

Ion exchange chromatography is widely used in various applications such as water treatment, protein purification, and chemical analysis.

Synthetic resins are artificially produced substances that have properties similar to natural resins. They are typically created through polymerization, a process in which small molecules called monomers chemically bind together to form larger, more complex structures known as polymers.

Synthetic resins can be classified into several categories based on their chemical composition and properties, including:

1. Thermosetting resins: These resins undergo a chemical reaction when heated, resulting in a rigid and infusible material that cannot be melted or reformed once it has cured. Examples include epoxy, phenolic, and unsaturated polyester resins.

2. Thermoplastic resins: These resins can be repeatedly softened and hardened by heating and cooling without undergoing any significant chemical changes. Examples include polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene.

3. Elastomeric resins: These resins have the ability to stretch and return to their original shape when released, making them ideal for use in applications that require flexibility and durability. Examples include natural rubber, silicone rubber, and polyurethane.

Synthetic resins are widely used in various industries, including construction, automotive, electronics, and healthcare. In the medical field, they may be used to create dental restorations, medical devices, and drug delivery systems, among other applications.

Epichlorohydrin is an industrial chemical with the formula C3H5ClO. It is a colorless liquid with an irritating odor, and it is used primarily as a building block in the production of other chemicals, including epoxy resins, synthetic gums, and plastics. Epichlorohydrin is produced by reacting chlorine with propylene in the presence of a catalyst. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen based on evidence from animal studies, and exposure to this chemical can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Therefore, it is important to handle epichlorohydrin with care and to use appropriate safety measures when working with this chemical.

Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine medication used to relieve symptoms of allergies, such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy or watery eyes. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic reactions. Diphenhydramine can also be used to treat motion sickness, insomnia, and symptoms of the common cold.

In addition to its antihistamine effects, diphenhydramine also has anticholinergic properties, which means it can help to reduce secretions in the nose and throat, and may have a drying effect on the mouth and eyes. It is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, liquid, and topical creams or ointments.

It's important to note that diphenhydramine can cause drowsiness, so it should be used with caution when operating heavy machinery or driving a vehicle. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider before taking this medication.

A cation is a type of ion, which is a charged particle, that has a positive charge. In chemistry and biology, cations are formed when a neutral atom loses one or more electrons during chemical reactions. The removal of electrons results in the atom having more protons than electrons, giving it a net positive charge.

Cations are important in many biological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and enzyme function. For example, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) are all essential cations that play critical roles in various physiological functions.

In medical contexts, cations can also be relevant in the diagnosis and treatment of various conditions. For instance, abnormal levels of certain cations, such as potassium or calcium, can indicate specific diseases or disorders. Additionally, medications used to treat various conditions may work by altering cation concentrations or activity within the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polystyrenes" is not a medical term. Polystyrene is a type of synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer that is used in a variety of commercial and industrial products, such as packaging materials, insulation, and disposable cutlery. It's important to note that some polystyrene products may contain potentially harmful chemicals, such as styrene, which can leach out into food or drink, posing potential health risks. However, the medical community primarily deals with the health effects of exposure to these chemicals rather than defining the material itself.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pinus ponderosa" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for a species of pine tree commonly known as the western yellow pine or ponderosa pine. This tree is native to North America and is one of the most widely distributed pine species in the continent.

Here's a brief overview of its botanical characteristics:

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
Species: P. ponderosa

The ponderosa pine is a large evergreen tree, reaching heights of 150-250 feet (46-76 meters) tall and trunk diameters up to 8 feet (2.4 meters). Its needle-like leaves are grouped in bundles of three, and its cones are long and slender, typically 3-6 inches (7.6-15.2 cm) in length.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare topics, please feel free to provide them, and I'd be happy to help.

In a medical context, "resins, plant" refer to the sticky, often aromatic substances produced by certain plants. These resins are typically composed of a mixture of volatile oils, terpenes, and rosin acids. They may be present in various parts of the plant, including leaves, stems, and roots, and are often found in specialized structures such as glands or ducts.

Plant resins have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and other applications. Some resins have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, or analgesic properties and have been used to treat a variety of ailments, including skin conditions, respiratory infections, and pain.

Examples of plant resins with medicinal uses include:

* Frankincense (Boswellia spp.) resin has been used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation, arthritis, and asthma.
* Myrrh (Commiphora spp.) resin has been used as an antiseptic, astringent, and anti-inflammatory agent.
* Pine resin has been used topically for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

It's important to note that while some plant resins have demonstrated medicinal benefits, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some resins can have adverse effects or interact with medications, and it's essential to ensure their safe and effective use.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

Ion exchange is not a medical term per se, but it is a process that is used in various medical and healthcare applications. Here's a general definition:

Ion exchange is a reversible chemical reaction where ions are exchanged between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte and a solid phase. In the context of medical and healthcare applications, ion exchange resins are often used to remove unwanted ions or to add beneficial ones in various settings such as water treatment, dialysis, and drug delivery systems.

In water treatment, for example, ion exchange resins can be used to soften hard water by exchanging calcium and magnesium ions with sodium ions. In hemodialysis, ion exchange membranes are used to selectively remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood of patients with kidney failure. Ion exchange resins are also used in some drug delivery systems to control the release of drugs in a targeted and sustained manner.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

Bentonite is not a medical term, but a geological one. It refers to a type of clay that is composed primarily of montmorillonite, a soft phyllosilicate mineral. Bentonite has a wide range of uses, including as a binding agent in the manufacture of medicines, as an absorbent in cat litter and personal care products, and as a component in drilling muds and cement mixtures.

In medical contexts, bentonite is sometimes used as a bulk-forming laxative to treat constipation or irregularity. It works by absorbing water and increasing the size and weight of stool, which stimulates bowel movements. However, it's important to note that bentonite should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can interfere with the absorption of certain medications and may cause side effects such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

Ion-exchange resins are polymers with a net negative or positive charge. Cation-exchange resins consist of an anionic polymer ... Correspondingly, anion-exchange resins are typically provided in the form of chloride Cl−, which is a highly mobile ... Solubility of salts in organic solvents is a function of both the cation and the anion. The solubility of cations in organic ... Similarly, the solubility of anions in organic solvents is enhanced with lipophilic cations. The most common lipophilic cations ...
Kamel KS, Schreiber M (2012). "Asking the question again: Are cation exchange resins effective for the treatment of ... May 2010). "Ion-exchange resins for the treatment of hyperkalemia: are they safe and effective?". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 21 (5): ... Potassium is the most abundant intracellular cation and about 98% of the body's potassium is found inside cells, with the ... Watson M, Abbott KC, Yuan CM (2010). "Damned if You Do, Damned if You Don't: Potassium Binding Resins in Hyperkalemia". ...
Carboxylic acid cation-exchange resin has been found to adsorb lead ions via ion-exchange with hydrogen, and these ions can be ... In particular, Cation Exchange Resins (CERs) and P,P′-di(2-ethylhexyl)methanediphosphonic acid (DMDP) have been employed ... Lead absorbing P,P'-di(2-ethylhexyl)methanediphosphonic acid and sulfonic acid cation-exchange resin are used to prevent lead ... then the carboxylic acid cation-exchange resin, in this research WAC-gel is used because of best performance, is utilized to ...
It is a strongly cationic glycoprotein, and is purified with cation exchange resin. Purification of protein from bovine-derived ...
Positively charged molecules bind to cation exchange resins, while negatively charged molecules bind to anion exchange resins. ... The two types of ion chromatography are anion-exchange and cation-exchange. Cation-exchange chromatography is used when the ... 6 arginines for binding to a cation-exchange resin or 6 glutamates for binding to an anion-exchange resin such as DEAE- ... For example, in a sulphonated polystyrene resin, a cation exchange resin, the chlorine ion of a hydrochloric acid buffer should ...
A cation-exchange resin column (Dowex-50 exchange column) treated with ammonium salts is then used to separate fractions ... Separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanide fission products can be done by a cation-exchange resin column using a 90% ... The actinide elution sequence is reversed from that of the cation-exchange resin column. The einsteinium separated by this ... In this case, isolation of einsteinium is a tedious procedure which involves several repeating steps of cation exchange, at ...
The actinide elution sequence is reversed from that of the cation-exchange resin column, so that the heavier actinides elute ... There Thompson and Choppin used a cation-exchange resin column and the α-hydroxyisobutyric acid. The solution drops were ... Mendelevium can finally be separated from the other trivalent actinides using selective elution from a cation-exchange resin ... then using a cation-exchange resin column with a 10% ethanol solution saturated with hydrochloric acid, acting as an eluant. ...
"Kinetic Study for the Synthesis of Diethyl Maleate over Cation Exchange Resin Indion 730" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the ...
... differentiated by the cation attached to the resin in the original condition. Calcium resins release calcium ions in exchange ... After exchange, the released cation and potassium adhering to the resin are excreted with the faeces. This mechanism prevents ... In general, potassium binders are artificial polyanionic resins that exchange bound cations (Ca2+ or Na+) for potassium ions in ... This category formerly consisted solely of polystyrene sulfonate, a polyanionic resin attached to a cation, administered either ...
High-quality hydrochloric acid is used in the regeneration of ion exchange resins. Cation exchange is widely used to remove ... The acid is used to rinse the cations from the resins. Na+ is replaced with H+ and Ca2+ with 2 H+. Ion exchangers and ...
Ion exchange: In this stage, ion exchange resin fills the diluting chambers, and as water flows through the resin bed, cations ... Only anions can go through the anion exchange membrane, and only cations can go through the cation exchange membrane. This ... The ion exchange resins act to hold the ions, allowing them to be transported across the ion exchange membranes. The main ... The purpose of the ion exchange resin is to maintain the stable conductance of the feedwater. Without the resin, ions can be ...
... thiourea-based resins, and many others). Anion resins and cation resins are the two most common resins used in the ion-exchange ... An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange. It is an insoluble ... in the process cation and anion exchange resins are used to remove dissolved ions from the water. Few ion-exchange resins ... Also, ion-exchange resins are highly effective in the biodiesel filtration process. Most typical ion-exchange resins are based ...
Acetone is treated with a strongly acidic, palladium catalyst-doped cation exchange resin under medium pressure of hydrogen. ... MIBK is used as a solvent for nitrocellulose, lacquers, and certain polymers and resins. Another major use is as a precursor to ... This colourless liquid, a ketone, is used as a solvent for gums, resins, paints, varnishes, lacquers, and nitrocellulose. At ...
It is a single-chain polypeptide and a strongly cationic glycoprotein, and is purified with cation exchange resin. Purification ...
... and cation-exchange resins, or passing the solution through several different ion-exchange materials. Ion exchangers can have ... CM (Carboxymethyl group, weak cation exchange) SP (sulphopropyl group, strong cation exchange) DEAE-Sepharose QFF Ion exchange ... Alkali anion exchange membrane Ion Ion chromatography Ion-exchange membranes Ion-exchange resin Desalination Reverse osmosis ... Thus, ion-exchange is used in nuclear reprocessing and the treatment of radioactive waste. Ion-exchange resins in the form of ...
The reverse holds for cation-exchange membranes. The so-called heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes have low cost and a thicker ... such as ion-exchange resins. Anion-exchange membranes contain fixed cationic groups with predominantly mobile anions; because ... Important examples of ion-exchange membranes include the proton-exchange membranes, that transport H+ cations, and the anion ... When applied in an electrodialysis desalination process, anion- and cation-exchange membranes are typically arranged in an ...
"A novel approach to measure elemental concentrations in cation exchange resins using XRF-scanning technique, and its potential ... In this study, a series of ion exchange resin sachets were systematically deployed to monitor changes in heavy metal pollutants ... Rapid assessment of heavy metal pollution using ion-exchange resin sachets and micro-XRF core-scanning. Sci Rep 9, 6601. ...
Mixed bed deionization is a 40/60 mixture of cation and anion resin combined in a single ion-exchange column. With proper ... A control system operates pumps and valves for the regenerants of spent anions and cations resins within the ion exchange ... Deionization is a chemical process that uses specially manufactured ion-exchange resins, which exchange hydrogen and hydroxide ... by exchanging poorly soluble divalent cations (mainly Ca2+ , Mg2+ and Fe2+ ) with the soluble Na+ cation. Softened water has ...
2000) showed that, with the exception of kaolinite clay, most soil clays and cation exchange resins attenuated biodegradation ...
... and anion-cation exchange resin columns. Sulfolane is also added to hydrofluoric acid as a vapor suppressant, commonly for use ...
... titled A Study of the Frequency Domain Induced Polarisation Effects Displayed by Clay and by Cation Exchange Resin, Model Soil ... A Study of the Frequency Domain Induced Polarisation Effects Displayed by Clay and by Cation Exchange Resin, Model Soil Systems ...
The plant comprises three groups of cation, anion and mixed bed ion exchange resin units, together with vacuum degassing and ...
In the case of a water softener, the cation exchange resin is exchanging sodium (the Na+ ion of NaCl) for hardness minerals ... A dealkalizer contains strong base anion exchange resin that exchanges chloride (the Cl- ion of the NaCl) for carbonate (CO− 3 ... Hydrogen cycle weak acid cation resins convert alkalinity into carbon dioxide while removing calcium and magnesium. The resin ... Like water softeners, dealkalizers contain ion-exchange resins that are regenerated with a concentrated salt (brine) solution ...
It is then treated with high-pressure elution from cation exchange resins, and the berkelium phase is oxidized and extracted ... Porter, C. E.; Riley, F. D. Jr.; Vandergrift, R. D.; Felker, L. K. (1997). "Fermium Purification Using Teva Resin Extraction ... Berkelium(IV) is then extracted with ion exchange, extraction chromatography or liquid-liquid extraction using HDEHP (bis-(2- ... using ion exchange at elevated temperature. The chromatographic separation behavior was unknown for the element 97 at the time ...
A decrease in pH reduces the retention time in cation exchange while an increase in pH reduces the retention time in anion ... Polystyrene resins allow cross linkage, which increases the stability of the chain. Higher cross linkage reduces swerving, ... ligand-exchange chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography of proteins, high-pH anion-exchange chromatography of carbohydrates ... By lowering the pH of the solvent in a cation exchange column, for instance, more hydrogen ions are available to compete for ...
... can then be separated from radium, with a ratio of about 100, using a low cross-linking cation exchange resin and ... An alternative procedure is anion exchange with an appropriate resin in nitric acid, which can result in a separation factor of ...
The principle is that an ion exchange resin can remove potentially toxic metals (cationic resins), or chlorides, sulfates and ... Cation exchange processes have previously been investigated as a potential treatment for acid mine drainage. ... Once the contaminants are adsorbed, the exchange sites on resins must be regenerated, which typically requires acidic and basic ... The ferric cations produced can also oxidize additional pyrite and reduce into ferrous ions: FeS2(s) + 14 Fe3+(aq) + 8 H2O(l ...
... resins, and liquid organics impregnated with chelating agents are all used to exchange cations or anions with the solution.[ ... Solvent Extraction Ion exchange Gas reduction. Treating a solution of nickel and ammonia with hydrogen affords nickel metal as ... The metal will be exchanged from the organic to the electrolyte. The resulting streams will be a stripped organic and a rich ... Tasker, Peter A.; Tong, Christine C.; Westra, Arjan N. (2007). "Co-extraction of cations and anions in base metal recovery". ...
... ion exchange resins MeSH D27.720.470.420.050 - anion exchange resins MeSH D27.720.470.420.275 - cation exchange resins MeSH ...
... a peptide binding efficiently to cation-exchange resin (from 5 to 9 consecutive R) E-tag, a peptide recognized by an antibody ( ... a peptide binding efficiently to anion-exchange resin such as Mono-Q (EEEEEE) polyarginine tag, ... that still bind to immobilised metal cations but can also be activated via azidogluconoylation to enable click-chemistry ...
... are sold as mixtures and to samples taken from regenerable units containing mixtures of anion-exchanging and cation-exchanging ... It is not necessary that the cation-exchanging resin be in the hydrogen form and the anion-exchanging resin be in the hydroxide ... and Test Method H for anion-exchange resins. In the case of cation-exchange resins, these are styrene-based polymers with ... Standard Test Method for Anion-Cation Balance of Mixed Bed Ion-Exchange Resins. ...
... significantly effective approach called the microwave-enhanced Fenton method to degrade spent radioactive cation exchange resin ... Dissolution and Degradation of Spent Radioactive Cation Exchange Resin by Fenton Oxidation Combining Microwave. Jiangbo Li1,2, ... 2020). Dissolution and Degradation of Spent Radioactive Cation Exchange Resin by Fenton Oxidation Combining Microwave. Energy ... A model for the microwave-enhanced Fenton degradation mechanism of cation exchange resin was constructed. Microwaves were ...
Purolite weak acid cation macroporous products have fast kinetics and high capacity and similar to all macroporous products ... Strong Acid Cation Resin Strong Base Anion Resin Weak Acid Cation Resin Weak Acid Cation Resin. Overview Weak Acid Cation ... Weak Acid Cation (WAC) Macroporous Products. Our weak acid cation macroporous ion exchange resin products have fast kinetics ... Catalyst Chelation Resins Chromatographic Separation Resins Fine Mesh Resins Inert Spacer Polymers Mixed Bed Resins Mixed Bed ...
The last one:Exchange capacity of ion exchange resin. The next one:Probable Problems in the Use of Cation Exchange Resin in ... Strong Acid Cation Resin Series Weak Acid Cation Resin Series Strong Base Anion Resin Series Weak Base Anion Resin Series Food ... What should be paid attention to in ion exchange resin pretreatment?. *Probable Problems in the Use of Cation Exchange Resin in ... cation exchange resin Your current location: Home >> News >> Ion exchange resin knowledge ...
ke moetsi ea etelletseng pele oa li-resin tsa phapanyetsano ea maemo a holimo China, e koahelang SAC, WAC, SBA, WBA, MIXED BED ... Cation resin resin: tsebo ea resin ea phapanyetsano. Khetho ena ea leqhubu la phapanyetsano ea ion e amana le lintlha tse ... Tsebo ea resin ea phapanyetsano ea cation. Li-resin tsa phapanyetsano ea li-cation li sebelisetsoa ho alafa hyperkalaemia ka ho ... Ho nchafatsoa ha resin ea IX ke eng?. Ho nchafatsoa ha resin ea IX ke eng? Nakong ea lekhetlo le le leng kapa a fetang a ...
Preparation of palm (Elaeis oleifera) pressed fibre cellulose nanocrystals via cation exchange resin: characterisation and ...
SK1BL is a resin for a wide range of applications, especially in the field of manufacturing and processing pure water. ... Ion Exchange Resins , Strongly Acidic Cation Exchange Resins , Mitsubishi DIAION™ SK1BL Strongly Acidic Cation Exchange Resin ... SK1BL Strongly Acidic Cation Exchange Resin Data Sheet. DIAION™ SK1BL is a gel type strongly acidic cation exchange resin. It ... Ion Exchange Resins. *Strongly Acidic Cation Exchange Resins. *Weakly Acidic Cation Exchange Resins ...
Canftech® TC008FG Is a premium food grade gel type strong acid cation exchange resin produced by sulfonated styrene- ... TC008FG-Na Food Grade high capacity gel type strong acid cation exchange resin - Sodium form. ... TC008FG-Na Food Grade high capacity gel type strong acid cation exchange resin - Sodium form ... It has excellent chemical, physical and thermal stability, and high exchange capacity. Its good ion exchange kinetics gives ...
... molecular biology grade cation exchange resin, sodium form, 8% crosslinkage, 200-400 dry mesh size, 63-150 µm wet bead size, ~ ... AG 50W and AG MP-50 Cation Exchange Resins Instruction Manual. *Molecular Biology Grade AG 50W-X8 Cation Exchange Resin ... Bio-Rex Weakly Acidic Cation Exchange Resin Instruction Manual *Chelex 100 and Chelex 20 Chelating Ion Exchange Resin ... Choose molecular biology grade AG 50W-X8 Resin for strong cation exchange. Use this hydrogen-form resin for gravity or low- ...
Cation mixture,ideal For Portable Exchange DI Systems with High Total Capacity,Water Softening Resin,Drinking water safe ... Window Cleaning Resin,Mixed Bed High Capacity Anion & ...
USP L22 A cation-exchange resin made of porous polystyrene gel with sulfonic acid groups, about 10 µm in size. Edit Close ...
... macroporous cation-exchange resin",. abstract = "The removal of nickel ions from a packed bed of ion-exchange material under an ... Electrodeionization 1: migration of nickel ions absorbed in a rigid, macroporous cation-exchange resin. / Spoor, P.B.; Veen, ... Electrodeionization 1: migration of nickel ions absorbed in a rigid, macroporous cation-exchange resin. Journal of Applied ... Electrodeionization 1: migration of nickel ions absorbed in a rigid, macroporous cation-exchange resin. ...
CATIONS RESIN) Small T Water Filter Filter Series Johor, Malaysia, Simpang Renggam Supplier, Suppliers, Supply, Supplies, We ... ION EXCHANGE RESIN SOFTENER (CATIONS RESIN). AllFilter SeriesSmall T Water Filter ...
Ion-exchange resins are polymers with a net negative or positive charge. Cation-exchange resins consist of an anionic polymer ... Correspondingly, anion-exchange resins are typically provided in the form of chloride Cl−, which is a highly mobile ... Solubility of salts in organic solvents is a function of both the cation and the anion. The solubility of cations in organic ... Similarly, the solubility of anions in organic solvents is enhanced with lipophilic cations. The most common lipophilic cations ...
PRNewswire/ -- This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Ion Exchange Resins in US$ Thousands by the following End-Use ... Strongly Acidic Cation Resins II-15. Weakly Acidic Cation Resins II-15 ... Alitair Pharmaceuticals Sells Patents for Ion-Exchange Resins II-27. Coating Place Receives Approval for Ion Exchange Patent II ... Exchange Resins Range II-28. 5. FOCUS ON SELECT GLOBAL PLAYERS II-29BASF SE (Germany) II-29Eichrom Technologies, Inc. (US) II- ...
Tartaric acid recovery from winery lees using cation exchange resin: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology ...
Packaging Details:Export seaworthy packing(Fiberglass tank resin regeneration water softener ,Cation exchange water softener ... resin to remove calcium and magnesium ions in water and reduce raw water hardness in order to soften hard water and avoid ... resin to remove calcium and magnesium ions in water and reduce raw water hardness in order to soften hard water and avoid ... Industrial Ion Exchange Machine Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics Water Soften PE Softener Brine Tank. ...
... are facilely synthesized via ion-exchange treatment on magnesium diboride (MgB2) in an acetonitrile solution. Optical ... MgB2 powder and cation-exchange resin were introduced into an acetonitrile solution, followed by stirring, where Mg2+ ions of ... Louis, MO, USA) and a cation-exchange resin (30 mL, Amberlite IR120B hydrogen form; Organo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) were added to ... Formation and characterization of hydrogen boride sheets derived from MgB2 by cation exchange. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139, 13761- ...
... the main cation inside cells, plays roles in maintaining cellular osmolarity and acid-base equilibrium, as well as nerve ... When K is difficult to control by dietary K restriction, consider the use of cation exchange resin preparations, such as sodium ... Most drugs that increase extrarenal K excretion, with the exception of cation exchange resins, are laxatives. In addition to ... When control is difficult with dietary K restriction, use of cation exchange resin preparations, such as sodium polystyrene ...
The Q5554-C100E is a FDA grade softener resin.Features: The Omnipure Q55 ... The Omnipure Q5554-C100E is a cation exchange softening cartridge which reduces hardnessand scale deposits. The cartridge ... The Q5554-C100E is a FDA grade softener resin.. Features: *The Omnipure Q5554-C100E is a cation exchange softening cartridge ... The Q5554-C100E is a FDA grade softener resin.. Features: *The Omnipure Q5554-C100E is a cation exchange softening cartridge ...
The Protein A affinity capture step is substituted by equally efficient and higher binding cation exchange resins. This non- ... in the purification protocol include replacement of low-binding with high-binding resins and replacing the anion exchange ... Arunakumari explained how Medarex has successfully scaled-up ion-exchange purification technologies to produce clinical ... affinity purification process for human mAbs consists of cation capture and disposable anion membrane polishing chromatography ...
... of the chelated micronutrient content and the chelated fraction of micronutrients by treatment with a cation exchange resin ... DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information. Part 11: Publication of machine interpretable ... DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information. Part 10: Energy infrastructure publications ... DATEX II data exchange specifications for traffic management and information. Part 12: Facility related publications ...
Chanthapon, N.; Sarkar, S.; Kidkhunthod, P.; Padungthon, S. Lead removal by a reusable gel cation exchange resin containing ... synthetic materials such as cationic resin [40], anion exchange resin [41], porous carbon sheet [42], chelating resin [43], ... Then it was fixed with a slight change up to 250 min, and all Pb2+ and Pb(OH)+ cations were eliminated from the solution at ... It strongly suggests that chemisorption, through the exchange or sharing of electrons between nanocomposite and Pb(II) ions, is ...
This occurs primarily when antacids are administered with a cation-exchange resin (eg, sodium polystyrene sulfonate [Kayexalate ... The cation binds to bicarbonate secreted by the pancreas, leading to loss of bicarbonate with stools. In this process, both ... In chloride depletion, fewer chloride ions are available to be exchanged with bicarbonate, and the ability of the kidneys to ... Mutations in the down-regulated adenoma gene result in defective function of the chloride/bicarbonate exchange in the colon and ...
In both, the uranium is sorbed on a cation-exchange resin and eluted with aqueous HF. In one, the resulting UO2F2 in dilute HF ... Elution of Uranium From Anion Exchange Resins by Pregnant Rand Solutions Description: The causes for loss of uranium originally ... strong base anion exchange resins from Rand cyanide residue leach liquors after prolonged passage of such liquors through resin ... Elution of americium from 25% loaded Dowex 50 resin column with 0.15 M citric acid- 0.10 M diammonium citrate - 0.3 M ammonium ...
If you want to use ion exchange chromatography, make sure that your buffer ion doesnt bind to the resin. I.e., for cation ... exchange use an anionic buffer (like HEPES), for anion exchange a cationic (e.g., Tris). ...
... a cation-exchange resin prepared in the sodium phase with an in vitro exchange capacity of approximately 3.1 mEq (in vivo ... Cation-Donating Antacids: may reduce the resins potassium exchange capability and increase risk of systemic alkalosis (7.2). ... The in vivo efficiency of sodium-potassium exchange resins is approximately 33 percent; hence, about one third of the resins ... The practical exchange ratio is 1 mEq K per 1 gram of resin. ... Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a non-absorbed, cation exchange ...
  • DIAION™ SK1BL is a gel type strongly acidic cation exchange resin. (biokal.com)
  • Do not heat sodium polystyrene sulfonate as it could alter the exchange properties of the resin. (nih.gov)
  • C108FMDQ(Na) resin is a high-capacity, conventional gel polystyrene strong acid cation exchange resin designed for use in residential or industrial water softening equipment. (complete-water.com)
  • High capacity, sulfonated polystyrene cation exchange resin in sodium-form. (marlo-inc.com)
  • Incorporates high-capacity polystyrene bead type cation& anion exchange resin which is remarkably stable and has a long life. (shubhamindia.com)
  • CWS brand WQA Certified Gold Seal CATION Standard resin is a high quality, 8% cross-linked, high capacity, conventional gel polystyrene strong acid cation exchange resin designed for use in residential or industrial water softening equipment. (cleanwaterstore.com)
  • 5.2 This test method is intended for mixtures of ion-exchange materials that have salt-splitting capacity as measured by Test Method E of Test Methods and Practices D2187 for cation-exchange resins, and Test Method H for anion-exchange resins. (astm.org)
  • Correspondingly, anion-exchange resins are typically provided in the form of chloride Cl−, which is a highly mobile counteranion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causes for loss of uranium originally adsorbed on strong base anion exchange resins from Rand cyanide residue leach liquors after prolonged passage of such liquors through resin columns were investigated. (unt.edu)
  • Our weak acid cation macroporous ion exchange resin products have fast kinetics and high capacity and similar to all macroporous products have high oxidative resistance and osmotic shock. (purolite.com)
  • Weak acid cation macroporous resin products have carboxylic functional groups which give high chemical efficiency in many applications including the removal of bicarbonate alkalinity. (purolite.com)
  • Bokhoni bo felletseng ba tlhahiso bo entsoe ka 30000 M3, ho kenyeletsoa semela sa Cation resin, semela sa anion lehoakhoa sa macroporous. (dongli-chem.com)
  • AmberLite™ HPR8400 H Ion Exchange Resin is an Acrylic, Macroporous, Weak Acid Cation Exchange Resin for Industrial Demineralization, Softening, and Dealkalization Applications. (dupont.com)
  • Felite offers macroporous-type catalyst resins and chelating resins that are ideal for applications such as catalysis, metal recovery, and purification. (felitecn.com)
  • Most of them contain acid groups such as sulfonate (- SO3H), carboxyl (- COOH) or phenol (- C6H4OH), in which hydrogen ions can be exchanged with metal ions or other cations in solution. (sgrhb.com)
  • The removal of nickel ions from a packed bed of ion-exchange material under an applied potential is studied. (tue.nl)
  • Counterions are the mobile ions in ion exchange polymers and colloids. (wikipedia.org)
  • resin to remove calcium and magnesium ions in water and reduce raw water hardness in order to soften hard water and avoid carbonates fouling in the pipeline, container and boiler and so on. (fazendomedia.com)
  • MgB 2 powder and cation-exchange resin were introduced into an acetonitrile solution, followed by stirring, where Mg 2+ ions of MgB 2 were exchanged with protons from the resin. (nature.com)
  • Due to its good cation exchange rate with metals, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 represents the most promising substrate for potential release of antimicrobial molecule or ions (i.e., silver, copper, and zinc). (hindawi.com)
  • 8 Ion exchange resins are solid and suitably insolubilized high molecular weight polyelectrolytes that can exchange their mobile ions of equal charge with the surrounding medium reversibly. (sld.cu)
  • Felite provides both strong acid cation (SAC) resins and weak acid cation (WAC) resins that are capable of removing divalent and trivalent metal ions, as well as monovalent and multivalent cations, including calcium and magnesium, from aqueous solutions through ion exchange processes. (felitecn.com)
  • The selective ions in the water are exchanged with ions or radicals loosely held by the resin. (shubhamindia.com)
  • The first unit consists of high capacity strong acid cation(SAC) exchange resin, which replaces positive ions of salt with hydrogen ions to form respective acids, which are absorbed in next vessel by strong base anion (SBA) exchange resin. (shubhamindia.com)
  • Cation resin in sodium form removes hardness ions such as calcium and magnesium by replacing them with sodium. (cleanwaterstore.com)
  • When the resin bed is exhausted the hardness ions begin to pass through the bed. (cleanwaterstore.com)
  • In general, the resin is expanded by water, then the inorganic impurities (mainly iron compounds) can be removed by 4-5% dilute hydrochloric acid, and the organic impurities can be removed by 2-4% dilute sodium hydroxide solution and washed to near neutral. (sgrhb.com)
  • Cation-exchange resins consist of an anionic polymer with countercations, typically Na+ (sodium). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of cation-exchange resins, these are styrene-based polymers with sulfonic acid functional groups. (astm.org)
  • For example, the polymers of styrene and divinylbenzene are sulfonated to form strong acidic cation exchange resin. (sgrhb.com)
  • Ion-exchange resins are polymers with a net negative or positive charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accelerate your biologic drug development with Praesto ® chromatography resins. (purolite.com)
  • In order to improve process economics, it is common practice to reuse chromatography resins. (nature.com)
  • The PGPF were then recovered by dissolving the precipitate in water and removing the Yb(3+) by a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (Amberlite IRP-64). (nih.gov)
  • 5.6 This practice is intended to supplement, not displace, other indicators of resin performance, such as exchange capacity, percent regeneration, and service experience records. (astm.org)
  • Softener Chemistry for cotton textile auxiliaries weak cation Softening Agent PH value 6.5 Specifications: Appearance: Colorless to yellowish transparent liquid Ionicity: weak cation PH value: 6.5 Content: 60% Solubility: Easily soluble in water Brief Description: The special product silicone smooth softener . (fazendomedia.com)
  • When operated in the H form, it will remove only the hardness associated with alkalinity-a weak acid cation resin operated in the H form is well-suited for use with strong acid cation resins to improve overall efficiency and throughput of a demineralization system by reducing the hardness exposure on the strong acid cation resin. (dupont.com)
  • In Na-form softening operation, AmberLite HPR8400 H enables improved operating capacity for total hardness versus other weak acid cation resins currently available, which allows more competitive vessel design or extended production capacity when installed in existing systems. (dupont.com)
  • In dealkalization, AmberLite HPR8400 H has demonstrated improved operating capacity versus other weak acid cation resins currently available, which allows users to simultaneously minimize operating costs and environmental impacts while also preserving precious raw water resources under the right conditions. (dupont.com)
  • Felite offers SBA resins that can remove strong base anions and WBA resins that effectively remove weak base anions, from aqueous solutions through ion exchange processes. (felitecn.com)
  • For wHA filled composite resins, several efforts are still necessary to enhance the interphase combination and investigate the overall properties [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, unlike other aesthetic adhesive materials, such as composite resins, adhesion to dental structures of GIC is less sensitive to technique and its quality increases with time 10 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Sichuan cation exchange resin in winter storage and transportation should be maintained in the temperature environment of 5-40 C, to avoid supercooling or overheating, affecting quality. (sgrhb.com)
  • Nucleic acids are anionic, the corresponding cations are often protonated polyamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • These resins are engineered to efficiently remove anionic impurities from water. (felitecn.com)
  • Manufacturer of a wide range of products which include resin ion exchange, water treatment resin, anionic exchange resin and cation exchange resin. (bengalurupebblefactory.com)
  • Solubility of salts in organic solvents is a function of both the cation and the anion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solubility of cations in organic solvents can be enhanced when the anion is lipophilic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, the solubility of anions in organic solvents is enhanced with lipophilic cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1.1 This test method determines the ratio between the equivalents of anion-exchange capacity and the equivalents of cation-exchange capacity present in a physical mixture of salt-splitting anion-exchange material and salt-splitting cation-exchange material. (astm.org)
  • In the use of cation exchange resins, it is necessary to prevent contact with metal (such as iron, copper, etc.) oil pollution, organic molecular microorganisms, strong oxidizers, etc., so as not to reduce the ion exchange capacity or even lose its function. (sgrhb.com)
  • It has excellent chemical, physical and thermal stability, and high exchange capacity. (canftech.com)
  • The exceptionally high total capacity and the larger particle size of the resin help yield excellent operating capacity with low pressure drop, while reducing chemical regenerant and water usage. (dupont.com)
  • The resin has a higher affinity for highly charged countercations, for example by Ca2+ (calcium) in the case of water softening. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are a world leader in resin-based separation, purification and extraction technology, that provides sustainable solutions for our environment, businesses and healthcare. (purolite.com)
  • The first application demonstrates the monitoring of protein A ligand density and foulant concentration for assessing performance of protein A chromatography resin during purification of monoclonal antibodies. (nature.com)
  • The second application involves monitoring of foulant deposition during multimode cation exchange chromatography based purification of human serum albumin. (nature.com)
  • Researchers have demonstrated ATR-FTIR as a tool to monitor affinity chromatography purification of monoclonal antibody, but the measurement requires repacking of the resin and so cannot be directly applied to perform continuous monitoring of process scale chromatography 6 . (nature.com)
  • ION EXCHANGE RESIN for your purification needs! (felitecn.com)
  • Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc has launched EconoFit Low-Pressure Prepacked Chromatography Column Packs to support resin screening experiments in the development of protein purification workflows. (labmate-online.com)
  • The new packs include mixed-mode, cation, and anion exchange resin columns, as well as a pack designed for His-tag protein purification. (labmate-online.com)
  • Microwaves were implemented to boost the concentration of hydroxyl radicals in the Fenton reaction so that the cation resin infiltrated and formed a channel to facilitate entrance of hydroxyl groups into the interior of the resin. (techscience.com)
  • It is not necessary that the cation-exchanging resin be in the hydrogen form and the anion-exchanging resin be in the hydroxide form for this test method. (astm.org)
  • Hydrochloric acid immersion, then gradually dilution, anion resin vulnerable to organic pollution, can be 10% NaC1 + 2-5% NaOH mixed solution immersion or elution, if necessary, 1% hydrogen peroxide solution bubble for several minutes, other alternative acid-base treatment, bleaching treatment, alcohol treatment and various sterilization methods. (sgrhb.com)
  • Use this hydrogen-form resin for gravity or low-pressure chromatography. (bio-rad.com)
  • Hydrogen boride nanosheets (HB sheets) are facilely synthesized via ion-exchange treatment on magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) in an acetonitrile solution. (nature.com)
  • Recently, our group established the synthesis of the hydrogen boride nanosheets (HB sheets) with a well-defined chemical composition using a facile ion-exchange technique in an organic solvent through an exfoliation process 15 . (nature.com)
  • If there is no thermal insulation equipment in winter, ion exchange resin can be stored in salt water, salt water concentration can be determined according to temperature. (sgrhb.com)
  • The bed width, concentration of nickel in the resin and electrolyte concentration were varied. (tue.nl)
  • potential taste masking increased with increasing concentration of resin. (sld.cu)
  • Prolonged (upto 5 h) and slow drug release was observed with resin 214 at higher concentration. (sld.cu)
  • out of three resins chosen, Indion ® 214 at higher concentration exhibit excellent taste masking as well as sustained drug release action. (sld.cu)
  • Overview of Disorders of Potassium Concentration Potassium is the most abundant intracellular cation, but only about 2% of total body potassium is extracellular. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Compared with the Fenton (99% after 180 min) and photo-Fenton (90% after 198 min) reactions, this unique microwave-enhanced Fenton reaction has the highest degradation rate for spent radioactive cation exchange resin degradation (98.55% after 60 min). (techscience.com)
  • Carbon dioxide, sulfate and small molecular compounds were produced in the degradation of cation exchange resin, as determined by XRD and FT-IR. (techscience.com)
  • A model for the microwave-enhanced Fenton degradation mechanism of cation exchange resin was constructed. (techscience.com)
  • This paper provides a method for accelerating the treatment of spent radioactive ion exchange resin, which could exert a signifi- cant influence on the degradation pathway for radioactive organic matter. (techscience.com)
  • In many cases, however, the anion resins are more likely to experience the types of degradation or fouling that could lead to impaired kinetics. (astm.org)
  • These small anion-exchange microbeads are permanently attached electrostatically to a larger cation-exchange resin particle. (thermofisher.com)
  • CrVI was separated from trivalent- chromium (CrIII) and other cations on a strong anion exchange resin using a slightly basic ammonium-sulfate buffer solution. (cdc.gov)
  • The anion-exchanging materials in this class are styrene-based materials with quaternary ammonium functional groups. (astm.org)
  • The columns' nonporous resins have small anion-exchange microbeads carrying the anion-exchange functional groups. (thermofisher.com)
  • AmberLite™ Ion Exchange Resins are available in a very wide range of chemical compositions and polymer structures and have been used for decades in a high-value applications including water treatment in industrial and power generation plants. (dupont.com)
  • CATION Resin Typical Characteristics: Polymer StructurePolystyrene 8% cross linked with Divinylbenzene. (cleanwaterstore.com)
  • Furthermore, our resins can extract/recycle metals, increasing the overall efficiency of the mining process. (felitecn.com)
  • Separation is achieved by utilizing differences in ionic interactions between the cation exchange group on the column resin surface and the hemoglobin components. (cdc.gov)
  • This process involves the use of an electrodialysis type cell in which the centre compartment is filled with a packed bed of ion-exchange particles. (tue.nl)
  • This information is of primary interest in order to achieve a final consistency and specific formulation of hydroxyapatite whiskers mixed with silica particles filler in resin composite. (hindawi.com)
  • The industrial products of cation exchange resins often contain a small amount of oligomers and monomers that do not participate in the reaction, as well as inorganic impurities such as iron, lead and copper. (sgrhb.com)
  • Resin fouling is a complex problem that can be influenced by several factors such as impurities or residual product deposition on pores which may either block pores and/or block binding sites on the surface of resin. (nature.com)
  • Our dependable resin solutions are engineered to successfully remove impurities and contaminants from water, ensuring that it fulfills the quality and safety standards necessary for a variety of applications. (felitecn.com)
  • Depending on their charge, proteins are associated with a variety of smaller anions and cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • For measurements in nonaqueous solutions, salts composed of both lipophilic cations and anions are employed, e.g., tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium (K), the main cation inside cells, plays roles in maintaining cellular osmolarity and acid-base equilibrium, as well as nerve stimulation transmission, and regulation of cardiac and muscle functions. (mdpi.com)
  • Cation-Donating Antacids: may reduce the resin's potassium exchange capability and increase risk of systemic alkalosis ( 7.2 ). (nih.gov)
  • Canftech® TC008FG Is a premium food grade gel type strong acid cation exchange resin produced by sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene (DVB) copolymers in standard Gaussian size distribution. (canftech.com)
  • We examined the ionic COF Py-BPy2+-COF as an ion exchange material for biomolecule separation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Its good ion exchange kinetics gives high efficiency for uses in both regenerable softeners and non-regenerable cartridges. (canftech.com)
  • Resin reuse, however, is known to impact product yield and in some cases even product quality. (nature.com)
  • Our unique design of D.M. plant ensures the maximum utilization of the effective surface area, uniform space and linear velocity across the resin bed which provides effective contact time between water and resin bed, yield salt free water for process equipment where water is being used for further application. (shubhamindia.com)
  • Demineralization or Deionisation is the process of removing mineral salts from water by using the ion exchange process. (shubhamindia.com)
  • In the power industry, ion exchange resin is frequently used to remove contaminants from water, such as dissolved solids and heavy metals, which can cause scaling, corrosion, and equipment damage. (felitecn.com)
  • The test method will determine the amount of anion-exchange material of any functionality present in the mixture. (astm.org)
  • 5.4 It is possible that the cation resin could experience kinetics problems. (astm.org)
  • 5.3 It is recommended that the practice be followed with the resin ratio, flow rate, and influent quality as indicated. (astm.org)
  • 5.1 This test method is applicable to the analysis of new materials that are sold as mixtures and to samples taken from regenerable units containing mixtures of anion-exchanging and cation-exchanging materials. (astm.org)
  • An ion-exchange vessel holds ion-exchange resin of the required type through which water is allowed to pass. (shubhamindia.com)
  • Choose molecular biology grade AG 50W-X8 Resin for strong cation exchange. (bio-rad.com)
  • Tetraphenylphosphonium chloride (C6H5)4PCl, abbreviated Ph4PCl or PPh4Cl is the chloride of a symmetrical phosphonium cation that is often used in organometallic chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bio-Rad's range of EconoFit Columns provides a wide selection of resins in a prepacked format, allowing customers to simply screen resins and select the optimal chemistry for different target molecules. (labmate-online.com)
  • In fact, it was shown that the incorporation of hydroxyapatite with whiskers morphology can provide larger load transfer and favor toughening mechanisms, thus, increasing flexural modulus and fracture toughness of resins in comparison with conventional silica based fillers [ 6 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The exchange principle of cation exchange resin is 2R-SO3H+Ca2+-(R-SO3)2Ca+2H+, which is also the principle of hard water softening. (sgrhb.com)
  • When the resin is in contact with water, acid, alkali or other solutions, the above substances will be transferred into the solution, affecting the quality of the effluent. (sgrhb.com)
  • BASF SEEichrom Technologies, Inc.Evoqua Water TechnologiesFinex OyIon Exchange ( India ) Ltd. (prnewswire.com)
  • 1.1 This practice is intended to evaluate changes in kinetic performance of ion exchange resins used in mixed beds to produce high purity water. (astm.org)
  • We've done a good job of supplying essential ion exchange resin media for water treatment systems all across the world for more than 50 years. (felitecn.com)
  • Felite Resin Technology removes the guesswork from maintaining your valuable water treatment equipment by providing you with transparent communication, superior support, and high-quality replacement parts. (felitecn.com)
  • Felite manufactures high-quality resins for domestic and commercial water treatment applications, which are designed to improve water quality while also protecting household appliances and commercial equipment. (felitecn.com)
  • Resins in this series are engineered to meet the stringent regulatory requirements for municipal water treatment, specifically in the cleanup and remediation of contaminated groundwater. (felitecn.com)
  • HPAE-PAD - High-Performance Anion Exchange chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection - is a technique that was developed specifically for the separation and detection of carbohydrates. (thermofisher.com)
  • The nonporous nature of the resin minimizes band-broadening and allows for highly effective separation of a wide variety of carbohydrates, including branched oligosaccharides. (thermofisher.com)
  • Overall, the results demonstrated that Py-BPy2+-COF can be exploited as a robust crystalline anion exchange biomolecule separation material. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is a high-quality resin for use in industrial demineralization and softening applications when high performance and cost-effective operation is required. (dupont.com)
  • Tulsion T-42 is a premium quality strong acid cation exchange resin containing nuclear sulphonic acid groups. (psifilters.com.au)
  • We are committed to delivering high-quality resins that exceed industry standards and meet the evolving needs of our global customers. (felitecn.com)
  • Power plants can successfully remove these contaminants while lowering maintenance costs, extending equipment life, and improving overall system performance by utilizing our high-quality ion exchange resin solutions. (felitecn.com)
  • High quality DM resin provides stability and uniform size for top performance and long life. (shubhamindia.com)
  • As a global leader in resin technology, we develop and manufacture small beads that are used in the most regulated industries in the world to separate, remove or recover very specific elements and compounds. (purolite.com)
  • High-Performance Anion-Exchange chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAE-PAD) is a widely used technique for determination of carbohydrates as it removes the need to modify glycans before analysis and ensures high resolution and sensitivity. (thermofisher.com)
  • High-Performance Anion Exchange (HPAE) chromatography is used to separate analytes that are ionized under high pH conditions, such as carbohydrates (pKas are usually between 12-13). (thermofisher.com)
  • Crude lysate, desalted lysate, and an ion-exchange enriched fraction containing (Pd4)3 -GFPuv were used to test the hypothesis that high purity of the biologic material used as the nanoparticle synthesis template may not be necessary. (bvsalud.org)
  • Comparisons of HPLC chromatograms of the crude grape seed extract prior to precipitation with Yb(3+) and after recovery of the PGPF indicated that 96% of the phenolic compounds were precipitated and 99% of the precipitated PGPF were recovered by cation-exchange resin. (nih.gov)
  • Generally, the cationic resins are vulnerable to Fe pollution in softening process. (sgrhb.com)
  • In this communication, we propose a robust fluorescence based approach to monitor fouling in process chromatography resin by presenting its use in three independent studies 7 . (nature.com)